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Early History
Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was (like wine) produced about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people drinking a beverage through reed straws from a communal bowl. Beer became vital to all the grain-growing civilizations of classical Western antiquity, including Egypt Knowledge of brewing was passed on to the Greeks. Plato wrote that "He was a wise man who invented beer. The Greeks then taught the Romans to brew. The Romans called their brew "cerevisia," from Ceres, the goddess of agriculture, and vis, Latin for "strength. Beer was important to early Romans, but during Republican times wine displaced beer as the preferred alcoholic beverage. Beer became a beverage considered fit only for barbarians

European Influence
The addition of hops to beer for bittering, preservation, and aroma is a relatively recent innovation: in the Middle Ages many other mixtures of herbs were often employed in beer prior to hops. A 16th century breweryIn Europe, beer largely remained a homemaker's activity, made in the home in medieval times. By the 14th and 15th centuries, beermaking was gradually changing from a family-oriented activity to an artisan one, with pubs and monasteries brewing their own beer for mass consumption. In 15th century England, an unhopped beer would have been known as an ale, while the use of hops would make it a beer. Achel trappist beer (Belgium) with glassIn 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot (purity law), perhaps the oldest food regulation still in use today. The Gebot ordered that the ingredients of beer be restricted to water, barley, and hops, with yeast added after Louis Pasteur's discovery in 1857 Most beers until relatively recent times were what are now called ales. Lagers were discovered by accident in the 16th century after beer was stored in cool caverns for long periods; they have since largely outpaced ales in terms of volume.


American Influence
With the invention of the steam engine in 1765, industrialization of beer became a reality. Further innovations in the brewing process came about with the introduction of the thermometer and hydrometer in the 19th century, which allowed brew masters to increase efficiency and attenuation. Prior to the late 18th century, malt was primarily dried over fires made from wood, charcoal, or straw, and after 1600, from coke. The hydrometer transformed how beer was brewed. Before its introduction beers were brewed from a single malt: brown beers from brown malt, amber beers from amber malt, pale beers from pale malt. Using the hydrometer, brewers could calculate the yield from different malts The invention of the drum roaster in 1817 by Daniel Wheeler allowed for the creation of very dark, roasted malts, contributing to the flavor of porters and stouts

Modern Beer
Prior to Prohibition, there were thousands of breweries in the United States, mostly brewing heavier, European-style beers. Beginning in 1920, most of these breweries went out of business, although some converted to soft drinks and other businesses. Bootlegged beer was often watered down to increase profits, beginning a trend, still on-going today, of the American palate preferring lighter beers. Consolidation of breweries and the application of industrial quality control standards have led to the mass-production and the mass-marketing of huge quanitites of light lagers. Smaller breweries, including microbreweries and craft brewers, and imports, have serviced the segment of the American market that prefers fuller-bodied beers. In 1953, New Zealander Morton W. Coutts developed the technique of continuous fermentation. Coutts patented his process which involves beer flowing through sealed tanks, fermenting under pressure, and never coming into contact with the atmosphere, even when bottled. His process is used by Guinness.

What Makes Up Beer ?

In addition to adding flavor, contains a natural preservative to prevent spoiling

The Purist Water

The end product from steeping barley to begin germination which converts starches to sugar. The process is stopped by roasting of the grain

An agent for fermentation, different strains develop different flavors


Brewing Process
Steeping of the barley for it to germinate, then drying or roasting to stop the germinating process.

Grinding of the Malt to produce Grist.

Soaking the grist in hot water for 1-2 hours to convert the starch into sugar. Produces the Wort

Filtering the grain particles from the wort through a bed of husks and spraying water in to extract more sugar

Brewing Process
The Wort is boiled with Hops for 1-2 hours.

Whirlpooling the wort:

Spinning the hot wort to drop out the solids Saturating the wort with air (yeast requires oxygen)

Cooling the Wort:

cooling to 60 degrees F before adding yeast

Yeast is added to the cooled Wort.

The closing of the conditioning tanks to allow the beer to become naturally carbonated.


Two Styles
Top Fermentation ALE
Ferments at higher temperature, 60 -75 F Fast fermentation period, average is 7-8 days High in esters: flowery" and "fruity" aromas

Cellar Fermentation Lager

Originates from lagern, German for "to store Slower fermentation and matured at around 34 F Low in esters, hops for flavors


Ale - Top Fermented
Stout Wheat Beer Lambic Brown ale Cream Ale India Pale Ale Light Ale

Lager - Bottom Fermented

Pilsner Bock Steam Beer, California Common


Peroni Nastro Azzurro

5.1% ABV Peroni Nastro Azzurro is an intensely crisp and refreshing lager, with an unmistakable touch of Italian style, brewed in Italy to the original recipe, since 1963.
Lightest of the Italian beers in Caterina Known as Nastro Azzurro in Italy Serve at 3-5 Degrees 2005 bought out by SABMIller Top Commercial beer in Italy Best paired with cheese or light foods Best selling pale lager in Italy. Made with barley malt, corn grits, hop pellets and hop extract


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Brewed in a small family-owned brewery in a town of Biella, near Milan Currently a fourth generation company Is an Italian Blonde Lager Tappeto Volante Means flying rug Honey scent to the nose while brown sugar in taste Medium Body , Crisp Taste Owned by the Gambrinus Company

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Double malt beer produced using 100% high quality barley malt. This gives it a full, caramelized malt flavor and an intense aroma of roasted malt. Its distinctive amber color originates from the type of malt used when brewing, a special malt which is dried and roasted. Another basic ingredient of this beer is hops. Master brewers suggest drinking this beer with a serving temperature of between 50-53 Degrees F. Bottom Fermentation 7.2 ABV Started in 1859 as a Beer and Ice House Hints of Soy sauce are noticed with full body Paired with heavy dishes such as quail