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WIRELESS DATA TECHNOLOGIES Yr.

3rd Computer Networking

Coursework 1: Basic Antenna Definitions

Student: Xhani Trungu

Contents: Contents WIRELESS DATA TECHNOLOGIES .................................................................. 1 Yr. 3rd ........................................................................................................... 1 Computer Networking ................................................................................. 1 Coursework 1: Basic Antenna Definitions .................................................... 1 Student: Xhani Trungu ................................................................................. 1 Contents: ..................................................................................................... 2 Part A - Question.......................................................................................... 3 Part A Solution ....................................................................................... 3 Conclusions: ................................................................................................. 6 Part B - Question.......................................................................................... 7 Part B Solution ....................................................................................... 7 Part C - Question .......................................................................................... 9 Part C - Solution ........................................................................................ 9 Conclusions: ............................................................................................... 12

Part A - Question Calculate the bandwidth of a television system, broadcasting from UHF band (Hint: 470MHz to 860MHz - Nominal Channel separation: 6MHz) . Calculate the average wavelength of the band. What is the the theoretical average antenna length? From the bandwidth calculations, given that the SNR can be: a) 1 dB b) 3 dB c) 6 dB e) 29 dB Formula for dB = 20log(V1/V2)=20log(P1/P2) Shannon Channel Capacity Formula : C=Bwlog2(1+SNR) (where Bw:bandiwidth).
Part A Solution

We already know that the VHF = Very High Frequency * 340 370 MHz UHF = Ultra High Frequency * 470 MHz 860 MHz

Bandwidth = Fhigh flow Flow flow = 860 - 470 = 390 MHz


In order to provide broadcasting services we have devided this band in separate channels FCC suggests that for UHF television signal, the channel bandwidth is 6 MHz Now we can calculate the number of channels
This will be = = 65 channels

Basic Wave Equation C = f ( wavelength frequency) C = 3 * 108 m/sec

average = low = =

<=> = 0,65m

The theoretical average antenna length is calculated by

H =

= 0, 34 m

Ffunctional bandwidth =

= 0,54 MHz

In order to broadcast information through a telecommunication channel the Shannon channel capacity formulae needs to be applied
We have

C = Bwlog2(1 + SNR)
where Bw is the channel Bandwidth, SNR is the signal to noise Ratio (S/N) can also be expressed to decibel (dB). However for the formula SNR has to be in the form of a ratio. a) for the case of SNR = 1dB

1dB = 1,25 ratio C = 6 *106 * log2 (1+SNR) <=>

C = 6 * 106 * log2 (2,25) <=> C = 6 * 106 * 1,16 = 7 * 106


b) for the case of SNR = 3dB

3dB = 2ratio C = 6 * 106 * log2 (1+2) <=> C = 6 * 106 * 1,6 = C = 9,6 * 106
c) for the case of SNR = 6dB

6dB = 4ratio C = 6 * 106 * log2 (1+4) <=> C = 6 * 106 * log2 (5) <=> C = 6 * 106 * 2,32 <=> C = 14 * 106
d) for the case of SNR = 29dB

29dB = 800 ratio C = 6 * 106 * log2 (1+800) <=> C = 6 * 106 * 9,65 <=> C = 6 * 107

Conclusions:

By the result of the calculations we see that the lowest the SNR, the lowest the channel Capacity is, which means that fewer bits per second can be transmitted and decoded correctly by the receiver. This is caused by the equation SNR = Psignal / Pnoise when the Pnoise, the power of noise is greater than Psignal then the radio is very small meaning that the noise interferes within the transmission bandwidth, so it decreases our transmission capacity. The solution is to deviate the noise power in order to be Pnoise < Psignal, so that we can transmit in many more bits per second according to Shannon Channel Capacity Equation. To avoid this we should use either higher transmitter and receiver, so ground and other obstacles cannot interfere in the 1st Fresnel zone, and have them placed in a smaller distance from each other.

Part B - Question Simplifying the basic formula Pr=(Pt/r2) [where Pr is the received power, Pt is the transmitted power and r is the distance]; what should the transmitted power be in order to receive 1500W input over a kilometer? The Radio Engineer's Formula is L= 20log10 (4d/) [d:distance, :wavelength] Calculate the same as above. (L represents the transmission losses)

Part B Solution

To practical approach the wireless transmission loss, we consider that the receiver power reciprocal (inversely proportional) to the distance between Tx and Rx : This have been commonly names as Inverse Square law. Furthermore the distance Tx and Rx (due to the losses that imposes) is also referred as path loss. Pr = ( Pt transmitted Power, Pr Receiver Power)

Assume an Omni-directional Antenna (Perfect dipole) for r=1Km = 1000m and Pr = 1500 W = 1, 5 * 10-3 W The transmitted power is

Pr * r2 = 1, 5 * 10-3 * (1000)2 = 1,5 * 10-3 * 106 = 1,5 * 103 = 1500 W. Pt = 1500 W

Loss = 20log10 (

d = distance = 1000m = wavelength c=*f (c0 = 3 *108) ( = 3,14) c = *f => = c / f => = 3*108 / 2, 45*109 => = 0, 12m Loss = 20log10 ( Loss = 20log10 ( Loss = 100dB.
The losses are 100dB.

) => ) =>

Part C - Question Calculate the wavelength of the Wi-Fi transmission (What is the Wi-Fi transmission frequency?) Plot the maximum distance of a Wi-Fi source of: a) 1 Watt b) 0.05 Watts c) 2 Watts Compare and contrast the Differences in Path Losses (Using the Radio Engineer's Formula)

Part C - Solution

As we learned the Wi-Fi transmits in 2,45GHz frequency A) For f = 2.45GHz Pr = Pt / d2 Pr = power received Pt = power transmitted d = distance a) For Pt = 1W i) For: d = 10m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 1/100 => Pr = 0.01W

ii) For: d = 20m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 1/400 => Pr = 0.0025W iii) For: d = 40m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 1/1600 => Pr = 0.0006W b) For Pt = 0.05W i) For: d = 10m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 0.05/100 => Pr = 0.005W ii) For: d = 20m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 1/400 => Pr = 0.000125W iii) For: d = 40m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 1/1600 => Pr = 0.000031W c) For: Pt = 2W i) For: d = 10m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 2/100 => Pr = 0.02W

ii) For: d = 20m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 2/400 => Pr = 0.005W

iii) For: d = 40m Pr = Pt / d2 => Pr = 2/1600 => Pr = 0.00125W FOR d=10m C= *f => = c/f => = 3*108 / 2.45*109 => = 0.12m

Loss = 20log10 ( Loss = 20log10 ( Loss = 60.4dB


FOR d= 20m

) => )=>

Loss = 20log10 ( Loss = 20log10 ( Loss = 66.4dB


FOR d=40m

) => )=>

Loss = 20log10 (

) =>

Loss = 20log10 ( Loss = 72,4dB

)=>

Conclusions:

To practical approach the wireless transmission loss, we consider that the receiver power reciprocal (inversely proportional) to the distance between Tx and Rx : This have been commonly names as Inverse Square law. Furthermore the distance Tx and Rx (due to the losses that imposes) is also referred as path loss. And we saw from the calculations that the greater the distance the more loss in dB occurs. But the Pr the power used by the receiver is less in amount due to the inverse Square Law.