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Deutsche Bank 1.

Yield volatility and price valtirlity are 2 main risks faced by farmers climate and change in demand and supply effect this all. There is increase in demand due to increase in population but supply decreases due to scarce resources. 2. there five types of risks in agriculture environment a. production risk It concerns with crop yield and live stock production effected by weather conditions, technological changes etc. b. Price and Market Risk It is due to variation in input and output devices. c. Regularity Risks It is concerned with the change in agriculture policies, trade policies, etc. d. Technological Risk It is linked with the adoption of new techniques. e. Financial Risks It is in result of different method of financing. f. Human Resource Risks It is due to lack of personnel. Price risk and production risk are very important in agriculture. Market Based Risk Management Tools 1. Hedging Price Risk with derivatives; farmers should have the knowledge of what to produce and how to produce. 2. Farmers and buyers of agriculture output should follow the cash flow contracts. The farm income varies with the variations in prices, yields, costs and support. Farmers will face more prices and yield variability in the future due to changing global circumstances.

Risk Management of the agriculture and income The topic risk management of agricultural income is clarifying the theme and basic information about this article. The main key note and the main option of this article are risk management. Management varies, viticulture, income Finance. According to am EC study conducted in 2001 agriculture risk in Europe will in the foreseeable future steadily increase. Production risks will grow because of an increase in quality requirements, environmental protection, measure risk will also increase because of EU agricultural policy modifications agricultural trade, and increase world wide competition. The lack of derivative productive in the wine industry is primarily due to the product differentiation. The financial method of risk management such as positive bank account not only carry traditional opportunity costs but also are difficulty to implement, because of the highly capitalist intensive hature of wine industry. A Historical Study of Livestock This article belong to the study and information of historical and traditional livestock merchants of Alsace in the developed countries Australia, Canada, UK etc livestock auction were long existed. Several information and studies were published in the nineteenth century that time was the time of rise of rural merchant class in France. The merchant of Alsace often operated their micro enterprise without, paid employees expending instead and unpaired family labour. Some merchant have also relied heavily on family for Jenaneiny. Name of some merchants are there who succeeded Boncicich, Apdirch, Min, Jare + etc. there are all famous for their work. And by reading this article, we can understand, introduction related research and historical background ad the livestock sector of livestock merchant o Alsace, Cora and the crux of that mater. This article belongs to the empirical field research conduced in Alsace,

Camino and Candone 1999. SMEs faced difficulty of getting loans as compared to large organizatons because they are not experienced. SMEs lack in following accounting Principals. (Cola, 1998) SMEs cant offer proper securities for getting loans this is why they need a guranter as if they failed the lendor could called upon the guranter. If bankers have long lasting relationship with SMEs they can plan better things for them. (Setereu et all, 1998) Expected level of outcomes are calculated through input output regression of least square model. (Millar and Heulas, 1996) 21 Banks of USA were studied using non paramative approaches but they were found inefficient on technical and scale efficiency basis. If PTE = 1. than production is pure technical efficient. If PTE is less than one, then the firm is operating at a pure technical inefficient level. FukoJama et al (1999) CGC was working efficiently with constant return to scale in 1974, 1977, 1981, 1995 and 1996. Scores of OTE, PTE and SE are 48 2V. 64.18% and 64.3% respectively. Due to sure technical in efficiency the level of average goes down. CGC should allocated resources gain and it has to increase its pure technical efficiency. CGC can improve its output by double up the provision of credit guarantees and also by expanding economies of scale.

Stickney et al, 2001 Four Cs in decoding the extension of credit and rate of interest charged are capacity to repay debt, collacteral, character of management and credit history. Investors avoid investment in companies with little debt capacity. KEmsem amd <ecltomg. 1976 Of assets are fielding more economic benefits than economic cost then firm will acquire the assets on debt if they dont have much financial resources. Computer and electronic industries have lower debt capacity because products have a specific period and after that competition introduce new models. Lenders will consider factor in extending credit some factors are qualitative others are quantitative. The most major factor is capacity for debt, it shows the firms cash generating ability and factors representing the means to repay debt. Mot common debt capacity is measured in terms of debt to asset ration.