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Bioelectricity week 7

Bioelectricity -- Week 7
Train system: -- Watching Bioelectricity week 7: A) Watching wave forms from a fiber B) Watching cardiac wave forms

Bioelectricity Week 7_2


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What are we talking about? Finger wave forms Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms Wave forms at starting and ending sites Origin of Ve, An Experiment Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources Magnitude of Io Cartoon of Extracellular Potentials

Train system: Watching!

10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Watching extracellular wave forms What are we talking about?


With all electrodes outside of cells, possibly on the skin: Observing voltages between these electrodes Seeing that the voltages change with time. Trying to make some sense of what is seen.

Agustus Waller, late 1800s


Trained his bulldog, Jimmy, to stand in 4 buckets of water Measured the voltages between the buckets Observed that the signal was periodic Observed that the biggest signal had a period that corresponded to the period of the dogs heart. Also observed the need to feed Jimmy periodically

Agustus Waller, late 1800s, picture

Missing picture of Jimmy and Agustus. Can you find one for us and post the link?

Watching. Carving on Duke Dorm Entrance.

Bioelectricity Week 7_3


Propagation in time and space Propagation currents and velocity
1. Introduction to week 7 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What are we talking about? Finger wave forms Sources as dipoles Extracellular waveforms near and far Wave forms at starting and ending sites Problem session, extracellular potentials

Train system: Watching!

8. History of cardiac wave forms 9. Cardiac geometry and the body 10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, change in velocity 12. Week 7 in review

Recording between finger on one hand and finger on the other (A simple experiment)
Simple experiment: Place electrodes on a finger of each hand and record the voltages from one electrode to the other.

Recording between a finger on one hand and a finger on the other

Caution Safety Issue


Simple experiment: Place electrodes on a finger of each hand and record the voltages from one electrode to the other. Caution: Trying this experiment is not a part of this course. Please be aware that an approved experimental protocol may be required. There can be a shock hazard because there are electrodes tightly coupled to the body. Be sure to use approved equipment to avoid any shock hazard.

Recording between finger on one hand and finger on the other.(Results)

Tracing provided by Marcus Henderson, BME staff member, Duke University

Noise, because signals are small.

Noise is often defined as any unwanted signal. If our interest on the recording is the cardiac signal, there is a lot of noise on the recording from body electrodes. Noise is an issue in most kinds of extracellular recordings.

Recording between finger on one hand and finger on the other.(Results)


Comments: The recording shows a voltage that changes with time. There are periodic large signals perhaps 0.8 sec apart. There are a lot of lower level deflections. How do we begin to understand what is happening? Where is this stuff coming from?

Carving on entrance to Duke U Dorm

Bioelectricity Week 7_4


Propagation in time and space Propagation currents and velocity
1. Introduction to week 7 2. What are we talking about? 3. Finger wave forms 4. Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms 5. Wave forms at starting and ending sites 6. Single Fibers Sources 7. Problem session, sources as dipoles 8. History of cardiac wave forms 9. Cardiac geometry and the body 10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, change in velocity 12. Week 7 in review

Train system: Watching!

Single fibers Extra-cellular Wave Forms

What is happening outside the fiber, for a single fiber? First, lets look at the wave forms that are observed.

Experimental setup

Single Fiber Xmem and Extra-cellular

Duke U Dorm Carving at Entrance

Bioelectricity Week 7_5


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. What are we talking about? 3. Finger wave forms 4. Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms 5. Wave forms at starting and ending sites 6. Origin of Ve, An Experiment 7. Single Fiber Spatial Vm and Im 8. Single Fiber Im versus Ve 9. Cardiac geometry and the body surface 10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Train system: Watching!

Ends Setup

Extra Ends Wave Forms

Single Fiber Xmem and Extra-cellular

Wave Shape as Discriminant


Extra cellular wave forms can be used to determine the excitaiton sequence. The wave shape is useful, as well as wave timing. For biphasic waveforms, the upstroke of the action potential corresponds to the intrinsic deflection of the extracellular wave form.

Duke University Dormitory Carving

Bioelectricity Week 7_6


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. What are we talking about? 3. Finger wave forms 4. Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms 5. Wave forms at starting and ending sites 6. Origin of Ve, An Experiment 7. Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources 8. Equation for potential from sources 9. Cardiac geometry and the body surface 10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Train system: Watching!

Origin of Ve experiment, the Setup

Origin of Ve, Vm(t) to Vm(x)

Origin of Ve, Im(x) to Ve(t)

Duke Carving, a little smile

Bioelectricity Week 7_7


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. What are we talking about? 3. Finger wave forms 4. Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms 5. Wave forms at starting and ending sites 6. Origin of Ve, An Experiment 7. Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources 8. Magnitude of Io 9. Cardiac geometry and the body surface 10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Train system: Watching!

Sources and Sinks, Drawing

Sources and Sinks, Equation

Straight-edge estimation from Vm(x)

Duke Univ Carving, with mask

Bioelectricity Week 7_8


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. What are we talking about? 3. Finger wave forms 4. Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms 5. Wave forms at starting and ending sites 6. 7. 8. 9. Origin of Ve, An Experiment Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources Magnitude of Io Cartoon of Extracellular Potentials

Train system: Watching!

10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Magnitude and Sign of Io


How does one find an actual number value for Io? We need the resistivity [ Ri = 30, Re=20 Ohm-cm here] the radius [ a= 10 um in most cases here ] the 2nd spatial derivative of Vm Or, we need a graph of Im(x). That is never available, experimentally, though sometimes it is, in a simulation.

Man with patch, Duke University Carving

Bioelectricity Week 7_9


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. What are we talking about? 3. Finger wave forms 4. Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms 5. Wave forms at starting and ending sites 6. 7. 8. 9. Origin of Ve, An Experiment Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources Magnitude of Io Cartoon of Extracellular Potentials

Train system: Watching!

10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Cartoon 1

Cartoon 2

Cartoon 3

Cartoon 4

Man with musical instrument, Duke Union

Bioelectricity Week 7_10


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. What are we talking about? 3. Finger wave forms 4. Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms 5. Wave forms at starting and ending sites 6. 7. 8. 9. Origin of Ve, An Experiment Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources Magnitude of Io Cartoon of Extracellular Potentials

Train system: Watching!

10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Electrocardiography
Electrocardiography is about obtaining and interpreting written records of the electrical signals of the heart. Einthoven, in Holland, received the Nobel Prize in 1924 for demonstrating that the electrocardiogram was systematically different in patients with different kinds of heart problems. The best way to interpret electrical signals from the heart remains a research topic even today.

Heart within Body, Sketch

Lead Waveforms

ECGSIM
ECGSIM is a fantastic computer tool for visualizing and
connecting electrical signals in the heart with those on the body surface. It has been created and made available by Adriaan van Oosterom and colleagues, who are authorities in this field. www.ecgsim.org (Available for many purposes free of charge.)

Musician with horn, Duke Union Building

Bioelectricity Week 7_11


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What are we talking about? Finger wave forms Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms Wave forms at starting and ending sites Origin of Ve, An Experiment Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources Magnitude of Io Cartoon of Extracellular Potentials

Train system: Watching!

10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Source pairs as dipoles - Q


Derive an expression that gives the potential from a sourcesink pair in a single term. Assume that the distance between the source and sink is much smaller than the distance to the field point.

Source pairs as dipoles - Hints


Derive an expression that gives the potential from a sourcesink pair in a single term. Assume that the distance between the source and sink is much smaller than the distance to the field point. Think of the distance from the sink to the source as a vector p. Think of the distance from the pair to the field point as another vector r. The result will depend on the dot product of these 2 vectors.

Bioelectricity Week 7_12


Extracellular Observations Cardiac Wave Forms
1. Introduction to week 7 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What are we talking about? Finger wave forms Single Fiber Extracellular Wave Forms Wave forms at starting and ending sites Origin of Ve, An Experiment Single Fiber Spatial Vm, Im, and Sources Magnitude of Io Cartoon of Extracellular Potentials

Train system: Watching!

10. Electrocardiograms 11. Problem session, sources as dipoles 12. Week 7 in review

Lets see now, Carving, Duke University

Week 7 in Review --1

1. Extracellular voltages are present across fingers, with a complex wave shape, though a heartbeat is visible

Week 7 in Review - 2
2. .A much simpler wave shape, largely biphasic, is seen from an extracellular electrode near a single fiber

Week 7 in Review --3


3. The leading edge of the excitation wave, seen outside the fiber, has positive potential and the trailing edge is negative.
.

Week 7 in Review--4
4. Sources and sinks are readily identify from the curve of Vm(x) or Im(x)

Week 7 in Review --5


5. Though the geometry is hugely different, wave shapes of similar polarity arise from excitation waves in the heart.

Week 7 in Review -- All


1. Extracellular voltages are present across fingers, with a complex wave shape, though a heartbeat is visible 2. .A much simpler wave shape, largely biphasic, is seen from an extracellular electrode near a single fiber 3. The leading edge is positive and the trailing edge is negative. 4. Sources and sinks are readily identify from the curve of Vm(x) or Im(x) 5. Though the geometry is hugely different, wave shapes of similar polarity arise from excitation waves in the heart.

An enormous and wide-ranging subject


We have barely scratched the surface

The recording and interpretation of extracellular signals is an enormous and wide-ranging subject. The industry devoted to manufacture of specialized instruments for recording and display is large and varied. The modes and principles of wave form interpretation is highly developed by specialists in related medical fields, for example, by cardiologists for wave forms from the heart.

Statues from the Duke University Chapel