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a. PRINTMAKING is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper.

Printmaking normally
covers only the process of creating prints with an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting.

b. RELIEF PRINTING is a printmaking process where protruding surface faces of the matrix (printing plate
or block) are inked; recessed areas are ink free. Printing the image is therefore a relatively simple matter of inking the face of the matrix and bringing it in firm contact with the paper. A printing-press may not be needed as the back of the paper can be rubbed or pressed by hand with a simple tool such as abrayer or roller.

c. INTAGLIO the family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface,
and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink. It is the direct opposite of a relief print.

d. PLANOGRAPHIC means printing from a flat surface, as opposed to a raised surface (as with relief
printing) or incised surface (as with intaglio printing). Lithography and offset lithography are planographic processes that utilize the property that water will not mix with oil. The image is created by applying a tusche (greasy substance) to a plate or stone. (The term lithography comes from litho, for stone, and -

graph to draw.)
1. LITHOGRAPHY is a method of printing originally based on the fundamental antipathy of oil and water. Printing is from a stone (lithographic limestone) or a metal plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a cheap method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material. 2. SCREEN PRINTING is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil to receive a desired image. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. Screen printing is also a stencil method of print making in which a design is imposed on a screen of polyester or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance. Ink is forced into the mesh openings by the fill blade or squeegee and on to the printing surface during the squeegee stroke. It is also known

as silkscreen, serigraphy, and serigraph printing. A number of screens can be used to produce a multicoloured image or design. e. COLLAGRAPHY (sometimes spelled collography) is a printmaking process in which materials are applied to a rigid substrate (such aspaperboard or wood). The word is derived from the Greek word koll or kolla, meaning glue and graph, meaning the activity of drawing. The plate can be intaglio-inked, inked with a roller or paintbrush, or some combination thereof. Ink or pigment is applied to the resultingcollage, and the board is used to print onto paper or another material using either a printing press or various hand tools. The resulting print is termed a collagraph. Substances such as carborundum, acrylic texture mediums, sandpapers, bubble wrap, string, cut card, leaves and grass can all be used in creating the collagraph plate. In some instances, leaves can be used as a source of pigment by rubbing them onto the surface of the plate.

f.BURIN from the French burin meaning "cold chisel"[2] has two specialised meanings for types of tools in
English, one meaning a steel cutting tool which is the essential tool of engraving, and the other, in archaeology, meaning a special type of lithic flake with a chisel-like edge which was probably also used for engraving, or for carving wood or bone.

g. WOOD ENGRAVING is a printmaking and letterpress printing technique, in which the artist works the
image or matrix of images into a block of wood. Functionally a variety of woodcut, it uses relief printing, where the artist applies ink the face of the block and prints using relatively low pressure. By contrast, ordinary engraving, like etching, uses a metal plate for the matrix, and is printed by the intaglio method, where the ink fills the valleys, the removed areas. As a result, wood engravings deteriorate less quickly than copperplate engravings, and have a distinctive white-on-black character. h. LINE ENGRAVING is a term for engraved images printed on paper to be used as prints or illustrations. The term is now much less used and when is, it is mainly in connection with 18th or 19th century commercial illustrations for magazines and books, or reproductions of paintings. i. ETCHING is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of

a metal surface to create a design in intaglioin the metal (the original processin modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of material). As an intagliomethod of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. j. ENGRAVING is the practice of incising a design on to a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations; these images are also called engravings. k. AQUATINT is an intaglio printmaking technique, a variant of etching. In intaglio printmaking, the artist makes marks on the matrix (in the case of aquatint, a copper or zinc plate) that are capable of holding ink. The inked plate is passed through a printing press together with a sheet of paper, resulting in a transfer of the ink to the paper. This can be repeated a number of times, depending on the particular technique.