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Jehanabad district Jehanabad district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Jehanabad town is the

administrative headquarters of this district. Jehanabad district is a part of Magadh Division. This district is 45 k.m nearby of Patna, the capital of Bihar. Jehanabad is located on the confluence of two small rivers called Dardha and Yamunaiya. It is the heartland of Magadha and local dialect is called Magahi. The district has been in the national news mostly for the news related to Naxalite violence. The area is however developing now and the services sector is gaining ground in the district. Area: 1,569 km Population: Total: 1174900 Rural: 1100430 Urban: 74470 Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Lentils Rivers : Falgu, Dardha, Yamunaiya Contents * 1 History * 2 Divisions * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links History The territory of the present-day district became Jehanabad sub-division of Gaya district in 1872. The district came into existence on 1 August, 1986. The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India, mostly dating from the Mauryan period (322185 BCE), and some with Ashokan inscriptions, located in the Jehanabad District. Divisions The district comrises only one sub-division Jehanbad, which is further divided into seven sub-divisions: Jehanaad, Kako, Modananj, Ghosi, Hulasganj, arwa. Jehanabad is a city and a municipality in and the headquarters of Jehanabad district in the Indian state of Bihar. Earlier, Jehanabad was part of Gaya district. It is 50 km away from both Patna and Gaya. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Jehanabad had a population of 81,723. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Jehanabad has an average literacy rate of 63%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 54%. In Jehanabad, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Now jehanabad is divided in to two parts, one is jehanabad other is arwal. Natural Resources The rivers- Falgu, Dardha, Jamuna and Morhar flow by crossing the district's plan topography. The river Falgu has got religious importance where 'PIND DAN' is offered to

their forefather's by the Hindus. All these rivers are mainly rainfed, have a meagre discharge in the other parts of the year and go dry in the summers. As far as minerals are concerned, the district has only minor ones. The sand available with the river beds in the major part of the year is collected and transported to other parts of the district besides to the adjoining districts and is useful in construction work. The hills of Barabar are being quarried for stones, which are utilised by 36 Crusher units, spread mainly across the Makhdumpur block. Barabar is a great tourist place of India. It has also a great history from the time of great samrat Ashok. Other religious places are the Mahavir Mandir, Babhana (2 km west from Jehanabad town) and Shri RamBag, Shahpur (5 km south-west from Jehanabad town). It is one of the most popular religious place of India. The soil is alluvial-textured brown gray which cracks open in the dry season and gets very sticky in the rains and the mud tracks become unmotorable during that period. The fertility is reasonably good. The forest cover of the district is small: 10.3 square kilometres, which is mainly concentrated near the Barabar Hills. They belong to the category of reserve forests. Human resources There are about 111,000 cultivators including 92138 small and marginal farmers, 178,000 agricultural labourers, 7969 skilled labours, 5075 house hold entrepreneurs and 95755 are engaged in allied agro business. The total population in the working age group is 358723 out of which there are 236199 males and 122534 females. Infrastructure The district is linked to the bigger cities of Patna & Gaya both by road and rail route. The recently electrified Patna-Gaya branch railway line (P.G. line) traverses through the district and links the Grand Chord with Patna. There are four railway stations- Jehanabad, Court, Tehta and Makhdumpur in the 31 km long stretch of the railways. National Highway No. 83 comes from Patna via Masaurhi, goes directly to Gaya through Makhdumpur and runs almost parallel to the railway line. There is a network of PWD roads and REO roads across the district, albeit in a bad shape. The total length of surfaced roads is 541.65 km and mud tracks is 450.90 km. The district has wide network of markets dealing mainly with grains and vegetables. Major centers of trade and commerce are located in Jehanabad, Ghosi, Kako and Makhdumpur. Besides in rural areas hats function usually once in the week. The trade consists mainly of export of oil seeds, rice, gur, stone chips and vegetables. The principal imports are coal, cement and other construction materials, clothes, K. oil, tea, tobacco, fresh fruits and other perishable/ non perishable consumer goods. The telecommunication network in the district is good. The whole of the district is either covered by basic or mobile/WLL phones. There are two WLL towers at Kako and Makhdumpur with 1500 line capacity, two mobile phone towers at Jehanabad and Ghoshi having capacity of 3100 lines and 14 exchanges for basic phone lines. The details have been provided in the annexures.

Nawada district Nawada district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Nawada town is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district was part of famous Magadh, Sunga and Gupta empires. It is located between historical districts of Nalanda and Gaya and falls under Magadha Commissionary. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography o 2.1 Administrative divisions * 3 Agriculture and industry * 4 Tourist places * 5 Transport * 6 References History Nawada is a beautiful and important place in the state of Bihar. Before coming into existence as a new district, Nawada was a Part within Gaya District. Historians established on the basis of analysis of evidence, that this place was a reputed religious center for the Hindus in the period of Pal. The ruler of that time was fond of making temples and other religious spots. It is one of the reasons that there are so many temples and other religious places within this region. Some significant temples and religious spots within the district are Sobhnath, Sankat Mochan, and Gonawa Jal Mandir. Nawada is bounded by Gaya, Sheikhpura, Nalanda (Biharsharif) and Jamui. Geography The Nawada district occupies an area of 2,492 km2 and has a population of 1,809,425 (as of 2001). The district capital is located at Nawada town. Most parts of the district are plain but certain areas have hilly characteristics. * Rivers: Sakri, Khuri,Panchane, Tilaiya * Population Statistics: o Total: 1,359,694 o Rural: 1,265,138 o Urban: 94,556 Administrative divisions * Sub divisions: Nawadah, Rajauli * Blocks: Kawakol, Warisaliganj, Nawadah, Rajouli, Akbarpur, Hisua, Narhat, Govindpur, Pakribarawan, Sirdalla, Kasichak, Roh, Nardiganj, Meskaur Agriculture and industry Main Crops: Paddy, wheat, Pulses, vegetables Industries: Bidi factories, Sugar mills The district had good sugarcane farming activities though the single sugar mill of the district located in Warisaliganj is currently not functioning. Kadirganj, located 10 km from Nawada,

has a very old and famous silk small scale industry where many workers carry out the activities of cleaning and weaving of silk. It has commercial and trading linkages with Bhagalpur, a city famous for its silk business including export of silk from India. Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd has identified Rajauli in Nawada district of Bihar as the possible site for creating additional 2,000-mW nuclear capacity in the state. The Central Electricity Authority's site selection committee, which recently visited the site, is expected to submit its report within a month[when?]. Future course of action will entirely depend on this report. Tourist places * Kakolat Waterfall: It is a picturesque waterfall in Nawada district, popular with tourists due to its scenic surroundings. The falls also play a role in Hindu mythology, when according to legend an ancient king was turned into a python by a rishi's curse and lived within the falls. This is one of the best waterfall in India. Water of this fall is cold in whole year.The better season for tourist is summer. It can be reached from Nawada-Akbarpur-Govindpur road. Thali villege is nearest mile stone. Aroad goes from there to Kakolat. * Rajauli: Rajauli is surrounded by small green mountains, which makes it environment rich. Passing through the Rajauli Ghat (that is, the Rajauli pass), a sprawling road from Rajauli takes one to the heights of the Chota Nagpur Plateau and ends at Kodarma and Jhumri Tilaiya, moving onwards to Hazaribagh and Ranchi. * Sekho Devra Ashram: Sarvodaya Ashram was established here in kawakole block by Jaiprakash Narayan popularly called JP.The Asram was inaugurated by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, India first President of India. Reportedly, he had visited Rajauli for rest and recuperation. * Hariya Sun Temple: Located in Hariya village under Nardiganj block, the temple is centre of devotion for the people in this area. Water of the pond nearby this temple is treated as sacred and having curative power for the TB patients. Many gather here for chhat puja as it has special importance. * Baba Majaar and Hanuman Temple (SANKAT MOCHAN): Located on NH 31, a shrine of Hazret Saiyyad Sah Jalaluddin Bukhari and a Hanuman temple is the symbol of communal harmony. Foundation day of temple is celebrated on Akshay Tritiya (third day of Hindu calendar month Baisakh). The urs is celebrated just after Urs at Ajmer. * Sitamarhi Temple: * Jama Masjid Amanwan * Jarra Baba :- Located in Sirdalla, beside police station Sirdalla. It is famous for fulfilling the wishes. It is supposed that no temple should be made here. * Hanuman Mandir, it is situated at nawada nearest Kendua village. * MAA BAGESHWARI MANDIR : Located in Jamuyama, in 3 km of Jamui road of nawada in side of Sakri river. it is biggest temle and oldest temple of Nawada District (SUBHASH KUMAR PINTU, JAMUYAMA NAWADA) *JAMAL TAKIYA: it is situated on pachrukhi, akbarpur.MANI

Transport National highway 31 is passing from nawada by which it is directly connected with big cities like Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Bihar Sharif and Patna. Delux buses are available from Nawada for all major cities and for patna at every half an hour. It connects two major railway stations Gaya jn and Kiul jn by Gaya-Kiul line. 2 Express trains and Several local trains are running in this railway line via nawada. It has got one of the best local market in Nawada district. Rajauli and Sirdalla is emerging as s significant market hub for the hinterland regions bordering the Jharkhand state. Rajauli and Sirdalla has also produced many professionals including physicians, surgeons, engineers who are working in many parts of India. Through sirdalla a roadway is there to connect it with Gaya (mostly known as 'Bodhgaya'). Nawada is a city and a municipality in and headquarters of Nawada district in the Indian state of Bihar. Nawada is a beautiful and important place in the state of Bihar. Before coming into existence as a new district, Nawada was a Part of Gaya District. Many historians believed that this place was a reputed religious center for the Hindus in the period of Pal. The ruler of that time was fond of making Temples and other religious spots. It is one of the reasons that there are so many temples and other religious places within this region. Some significant temples and religious spots within the district are Sobhnath, Sankat Mochan, Gonawa Jal Mandir, etc. Nawada is bounded by Gaya, Sheikhpura, Biharsharif and Jamui . Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Transportation * 4 Blocks * 5 Education Point * 6 Nawada Computer Shop * 7 National Academy of Rural Action (NARA) * 8 Famous Personalities * 9 References * 10 External links Geography Nawada is located at 2453N 8532E / 24.88N 85.53E / 24.88; 85.53[1]. It has an average elevation of 80 metres (262 feet). Kakolat Fall is a popular fall in Bihar. Many people come from different places in India for picnics in the summer season. It is 24 km far from Nawada Town. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[2], Nawada had a population of 82,291. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Nawada has an average literacy rate of 65%,

higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 71%, and female literacy is 59%. In Nawada, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age.Baranwal,sahu,Jain are the big communities here. National Highway-31(connects Ranchi to Patna) passes through the town and it is also connected by rail as it is on gaya-kiul oxilliary line.it is an ancient place and spiritually important for Jainism and have a relation with the history of Mahabharat. There is Jalmandir and gunawan jee mandir related to Jainism. It is a spiritually sound place and pawapuri-tirthankar mahavir's nirwan sthal, gaya, bodh gaya, rajgir and nalanda is very near places of historical importance. The main crops harvested are paddy, wheat, pulses, and mustard. The language is basically Magahi a sub-language to Hindi. It is 105 km from Patna and 60 km from Gaya. Kakolat(a beautiful waterfall) is exactly 27 km from Nawada town.people love to go kakolat in summer season.Another story about Kakolat Kund(above the hill)is that the Lord Krishna Used to go there with his queen.Nawada is the main market place for most of the small villages around.The old name of Nawada(1895) is 'The Eliot Market(bazar)'. Transportation Nawada is well connected to the major cities like Patna, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Dhanbad, Kolkata by road. It is also connected to cities like Gaya, Munger (Jamalpur), Bhagalpur, Kolkata (Howrah junction) etc. by train. It is on NH 31 Blocks Nawada Block _Name 1. Nawada 2. Warsaliganj 3. Kasichak 4. Pakriwarma 5. Kowakole 6. Roh 7. Akbarpur 8. Govindpur 9. Rajauli 10. Sirdala 11. Hisua 12. Mescaur 13. Narhat 14. Nardigan Education Point 'School' * K.H.S School,Nawada * jawahar Navodaya vidyalaya rewar (most famous) * The HNK High School, Daud salim public school,

* Jeevan Deep Public School, * Gyaan Bharti Public School. * High School Hisua, Nawada * Little Flower School. * S G B K Sahu School, Warisaliganj * Gandhi Inter School, Nawada * ST. Joseph School ,Nawada * Sir Hind Garden School, Ansar Nagar, Nawada, * Sri Satendra Narayan singh High School,NATIONAL PUBLICSCHOOL, * Manas Bharti Educational Complex, Behind Of Civil Court,Nawada. * Gyan Deep Public School , Ansar Nagar Nawada (Ved Prakash badal) * Middle School Roh, Near P.S. Roh, Nawada "most of the famous school in this area" 'Colleges' * KLS College * S N Sinha College, Warisaliganj,Nawada * A N M College * T S College Hisua, Nawada * R M W College, Nawada * Sita Ram Sahu College, Nawada * Ganga Rani Inter College, Nawada * S.K.M.College, Nawada Sharda Institute of Technology(engineering Collage), Nawada. * Nardiganj college Nardiganj, Nawada Nawada Computer Shop * Adarsh Computer * Edit Computer * Compact Computer NGO National Academy of Rural Action (NARA) Famous Personalities * Swami Sahajanand Saraswati: Eminent Indian independence activist, intellectual, prolific writer, social reformer and revolutionary all rolled into one.[3] Hisua Hisua is a city and a notified area in Nawada district in the Indian state of Bihar. The livelihood of most of the people is agriculture and this is one of the least developed areas of the state of Bihar. Many labourers from this region have migrated to Mauritius, Reunion Islands and Caribbean islands in the mid-19th century (around 1850). Zamindari Pratha, a system of tax collection from peasants, was prevalent in Hisua until 1950 and most of the agricultural land in Hisua was under a local Zamindar named "Babu Madan

Mohan Lal". With the abolition of Zamindari Pratha by Vinobha Bhave in 1953 the agricultural land was distributed to the local villagers, but the after effect of Zaminadari Pratha and the caste system can still be seen in this village. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Language * 4 Communities * 5 Cuisine * 6 Schools * 7 Colleges * 8 Railway station name * 9 Cinema Hall * 10 References Geography Hisua is located at 2450N 8525E / 24.83N 85.42E / 24.83; 85.42.[1] It has an average elevation of 93 metres (305 feet). According to British India Gazette 1905: Hisua - Town in the Nawada subdivision of Gaya District, Bengal(+Bihar+Orrissa), situated in 24 50 N. and 85 25 E., on the right bank of the river Tilaya on the Gaya and Nawada road, 9 miles from Nawada and 27 miles from Gaya town. Population (1901), 6,704. Hisua is a station (Tilaya) on the South Bihar Railway. The town is noted for its pottery. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Hisua had a population of 25,045. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Hisua has an average literacy rate of 51%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 59%, and female literacy is 41%. In Hisua, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Language Magahi is the most popular language of this town. As well as Magahi, people speak Maghi Hindi and Urdu. Communities The Bhumihar community is a considerable part of Hisua, particularly in the Professor Colony and nearby village. The Urdu-speaking Muslim community is a considerable part of Hisua, particularly the Narhat Block. During British rule a large area of land was owned and cultivated by Muslims. A shrine of Muslim Sufi Saint Khwaja Abdullah Chishti is the cultural heritage of the Muslim community at Narhat Sheikhpura. An Urdu primary school is also running in this small village. After the partition of India many Muslim landlords migrated to Pakistan. Due to poverty in this backward block, migration to Gaya, Patna, Dehli and Kolkata also took place. Musahars, Chamars and Doms are other major communities living in large numbers.

Cuisine The most famous sweet of Hisua is Enarsa and Laai. Hisua is also famous for a sweet named Tilkut,Khaza. It's a very popular sweet in the entire Magadh region gulab jamun& chaat. Schools * High School hisua * Drigopal Lal High School * Project girls high school Colleges * Triveni Satyabhama College Hisua * Dilip Dasrath Mahila College Hisua there are more private school for example Avinav public school and many more Railway station name * Telaiya * Hisua Cinema Hall * UMA talkies * Mahalaxmi Talkies * Savita Talkies Warisaliganj Warisaliganj is a city and a notified area in Nawada district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Industry * 5 Education * 6 Transport * 7 Language * 8 People * 9 Market * 10 Political * 11 References History Warisaliganj to the north of Nawada Town was founded by Waris Ali Khan, a member of the family Kamgar Khan. Warisaligang, the name is some time spelt Worseleygang from an erroneous belief that it was named after Mr. Worseley, a former Deputy Magistrate of Nawada. Earlier it was a village called Chakdharampur.It is said that during national movement Jawaharlal Nehru visited the place for donations. A place called JAWAHAR PARK had been made for the staging which is present nowadays also.http://nawada.bih.nic.in/

Geography Warisaliganj is located at 2501N 8538E / 25.01N 85.63E / 25.01; 85.63[1]. It has an average elevation of 68 metres (226 feet).The area comes under one of the most fertile zones of the state with well irrigated lansscapes by sakri river and its canals system. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[2], Warisaliganj had a population of 31347. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Warisaliganj has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 57%, and female literacy is 43%. In Warisaliganj, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. http://nawada.bih.nic.in/ Industry It was one of the good place for sugar industry in Bihar few years ago. Nowadays this very famous sugar mill is closed due to unconsciousness of the leaders of the area.Some small scale industries are also present in different villages nearby. Education It is very famous place for education in the whole district of Nawada as many renowned schools/colleges are situated here. some of them are Dr. S.N. Sinha College, S.G.B.K Sahu H/S, National High School, Vivekanand Public School, Manas Bharti etc. S.G.B.K. Sahu H/S and National high school Warisaliganj are leading school of the Nawada district in all manner like study, results, co-curricular activities etc. There are a lot of I.A.S officers, engineers (including in IITs and NITs from S.G.B.K), doctors from Warisaliganj region. Transport The area is well connected by all other parts of the state by roadways and railways. NH 31 is just 11 km by road connecting Patna and Ranchi. The other areas connected by roads are Nawada, Barbigha, Pakriwarama, Sheikhpura, Giriak etc. It is also connected by the Indian Railway B.G line trough the Gaya-Kiul loop line of East Central Railway. Language Hindi, Magahi and Urdu are the main languages spoken in the area. Angika and Maithili are also used by some people. People The area is dominated by Bhumihar caste people,others including kurmi, Sahu-Bania, Brahmins, Yadavs, Muslim etc. Market The market consists of big and small merchants. Earlier the market was one of the famous Holesale Spot. Nowadays it is losing its shine. Tilkut is one of the famous sweets available here. Political

Warisaliganj is one of the legislative constituency of state of Bihar. The area consists of Pakriwarma and Kashichak blocks included. It also comes under the Nawada Lok Sabha constituency. Jamui district Jamui is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. The district was formed as a District on 21 February 1991 as a result of its separation from Munger district. It is located at a longitude of 86-13'E and the latitude is 24-55'N. Contents * 1 Area * 2 Population * 3 Density * 4 Literacy * 5 Administrative units * 6 History * 7 Museum * 8 Literature * 9 Sports * 10 References Area Jamui occupies a total of 3,122.80 km2. Population As per 2001 Census (provisional) statistics, total population of Jamui is 13,98,796 out of which the male population is of 7,29,138 and that of the female is 6,69,658. Density There are approximately 401 people per km2. Literacy The average literacy figures for Jamui stands at 42.43%. (Male - 57.06%, Female - 26.32%). There is a famous college in Jamui named KKM college which had been established on the memory of Kumar Kalika it is a top ranking college in T.M University Bhagalpur. Administrative units 1. No. of Police District 1 2. No. of Sub-Divisions 1 3. No. of Blocks 10 4. No. of Circles 10 5. No. of Police Stations 28 6. No. of Panchayats 153 7. No. of Villages 1,506 History

Various literature indicates the fact that Jamui was known as Jambhiyaagram. According to Jainism, the 24th Tirthankar lord Mahavir got divine knowledge in Jambhiyagram situated on the bank of river named Ujjihuvaliya. Another place of a divine light of Lord Mahavir was also traced as "Jrimbhikgram "on the bank of Rijuvalika river which resembles Jambhiyagram Ujjhuvaliya.kaushal kumar yadav The Hindi translation of the words Jambhiya and Jrimbhikgram is Jamuhi which is doveloped in the recent time as Jamui. With the prassage of time, the river Ujhuvaliya /Rijuvalika is supposed to be deoveloped as the river Ulai and as such both the place are still found in Jamui . The Ulai river is still flowing nearby Jamui. The old name of Jamui has been traced as Jambhubani in a copper plate which has been kept in Patna Museum. This plate clarifies that in the 12th century, Jambudani was today's Jamui. Thus, the two ancient names as Jambhiyagram and Jambubani prove that this district was important as a religious place for Jains and it was also a place of Gupta dynasty in the 19th century, the historian Buchanan also visited this place in 1811 and found the historical facts. According to other historians Jamui was also famous in the era of Mahabharata. According to available literature, Jamui was related to Gupta and Pala rulers before 12th century. But after that this place became famous for Chandel rulers. Prior to Chandel Raj, this place was ruled by Nigoria, who was defeated by Chandels and the dynasty of Chandels founded in 13th century. The kingdom of Chandels spread over the whole of Jamui. Museum Chandrashekhar Singh Sangrahalay Founded by Prof. Dr. Syamnandan Prasad on 16 March 1983. Total number of archaeological remains in this museum is 178. Various statues of Lord Vishnu, Lord Bhudha,. Goddess Uma, Durga, Surya, ancient rocks and terracotta seals etc. are available. Musical Tradition : The musical tradition of the district was rich in the past and is getting enriched in present times also. The name of Sri Rudranarayan Singh, retd. headmaster deserves to be included in those personalities who have been responsible for enriching the cultural life of the common people of Jamui, by spreading the cultural values by means of classical music. In the past two the decades Sri Bajrang Lal Gupta has worked as an A.I.R. artist of light classical music. Sri Jyotrindra Kumar, Dr. Anjubala, Smt.Sujata Kumari, Kumar Amitabh, Sri Chandan Gupta, Sri Shailesh Kumar, Smt. Abha Singh, Sri Anil Pathak etc. are making a significant contribution towards the upliftment of music in Jamui district. Literature Jamui has been a fertile ground for man of literature and poets. Dr.Prof.Awadh Kishore Sinha, Dr.Shyamanand Prasad have held the flag of literature high. This has been ably kept up and continued by young poets and writers such as Prof Dr. Jagrup Prasad, Prof. Dr. Sunil Yadav, Prof. Sukhdev Thakur, Prof. Prabhat Sarsij, Dr. Giridhar Acharya, Prof. Brajnandan Modi. Jamui has the literary effort of Pt. Jagannath Pd.Chaturvedi. Beginning with his

Majesty Rameshwar Pd. Singh up to Kumar Ranbir Singh comprises a long list of ancient poet of the district, who wrote in Braj Bhasha. The contributions of more recent poets like BraJ Vallabh Chaturbedi, Smt. Kishori, Late Kiran Ji, Tripurari Singh Matwala, Deverendra Malaypuri, Prabhat Sarsij, Vinay Asham. Sports Jamui District is progressing very fast in the field of Sports and Games. The organizations like Jamui district Amateur Athletics Association, District Football Association, District Women Football Association, District Cricket Association, District Kabaddi Association etc. are actively participating in promotion. of games and sports. The existence of such large number of associations and organizations concerned with such a large variety of sports & games points to the vitality, interest & involvement of the local people in these fields. The leadership provided by Lt. Parasnath Bariyar, Tapeshwar Pd. Bariyar, Hoda Sahed, Kamta Pd. Singh, Nathu Ram,Kaushal Kumar Yadav and Kedar Pd. Singh in field of sports and games had raised the position of Jamui to the state level as early as two or three decades ago. Recently 1st District Level Athletics Meet, 11th State Level President Cup Football Tournament, Late Shukra Das Cricket Tournament has been organized successfully. There are two stadiums namely Jamui Stadium, Jamui & Kumar Surendra Pratap Singh Stadium, Giddhour and one Special Area Game Centre at Giddhour in the district.Jamui's people never forget Lt Shree Digvijay Singh's contribution to make this Stadium. Jamui is a city and a municipality in Jamui district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the district headquarters of Jamui district. Geography Jamui is located at 2455N 8613E / 24.92N 86.22E / 24.92; 86.22.[1] It has an average elevation of 78 metres (255 feet). It is surrounded by Banka district in the East, Munger district in the North-East, Lakhisarai and Shekhpura districts in the North and Nawada in the West. The main towns in Jamui district, apart from Jamui are Laxmipur, Jhajha, Gidhaur, Mallepur, SONO, Sikandra, Chandradeep, Aliganj, Chakai and Khaira and a well known village and it is famous for an educated,rich as well as gentle and familiar bhramarpur(bhounr).The second villege in this district is amrath which is famous for (Shrine)dargah and it is famous for an educated muslim syed family. Jamui is well connected to the rest of the country through roads and the main DelhiHowrah rail line is only 3 kilometres away at Mallepur (the Mallepur railway station is also known as the Jamui railway station). The JayaPrakash Narayan International Airport in Patna is about 161 kilometres away and the Gaya International Airport is only 136 kilometres away. Situated along the Bihar-Jharkhand border, Jamui is dotted with hills and the small retreat town of Simultala falls within the Jhajha block, on the main Delhi-Howrah rail line. The town of Gidhaur, situated 17 kilometres away was the seat of kings during the

British Raj and many buildings from the period still survive. Minto Tower in Gidhaur is a prime example of architecture from the period. Jamui district is also famous for having many places related to the origin of Jainism. The district has untapped reserves of mica, coal, gold, iron-ores etc. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Jamui had a population of 66,752. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Jamui has an average literacy rate of 55%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 65%, and female literacy is 44%. In Jamui, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Gidhaur Gidhaur (also known as Patsanda) is a small town in the Jamui District of Bihar in India. It is also the former the seat of a Princely State. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Brief history * 3 Center of beedi production * 4 Tourist attractions o 4.1 Bird sanctuaries o 4.2 Minto Tower o 4.3 Durga Puja * 5 References * 6 External links Geography Situated on the banks of the Ulai river, (24520N 86190E / 24.866667N 86.316667E / 24.866667; 86.316667) about 17 kilometers east from the district headquarters at Jamui, Gidhaur has a population of 7,453 out of which 4,013 are male and 3,440 female.[1] One of the 10 blocks falling under Jamui district, Gidhaur has own High School and a Post Office (PIN Code 811305). Gidhaur lies on the Delhi- Howrah main railway line and the important railway station of Jhajha lies about 16 kilometers away. Brief history Gidhaur was the seat of Chandela Rajput Kings. History records put it that there was a Chandela King in Gidhaur during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar. Center of beedi production A number of Beedi manufacturing companies have been running Beedi manufacturing units in Gidhaur. Gidhaur is situated in an economically backward area of Bihar. As a result, a lot of people in the town and in adjoining areas, just like elsewhere in Jamui district are dependent on Beedi manufacturing units for their livelihood. The womenfolk in particular do the Beedi Rolling, which as Sanjay Swami has pointed out in his research is dangerous to their health.

Tourist attractions Buildings from the British Raj period can still be seen in sound condition and one can note an amalgam of British and French influences in those buildings, including the Maharaja's palace situated by the main market in Gidhaur. Bird sanctuaries The Nagi and Nakti bird sanctuaries, which fall under the adjoining Jhajha block are famous for hosting migratory birds in the winter. Minto Tower Situated in the middle of the main market in Gidhaur, Minto tower was built by Maharaja Ravaneshwar Prasad Singh Bahadurof Gidhaur to commemorate the visit of Lord Minto, the then Viceroy and Governor General of India, who visited Gidhaur on February 10, 1906. Durga Puja Gidhaur is also famous for the annual Durga Puja held during the important Hindu Festival of Dussehra and it was started by the erstwhile kings who ruled Gidhaur and was handed over to a puja committee formed (nominated) by the present Maharaja Bahadur Pratap Singh in 2002. The Gidhaur version of Durga Puja features animal sacrifices on a big scale made on the ninth day of the Puja. Jhajha Jhajha is a city and a notified area in Jamui district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Jhajha had a population of 36,424. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Jhajha has an average literacy rate of 63%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 71%, and female literacy is 53%. In Jhajha, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Khagaria district Khagaria district is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district headquarters are located at Khagaria. Khagaria district is a part of Munger Division. The district occupies an area of 1486 km and has a population of 1,276,677 (as of census 2001). The district is surrounded by seven rivers namely Ganges, Kamla Balan, Koshi, Budhi Gandak, Kareh, Kali Koshi and Bagmati. These rivers cause floods every year which causes great loss of life and property including lifestock. Khagaria is small town with a major railway junction on the Barauni Guwahati section of the Indian Railways. National Highway No.31, which connects rest of India to North Eastern region passes through this town. It is also connected to other regions of north Bihar by another rail line to Saharsa and Samastipur. Building of a major rail bridge across river Ganges at Munger is underway to connect it to south Bihar and Jharkhand directly. History

Also known as Farakiya in local region. There is an interesting story behind it. Five centuries ago Akbar, then the king of Mughal empire directed his revenue minister Todarmal to map his entire empire. But he could not map this region now known as Khagaria due to difficult terrain, rivers and dense forests. So, he named it Farakiya (Farak in Hindi means separate). Now there is even a weekly newspaper- 'Farkiyanchal Times' (albeit published arbitrarily). People and culture Predominantly a rural district it has a mixed population and colourful culture. Population consist of different castes including Bhumihar, Brahmins, Barai, Rajput, Kayshtha, Yadav, Koari and Kurmi, Marwari and others, but Barai, Yadavs, Koeri and Kurmis are in majority. Major festivals are Chhat Pooja, Holi, Durga Pooja (Dushehra) and Dipawali. Marriage is intra-caste; People here tend to marry within their region only. You will find quite soft spoken and mild mannered people contrary to the general perception about Bihar. Majority of population of Khagaria town is of younger age signifying a shifting population from villages to district center. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster has one local broadcasting center here with one local channel Awaaz. Khagaria is a city in India, and the administrative headquarter of Khagaria district. Khagaria is a part of Munger division. The town has a major railway junction on the Barauni Guwahati section of the Indian Railways. National Highway 31 which connects rest of the India to North Eastern region passes through this town. It is connected to other parts of Bihar by another rail line to Saharsa and Samastipur. Building of a major rail bridge across river Ganges in Munger is underway to connect it to south Bihar and Jharkhand directly. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Surrounded districts * 3 Subdivisions * 4 Demographics * 5 History * 6 People and culture * 7 Language and dialects * 8 Banks/Financial Institutions * 9 Education * 10 Cinema * 11 References Geography Khagaria is located at 2530N 8629E / 25.5N 86.48E / 25.5; 86.48. It has an average elevation of 36 metres (118 feet).khagaria was under munger division till 1980 when it became a district. Surrounded districts * North - Saharsa District

* South - Munger and Begusarai District * East - Bhagalpur and Madhepura District * West - Begusarai and Samastipur Districts Subdivisions * Total Sub-division - 2 * Total Blocks and Circle - 7 * Total Panchayats - 129 * Total Halka - 61 * Total urban Localities - 2 * Total Revenue Villages- 306 * Habitate - 241 * Unhabitate - 69 Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Khagaria had a population of 45,126. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Khagaria has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 58%. In Khagaria, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. History Also known as Farakiya in local region. There is an interesting story behind it. Five centuries ago Akbar, then the king of Mugal empire directed his revenue minister Todarmal to map his entire empire. But he could not map this region now known as Khagaria due to difficult terrain, rivers and dense forests. So, he named it Farakiya (Farak in Urdu means separate). Now there is even a weekly newspaper- 'Farkiyanchal Times' (albeit published arbitrarily). People and culture Predominantly a rural district it has a mixed population and colourful culture. Population consist of different castes and communities including Bhumihar Brahmins, other Brahmin sub-castes,barai, Rajput, Kayshtha, Yadav, Koari and Kurmi, Marwari, Muslim and others, but Barai, Yadavs, Koeri and Kurmis are in majority though Muslims constitutes 12% of the total population. Major festivals are Chhat Pooja, Holi, Durga Pooja (Dushehra) and Dipawali. Marriage is intracaste and intra-religion; people here tend to marry within their region only. You will find quite soft spoken and mild mannered people contrary to the general perception about Bihar. Majority of population of Khagaria town is of younger age signifying a shifting population from villages to district center. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster has one local broadcasting center here with one local channel Awaaz. Language and dialects Mainly Angutarap (distorted mix version of Angika & Maithili), though dialect changes every ten kilometres, like any other district of Bihar, the mix language is also known as "theti". Banks/Financial Institutions

Several national banks (PSU as well as Private) are having presence at Khagaria with their branches. PSU bank branches in Khagaria: (State Bank Of India, Central Bank Of India, Union Bank Of India, Punjab National Bank, UCO Bank, Bank Of Baroda, Canara Bank, Bank Of India) Private bank branches in Khagaria: (ICICI Bank) In addition to these, various regional and cooperative banks are located at Khagaria. Education Major educational centers are located in the town of Khagaria, which includes educational institutions and vocational institutions where students can learn music, dance, art and craft. Besides many govt. run schools, there are some colleges for the higher education including a women's college. One prestigious center for higher education Koshi College, Khagaria. Kendriya Vidyalaya Khagaria is educational bone and DAV public school, Rose Bud Academy & holy Ganges public school (HGPS) Khagaria has constantly ranked among the top schools of Bihar. Majority of students after finishing higher secondary go to other big cities like Patna or Delhi or kolkata or bangalore for higher education and competitive examinations. Many students from here are now settled abroad e.g. Dr Paritosh Suman, MBBS AIIMS (19992004), MS Surgery Columbia University New York.Bihar Board Topper(12th)of 2009 is from Khagaria. Most of the students study for engineering, medical and some also go for Union Public Services.Nowadays most of the good academic student who is passed from SMHS Chautham also in good position in corporate sector in India or other countries. Cinema Khagaria is now left only with four cinemas (Prakash Talkies, Shri Lakshami, Shri Krishna, Shri Ram Talkies) and earlier there was a good cinema hall "Kamal talkies" but now it has no existence the people are miss so much this talkies. Now the oldest one being Sri Laxmi Cinema which was established by Late Sri Nirmal Chandra Gupta in the year 1954 and started its screening at the present campus in the year 1968. The cinema hall being amongst the few entertainment sources in the town holds a key place in the hearts of people of Khagaria. Now lakshmi talkies is using satellite tecnology for broadcasting movies. Gogri Jamalpur Gogri Jamalpur is a city and a notified area in Khagaria district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Gogri Jamalpur had a population of 31,093. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Gogri Jamalpur has an average literacy rate of 48%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 56%, and female literacy is 39%. In Gogri Jamalpur, 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. K.D.S college, Gogri is the only college. Munger district Munger district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state in eastern India. Munger town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Munger district is a part of Munger Division. Munger District is located in the southern part of Bihar and its headquarter is

located on the southern bank of river Ganges. The district is spread over 1419.7 km2. accounting for 3.3% of the area of Bihar . It lies between 240 22 N to 250 30 N latitude and 850 30 E to 870 3 E longitude.[2] Contents * 1 Origin of name * 2 History * 3 Geography o 3.1 Rivers and lakes o 3.2 Climate * 4 Demography * 5 Divisions * 6 References Origin of name The district is named after its headquarters, Munger. There are several traditions regarding the etymology of Munger. According to one tradition, the present name of the town is derived from its ancient name Mudgagiri, which is mentioned in the Mahbharata as well as the Munger copperlate inscription of Devapala. According to another tradition, the name of the town is derived from either sage Mudgala or Maudgalyayana, a disciple of Buddha. However, General Cunnigham had strong suspicion that the original name of the town was connected with the Mundas, who are the earliest residents of this region and C.E.A. Oldham thinks it was probably derived from Munigriha (the abode of the Muni). History The territory occupied by the present day Munger district was a part of Anga mahajanapada. The Mahabharata says that it was ruled by Karna. Mudgagiri (Munger) was the capital of the Pala empire. Bengal Nawab Mir Kasim fought one of the last battles before the East India Company captured the eastern India. The Fort built by him has three gates and the Ganges on its fourth sides. Munger was known as Monghyr throughout British rule. In the early years of British rule Monghyr formed a part of Bhagalpur, and was not created a separate district till 1832. Later on begusarai district, saharsa district, madhepura district, jamui district and Lakhisarai district were carved from this district. Geography Munger district is so located in the southern Bihar and Munger town, its headquarters is located on the southern bank of the Ganges. The district lies between 2420' and 2530' north latitudes and between 8537' and 8730' east longitudes. The average height from the sea level is 30 to 65 m. Rivers and lakes The major rivers of this district are the Ganges, the Mohane, the Harohar and the Kiul. Temple and village

Chandika temple is one of the famous temple in this city. Dalahatta Buzar Kumhartoli is as a small village, 80% people who staying here are kumhar by cast that make pot (Miiti ke bartan).Kalai is a village near Kharagpur having mostly bhrahmins and rajputs as its population. [3] Climate There are three distinct seasons in this zone, summer (March to May), monsoon (June to September) and winter (October to February). Average annual rainfall of this district is 1146 mm (average of 53 years).this is also knwon as monghyr Demography The district has a population of 1,135,499 (male 604662, female 530837). The urban population is 316586, while the rural population is 818913 (2001 census). The literacy rate is 60.11% (male 70.68%, female 47.97%) (2001 census). The various details and facts related top the district's demography are: Urban Area Population: 27.9% Rural Area Population: 72.1 % Total Male Population: 53.23 % Total Female Population: 46.75 % Total Literacy Population: 60.11 % Total Literacy Male Population: 70.68 % Total Literacy Female Population: 47.97 % Total Literacy Population: 76.87 % Total Literacy Urban Male Population: 83.97 % Total Literacy Urban Female Population: 68.64 % Total Literacy Rural Population: 53.35 % Total Literacy Rural Male Population: 65.29 % Total Literacy Rural Female Population: 39.69 % Sex Ratio: 878 Female /1000 Male Sex Ratio Urban: 879 Female / 1000 Male Sex Ratio Rural: 875 Female / 1000 Male Sex Ratio among children 0-6 year: 915 Girls/1000 Boys Sex Ratio Urban among children 0-6: 948 Girls/1000 Boys Sex Ratio Rural among children 0-6: 905 Girls/1000 Boys Population Density: 800/ km2 Population increase /ten years: 20.34 % Divisions The district is divided into three sub-divisions: Jamalpur, Kharagpur and Tarapur, which are further divided into nine development blocks:Kharagpur, Dharhara, Munger, Jamalpur, Tarapur, Sangrampur, Bariarpur, Tetia Bambar and Asarganj.

Munger (Hindi:

) town is the headquarters of Munger district, in the Indian state of

Bihar. Historically, Munger is known for its manufacturing of iron articles such as firearms and swords. Contents * 1 History * 2 Education * 3 Tourism * 4 Theatre * 5 References * 6 External links History See: Munger Fort Education Munger has many good schools, colleges and Institution. * Schools - Notre Dame Academy in Jamalpur and Munger, Saraswati Vidya Mandir, DAV Public School, St. Xavier's School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Little Angels School, S.K.D. Memorial Public School, New Era ,Arya Bal Shanti Niketan etc. The oldest school in the district is the Zila School (formerly Government English School) which was founded in 1854. There are two girls' schools, Baijnath Girls School and Balmiki Rajniti Balika Vidyalaya, Madhopur, in Munger town. * Colleges - R.D. & D.J. College, Balmiki Rajniti Mahila Mahavidyalaya, J.R.S. College are institutes for higher education. R.D. & D.J. College is one of the oldest and renowned College in the Bihar and Eastern India Zone. The alumni of these institutes are now working all over world and have brought laurels to the district. * University - Bihar School of Yoga (World's First Yoga University[1] and a deemed university) attracts students from all over world. Around 400 Australians, Americans and others register for the yoga course every year with this figure rising continuously. Tourism Munger is a great place for tourism . The detailed information on tourism can be gathered from the official site Munger also features one of the oldest railway manufacturing units and also the ITC Tobacco factory. http://www.itcportal.com/newsroom/press22jan07a.htm Earlier spelled Monghyr and now Munger it has a rich and glorious past and stories abound. Madarsa Rahmania is the largest Islamic School in the state. Nearby Bhimbandh is a great picnic spot. It has a stream of hot water coming from the mountains nearby and one stream of cold water also, both the streams merge here only and the are later joined in ganges river Theatre

Most noted and satellite enabled theatre is Konark Cinema hall, other cinema halls are Nilam, Vaidhnath, Vijay . However there was one more hall called siddahrtha but presently it is closed. Asarganj Asarganj is a census town in Munger district in the state of Bihar, India. Geography Asarganj is located at 2509N 8641E / 25.15N 86.68E / 25.15; 86.68.[1] It has an average elevation of 44 metres (144 feet). Asarganj is situated at 12 km south from the railway station,Sultanganj. There is a very famous and a month-long festival "Bol-Bum" runs during the month of Saawan (AugustSeptember). After taking water from the Ganges river of Sultanganj (known locally as UttarWahini Ganga), the pilgrims, travel barefooted for 105 km by this route, and go to Deoghar (Baba Dhaam) to pour Gangajal on Lord Shiva (ShivLinga). In the Saawan month the whole of Asarganj dazzles with lights and happiness. Asarganj is one of the places in Bihar famous for the production of quality rice. As the people are business oriented, this block is quickly developing. People are not only involved in this traditional occupation but also gaining dominance in government jobs, engineering and many other fields. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Asarganj had a population of 5706. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Asarganj has an average literacy rate of 85%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 72% of the males and 70% of females literate. 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Jamalpur Jamalpur ( , ) is a town and a municipality in Munger district in the Indian state of Bihar. Jamalpur, the name literally means beautiful (Jamal-) town (-pur) and that is a literal description of the place. Jamalpur is best known for its large railway workshop ( ) in the Eastern Railway Zone (India) and the railway institute IRIMEE (The Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering). Jamalpur is best known as a very large workshop on the East Indian Railway, employing over 25,000 people at one time. The town was established during the British Raj and the cultural hub at that time was the Railway Institute. The Railway Institute was huge it had its own movie theatre, a six-lane swimming pool, four tennis courts, two billiard rooms and a bowling lawn. Its dances were renowned and railway folk came from all over the East India Railway (EIR) to attend. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics

* 3 Railway Workshop * 4 Notables * 5 Some Jamalpur Alumni * 6 Famous Places * 7 Spirit of Jamalpur * 8 Education * 9 Residential Hotels * 10 Theaters * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links Geography Jamalpur is located at 2518N 8630E / 25.3, 86.5.[1]. It has an average elevation of 151 metres (495 feet). The city is in the Munger district. Munger is 8 km North West of Jamalpur. There is a road as well as a rail link between the two towns. It is an overnight journey from Kolkata. The nearest airport is at Patna, around four hours from Jamalpur by rail. Kolkata is the nearest airport to the east from which Jamalpur can be reached by Rail. Jamalpur also has a small airstrip. Jamalpur on the district map of Bihar Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Jamalpur had a population of 98,743. Males constitute 54 of the population and females 48%. Jamalpur has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 73%. In Jamalpur, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Railway Workshop Jamalpur Workshop ( ) was the first full-fledged railway workshop facilities in India, set up on Feb. 8, 1862 by the East Indian Railway. (There was an earlier attempt to set up workshop facilities at Howrah, but it proved unsuccessful because of problems with procuring supplies and getting skilled labour.) The Jamalpur site was chosen for its proximity both to the Sahibganj loop (which was the main trunk route at the time), and to the communities of gunsmiths and other mechanical craftsmen in Bihar who would prove to be adept at picking up the skills required in a railway workshop. Another, possibly apocryphal account, though, has it that one of the Agents of the EIR Mr D W Campbell, was annoyed that the fitters and workmen of the then Howrah workshop were spending too much time away from their work in places of recreation in Howrah, and resolved to move the workshop facilities to a place far away where there would be no such distractions.

At first the Jamalpur shops were merely repairing locomotives and also assembling locomotives from parts salvaged from other, damaged locomotives. By the turn of the century, however, they had progressed to producing their own locomotives. The first one, CA 764 'Lady Curzon', was produced in 1899. Jamalpur has always had extensive workshop facilities. In 1893, the first railway foundry in India was set up there. It also had a boiler workshop for repairing and building boilers. Today it has foundry and metallurgical lab facilities, extensive machine tool facilities, etc., in addition a captive power plant of 5MVA, making it fairly self-contained. It used to have a rolling mill of its own (set up in 1870, now closed - the Rolling Mill and the Nut & Bolt Shop were closed down in 1984). In addition to various repairs of wagons, coaches, cranes and tower cars, and locomotives, Jamalpur Workshop also undertakes repair and (small-scale) production of permanent-way fixtures. It also manufactures some tower cars (Mark II, Mark III) and break-down cranes of 10, 20, and 140 tonne capacities, besides various kinds of heavy-duty lifting jacks. Finally, it also manufactures wheelsets for coaches and wagons. In the past it was a significant supplier of cast-iron sleepers as well. Starting in 1961 it produced several rail cranes. It has also produced electric arc furnaces, ticket printers and other ticket machines (slitting, counting, and chopping). The high-capacity synchronized lifting jacks known as 'Jamalpur Jacks' were also produced by this workshop. The school attached to the Jamalpur workshops eventually became the Indian Railway Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (IRIMEE). Notables Ananda Marga Movement Ananda Marga was founded by a Jamalpur native Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in 1955. P.R. Sakar left his job as a railway official and formed the first chapter of Ananda Marga ("Path of Bliss") in Jamalpur, Bihar, India. He started to train missionaries to spread his teaching of "self-realization and service to humanity" (which became the motto of Ananda Marga) into India and the rest of the world. The mission of Ananda Marga is to help individuals achieve complete self-realization and to build a social structure in which the physical, mental and spiritual needs of all people can be fulfilled. Ananda Marga contributes to the process of individual development by providing instruction in meditation and other yoga practices on a non-commercial basis. Some Jamalpur Alumni 1. Mr. D. N. Banerji 2. Prof.R.K. Mukherji 3. Dr. Y.N. Agrawal (FRCS, Medical Supt. Rly Hospital), 4. Mr. Rajendra Prasad Mandal( Retired General Manager, Indian Oil Corporation (New Delhi)) 5. Mr. Yogendra Prasad (Retired Dy Regional Manager, United Bank of India (Patna))

6. Dr. Om Prakash Chaurasia( MD, MRCP(UK), FACP (Gastroenterologist, California, USA)) 7. Dr. Gita Chatterji (MS) 8. Mr. Y.R. Puri (Gymkhana) 9. Dr. AK Ghose (Rly. Hospital) 10. Mr. Usman Ghani (Rly. Elect. Engineer), 11. Prof. Gautam Bhattacharya (Ph.D., Econ., USA) 12. KV Alumni: Asit Sen (IIT, USA) 13. Lt. Col. Deepak Agarwal 14. Ali Akbar (MBA, USA) 15. Prof. Pankaj Agrawal (PhD, USA) 16. Zainul Abedin (Patna) 17. Dr. Biswajit Choudhury (IIT, USA) 18. Capt. Dr. S.P.Mandal (MBBS, DTCD, BMOC (AMC Poona), Ex.Medical Officer-AFMC Command Hospital Poona), Famous Places * Pir Baba The name of Jamalpur comes from Pir Jamaluddin whose grave lies at this holy place and no visit to Jamalpur is complete without paying an obeisance at this holy place on Golf Road. A must-visit on Friday. * JSA Ground/ Stadium One of the best maintained small stadiums in the state, has seen a number of football matches held between different teams in the eastern region of India compete with each other. * Gymkhana Gymkhana is the hostel and club used by the Special Class Railway Apprentice * Golf Course Just down the Gymkhana avenue is the golf course that is frequented by the Railway and Army officers. The annual ITC Golf tournament is held here. It also has the grave of an Englishman who was killed by a tiger. The grave of the tiger is not very far away. * Madras Coffee House (Also known as Heer Ka Dukan) It used to be a half century old small shop selling sweet meats like jalebis. In front of it was the town's rikshaw stand. The Madras Coffee House caters to food aficionados not intended for soft tourists but for people who have come to visit Jamalpur for railways or other nostalgic purposes. * Geetobitan An excellent quarter century old music school near Hari Sabha being run single-handedly by a senior lady with a pronounced handicap. Most of the railway men's children pursue music, dance and arts at this beginners place starting from as young as two. Surprisingly it is

just the goodwill and the basic infrastructure with some local help that is keeping it going. Good place for stimulating discussions on Indian classical Music. * Kali Pahadi There is a Mountain Named Kali Pahadi there's a Mandir of goddes Maa Kali which is situated on top of mountain. Spirit of Jamalpur Alighting from your train at Jamalpur Junction station of the Eastern Railway and making your way through the market adjacent to it,you are not likely to be impressed.Turning right at the end of what could well be called the station road,you cross an over-bridge and enter the Railway East Colony. This egalitarian title is now given to what used to be the European Colony in colonial days.There is a Jamalpur beyond the East Colony also,but most things in this town begin end here.The first turning to the right is the Workshop Road,that leads to the Eastern Railway Locomotive Workshop,the biggest and the oldest in the country. It was only after the setting up of the temples of modern India after independance that bigger workshops were built.you next pass the Club Road and Stadium Road.You soon cross the Golf Road,before you come to Gymkhana Road on your left. Standing between these roads, you see a vast expanse of a rolling green maidan stretching towards a right that seems to cover your entire field of view.This maidan is the Golf Course,a small but reasonably well kept 9-hole course,that is perhaps the cheapest in the world to play golf on. Right in the centre of the course, you will note what looks like a grave. The epitaph on the tombstone tells you the gory tale:a 27 year old Foreman of the Erecting Shop was killed by a tiger near the spot two years after the workshop had been established in 1862. In the tranquil serenity of the present maidan, tigers had roamed in the not too distant past. If this was the situation,then why Jamalpur, is the question that is often asked. The answer lies in the history of the area and the nearby town of Munger (earlier Monghyr). The inhabitants of this town and the surrounding areas had always been a reservoir of skilled craftsman in mechanical fields like ironware notably guns ,pistols ,spears, and other weapons. It is not a coincidence that Monghyr was often referred to as the Birmingham of the East in those days. It will also not be out of place to record that Jamalpur was on what was then intended to be the mainline of the Railway,had good water supply and congenial surroundings. Jamalpur was at first only an engine changing station. The actual headquarters of the Locomotive Department were at Howarah,but the latter not only possessed great drawbacks but was too confined to permit extensions.There was ,in fact., no room for the work shop of the Locomotive Department as well as the Companys carriage and wagon

works, and after long and matured consideration , it was decided to remove the former to Jamalpur . Mr. John Strachan , the then Locomotive Superintendent of the Company,gives the following account for the cause of the removal.It was not till the early sixties that the late D.W.campbell decided to remove the workshops to Jamalpur ,and this was owing to the drivers and fitters giving trouble.They were covenanted men from home who had left their families there,and as hotel and billiard rooms were their only amusement,it was no uncommon thing for men to leave the shops during working hours and adjourn to a hotel that was then opposite to the railway station There were also several other places of amusement in Howrah and Calcutta to which men could go and among them was a place known as Wilsons Coffee Room. One day Mr. Campbell,returning from the weekly Meeting in the Agents Office ,happened to call at Wilsons Coffee Room for tiffin,and here he found three of his principle foremen and two engine drivers enjoying themselves in rather a boisterous mannerThe men were quickly retired,and after that Mr. Campbell never rested until he had the workshops and the Locomotive offices removed from Howrah to Jamalpur. And,so it was that the Locomotive Workshop came to be located at Jamalpur.By 1890,the workshop had 3122 men ,which grew to 9528 by 1906.(In its heydays 30 years back,the figure was 14000).By this time ,the number of locomotives whose overhaulwas based at Jamalpur had grown to 952.Since there was virtually no industry in the country,the workshop grew to be totally self sufficient.It set up the countrys first rolling mill in 1879,as well as the raiways first captive powerhouse,which was set up in 1895.A steel foundry with a 7-ton open-hearth furnace started operations in 1898. The Iron foundry was amongst the best in the country and even produced cast iron sleepers. Jamalpur has the distinction of manufacturing locomotives well before Chittaranjan Locomotive Works were set up. A total of 214 locomotives were built at jamalpur between 1899 and 1932. Along with the technical side of the development ,care was also taken to develop the human resource.A Technical School was set up in 1988 for Trade Apprentices with one teacher.In 1905, the training of Apprentice Mechanics was started for Anglo-Indians and later in 1911,the Apprentice Mechanic scheme was thrown open to indians also.It is chronicled elsewhere in this issue,how the training of special class Apprentices at the Technocal School in 1927,set into motion the chain of events that we are commemorating this year. Jamalpur has always attracted visitors who could well be a Whos Who of the land.A sampling of the messages recorded in the Visitors Book of the Workshop can be seen in this write up. Even today,the Workshop and the Training institute at Jamalpur are the mainstay of not only Jamalpur town but also the entire district of Munger.Although there are other

workshops and units in the Railways and outside that are bigger and more contemporary than the Locomotive Workshop at Jamalpur today,the words of Mr.Huddlestone,C.I.E,Chief Superintendent of the East Indian Railway,give an idea of the Spirit behind Jamalpur. There are ,of course,larger Railway shops existing in Europe but not few are more self contained or better occupied with modern electrically driven machinery than this workshop. Education Jamalpur is well known for its Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, IRIMEE. Other institute includes: * Notre Dame Academy - The First Notre Dame School in India was founded in Jamalpur, India, in 1950. Notre Dame Academy is a Catholic Institution managed by the Patna Notre Dame Sister's Society. * Railway High School - It is the one of oldest high schools in Jamalpur. This school has been run for Railway Employee children. * Kendriya Vidyalaya (KV), Jamalpur- Kendriya Vidyalaya Jamalpur was set up in 1973 and was sponsored by Eastern Railway. A CBSE affiliated school, has produced outstanding students both in academics and sports. Residential Hotels * Lounges Inn - Living accommodation and Resto-Bar at Jubilee Well Jamalpur. * Hotel Yatrik * Hotel HillView * Hotel Samrat Palace - An Eight story well furnished hotel having its own Darbar Hall. * Hotel White House Residency - A five story well furnished hotel. A/C and non A/C rooms are available Theaters * Avantika (Currently non operational) * Railway Cinema * Bhola talkies Kharagpur (Munger) Kharagpur is a town and a notified area in Munger district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 References * 4 See also Geography Kharagpur is located at 2507N 8633E / 25.12N 86.55E / 25.12; 86.55[1]. It has an average elevation of 48 metres (157 feet). Demographics

As of 2001[update] India census[2], Kharagpur had a population of 26,910. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Kharagpur has an average literacy rate of 47%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 55%, and female literacy is 39%. In Kharagpur, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. River & Lake Khargpur having one beautiful Lake known as Khargpur Lake.It is 3 km far from khargpur city in the west direction. 'Bhim Bandh' This is tourist place for kharagpur hill area. Picnic spot in winter season and You can enjoy spring of hot water. Kharagpur also has Rameshwar Kund, Kali Mandir which are places of tourist attraction. It is also said that when the King of Kharagpur - Raja Rahmad Ali,later known Raja Rahmad, when ate betel,it could be seen through his neck. He also made a Masjid there.There is one Mani river in Kharagpur, which never dries. Lakhisarai district Lakhisarai district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Lakhisarai town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Lakhisarai district is a part of Munger Division. The district occupies an area of 1228 km2. The district has a population of 8,01,173 (2001 census). Population: Total: 671634 Rural: 586294 Urban: 85340 Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Lentils Rivers : Ganges, Mohane, Harohar, Kiul History On July 3, 1994 this district was carved out from Munger district, which comprised the erstwhile Lakhisarai sub-division of the undivided district. Divisions The district consists only one sub-division Lakhisarai, which is divided into six developmental blocks: Halsi, Lakhisarai, Barahia, Surya Garha, Piparia and Ramgarh Chowk. The district headquarters Lakhisarai is a city with mixed population, the majority being the upper-caste (Bhumihaars) people. Still under the process of development, the city has one newly constructed PCC road and a bypass under construction. There were several criminal groups who make the city vulnerable for crime, mainly in Pipariya, Barahiya,Suryagarha police stations. But the situation have improved quite a lot after better rule regulation.Also, Piribazar, Chanan police stations are naxal-prone due to their geographical layout. The city well known for its sindur (vermilion) production. Lakhisarai is also famous for Ashokdham temple, Maharani temple at Barahiya and for Shringirishi mountains. Lakhisarai (archaic spelling: Luckeesarai) town is the administrative headquarters of Lakhisarai district in Bihar state in eastern India. The town has a population of 77,840 (2001

census). It is well connected by road and rail routes. It is situated on Patna-Howrah main line passing through Kiul junction. NH-80 passes through the town. The town has a number of small scale industrial units, which include iron rod manufacturing, rice mills, Sindur (vermilion) factories, insecticide manufacturing units.The rivers namely Ganga, Haroohar and kuil are passing through lakhisari district. Barahiya Barahiya is a city and a municipality in Lakhisarai district in the state of Bihar, India. Barhiya is a block of district lakhisarai in the state of bihar. As of 2001 India census, Barahiya had a population of 39,745. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Barahiya has an average literacy rate of 59%, below than the national average of 59.9%; with 61% of the males and 39% of females literate. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. It is on the bank of the Ganga river and has lacs hactare agriculture land for Rabi crops. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Barahiya had a population of 39,745. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Barahiya has an average literacy rate of 59%, below than the national average of 59.9%; with 61% of the males and 39% of females literate. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kiul junction Kiul ( , ) is a small city located on the bank of Kiul river in Lakhisarai district of Bihar. This is the place where Mahavir (the founder of Jain Dharma) got knowledge or gyan. Geography One of the major railway junction in Eastern Railway Zone (India) located at main line from Howrah to New Delhi. Patna is about 3 hours journey by express train. Rail tracks There are four railway routes departing from this junction. * to Bhagalpur via Dharhara, Jamalpur, Bihar * to Howrah via Asansol * to Gaya, India * to New Delhi via Patna Sheikhpura district Sheikhpura district is one of the thirty eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Sheikhpura town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Sheikhpura district is a part of Munger Division. Sheikhpura was separated from Munger District and was made a separate district with headquarters at Sheikhpura on the 31st July 1994. Sheikhpura district has given the leaders like Shree Krishna Singh, Sukhdev Prasad Singh, Radha Raman Sharma, Rajo Singh etc. The Popular Producer, Director & Music Director of Indian Film Industry Mr.Sudhakar Sneh [1] also comes from Biman, the village of Sheikhpura. Headquarters: Sheikhpura

Area: 689 km. Population: Total: 525,502 Rural: 437,941 Urban: 87,561 Male:- 273,992 Female:- 251,510 Literacy:- 49.01% Male:- 62.56% Female:- 34.13% Sub Divisions: Sheikhpura Blocks: Ariari, Sheikpura, Barbigha, Ghatkosumbha, Chewara, Shekhopur Sarai. Villages:nimi, Biman, Lohan. Kasar, Karki, Diha, Farpar, Rampur, Ariari, Kaithwan, Bhadauns, Sirari, Hathiyawan, Mehuns, Katari, Mafo etc. School: D.M. High school, Islamia high school, High school Mehus, Janta High School Sirari College: S.K R. College Barbigha, Ramadhin college Police Stations: Sheikhpura P.S., Sirari O.P., Ariyari P.S., Kasar O.P., Mahuli O.P., Kusumbha O.P.,Chewara P.S., Karande O.P., Korma P.S., Mehus P.S., Barbigha P.S., Jayrampur O.P. Railway Stations: Sirari, Sheikhpura, Kusumbha (3) No. of Panchayets: 54 Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Lentils, Onion Industry: Stone Crushing Rivers: Ganges, Mohane, Harohar, Kiul Tourist Place: Arghauti Pokhar, Girihinda Pahar (With Temple of Lord 'SHIV'), Samas (Lord 'VISHNU'),nimi,famous temple of maharani. Sheikhpura is a city and a municipality in Sheikhpura district in the Indian state of Bihar. Sheikhpura is also an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district occupies an area of 689 km and has a population of 5,25,502 (as of 2001). Sheikhpura has given the leaders like Shree Krishna Singh, Sukhdev Prasad Singh, Radha Raman Sharma, Rajo Singh etc. The Popular Producer, Director & Music Director of Indian Film Industry Mr.Sudhakar Sneh [1] also comes from Sheikhpura. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Sheikhpura Town has a population of 49.361 Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Sheikhpura has an average literacy rate of 51%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 60%, and female literacy is 42%. In Sheikhpura, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Barbigha Barbigha (Hindi: ) is a city and a notified area in the Sheikhpura district of Bihar, India. Demographics According to the 2001 Indian census,[1] Barbigha had a population of 38,258. Males constituted 53% of the population and females 47%. Barbigha had an average literacy rate of 52%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 63% of the males and 37% of females literate. 19% of the population was under 6 years of age.

The name is derived from the Hindi phrase:Barah Bigha, meaning "Twelve bigha". Barbigha has since grown to be come the biggest town market of the Sheikhpura district, serving as a commercial market of the surrounding villages. Famous Residents * Shri Ramdhari Singh, a poet, taught in Barbigha high school. * Dr Srikrishan Singh, first Chief minister of Bihar, is from Mour village (2KM outside of Barbigha). * Er.Sumant kumar Singh,S/o- shri krishankant, shakaldeo nagar ,barbigha,bihar. * Parth Sarthi Raju, S/o - shri Vidhan Chandra, Rampur Sinday, Barbigha, bihar. * Gopal Kumar, S/0 Sri Vijay Singh, Mahavir Chowk, Barbigha, Bihar. Bhojpur district, Bihar Bhojpur district (Hindi: ) is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state in eastern India. Arrah town (also known as Ara) is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district occupies an area of 2,474 km and has a population of 1,792,771 (as of 2001[update]). It is located at a longitude of 83-45' to 84-45' East and the latitude is 25-10' to 25-40' North and is situated at a height of 193 meters above sea level. Contents * 1 History o 1.1 The Revolt of 1857 o 1.2 Quit India Movement * 2 Geography * 3 Climate o 3.1 Rainfall o 3.2 Irrigation facilities o 3.3 Land use pattern o 3.4 Mines and minerals o 3.5 Industrialization * 4 Society and culture o 4.1 Films o 4.2 Fashion o 4.3 Literature o 4.4 Sports * 5 Important places and sites * 6 References History The present district of Bhojpur came into existence in 1992. Earlier this district was the part of the erstwhile Shahabad district. In the year 1972 Shahabad district was bifurcated in two

parts namely Bhojpur and Rohtas. Buxar was a sub-division of the old Bhojpur district. In 1992 Buxar became a separate district and the rest of Bhojpur district now has three subdivisions-Ara Sadar, Jagdishpur and Piro. Ara town is the headquarters of the district and also its principal town. The district is bound on the north by the districts of Saran (Bihar) and the Balia district of Uttar Pradesh; on the south by the district of Rohtas; on the west by the district of Buxar and on the east by the district of Patna, Jahanabad and Arwal. It is said that Ara, the present headquarters of the district derives its name from the Sanskrit word Aranya, which means forest. It suggests that the entire area around modern Ara was heavily forested in old days. According to mythology, sage Vishwamitra, the Guru of Rama, had his 'Ashram' somewhere in this region. Bhojpur district has a close linkage with that of its parent district of Shahabad, which had an old and interesting history. In the pre-historic days also there is evidence of the area being inhabited. The 1961 Census report of Shahabad district describes the history of the district in following manner. "In the old days, Shahabad formed part of the ancient kingdom of Magadh which also contained portions of the present Patna & Gaya district. Though included in the kingdom of Emperor Ashoka, the general absence of Buddhists' monuments from a greater part of the district suggests that it remained almost immune from the Buddhist influence of the time. "The famous Chinese pilgrim, Hieun-Tsang, who journeyed through the country in the seventh century A.D., paid a visit to Mo-Ho-Solo in Shahabad. This place has been identified with the present village Masarh, 10 km west of Ara on Ara-Buxar road. The Chinese pilgrim found that the inhabitants were all Brahmins who did not respect the law of Buddha. He, therefore, felt disappointed and did not proceed to any other place in the district." "Not much is known about the history of the district after the fall of Guptas. In all probability it relapsed into the hands of the aboriginal tribes and came under control of petty chieftains. The most dominant people during this period were Cheros. They ruled over the greater portion of the district. Then came the Rajputs from Ujjain in the province of Malwa. Raja Bhoj was their king and the term 'Bhojpur' now applicable to the area is derived from him." The Medieval period history of this district has been described in the following words : "While encamping at Ara in 1529 after his victory over the Afghan rulers, Babar proclaimed his sovereignty over Bihar . In commemoration of this event, the place was called Shahabad, which literally means 'the city of Emperor'. This name was later applied to the Sarkar within which Ara was included and eventually toe entire district." Akbar, after his accession, includes the district of Shahabad in his empire, though the control was not very tight. Akbar's General Man Singh, made efforts to organise the revenue administration of the district on a sound footing. But the local chiefs continued to resist. The Rajas of Jagdishpur and Bhojpur defied the Mughals. The Raja of Bhojpur rebelled against Jahangir. His successor Raja Pratap, was done to death by Shahjahan and

the Queen was forced to many a muslim courtier. This finally quietened the Bhojpur family but stray troubles continued till the last days of Mughals. After this the District had a very uneventful history till 1857 when Kunwar Singh revolted against the Britishers in line with the Mutineers. The Revolt of 1857 Quit India Movement The history of "Quit India Movement" in 1942 is also written by the blood of the virtuous revolutionaries of this district. Two incidents are very important in the month of September 1942 for this district. Village Lasarhi, 32 km south of the district headquarters, Ara was the centre of the underground revolutionaries of Shahabad district. On 15 Sep. 1942, the British police surrounded the Lasarhi village. The people of not only Lasarhi but of the near-by villages like Dhakani and Chasi bravely faced the bullets of Sten gun and LMGs. In this course 7 men and 1 woman were killed. After passing of the Quit India Resolution on 9 Aug 1942, the district of Shahabad had seen many protest movement. To accelerate the movement, the revolutionaries of the district decided to hoist the tri-color at Ara collectorate. 28 Sep 1942 was decided the date by the district administration to deposit the "Role-Cess". On this very day a group of "Satyagrahi started Satyagrah at collectorate from the village Jagwalia. The group was led by a brave soldier of independence, Kavi Kailash of the village Ghoradei. Hiding from the eyes of police, the group reached somehow at Ara collectorate and hoisted the tri-color in the campus of Ara collectorate. The Satyagrahi were brutally beaten-up there. Kavi Kailash was lifted and thrashed on a big stone near Ara collectorate tank. He was also tied with horse and brutally dragged on the roads. Then boiled water was poured over him. At last chanting the slogans of "Mahatma Gandhi ki Jai" and "Bharat Mata ki Jai", the brave son of Bhojpur led his life to the rest and became one important martyr of this district. Another village called Kulhariya, which is located 12 k.m east of Ara is also known for his bravery in quit India movement. Geography Climate The climate of the district is of moderately extreme type. The hot weather begins about the middle of March, when hot westerly winds begin to blow during the day. The months of April and May are extremely hot. In a normal year, the monsoon sets in by the third week of June and the rains continue with intermissions till about the end of September or the early part of October. The cold weather begins from the month of November and lasts till the beginning of March January is the coldest month when temperature comes down as low as 10 C. From the month of April till the first break down of the monsoon, the district experiences occasional thunder-storms also. Rainfall

Rains set in June accompanied by a fall in temperature and increase in humidity. The district experiences maximum rains during the months of July and August. The average rain-fall, in the normal conditions, recorded in these months is in the proximity of 300 mm. The district gets easterly winds from June to September, which brings rains, from October the direction of the winds is reversed and westerly winds blow till May. There is slight rainfall in October, but November and December are quite dry. Some winter rain occurs in January and February. In session 2011 rain fall is also more and more less, due to which farmers are in problem. Irrigation facilities The river Sone and Ganges are the perennial sources of surface water. They can provide irrigation to major portion of agricultural lands. In the "Pre-Zamindari Abolition" days the Zamindars used to maintain "Ahars" and Pynes" which served the purposes of both irrigation and drainage in certain pockets of the district. Ordinary wells also used to be a good source of irrigation. The District Statistical Report published by the District Administration in the 2001, 15,493 hectors, and land is irrigated by big Sone canals, 14,940 hector, land is irrigated by middle Sone canals and 18,379 hectors, and land is irrigated by small canals. 2,582 hectors, land is irrigated by Govt. Electronic Tube wells and 2,099 hectors, of land is irrigated by Govt. Tub wells operated by diesel. The area of land irrigated by private Electric Tube wells is 8,263 hectors. And 16999 hectors of land is irrigated by diesel operated private Tube wells 58,586 hectors of land irrigated by other sources or irrigation like Ahars, wells and ponds etc. Thus this statistics shows that 177,341 hectors of land out of 2,37,526 hectors of land of total area is irrigated. It means 74.66 % land of the district is irrigated. Land use pattern In this district both the irrigated and un-irrigated areas except the small hills are being exploited for cultivation. Even some of the large ponds and "Jhils" which were duckshooting areas have been de-watered and put to crop and grows "Boro crops". Intensive agriculture is also being attempted by what is popularly known as "Package Program". The Block Development Authorities are also trying to extend cultivation and improve the output. The remodelled Sone Canal System has the objective of bringing in more land under cultivation. Horticulture is spreading and orchards are springing up of all parts. The District Statistical Report published by the District Administration of Bhojpur in the year of 2001 shows the area of different crops production i.e. Paddy-1,05,155 hectors, Wheat67,259 hectors, Maize- 2,779 hectors, Barley-1,154 hectors Gram-5,017 hectors Peas-2,016 hectors, Arhar-919 hectors Masur-8,115 hectors Khesari-8,989 hectors Oil seeds (Sarso) 2,866 hectors Spices 31 hectors Vegetables 5,119 hectors, Fruits 2,651 hectors and Sugar cane 209 hectors.

This report also published the data of the rate of production, which is provided to the district administration by the State Directorate. It states the rate of production different crops per hectors as follows: Paddy (High yielding irrigated)-3502 Kg per hectares. Paddy (Locally irrigated) -3330 kg per hectors, Wheat (High yielding irrigated)-2725 Kg per hectors. Wheat (High yielding unirrigated)-2707 Kg per hectors Masur-1047 kg per hectors Khesari-986 kg. Per hectors. Oil seeds (Sarso) 679 Kg per hectors and Gram 937 kg per hectors. Mines and minerals Mines and minerals resources in new Bhojpur district are very little. The only mineral product in this district is the sand from Sone river. About 40 km length of Sone river forms the part of southern and eastern and eastern boundary of the district of Bhojpur. The only managed sand - collecting centre is Koilwar, which is about 5 km strips. About 35 km length is not properly managed to gather the sand. Industrialization After bifurcation of the old Shahabad district in the new district of Bhojpur and Rohtas the large scale industries generally fell in Rohtas district. There are, however, different types of small & cottage industries other than some agro-based industries located in the district of Bhojpur. The District Statistical Report shows that between April 1992 and August 2000, 1,085 small tiny and cottage industries were registered with the District Industry Centre, Bhojpur. Altogether the capital invested in these industries is Rs-869.19 Lacs, and 1858 persons are employed in these industries. There is an industrial area located at Gidha (Koilwar) spread in an area of 30-40 acres of land under the Patna Industrial Development Authority. A bottling plant of Indane Gas (LPG) is also started in this area. The development of industries depends on the regular supply of power but the district gets very short supply of the electricity against the required energy. The industrialisation of the district badly hampered due to this problem Society and culture Films Bhojpuri films have a far and wide viewership. Several film personalities from this region have made rich contributions to cinema. Mr. Viswanth Shahabadi had made Ganga Maiya Tohen Piyari Chadhaibo in 1960, which is still today widely acclaimed. Mr. Janardan Singh of Ara made Piya Nirmohia with Jai Tilak of Ara as hero. Sri Ashok Chand Jain and Mr. Laxman Shahabadi have made the film Ganga Kinare Mora Gaon, in which the latter's songs had been appreciated a lot. Mr. Jai Mohan of Ara was the villain of this film. Similarly many more artist have worked in films from this region and have made Ara the Hollywood of Bhojpuri films.The rising & Bright future in Bhojpuri singer Pawan Singh, Manoj Tiwary, Vinit Singh, Chotu Chaliya and many more are also belongs to ARA. They all have a good quality in their profession.

Fashion Fashion, a general term for a currently popular style or practice, especially in clothing, foot wear or accessories.Clothing of an area often based on economic or social conditions.Basically Fashion of Ara is traditional but now people started wearing Western or Indo-western cloths.A lot of national and international brands have opened their showrooms in Ara. Vikash Singh A creative fashion designer of India who worked with Rohit Bal and Manish Arora is also from ara. Following him, many more students of Ara are pursuing Fashion Designing from NIFTs and NID. Literature Bhojpur has a rich literary lineage. Munshi Sadasukh Lal, Sayed Ishautullah, Lallu lal and Sadal Mishra ara famous for their work in 'Khari Boli'. From Bhartendu era Akhoury Yashodanad was as famous as editor and Sri Shivnandan Sahay for biography writings. Sri Jainendra Kishor Jain was well known novelist and dramatist. In Dwivedi era Mahamahopadhyay Pundit Sakal Narayan Sharma and Pundit Ramdahin Mishra were famous for prose writing. Acharya Shivpujan Sahay, great story writer, novelist and essayist, was from this area. In Chayavadi era Sri Kedarnath Mishra Prabhat, Sri Ramdayal Pandey, Collector Singh Keshari, Sri Nandkisor Tiwari, Sri Ramnath Pathak Pranaye and Prof. Sarvdev Tiwary Rakesh (well known Rakesh ji) were well known for their poetic skills. The first Bhojpuri Mahakabya "Kaljayi Kunwar Singh" was written by Prof. Sarvdev Tiwary Rakesh. The list of personalities contributing towards a lot in literary field from this region is long. Sports Bhojpur District is progressing very fast in the field of sports. The District Sports Associations are actively promote games and sports. They are creating sporting environment for a large variety of games with the vitality, interest & involvement of the local people. The leadership provided by some leading name in field of sports and games had raised the position of Bhojpur in the state level and national level. For example Bhojpur badminton association has born several young players who not only won lot of matches in district but even in national level also.Some of the players are: Radhika Raman Singh,Vishal Anand,Badal Ojha,Saurabh Kamal,and many more. There is a very beautiful stadium namely Veer Kunwar Sigh Stadium, at Ramna, Ara and an Indoor Stadium that has excellent Badminton court and gymnasium. Important places and sites Gundi Village :- Birth Place of World fame Great Saint Awadhoot Bhagwan Ram, popularly known as Sarkar Baba or Bhagwan Ramji. He was born in 1937 at Gundi village. Later he moved to Baba Keenaram Sthal ( Thousands year old Spiritual Centre & Worldfame Headquarter of Aghor sect at Varanasi ) , at the age of 7 (Seven) only . Sun Temple at Dev: The Dev village of Tarari block has statue of the Sun god besides several other deities. These statues are said to be of 14th century or even before. Veer Kunwar Singh Kila, Jagdishpur

The great warrior of 1857 belonged to Jagdishpur. His fort is still there to reminds us of the great son of the soil who fought for the freedom till his last. Maharaja College, Ara The present Maharaja college premises is an important historical site. There is an entry point of a tunnel that is believed to be connected with the Jagdishpur fort of Kunwar Singh. Aranya Devi Temple This is famous temple of Aranya Devi (Forest Goddess). She is said to be the deity goddess of Ara town. Here one statue is of ADI SAKTI and the second is established by the Pandavas. The temple is very old and draws many devotees every day. It is situated at the top of stone boulde "MAA KALI MANDIR" This temple is situated at Bakhorapur about 15 km from Ara. This is one of the oldest temples in India and so big. A 85 feet (26 m) high statue of maa kali is being made near this temple. Temple is situated at the bank of holly river ganga. The main temple is made of granite and marble stones. Nowadays this palace is famous for different types of films and suiting. Chaturvuj Narayan Mandir This very ancient statue of Laxmi -Narayan is situated at Chaturvuj village of Piro block. Bhavani Mandir Chaturvuj Baraon - 13th-century statue . Jagdamba Mandir Here is an ancient statue of Goddess Jagdamba at Mukundpur village of Charpokhari block. Parswanath Mandir It is a century old Jain Temple located at Masadh Village. Mahamaya Mandir This temple is at Ekwari village of Sahar block. This was made during Mughal period. Mahathin Mai Mandir This is located at Bihiya, draws lots of women devotees. Jain Sidhant Bhawan It has a such library which contains unique collection of materials related to Jainism. Paihari Jee Ka Ashram It is an ashram at Dhrampur village at Sahar block. Lakar Sah Ki Mazar It is situated at Sahpur, it a famous mazar of a local Muslim saint. Kurwa Shiv There are some ancient statues related to Banasur. It is situated in Shahpur Billoti Road. Venkatesh Mandir This temple situated at Perhap village has a statue of Southern architectural style. Sahi Jama Masjid This mosque built by Shersah is located at Garhani Bazzar. Renovation work is in progress here. The Great Jama Masjid It is situated at Bhaluana village.Renovation work is in progress here. The land is very fertile, being on the Ganges Plain. This area is known for its rich language Bhojpuri.

* Population: Total: 1,792,771 Rural: 1,557,287 Urban: 235,484 * Sub Divisions: Ara Sadar, Jagdishpur, Piro * Blocks: Ara Sadar,Udwantnagar, Jagdishpur, Koilwar, Sahar, Barhara, Sandesh, Shahpur, Charpokhari, Piro, Tarari, Bihia, Agiawon, Garhani * Agriculture: Rich Paddy Fields, Wheat, Maize, Bengal Gram, Grain * Industry: Rice, Automobiles, Clothes and Oil Mills. * Rivers: Ganges, Sone. * Hotel:Park View Hotel. * Veer Kunwar Singh University. * Colleges: Maharaja College, Jagjivan College, Jain College, Sahjanand Brahamarshi College, Sanjay Gandhi College, Maa Maitryainee Yogini senior secondary school-Gundi, Mahant Mahadevanand Mahila Mahavidyalay, Ara, Dr. K. K. Mandal (Jagdishpur), Saint Barahna Mahila college (Jagdishpur) STSM College, Panwari T.S.I.M College,ara * School: Catholic School, H.N.K High school, H.P.D Jain school, DAV PUBLIC SCHOOL, D K CARMEL RESIDENCIAL HIGH SCHOOL, JEAN PAUL HIGH SCHOOL,HK JAIN GYAN ASTHALI, BALRAM BHAGAT HIGH SCHOOL KRISHNA BAG BABHNAULI{at koilwar police station} * Mosque: Badi Masjid, Ara * "Temple : "Maa Mahthin Mai Mandir", Bihiya, "Aaranya Devi Temple", Surya mandir, Belaur * Historical places: Krishan Garh, beside the river Ganges in the Ara District, is the location of a five hundred year old temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.[citation needed] "Maa Kali Temple" at Bakhorapur about 15 km from Ara. This is one of the oldest temples in India and so big. A 85 feet (26 m) high statue of maa kali is being made near this temple. Temple is situated at the bank of holly river ganga. The main temple is made of granite and marble stones. "Baba Dineshwar nath Dham" at Koilwar, it's that 16 km from Ara. It is dedicated to Lord Shiva. This Temple is situated at the bank of river "Sone", Jagdishwar Madir at Milki (Khutaha) village about 40 km from Ara. There is an old Shiva temple in village Bartiar under Sandesh police station, some 20 km from district hq. Arrah Arrah (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a municipal corporation in Bhojpur district in the )but it was misspelt by the British

stateof Bihar, India. The actual name of Arrah is Ara (

and now corrected to Ara but still known as Arrah in many records. It is the district headquarters of Bhojpur district, located near the confluence of the Ganges and Sone rivers, some 24 mi. from Danapur and 36 miles from Patna.[1] Contents * 1 History * 2 Demographics * 3 References

* 4 External links History Arrah is an ancient city with references in mythological stories and Greek geographical works. It has been a centre of attraction for Jainism with dozens of old temples and hermitages. It is known for the important battle (Battle of Buxar) in October, 1764, when Mir Kasim, Nawab of Bengal with the support of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and Shuja-ud-daulla, Nawab of Avadh was defeated by the East India Company Army whilst Robert Clive, was Governor General , the key event establishing the British colonialisation of India. During the Indian rebellion of 1857, a small party of British officers and Indian soldiers was besieged in the Little House at Arrah, by a band of armed soldiers under the command of 80 year old Veer Kunwar Singh, the Zamindar of adjacent Jagdishpur. They withstood the siege for three weeks until relieved by other East India Company troops.[2]Babu Kunwar Singh was the only successful freedom fighter of the rebellion of 1857. The British failed to defeat him. He is the only fighter who died in freedom.< ref IGNOU material on Modern India> Demographics As of 2001 India census,[3] Arrah had a population of 203,395. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Arrah has an average literacy rate of 67%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 60% of the males and 40% of females literate.Ara is Very Famous Palace Of Bhojpur and beautiful temples like that of Joda Mandir. Behea Behea (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a small town and a notified area in Bhojpur district in the state of Bihar, India. Contents * 1 Demographics * 2 Culture * 3 Economy * 4 References Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Behea had a population of 20,809. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Behea has an average literacy rate of 59%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 59% of the males and 41% of females literate. 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. This town is alternatively spelled as Bihiya. The town boasts of a railway station and is a business hub for small time traders, who mainly collect agricultural produce from the farmers and sell in larger cities and even in neighbouring countries. There are a handful of timber traders too, who get timber and stone slabs from bigger cities and supply it to the

villagers, who use it for construction of their house. One of the popular trading company at this place is Vishwakarma stone Company. Here a very famous school named Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya Behea Bhojpur is situated. It is government school, It was opened by Rajeev Gandhi CM of India for the purpose of pickup engineers from ruler side of india. Another reason why many people visit the town is because of the "Mahthin Mai" temple. Its considered to be very holy for Hindus and the temple compound hosts a number of fairs. The language of almost all people in Behea and the rest of Bhojpur district is Bhojpuri, a very rich language. Culture The old tradition is also following in Behea. Two religions are there Hindus and Muslims. The famous sweet of Behea is Jalabi and puri which you can find just outside of Behea station. The villige people wear dhoti-kurta and ladies wears saree. Economy It is a agricultural area where production is wheat and rice. Koilwar Koilwar (also spelt Koelwar) (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a notified area in Bhojpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography o 1.1 Koilwar bridge * 2 Demographics * 3 Health * 4 References Geography Koilwar is located at 2535N 8448E / 25.58N 84.80E / 25.58; 84.80. It has an average elevation of 39 metres (128 ft).[1] Koilwar bridge Koilwar is situated on the River Sone; its steel rail road bridge called as Abdul Bari Bridge, made before independence, is shown in the film Gandhi. The Koelwar bridge across the Sone river was built by the British in 1900. A two lane road (NH 30) runs just under the rail tracks. Sand mining near the pillars of this old bridge has created structural problems recently. Demographics In the 2001 India census,[2] Koilwar had a population of 19,925. Males constitute 61% of the population and females 39%. Koilwar has an average literacy rate of 55%, lower than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 55%, female literacy 54%. 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Health

The village boasts a renowned TB hospital. Piro Piro (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Bhojpur District in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 References * 4 See also Geography Piro is located at 2520N 8425E / 25.33N 84.42E / 25.33; 84.42.[1] It has an average elevation of 72 metres (236 feet). This is a small town with located on arrah-sasaram main road. It's densely populated from the nearby villagers. The nearby villagers are depends on this small city for their small small needs. In Piro the main market and oldest market is "GOLA". It is famous for Footwear shop and cosmetics items.Piro has mainly two roads "ARA-SASARAM" and "BIHIA" road. In bihia Road first village is Bhagalpur near to "MOLVI CHOWK". In Bhagalpur there is Agovernment school is 'Matiya waali -Urdu primary school'. Most of the people from Bhagalpur have complited their schooling from this school.Bhagalpur Consist of a very nice concrete road connecting to Bihia road at Molvi Chowk. Bhagalpur has its specialty that this village doesn't have any Soil house it has only solid concrete and bricks made house.There is a hestorical place and ground called "PADAW", It is famous for Football match yearly organized by localPiro people, most of the cultural event, political programme and other events are organized here. It is located in centre of Piro. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Piro had a population of 25,638. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Piro has an average literacy rate of 56%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 65%, and female literacy is 45%. In Piro, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Piro is a small city. Its nearest famous village is KARATH Shahpur Shahpur (Hindi: Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Culture * 4 References , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Bhojpur district in the

* 5 See also Geography Shahpur is located at 2535N 8427E / 25.58N 84.45E / 25.58; 84.45.[1] It has an average elevation of 51 metres (167 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Shahpur had a population of 14,456. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Shahpur has an average literacy rate of 47%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 58%, and female literacy is 34%. In Shahpur, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Shahpur assembly constituency covers Shahpur community development block; and Barishwan, Belwti, Gaura, Karisath, Semariya, Sanbarisha, Bahoranpur, Beheya,chaurasta, Itawa, Gopalpur, Ranisagar, Karnamepur, Ramdthi, Banahi, Baghi, Diha, Sikariya and Kauria.[3] This town is alternatively spelled as Shahpurpatti. The town comes between Ara and Buxer Main Road highway,. Here a very famous school named Gyan Asthali School is situated. It is Besed like CBSE, Not have any School Like Gyan Asthali Between Ara and Buxer. Another reason why many people visit the town is because of the This a town of Temple (Mandiro ka sahar) "Mahavira Sthan" "Kundeswar Dham" temple. Its considered to be very holy for Hindus and the temple compound hosts a number of fairs. The language of almost all people in Shahpur and the rest of Bhojpur district is Bhojpuri, a very rich language. Culture The old tradition is also following in Shahpur. There are several religions including Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Christians. The famous sweet of Shahpur is Jhrua(Ka Mithai) Jalabi and puri which you can find just Main Market ShahPur. The villiger peoples wear dhoti-kurta and ladies wears saree. Buxar district Buxar district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. The district headquarters are located at Buxar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 History o 2.1 Mythology o 2.2 Panchkoshi Parikrama * 3 Demographics * 4 Economy * 5 Transportation * 6 Gallery * 7 References

Geography The district occupies an area of 1624 km. History Mythology This place was also known as "Siddhashram", "Vedgarbhapuri", "Karush", "Tapovan", "Chaitrath", "VyaghraSar", "Buxar" in ancient history. The History of Buxar dates back even prior to the period of Ramayana. The word Buxar is said to have been derived from VyaghraSar. The tiger face of Rishi Vedshira, an outcome of the curse of the sage Rishi Durvasha, was restored after bathing in a holy tank which was later named as Vyaghra Sar. According to mythology, sage Vishwamitra the family guru of Lord Rama and eighty eight thousand saints, had their sacred ashram at the banks of holy river Ganges that reside inside the modern District Buxar. He was disturbed in the yagna (sacrificial offering) by the demons. The place where due killing of the famous Rakshasi (demoness) Tadika by Lord Rama, is said to fall within the present Buxar town area. Besides, Lord Rama and his younger brother Laxman took their teachings at Buxar. It is also said that Ahilya, the wife of Gautam Rishi restored her human body from that of stone and got salvation by a mere touch of the feet of Lord Rama. This place is presently known as Ahirauli and is situated six kilometers away from the Buxar town. The Kanwaldah Pokhara also known as VyaghraSar is a tourist spot nowadays.[2] Panchkoshi Parikrama Many people once in a year taka round of this religious area called Panchkoshi Parikrama. They perform it in five days by halting in night in five villages surrounding Buxar. During this visit they cook five different kinds of food. One of them is called litti-bhanta. This recipe is famous in Bihar, Litti is ball like structure made of wheat powder by filling the black gram roasted powder mixed with salt and spices called sattu. Bhanta (Round Brinjal) roasted in the fire of dung along with potato and tomato finally all are smashed after removing its peel and taken with litti which is also roasted in the same fire. Demographics Buxar district had a population of 1,403,462 in 2001, out of which 738,239 were males and 665,223 were females. It had a population density of 864 per km2 and sex ratio of 901.[3] Economy Main economic activity of the district is agriculture and related trade. Rice and wheat are main crops. Sugarcane production, once prominent, has come down since closure of the local sugar factory. Transportation The town Buxar is located on the bank of river Ganges (Ganga). A road bridge over Ganges connects Buxar with Ballia District of neighboring state Uttar Pradesh. The town is connected to the state capital Patna by rail and road routes. Substantial proportion of trade

activities are with well connected towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh such as Varanasi, Ballia and Ghazipur. Buxar (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city in the state of Bihar in the Eastern part of India. It is the headquarters of Buxar District. The word Buxar is said to have been derived from VyaghraSar. The tiger face of Rishi Vedshira, an outcome of the curse of the sage Rishi Durvasha, was restored after bathing in a holy tank which was later named as VyaghraSar. The present district of Buxar consists of areas under Buxar Sadar and Dumraon Sub-Division of the old Bhojpur district and came in existence in the year 1991. Buxar town is the headquarter of the district and also its principal town. The district is bounded on the north by Ballia district of U.P., on the south by Rohtas district, on the west by Ghazipur and Ballia districts of U.P. and on the east by Bhojpur district. The town Buxar is located on the bank of river Ganges (Ganga). A road bridge over Ganges connects Buxar with Ballia District in the neighboring state Uttar Pradesh. The town is connected to the state capital Patna by rail and road routes. The Buxar railway station is a major station. Many major trains pass through the station due to its strategic location. The language spoken is "Bhojpuri" and the script is "Devanagari". Substantial proportion of trade activities are with well connected towns and cities in Uttar Pradesh such as Varanasi, Ballia and Ghazipur. Contents * 1 Administrative Units * 2 Demography * 3 History o 3.1 Battle of Buxar (October 1764) * 4 Mythology * 5 Beliefs of Historical Context * 6 Geography * 7 Agriculture * 8 See also * 9 References Administrative Units Buxar district consist of 2 Sub-division and 11 Blocks. Of the 11 Blocks, 7 are in Dumraon Sub-division while 4 in Buxar Sadar Sub-division. Demography As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Buxar had a population of 738354. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Buxar has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 77% and female literacy of 59%. 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. History

In addition to mythological references of Buxar modern historical record are limited to two battles. The earliest of the two was fought between the Mughal dynastic descendant Humayun and Sher Shah Suri at Chousa in 1539 A.D. The battle was won by Sher Shah Suri who is acclaimed for his visionary contribution the Grand Trunk Road project. Later in 1764 Battle of Buxar was fought (see below). In Hindu religious literature, Buxar is believed to be referenced as "Siddhashram", "Vedgarbhapuri", "Karush", "Tapovan", "Chaitrath", "VyaghraSar". Some claim that the history of Buxar dates back even prior to the period of Ramayana. The etymology of word Buxar is Vyaghra + Sar; Sanskrit words that mean, Tiger and Pond respectively. Presumable suggestive of a pond or lake which was visited by tigers of the region. This is the most accepted origin of the name of the town. Another story relates the name to tiger face of Rishi Vedshira, an outcome of the curse of the sage Rishi Durvasha, was restored after bathing in a holy tank which was later named as VyaghraSar. Battle of Buxar (October 1764) Main article: Battle of Buxar Mir Kasim (reign:1760 to 1763), made an attempt to recover Bengal from the hands of British. In 1764, he enlisted the support of Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II and Nawab Shuja Ud Daulah of Oudh (Awadh). On October 23, 1764, Mir Kasim with his army was defeated at the Battle of Buxar by the British Major Hector Monro who led a contingent of 857 European soldiers and 6213 sepoys. The battle ground (Katkauli) is situated at about 6 kilometers from downtown Buxar. The stone memorial erected by Britishers at Katkauli bears testament to the fight even today. A circumstancial account of this battle is provided by Percival Spear. It was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined armies of Mir Kasim, the Nawab of Bengal ; Nawab of Awadh; and Shah Alam II, the Mughal Emperor. This victory paved the way for British Empire in India. The battle resulted into securing of Diwani rights to administer the collection and management of revenues of large areas which currently form parts of Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Uttar Pradesh , as well as of Bangladesh. The Battle of Buxar heralded the establishment of the rule of the East India Company in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent. the Mythology According to mythology, sage Vishwamitra the family guru of Lord Rama and eighty thousand saints, had their sacred ashram at the banks of holy river Ganges that reside inside the modern District Buxar. He was disturbed in the yagna (sacrificial offering) by the demons. The place where due killing of the famous Rakshasi (demoness) Tadika by Lord Rama, is said to fall within the present Buxar town area. Besides, Lord Rama and his younger brother Laxman took their teachings at Buxar. It is also said that Ahilya, the wife of Gautam Rishi restored her human body from that of stone and got salvation by a mere

touch of the feet of Lord Rama. This place is presently known as Ahirauli and is situated six kilometers away from the Buxar town. The Kanwaldah Pokhara also known as VyaghraSar is a tourist spot nowadays. Ancient Significance of Buxar is mentioned in ancient epics like Brahamana Purana and Varah Purana. According to Ramayana, sage Vishwamitra the family guru of Lord Rama and eighty thousand saints, had their sacred ashram at the banks of holy river Ganges that reside inside the modern District Buxar. He was disturbed in the yagna (sacrificial offering) by the demons. The place where due killing of the famous Rakshasi (demoness) named Tadika by Lord Rama, is said to fall within the present Buxar town area. Besides, Lord Rama and his younger brother Laxman took their teachings at Buxar. It is also said that Ahilya, the wife of Gautam Rishi restored her human body from that of stone and got salvation by a mere touch of the feet of Lord Rama. This place is presently known as Ahirauli and is situated six kilometers away from the Buxar town. The Kanwaldah Pokhara also known as VyaghraSar is a tourist spot nowadays. Beliefs of Historical Context Buxar is famous since the epic period for being the seats of eminent saints, battlefield of Gods and Demons as per Puranas and a combat zone between foreign invasion and countrymen in modern history. The remains from archaeological excavations have established the link of Buxar with ancient civilisations of Mohanjodaro and Harappa. This place was also known as "Siddhashram", "Vedgarbhapuri", "Karush", "Tapovan", "Chaitrath", "VyaghraSar", "Buxar" in ancient history. The History of Buxar dates back even prior to the period of Ramayana. ramrekha ghat Geography Stretching over an area of 1,62,380 hectares. Buxar lies on the border with the neighboring state of Uttar Pradesh. River Ganges (Ganga) forms the border in north and in the west river Karmanasa. The entire strip of land between the river Ganges and stretches in south beyond main line of the Eastern Railways. The land form is low lying alluvial plane of river Ganges and her tributaries- Thora and Karmanasa. The river Karmansa joins the Ganges near Chousa. The region is considered to be the best wheat growing area in the State and India. CLIMATIC CONDITION The climate of the district is moderate. The hot weather begins from the middle of March when hot westerly winds begin to blow during the day. The months of April and May are extremely hot, normally the monsoon sets in by the third week of June and continues with intermission till the end of September. The cold weather begins from the months of November and lasts till the beginning of March, January is the coldest month when the temperature comes down as low as 10 C. From the month of April, till the break of monsoon, the district experiences occasional thunder storms also. RAINFALL

Rain sets sometimes in June accompanied by fall in temperature and increase in humidity. The district experiences maximum rain during the months of July and August. There is slight rainfall in October but November and December are quite dry. FORESTS Due to deforestation, the forest area of this district is very thin. Some common trees of this district are Mango, Seasum, Mahua, Bamboo and some types of long grasses (Jhalas) are found near diara area of the river Ganges. Jhalas grass is mostly used in roat making of kuccha houses. The forest of the district are not rich in their products. Fire wood is the most important among its products. The district had variety of wild animals and game birds when the forest were thick. With the increase in irrigation facilities, the area under cultivation has grown, consequently diminishing the forest. The wild animals have suffered in the process and their number has gone down very considerably. Neelgain, spotted deer are found in the Plains and near the Ganges bank. A considerable number of monkeys are also found in the Buxar Town area. Birds of different types like Parrot, Patridges, Quails are also found in the district. IRRIGATION FACILITIES The river Sone and Ganges are the perennial source of surface water. They provide irrigation to major portion of agricultural land. In old days the people used to maintain hars and pynes which served the purpose of both irrigation and drainage. The district Gazetteer of Shahabad (1966) mention as follows: The agricultural prosperity of the district depends on artificial irrigation without which may tracts would be uncultivated and the land would be unable to grow sufficient food crops to sustain its population. The three great sources of irrigation were artificial reservoirs, wells and Sone Canal, all of which helped to supplement the natural supply of water and to compensate for its inadequacy or untimely distribution. Ahars are artificial reservoirs meant to collect the rain water. These long shallow tanks where protected by small embankments and served as artificial catchment basin for receiving the water coming down from the adjacent lands. From the ahars, water channels (pines) are connected. The swoons of artificial irrigation mentioned so far however are of minor importance as compared to the Sone Canal system which has been the most important source of irrigation in the district. LAND use PATTERNS In this district both the irrigated and non-irrigated areas are being exploited for cultivation purpose. Even some of the large ponds (Jhils) like one at Dumraon which was a duck shooting area have been put to use for cultivation purpose. Rice, wheat, grams and pluses are the main crops of the district: in some areas near, old Bhojpur vegetables are abundantly grown. These crops and vegetables are transported to other districts. The straw is used as fodder and for rooting the houses. INDUSTRIALISATION

There are however different types of small scale and cottage industries located in this district of Buxar, the details of which have been given below:: 1. Soap Industry: It is mainly concentrated in Buxar and Dumraon. 2. Timber and Furniture works: It is located at Buxar and Dumraon. 3. Leather Industry: There are individual leather workers all over the district. There is a concentration of them at Khilafatpur village in Buxar Sadar Sub-division who are engaged in shoe making. LIVE STOCK The district of Buxar has large majority of the people engaged in agricultural pursuits and deriving their livelihood from agricultural pursuits. The possession of livestock generally adds to the social status of the farmer. The quality of the live stock has improved because of serious efforts by the Government and the response of the farmers. Since the district has quite a large population of prosperous agriculturists mostly due to the suitability of facilities of canal irrigation the farmers of the canal irrigated area have considerably cattle wealth. Agricultural census conducted taken in 1991 shows the cattle wealth of the district as: Cow184325, Sheep-15430, Horse-3341, Camel-15, Buffalo-114112, Goat-82186, Mula-240, Ass1646, Pig-13235, Poultry-70305. COMMUNICATIONS The district has been fairly rich in road communication for a long time. Francis Buchhunan has mentioned in Buxar Journal that there are some very good roads in the district. He travelled by a very good road with brick bridges from Koilwar to Buxar. He also mentioned a few other good roads viz. the great road to Buxar, the Varanasi road to Sasaram and the great road to Dumraon-Patna-Arrah-Buxar road, Behiya-Piro road, Dumraon-Nasriganj road, Sasaram-Bikramganj-Arrah road as also worth mentioning. Buxar, the district headquarters is on the main line of the Eastern Railways. The Ganges is navigable all the year round and goods are transported to Kolkatta on the east and places in Uttar Pradesh on the west through the rivers. TRADE AND COMMERCE The important wholesale markets in the district are at Buxar and Dumraon. The main commodities exported from Buxar Railway Station are rice, paddy, gur, mango, and the main imports are engineering goods, medicine etc. Buxar is a district town and an important trade centre. It is also served by railways, roadways and waterways. It is located on the bank of river Ganges and the main trade of the town is grain, vegetables, fish and manufactured goods of jail industry (Central Jail, Buxar manufactures, carpets etc.). There are also a number of mandies and important marketing centres located at Arrah and Buxar. Panchkoshi Parikrama

This is a religious area. Many people once in a year take a round of this religious area called panchkoshi parikrama. They perform it in five days by halting in night in five villages surrounding Buxar. During the visit they cook their own food called litti-bhanta. This is a vegetarian dish which is famous in Bihar, Litti is ball like structure made of wheat powder by filling the black gram roasted powder mixed with salt and spices called sattu. Bhanta (Round Brinjal) roasted in the fire of dung along with potato and tomato finally all are smashed after removing its peel and served with litti which is also roasted in the same fire. Agriculture Agriculture is the main occupation of the majority of the people of this district. One major canal passing through this district has been the source of irrigation for the farmers along with its subsidiary channels. However, over time it has not been receiving the due care and maintenance that it needs and hence, it has become a less reliable source of irrigation, particularly, at the lower end of it. The farmers are engaged in growing rice, wheat, sugarcane, potato, jowar, bajra, maize, sunflower and all varieties of green vegetables. The district is abundant with mango trees. The district has various banks which provide loans to farmers.I like it Buxar is famous since the epic period for being the seats of eminent saints, battlefield of Gods and Demons as per Puranas and a combat zone between foreign invasion and countrymen in modern history. Ancient Significance of Buxar is mentioned in ancient epics like Brahamana Purana and Varah Purana: Dumraon Dumraon (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a municipality in Buxar district in the state of Bihar, India. Ustad Bismillah Khan, the shehnai maestro from India was born on 21 March 1916 at Bhirung Raut Ki Gali here. Contents * 1 Introduction * 2 History * 3 Geography * 4 Demographics * 5 Colleges * 6 Government High school * 7 Railways * 8 References Introduction Dumraon is an old town (one of the oldest in the municipality of Bihar) in Buxar district in Bihar (pin no. 802119). It is also one of the oldest princely states of India. It is famous for its mats and 'Dari'. Bihariji Ka Mandir , Dumrejani mai ka Mandir & Kaliji Ka Mandir are some

very beautiful tourist and religious destinations. Ariaon, Mathila, Bagen are some of the villages in the region of Dumraon. History Horil shah was the founder of this big town, and so it was earlier known as Horilnagar.Horilshah was the first ruler of this town,who was a descendant of "Raja Bhoj Of Dhar" and came from Ujjain .Dumraon Was a princely state till the British invoked in and then The Maharaja Of Dumraon signed an agreement with British and The Riyasat of Dumraon came under the rule of British.In 1947 after the independence of India the Privy purse issued to the Maharaja of Dumraon and Dumraon became a part of the independent IndiaDumraon also played a significant role in war of freedom, (kapilmuni, Harihar prasad gupta where the few freedom fighter), Dumraon has one of the Oldest municipality of Bihar built my then the Maharaja of Dumraon. The great shehnai mastero Bismillah Khan belonged to this town. Geography Dumraon is located at 2533N 8409E / 25.55N 84.15E / 25.55; 84.15.[1] It has an average elevation of 61 metres (200 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Dumraon had a population of 45,796. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Dumraon has an average literacy rate of 54%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 64% and, female literacy is 43%. In Dumraon, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Colleges * D.K. college, Dumraon * S.M. Women's college, Dumraon * Inter college, Dumraon * C.P.S.S. Inter Collage, Dumraon Government High school * Raj High School, Dumraon * M.U.High school, Dumraon * C.P.S.S High School, Dumraon * M.C. High School, Dumraon * Maharani usha rani High School, Dumraon * G.H. Urdu High School. Dumraon Railways Dumraon Railway Station is located in between Ara and Buxar Railway Station ( it is situated on the Delhi- Howarh via Patna main line). DURE is the station code for Dumraon Railway station. Raghunathpur

Raghunathpur (Hindi:

, Urdu:

) is a census town in Buxar District in

the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 References * 4 See also Geography Raghunathpur is located at 2520N 8411E / 25.33N 84.19E / 25.33; 84.19.[1] It has an average elevation of 58 metres (190 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Raghunathpur had a population of 5601. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Raghunathpur has an average literacy rate of 53%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 62%, and female literacy is 42%. In Raghunathpur, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kaimur district Kaimur district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. The district headquarters are located at Bhabua. The district occupies an area of 3363 km and has a population of 1,284,575 (as of 2001[update]). A considerable hilly, forested area, currently infested by bandits. Kaimur district is a part of Patna division. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Statistics * 4 Demographics * 5 Economy * 6 Transportation o 6.1 Train o 6.2 Road * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links History Kaimur district was established in 1991. It was sectioned off from the Rohtas district. The earliest evidence of human habitation in the district consists of rock paintings in the Lehda forest that date to around 20,000 years ago. Geography

The Kaimur Range and Rohtas Plateau cover the southern part of this district. The Karmnasha and Durgawati rivers run through the district. A large forest covers part of Kaimur; it measures 1,06,300 hectares and contains the Kaimur Wildlife Forest Sanctuary which is home to tigers, leopards and chinkaras. Statistics Headquarters: Bhabua Area:Total 340441 hectare Population: Total: Sub Divisions: Mohania, Bhabua Blocks: Bhabua, Ramgarh, Mohania, Durgawati, Adhaura, Bhagwanpur, Chand, Chainpur, Kudra, Rampur, Nuawon Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Potato, Lentils, and more Temperature: minimum 0.8 (2002 AD) degree C - maximum 49.8 (1996) degree C Industry: Dalda mills Rivers: Durgawati River, Karmanasa River, Kudra river. Demographics The total population of the district is 12,84,575 with a rural population of 12,43,068 persons and an urban population of 41,507. 6,73,556 residents are male and 6,11,019 are female. There are 907 females for every 1000 males. 34.41% of the population is working; 381298 males (71%) and 188962 females (39%).[2] Economy Agriculture the is the main component of the economy in the district. Rice, wheat, telhan, dalhan and maize are the main crops. Industries located in the district include Vanaspati Oil Ltd. and the Power Grid Corporation of India's high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid station at Pusauli. Transportation Train The district has only a major station at Mohania, mostally known as "Bhabua Road" on the Howrah-New Delhi Grand Card in Mughalsarai region. The statiion code is "BBU" The main trains are * Purushottam Express, * Mahabodhi Exp(2397), * Poorva(Hawra delux) Exp, * Kalka Mail, * Jharkhand Exp, * Neelanchal Exp, * Mumbai Mail, * Doon Exp,

* Chamble Exp, * Shipra Exp, * Sealdah Exp, * BudhPurnima Exp, * Asansol-Ahmedabad Exp, * Dikshabhumi Exp, * Jodhpur Exp, * Garib Nawaj Exp, * Ranchi Varanasi Exp * Ranchi Garib Rath Exp * Jharkhand swarana jayanti Exp * Gaya Chennai Exp * Ludhiyana Dhanbad Exp There is an proposed railway line which will connect from Arrah to Mundeshwari via ramgarh - Mohania - Bhabua The town is 180 km from Patna and 60 km from Varanasi by road. Other stations are Kudra, Durgawati, Pusauli Road National Highway 2 (G.T. Road) crosses through the heart of the city. National Highway 30 originates from this city and connect with the capital Patna via Arrah. Apart from these, there are also a few State Highways in the city. Mohania is connected to Bauxar via Ramgarh from the south and with Bhabua (district capital, Audhaura, Bhagwanpur) from the south. Mohania Sub-division is situated on Gaya-Mughalsarai Section of Grand Chord Railway line; the railway station is called Bhabua Road. The district headquarter is located at a distance of 14 km southward from the railway station or the G.T. Road that is Bhabua. The famous temple mundeshawari devi is situated in kaimur district.The route for this temple goes through the mohania.If someone wants to go to this temple then he should arrive at Bhabua road station first then he may take the bus to go to mundeshawari devi temple. The nearest Airport is at Varanasi. Bhabua Bhabua (Hindi: , Urdu: )is a city and a municipality in Kaimur district in the state of Bihar, India. It is the headquarters of Kaimur district in the state of Bihar, in India. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Transport * 4 Education

* 5 Ekta Chowk * 6 References Geography Bhabua is located at 2503N 8337E / 25.05N 83.62E / 25.05; 83.62.[1] It has an average elevation of 76 metres (249 feet). Bhabua is divided into 26 wards. Here is the Hanuman mandir which is just like Patna hanuman mandir. The Collectriate of Bhabua is one of best official building in Bihar. Here is a beautiful stadium which name is Jagjivan Stadium near Sadar Block. In the west, there is a river called Suwara. Mundesvari Temple which is the ancient temple of Bihar is situated on the Pawara hill is 10 km from Bhabua town. It is a very good place to see the nature. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Bhabua had a population of 41,507.At present 1,00,000 (approx)population of Bhabua city. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Bhabua has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 61% of the males and 39% of females literate. 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Mother Tongue of almost all the people in Bhabua is Bhojpuri. Transport Bhabua Road is the nearest Railway Station on the Howrah-New Delhi Grand Chord, which is hardly 14 km from Bhabua town. The main trains are Purushottam Express, Mahabodhi Exp, Poorva Exp,Kalka Mail, Mumbai Mail, Doon Exp, Chamble Exp, Shipra Exp, Sealdah Exp, BudhPurnima Exp, Asansol-Ahmedabad Exp, Dikshabhumi Exp, Jodhpur Exp, Garib Nawaj Exp, Ranchi Varanasi Exp, Jharkhand Exepress etc. The town is 195 km from Patna and 84 km from Varanasi by road. NH 2 (G.T. Road) crosses through the center of the district from Karmanasha to Kudra for about 50 km. NH 30 originates from it near Mohania and connects this district with the capital Patna via Arah. Apart from these, there are also a few State Highways in the district. Mohania Sub-division is situated on Gaya-Mughalsarai Section of Grand Chord Railway line; the railway station is called Bhabua Road. The district headquarter is located at a distance of 14 km southward from the railway station or the G.T. Road. Education College: * Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel College ( Founded in 1956 by Babu Guptanath singh,Member Constituent Assembly of India,Freedom Fighter, MLA) * Bhupesh Gupt College, * Shahid Sanjay Singh Mahila College, * Patel Degree Mahila College. Schools:

* Adarsh Gaurav public school. * st.joseph's school * Town High School(+2), * GEMS English School. * Atal Bihari Singh High School. * S.S Girls High school, * Maa Rajeshwari Girl Inter Collage, * Udasi Devi High School. * Gaurav Public School. * R.P.S. Public School. * Tagore Academy. * DAV Public School Ratwar. * Rose Bud School. * Mother Shakuntala Public School. * St. Xavier's School. * Bal Bharti School. Ekta Chowk It is the main chowk and market of bhabua.Here we find a statue of Mahatma Gandhi. Ekta chowk is the main market place of bhabua,its also called the heart of it. Kudra Kudra (Hindi: , Urdu: )is a city in Kaimur district in the state of Bihar, India. It is the third largest city of Kaimur[1] district.Earlier its name was Jehanabad. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Transport * 4 Education * 5 References Geography Kudra is located at 2503N 8337E / 25.05N 83.62E / 25.05; 83.62.[2] It has an average elevation of 76 metres (249 feet). Kudra is divided in 193 wards.[3] There is a famous ancient Kali mandir at Sakri and a beautiful stadium(Nishan Singh Stadium)near High School Jehanabad.Ramlila Maidan is near Kankali Mandir where all cultural activities are carried on. Bihar Rajya Bij Nigam Ltd.[4] is Asia's largest seed storage house.[5] This also known as Industrial city of Kaimur because here 12 big rice mills and 300 mini rice mills(automatic) operates at Lalapur , Sakri and Kudra. In the south, there is a river called

Durgawati consisting of Nauchandi & Pathla ghat.There are 8 panchyats and 75 villages in kudra Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[6] Kudra had a population of 19,507. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Kudra has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 61% of the males and 39% of females literate. 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Mother Toungue of almost all the people in Kudra is Bhojpuri.The main occupation of most of the people is agriculture.[7] The famous bhojpuri singer is Anuradha (Krishna) Rastogi.She was also the first Zila Parishad of Kudra Bhag-2.She is currently district chairwoman of Kaimur(JDU).[8][9] Surendra Krishna Rastogi is a famous philatelist and numismatic.[10] Transport Kudra is the Railway Station on the Howrah-New Delhi Grand Card. The main trains are Mahabodhi Exp, Doon Exp, Ganga-Satlaj Exp,Sealdah Exp, Budh Purnima Exp, Garib Nawaj Exp, Ranchi Varanasi Inter-city etc. The town is 180 km from Patna and 84 km from Varanasi by road. NH 2 (Grand Trunk Road) crosses through heart of city. NH 30 originates from Mohania and connect this city with the capital Patna via Arrah. Kudra is situated on Gaya-Mughalsarai Section of Grand Chord Railway line; the railway station is called Kudra. The district headquarter is located at a distance of 18 km westward from the railway station or the G.T. Road Education College: Jagdeo Memorial College[11] Mahila College Schools: High School Jehanabad Success Centre (G.T.Road, kudra) Middle School, KKS St. Joseph school St. School School(Ramlila Maidan) SBM Public School Sakri,Kudra) Mohania Mohania (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city in Kaimur district in the state of Bihar, India. It is the sub-division of Kaimur district. Contents * 1 Geography

* 2 History * 3 Demographics * 4 Transportation o 4.1 Train o 4.2 Road * 5 Banks * 6 Hotels * 7 Worship Place * 8 Show Room o 8.1 Bike o 8.2 Tractor o 8.3 Tv * 9 Mobile Network Providers * 10 Education o 10.1 Colleges o 10.2 Schools * 11 Others Famous place * 12 Occupation * 13 References Geography Mohania is located at 2502N 8342E / 25.04N 83.70E / 25.04; 83.70.[1] It has an average elevation of 76 metres (249 feet). Mohania is divided into wards. Here is the ancient famous Satti Devi mandir near railway station, White Hanuman mandir. Hanuman mandir is the biggest temple at station road. Here is a beautiful stadium near M.P. College. In the south, there is a river called Durgauti. Mohania is the hub of transport routes in Kaimur district. History Mohania was a small city but till now Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Mohania had a population of 30,507. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Mohania has an average literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with 91% of the males and 59% of females literate. 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. The mother tongue of almost all the people in Mohania is Bhojpuri. Transportation Train Mohania railway station is mostally known as "Bhabua Road" on the Howrah-New Delhi Grand Card in Mughalsarai region. The statiion code is "BBU"

Train Number Train Name Origin Destination Frequency (inbound/outbound) 2801/02 Purushottam Express New Delhi Puri Daily 2397/98 Mahabodhi Express New Delhi Gaya Daily 2311/12 Kalka Mail Kalka Hawrah Daily 2381/82 Poorva Exp New Delhi Hawrah JN 3 days 2818/17 Jharkhand Express New Delhi Hatia 3 days 3009/10 Doon Exp Dehradoon Hawrah JN Daily 3151/52 Sealdah Exp Jammu Tawi Kolkata Daily 2875/76 Neelanchal Exp New Delhi Puri 3 days 5109/10 BudhPurnima Exp Varanasi Jn Rajgir 3 days 2143/44 Dikshabhumi Exp Gaya Nagpur Weekly 9305/06 Dikshabhumi Exp Indore Jn Hawrah 2175/76 Chambal exp Hawrah Gwalior 2177/78 Chambal exp Hawrah Agra ct The Other main trains are * Mumbai Mail, * Asansol-Ahmedabad Exp, * Jodhpur Exp, * Garib Nawaj Exp, * Ranchi Varanasi Exp * Ranchi Garib Rath Exp * Jharkhand swarana jayanti Exp * Gaya Chennai Exp * Ludhiyana Dhanbad Exp There is an proposed railway line which will connect from Arrah to Mundeshwari via ramgarh - Mohania - Bhabua The town is 180 km from Patna and 60 km from Varanasi by road. Road National Highway 2 (G.T. Road) crosses through the heart of the city. National Highway 30 originates from this city and connect with the capital Patna via Arrah. Apart from these, there are also a few State Highways in the city. Mohania is connected to Bauxar via Ramgarh from the south and with Bhabua (district capital, Audhaura, Bhagwanpur) from the south. Mohania Sub-division is situated on Gaya-Mughalsarai Section of Grand Chord Railway line; the railway station is called Bhabua Road. The district headquarter is located at a distance of 14 km southward from the railway station or the G.T. Road that is Bhabua. Village of Manoj Tiwari A very popular Bhojpuri actor, singer is atarwalia. It is also 4 km from Mohania on NH 30 to Patna.

The famous temple mundeshawari devi is situated in kaimur district.The route for this temple goes through the mohania.If someone wants to go to this temple then he should arrive at Bhabua road station first then he may take the bus to go to mundeshawari devi temple. The nearest Airport is at Varanasi. Banks * State Bank of India, Samiti Bazar, Mohania * Punjab National Bank, opp Kaimur Hotel, GT Road Mohania, * Union Bank of India, Ramgarh Road, Mohania * Oriental Bank, Ramgarh Road,Mohania * Bank of India, near Sahid baba, GT Road, Mohania * Bank of Baroda, Station road, Mohania * Madhya Bihar Grameen Bank (Bhojpur rohtas Gramin), Ramgarh Road, Mohania * Bhabua Sasram Bank, Station road, Mohania Hotels * Hotel Kaimur Bihar (Bihar Tourism) (A.C. Occupancy), GT Road, Mohania * Hotel Kamta sigasan, GT Road, Mohania * Rameshwaram Hotel, Station Road, Mohania Worship Place * Mahawir swet Mandir (Hanuman), Chandani Chowk, Mohania * Mahawir swet Mandir (Hanuman), Station Road, Mohania * Sati Mandir, Station Road, Mohania * Sahid Baba, near NH 30, GT road, Mohania * Mosque -1, Sabji Madi, Mohania * Mosque -2, Sabji Madi Railway crossing, Mohania Show Room Bike * Hero Honda Bike, Station Road, Mohania * Bajaj 1, 2, Station Road, Mohania * TVS, Chandani Chowk, Mohania * Sujuki, Chandani Chowk, Mohania * Kinitik, GT road, Mohania * Rajdoot, GT road, rajesh Tractor * Fargusson, GT road, Mohania * Taffe, GT road, Mohania * Swaraj, GT road, Mohania * Eicher, GT road, Mohania * Mahindra, opp Kaimur Hotel, GT road, Mohania

* Balwan, GT road, Mohania Tv * LG, Station Road, Mohania * Videocon, Station Road, Mohania Mobile Network Providers * BSNL (Telephone Exchange,with landline) * Tata Docomo * Airtel * Aircel * Reliance * Reliance-Smart * Tata Indicom * Idea * Vodafone * Virgin Mobile Education Colleges * Maharana Pratap College * Mahila College, Darwa Schools * Navodaya Vidyalyaya (Govt.), Darwa, Mohania (now in Chaurasia on Ram garh Road) * Sharda Brajraj High School (Govt.), Station Road, Mohania * Santi Balika High school (for Girls) (Govt.), Station Road, Mohania * R.B.S. School, Durga paraw, Mohania * D.A.V.School (Mohania lkg to 5 standard) GT Road NH 2, Mohania * D.A.V.School (Ratwar, Mohania 5 to 12 standard) * Mother Sakuntala School, GT Road NH 2, Mohania * Navdeep Academy, Darwa, Mohania * Adarsh School, Darwa, Mohania * S.P.P.S. School, Station Road, Mohania * T.P.S. School, Mohania * Point Education, Ramgarh road railway crossing, Mohania * Bal Bharati school, * A.K.I. vidyalaya-Primary public school * Urdu School, Sabji Mandi, Mohania * Urdu School, Railway crossing, Sabji Mandi, Mohania * Sanskrit School (Govt.), Court Road (Baouli pond, kachahari) * Khushi Kids Play School, G. T. Road, Mohania, Kaimur Others Famous place

* Chitragupt Colony ( Pashim Muhalla ) * Rameshwaram Cinema Hall * Samiti Bazar * Durga Paraw * jagJeevan Maidan * petrol Pumps - 1, 2, 3 * Civil Court (kachari) * Polish Station * Power grid (320000kv) * Chandani chowk * Durgawati river * Railway station (Bhabua road) * N.H. 2 * N.H. 30 * Post office - 2 * Sub Division office * Bus Stand * Idgah * Red cross & HIV center * Blood Bank * Mudeshwari Gate * Maharana pratap playground * samudaik bhavan akhori Occupation The economy is dependent on agriculture, main occupation of the people here is Farming. The two crops which are cultivated here are Paddy and wheat. Patna district Patna district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, with Patna as the district headquarters. Patna district is a part of Patna division. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Economy * 4 References Geography It has an area of 3202 km. Sub Divisions: (6 Nos) : Patna Sadar, Patna City, Barh, DanaPur, Masaurhi, Paliganj. Blocks: Patna Sadar, Phulwari sharif, Sampatchak, Fatuha, Khusrupur, Daniyawaan, Barh,

Bakhtiarpur, Belchi, Athmalgola, Mokama, Pandarak, Ghoswari, Bihta, Maner, Danapur, Naubatpur, Masaurhi, Dhanarua, Punpun. Demographics Its Population is Total: 3,623,225 Rural: 2,241,510 Urban: 1,119,800. Economy Agricultural products include: Paddy, Maize, Pulses and Wheat. Also oil seeds. Roughly one third of the area sown is under rice (paddy). Cash crops such as vegetables and watermelons are also grown in Diara belt. Major industries include leather, handicrafts, and agro processing. Patna Pan About this sound pronunciation (helpinfo) (Hindi: , Bengali: , Urdu: ) is the capital of the Indian state of Bihar and the second largest city in eastern India after Kolkata.Patna is the 5th-fastest growing city in India and 21st fastest growing city in world.[3] Patna is also one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world.[4] Ancient Patna, known as Pataliputra, was the capital of the Magadha Empire under the Haryanka, Nanda, Mauryan, Sunga, Gupta, Pala and Suri dynasties. Pataliputra was also a famous seat of learning and fine arts. Its population during the Maurya period (around 300 BCE) was about 400,000.[5] The walled old area, called Patna City by the locals, is a major trading centre. The modern city of Patna is situated on the southern bank of the Ganga. The city also straddles the rivers Sone, Gandak and Punpun. The city is approximately 25 km long and 9 km to 10 km wide. In June 2009,The World Bank ranked Patna as the second-best city in India to start a business, after Delhi.[6] The economy of Patna is based on the local service industry. Patna has the highest per capita gross district domestic product in Bihar: Rs 31,441 and has almost equivalent per capita when compared to other metropolitan areas in India[7] List of most populous metropolitan areas in India.[8] The Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain pilgrim centres of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodhgaya, and Pawapuri are nearby and Patna is also a sacred city for Sikhs. The Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, was born here. Contents * 1 History o 1.1 Origin of name o 1.2 Vedic Era o 1.3 Medieval Era

o 1.4 Mauryan Empire o 1.5 Gupta and Mughal Empire o 1.6 British Empire o 1.7 Indian Independence Movement * 2 Geography o 2.1 Topography o 2.2 Climate * 3 Economy * 4 Demographics * 5 Culture o 5.1 Cuisine * 6 Utilities o 6.1 Hotels and Restaurants o 6.2 Movie Theaters * 7 Transportation and Connectivity o 7.1 Rail Network o 7.2 Air Network o 7.3 Road Network o 7.4 Water Network * 8 Places of interest * 9 Education * 10 Sports * 11 Famous current and past residents * 12 Major Amenities o 12.1 Major public open spaces o 12.2 Schools o 12.3 Universities and Colleges o 12.4 Religious sites o 12.5 Nearest railway stations * 13 Gallery * 14 Further reading * 15 References * 16 External links History Main article: History of Patna Origin of name Aerial View of Patna Main article: Names of Patna

There are several theories regarding the source of the appellation Patna (Devanagari: ): * It is etymologically derived from Patan (Devanagari: goddess, Patan Devi.[9] * It comes from Pattan (Devanagari: ) (meaning "port" in Sanskrit), since the city, ), one of the most ancient located near the confluence of four rivers, has been a thriving river port. * It may be a short form of Pataliputra (Devanagari: names of this city. * The Greeks called it Palibothra. Megasthenes (350-290 BCE), the Greek historian, referred to it in Greek as Palibothra or Palimbotra[10] in his writings during the 4th century BCE. * The place appears in the records of the Chinese traveller, Fa Hien, as Pa-lin-fou.[11] * The city has been known by various names during its more than 2,000 years of existence Patligram, Patliputra, Kusumpur, Pushpapura, Azimabad, and the present-day Patna.[12] * Patna received its current name during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, whose tomb is at Sasaram, a place near Patna. View of the Ganga from Patna Legend ascribes the origin of Patna to a mythological King Putraka who created Patna by magic for his queen Patali, literally "trumpet flower", which gives it its ancient name Pataligrama. It is said that in honour of the queen's first-born, the city was named Pataliputra. Gram is Sanskrit for village and Putra means son. Legend also says that the Emerald Buddha was created in Patna (then Pataliputra) by Nagasena in 43 BC.[13] Vedic Era Historians widely believe that the history of Patna spans at least three millennium. In the ancient history of Patna, the city was known by its name Pataliputra and also finds mention in the ancient Indian texts like the Vedas and the Puranas, or the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The first references to the ancient region of Patna are observed about 2500 years ago in Jain and Buddhist scriptures.[14] Medieval Era From a scientific perspective, it would be appropriate to surmise that Patna came into limelight around the year 490 BCE when Ajatashatru, the king of Magadha, wanted to shift his capital from the hilly Rajagaha to a more strategically located place to combat the Licchavis of Vaishali. He chose the site on the bank of the Ganga and fortified the area. From that time, the city has had a continuous history, a record claimed by few cities in the world. When founded, it was known as "Pataligrama" and in later years it was "Pataliputra" which is today's Patna. Gautama Buddha passed through this place in the last year of his ), the name of the Hindu

life. He prophesied a great future for this place, but at the same time, he predicted its ruin from flood, fire, and feud. It is said that Buddha made a halt here when he was on the last journey to his native land of Kapilavastu. Mauryan Empire With the rise of the Mauryan empire, the place became the seat of power and nerve centre of the sub-continent. From Pataliputra, the famed emperor Chandragupta Maurya (a contemporary of Alexander) ruled a vast empire, stretching from the Bay of Bengal to Afghanistan. Early Mauryan Pataliputra was mostly built with wooden structures. Emperor Ashoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, transformed the wooden capital into a stone construction around 273 BCE. Chinese scholar Fa Hein, who visited India sometime around 399-414 CE, has given a vivid description of the stone structures in his travelogue. Megasthenes (350-290 BCE), a Greek historian and ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya, gives the first written account of Pataliputra. In his book Indika, he mentions that the city of Palibothra (Pataliputra, modern day Patna) was situated on the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Arennovoas (Sonabhadra - Hiranyawah) and was 9 miles (14 km) long and 1.75 miles (2.82 km) wide.[10][15] Michael Wood, in The Story of India (2007), describes this city as the greatest city on earth during its heyday.[16] During this time, a number of Chinese travellers came to India in pursuit of knowledge and recorded their observation about Pataliputra in their travelogues, including those of a Chinese Buddhist Fa Hien, who visited India between 399 and 414 CE, and stayed here for many months translating Buddhist texts.[17] Pataliputra in 600 B.C. Capital of Maurya Empire Capital of Nanda Empire Capital of Sunga Empire Capital of Gupta Empire Gupta and Mughal Empire In the years that followed, the city saw many dynasties ruling the Indian subcontinent from here. It saw the rules of the Gupta empire and the Pala kings. However, it never reached the glory that it had under the Mauryas.With the disintegration of the Gupta empire, Patna passed through uncertain times. Bakhtiar Khilji captured Bihar in the 12th century AD and destroyed many ancient seats of learning, and Patna lost its prestige as the political and cultural center of India. Guru Gobind Singh (Punjabi: ) (December 22, 1666 October 7, 1708), the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, was born as Gobind Rai in Patna to Teg Bahadur, the ninth Guru of the Sikhs, and his wife Gujri. His birthplace, Harmandir saheb, is one of the most sacred pilgrimages for Sikhs.

The Mughal period was a period of unremarkable provincial administration from Delhi. The most remarkable period during these times was under Sher Shah Suri, who revived Patna in the middle of the 16th century. He built a fort and founded a town on the banks of the Ganga. Sher Shah's fort in Patna does not survive, but the mosque, Sher Shah Suri Masjid, built in Afghan architectural style, survives.Mughal emperor Akbar came to Patna in 1574 to crush the Afghan Chief Daud Khan. Akbar's navratna and state's official historian and author of "Ain-i-Akbari" Abul Fazl refers to Patna as a flourishing centre for paper, stone and glass industries. He also refers to the high quality of numerous strains of rice grown in Patna, famous as Patna rice in Europe. By 1620 the city of Patna was the great entrepot of Northern India - "the largest town in Bengal and the most famous for trade".[18] This was before the founding of the city of Calcutta. Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb acceded to the request of his favourite grandson, Prince Muhammad Azim, to rename Patna as Azimabad, in 1704 while Azim was in Patna as the subedar. However, very little changed during this period other than the name.With the decline of the Mughal empire, Patna moved into the hands of the Nawabs of Bengal, who levied a heavy tax on the populace but allowed it to flourish as a commercial centre. City of Patna, on the River Ganga, 19th century painting. The mansions of the Maharaja of Tekari Raj dominated the Patna riverfront in 1811-12.[19] British Empire During the 17th century, Patna became a centre of international trade. The British started with a factory in Patna in 1620 for trading in calico and silk. Soon it became a trading centre for saltpetre, urging other EuropeansFrench, Danes, Dutch and Portugueseto compete in the lucrative business. Peter Mundy, writing in 1632, described Patna as "the greatest mart of the eastern region".]]After the decisive Battle of Buxar (1765), Patna fell into the hands of the East India Company, which installed a puppet government. It was ruled during the Raj by a series of ineffectual Viceroys, of whom the best-known was Rahul Gunderjaharagand. During this period it continued as a trading centre. In 1912, Patna became the capital of Orissa Province and Bihr when Bengal Presidency was partitioned. It soon emerged as an important and strategic centre. A number of imposing structures were constructed by the British. Credit for designing the massive and majestic buildings of colonial Patna goes to the architect, I. F. Munnings. Most of these buildings reflect either Indo-Saracenic influence (like Patna Museum and the state Assembly), or overt Renaissance influence like the Raj Bhawan and the High Court. Some buildings, like the General Post Office (GPO) and the Old Secretariat bear pseudo-Renaissance influence. Some say the experience gained in building the new capital area of Patna proved very useful in building the imperial capital, New Delhi. Orissa was created as a separate province in 1935. Patna continued as the capital of Bihar province under the British Raj. Indian Independence Movement

Patna played a major role in the Indian independence struggle. Most notable are the Champaran movement against the Indigo plantation and the 1942 Quit India Movement. Patna's contribution in the freedom struggle has been immense with outstanding national leaders like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, the first President of the Constituent Assembly of India; Dr. Sachidanand Sinha; Dr. Rajendra Prasad; Bihar Vibhuti (Anugrah Narayan Sinha);[20] Basawon Singh (Sinha); Loknayak (Jayaprakash Narayan); Sri Krishna Sinha; Sheel Bhadra Yajee; Sarangdhar Sinha (Singh); Yogendra Shukla; and many others who worked for India's freedom relentlessly. Shrii Anandamurti formed the Ananda Marga movement in Patna in 1962 to work for world unity and justice. He modernized the ancient practices of yoga and made the most advanced practices of meditation available to the general public. He spoke about the inequality of women (both in India and worldwide). As an example, he questioned the morality of the dowry system of marriage and the Indian caste system. His Ananda Marga organization spread worldwide and teaches both neohumanism (oneness of family of life) and PROUT (Progressive Utilization Theory) for overall economic development. He is considered a leader in the field of philosophy and morality. Patna continued to be the capital of the state of Bihar after independence in 1947, though Bihar itself was partitioned again in 2000 when Jharkhand was carved out as a separate state of the Indian union. Geography Topography Patna is located on the south bank of the Ganga River. An impressive characteristic of the geography of Patna is its confluence of rivers. The Ganga River is the largest. It is joined by the four mighty rivers: Ghaghara, Gandak, Punpun and Sone. The Ganga is a respectable river as it passes through the district of Patna where it seems to be fully as large as in any part of its course for the huge flow of the Kosi. Just to the north of Patna across the Ganga River flows the Gandak. Patna is unique in having four large rivers in its vicinity. It is the largest riverine city in the world. The bridge over the river Ganga named Mahatma Gandhi Setu is 5575m long and is the longest river bridge in the India.[21] Climate Patna, as most of Bihar, has a humid subtropical climate with hot summers from late March to early June, the monsoon season from late June to late September and a mild winter from November to February. The table below details historical monthly averages for climate variables. Highest ever recorded is 47.0 C, lowest ever is 1.0 C and annual rainfall is around 1100 mm.[22] Economy Average Per Capital Income in Indian Metros From the ancient times, Patna has had a very rich socioeconomic background. It has long been a major agricultural center of trade, its most active exports being grain, sugarcane,

sesame, and medium-grained Patna rice. It is also an important business center of eastern India. In the last few years, the growth in Patna has been quite phenomenal with the improvement in the law and order after the regime change. By the end of 2011, the city will have eight new malls that are coming up in different parts of the capital.Being the state capital, with a growing middle income group households, Patna has also emerged as a big and rapidly expanding consumer market, both for Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), as also for other consumer durable items. A large and growing population, and expanding boundaries of the city, is also spurring growth of service sector. Several multinational companies have also come up at Patna; one example is Tata Consultancy Services.The hinterland of Patna is endowed with excellent agro-climatic resources and the gains of the Green Revolution have enabled the older eastern part of Patna (locally called as Patna City) to develop as a leading grain market of the state of Bihar, the second biggest in eastern India.. Demographics The historical population of Patna is shown below: Year 430 BC 200 BC 100 AD 361 AD 800 AD 2001 AD Population 100,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 350,000 Red Arrow Down.svg 69,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 150,000 Red Arrow Down.svg 74,000 Green Arrow Up.svg 1,885,470 The population of Patna is over 1,885,470. The population density is 1132 persons per square kilometre. There are 839 females to every 1,000 males. The overall literacy rate is 74%, and the female literacy rate is 50.8%. Many languages are spoken in Patna. Hindi and Urdu are the official languages. The native dialect is Magadhi or Magahi, named after Magadha, the ancient name of Bihar. Dialects from other regions of Bihar spoken widely in Patna are Angika&Bhojpuri. Yet another language is Maithili from Mithilanchal ther languages widely spoken in Patna include Bengali and English. Culture Though geographically located in the Magadh region of Bihar, many residents of Patna are natives of one of the four other regions of Bihar - Bhojpur, Mithila, Vajj, or Anga, which differ only slightly from each other. Intermarriages and cultural intermixing among the people of the five regions has been so common that it may be difficult for an outsider to discern the differences. People are religious and family-oriented, and they are deeply rooted in tradition. The interests of the family take precedence over that of an individual. Families are generally large, though the government is actively encouraging family planning to curb rapid population growth. Extended families often live together in one home because of economic necessity. Cuisine Khichdi

"Khichdi", the broth of rice and lentils, seasoned with spices, and served with several accompanying items like curd, chutney, pickles, papads, ghee (clarified butter) and chokha (boiled mashed potatoes, seasoned with finely cut onions, green chilies) constitutes the lunch for most Patnaites on Saturdays and is a staple food here. Afternoon meals mostly consists of Rice and vegetables while the dinner will consist of Rotis (flatbread) and lentils. Non-vegetarian food in Bihar Patna is also known for the dry sweet delicacies of central Bihar including Khaja, Motichoor ka Ladoo, Kala Jamun, Kesaria Peda, Parwal ki Mithai, Khubi ka Lai and Chena Murki. These owe their origin to towns in the vicinity of Patna: Khaja from Silao, Ladoo from Maner, Kala Jamun from Vikram, Khubi ka Lai from Barh, Kesaria Peda from Gaya and Chena Murki from Koelwar, Poori from Behea. Descendants of the original family members of the cooks, called halwais in the local language, have migrated to urban Patna and authentic sweet delicacies are now available in the city itself. Unlike the Bengali sweets which are soaked in syrup of sugar and are therefore wet, sweets of Patna and Bihar are mostly dry. The mangoes of Digha, Patna are very delicious & famous. Utilities Hotels and Restaurants Patna has got many good hotels for staying. A few of them have star rating. The best hotel in the city is 4-star rated.[26] Patna also has some very good restaurants where authentic Bihari food is served.[27] Movie Theaters Major movie theaters in Patna include Ashok Cinema, Mona Cinema, Regent and Elphiston, which is the oldest theater in Bihar.[28] Transportation and Connectivity Chiriyatand Flyover at Patna, one of the many new ones that have come up in the city recently Aerial view of Patna railway station Patna was among pioneer selected towns of India having horse-drawn trams as urban transport.[29] Nowadays, public transportation in Patna is provided by buses, auto rickshaws and local trains. Auto rickshaws are the most popular means of public transportation in Patna, as they are the only public means of convenience in most of the areas. The government has placed orders for over 50 low floor A/C and Non-A/C buses to ease congestion on city roads under JNNURM. This move is expected to improve traffic and public transport facilities in and around Patna. Rail Network Patna is also a major junction in the rail map of India. The five main railway stations are Patna Junction, Rajendranagar Terminal, Gulzarbag, Danapur Junction and Patna Sahib. The main junction station of Patna is well connected with all major Indian cities. The construction of India's longest road-cum-rail bridge is being done on the banks on the

Ganges near Patna. The bridge will connect Patna to Pahleja Ghat, Saran District, Bihar. It is being constructed by Ircon International Limited. The bridge will also be the second longest rail-cum-road bridge in the world. The total length of the bridge is 4.55 km. Air Network Patna airport is known as Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport or Patna airport. It is classified as a restricted international airport and it is connected to all major cities of India via daily flights. In the last few years, Patna has witnessed tremendous growth in air traffic as well as the number of flights flying in and out of the city. The introduction of several low-cost carriers and a number of new destinations have resulted in the growth of air traffic. Patna is now connected by daily flights to New Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Pune, Ranchi and Lucknow. Airlines such as Air India, Jet Airways( including JetKonnect and Jetlite), IndiGo, Kingfisher Red and most recently GoAir operate from Patna. Road Network Gandhi Setu connecting Patna with North Bihar Patna is well served by a network of well maintained roads. Patna is also connected through National Highway NH 19,[30] NH 30[31]-NH 31[32] & NH 83.[33] Road distance from other major cities [34] such as from Delhi - 1,015 km, from Mumbai - 1,802 km and from Kolkata 556 km. Water Network Patna is also well connected by National Waterways No. 1 which was established in October 1986. This National Waterways has fixed terminals at Haldia, BISN (Kolkata), Pakur, Farrakka and Patna. This National Waterways has also floating terminals facilities at Haldia, Kolkata, Diamond Harbour, Katwa, Tribeni, Baharampur, Jangipur, Bhagalpur, Semaria, Doriganj, Ballia, Ghazipur, Varanasi, Chunar and Allahabad.[35] Patna recently got its own luxury yacht offering dinner cruises on the Ganges. The air conditioned floating restaurant MV Ganga Vihar offers dinner cruises twice a day starting from Gandhi Ghat.[36] Places of interest Main article: Tourism in Patna Gandhi Maidan(shown above) lies in the heart of Patna and is the site for most political and social functions in the city Patna has a history spanning more than three thousand years. The rich culture and heritage of Bihar is evident from the innumerable ancient monuments that dot the region. Patna is home to many tourist attractions. About 2,500,000 (2.5 million) tourists visit Patna every year.[37] Kumhrar and [38] Agam Kuan[39] are the sites of the ruins of the Ashokan Pataliputra. Didarganj Yakshi is a fine example of Mauryan art.[40] The famous Hanuman Mandir has the second highest budget in North India after the famous Vaishno Devi shrine.[41] Takht Sri Patna Sahib is one of the Five Takhts of Sikhism and consecrates the birthplace of the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Gobind Singh.[42] There are five other Gurdwaras in Patna

which are related to different Sikh Gurus; these are Gurdwara Pahila Bara,[43] Gurdwara Gobind Ghat,[44] Gurdwara Guru ka Bagh,[45] Gurdwara Bal Leela[46] and Gurdwara Handi Sahib.[47] Padri Ki Haveli, High Court, Golghar and Secretariat Building are examples of unique British architecture. Education Main article: Education in Patna Patna is one of the oldest major centre of learning in East India. Patna University, the first university in Bihar, was established in 1917, and was the 7th oldest University of the Indian subcontinent.[48] Patna Medical College, established in 1925 as Prince of Wales Medical College, was ranked 6th in undivided India.[49] In the past few years, many institutions of national repute have opened up in Patna. Institutes such as Indian Institute of Technology Patna,[50] National Institute of Technology, Patna[51] and Birla Institute of Technology, Patna[52] are the prominent engineering college in Patna. Other colleges include the newly opened National Institute of Fashion Technology Patna[53] and medical schools such as Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences.[54] Many new institutes like Birla Institute of Technology, Patna, Chanakya National Law University, a national law university and a business school Chandragupt Institute of Management have opened up in Patna. Patna also houses one of India's most richly endowed libraries, the Khuda Baksh Oriental Library which has rare manuscripts dating several thousand years back. Sports Aerial view of Moin Ul Haque Stadium As in the rest of India, cricket is the most popular sport in Patna. There are several cricket grounds (or maidans) located across the city, including the Moin-ul-Haq Stadium, which is second largest in eastern India, next only to 'Eden Gardens' of Kolkata.[55] The stadium features a swimming pool and a cricket academy. This stadium has served as venue for two One day international matches and several national sport event. Patna Golf Club situated west of the Government House to the South Bihar Gymkhana Club. It is 165 acres Golf Field.[56] and includes some very tough holes, this well-maintained course will prove interesting to amateur and pros alike.[57] Patna Indoor Stadium also known as Rainbow Field is indoor - outdoor sporting complex and will be renamed after Abhinav Bindra, the olympic gold medalist.[58] The Queen's baton relay passed through the city in July, 2010 in the build up for the Commonwealth games. Famous current and past residents * Chandragupta Maurya, Indian Emperor, Magadh Dyansty. * Ashoka, Indian Emperor, Magadh Dynasty. * Samudragupta, Gupta Emperor

* Vikramaditya, Gupta Emperor * Chanakya, Chief Strategist, Economist, Magadh Dynasty. * Ramdhari Singh Dinkar, Rashtrakavi (National Poet) . * Aryabhatt, Mathematician * Lalit Mohan Sharma, Ex-Chief Justice of India * Bhuvaneshwar Prasad Singh, Ex-Chief Justice of India * Nitish Kumar, Chief minister of Bihar. Nitish Kumar * Guru Gobind Singh,10th and the last Guru of Sikhs. * Rohini Bhate, Kathak Dancer. * Dr Rajendra Prasad, First President of India. * Shatrughan Sinha, Famous Indian Cinema actor. Shatrughan Sinha * Shekhar Suman, Famous Television and Cinema actor. * Binota Roy, Bengali Playback Singer. * Neetu Chandra, Hindi Cinema Actor. * Roshan Seth, English Actor, Journalist and Editor. * Meira Kumar, Current Lok Sabha speaker. * Chandrashekhar Singh, former Chief Minister of Bihar. * N. K. Singh, Ex-planning commission chief * Anil Agarwal, Founder and Executive Chairman of the UK-based Vedanta Resources Corporation. * Vikram Seth, English Novelist. * Dr. Sri Krishna Sinha, first Chief Minister of Bihar. * Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha,eminent nationalist & first Deputy Chief Minister of Bihar. * Professor Ram Sharan Sharma, eminent Historian and scholar. * Professor Ram Karan Sharma, eminent scholar of Sanskrit. * Justice Lalit Mohan Sharma, former Chief Justice of India. * Mr. L.N. Sinha (Lal Narain Sinha), Attorney General of India (197983). * Balmiki Prasad Singh eminent scholar, Indian Civil Servant, and present Governor of Sikkim. * Justice K. B. N. Singh, ex-Chief Justice of Madras and Patna High Court, as well as Governor of Madras and Bihar. * Justice B. P. Singh, the former Judge of the Supreme Court of India. * Professor Papiya Ghosh, internationally renowned historian * Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, founder of Sulabh International * Satinath Bhaduri, novelist * Shri Indradeep Sinha Economist, writer and veteran communist leader.

* Shri. Ravi Shankar Prasad, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India, Former Union Minister and BJP Chief National Spokesperson. Major Amenities Major public open spaces Lion in Patna Zoo * Patna Zoo * Gandhi Maidan Schools St. Michael's High School * St. Micheal's High School * St. Xavier's High School, Patna * Notre Dame Academy, Patna * Don Bosco Academy * Loyola High School (Patna) * D.A.V. Khagaul * Delhi Public School, Danapur * Gyan Niketan * Mount Carmel High School, Patna Universities and Colleges Software Technology Park in Patna * Patna University * Patna Medical College and Hospital * Indian Institute of Technology Patna * Science College, Patna * Patna Women's College * Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences * Patna Dental College * College of Arts and Crafts, Patna Religious sites Mahavir Mandir in Central Patna . * Agamkuan * Mahavir Mandir * Patan Devi Temple * Maner Sharif * Padri Ki Haveli Nearest railway stations * Gaya Junction. * Hajipur railway station. * Arrah railway station.

Bakhtiarpur Bakhtiarpur (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Patna district in the state of Bihar, India. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Bakhtiarpur had a population of 32,288. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Bakhtiarpur has an average literacy rate of 53%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 63% of the males and 37% of females literate. 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Barh Barh (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the oldest subdivision of Bihar, which is not declared as district yet. Barh is a town and municipal corporation of Barh subdivision of Patna District of Bihar. It is the administrative headquarter of Barh Subdivision. It is located along the Ganges River, 34 miles (55 km) south-east of Patna. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Projects o 3.1 NTPC BARH + 3.1.1 ENVIRONMENT CONCERNS in BIHAR o 3.2 20 km railway flyover track from Barh to Bakhtiyarpur * 4 Blocks * 5 See Also * 6 References * 7 See also Geography Barh is located at 2529N 8543E / 25.48N 85.72E / 25.48; 85.72.[1] It has an average elevation of 47 metres (154 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Barh had a population of 105,206. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Barh has an average literacy rate of 85%,it is above than Indian literacy rate 66.7%; with 50% of the males and 35% of females literate. 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Barh was one of the oldest sub division in Patna District. Perhaps it was a unique sub division in India which was declared a district just for a day . The Indian Railways station code is BARH. Subscriber Trunk Dialing code is 06132. The nearest airport is Lok Nayak Jayaprakash Airport. Projects NTPC BARH

NTPC BARH (3300 megawatt): Around 3,300 MW of coal-generated power is being added at Barh near Patna in Bihar, India. The three-unit 1,980 MW Barh I is being built by Russian Power Machines Group, and the two-unit 1,320 MW Barh II extension by BHEL. Barh has been named a mega power project, and is owned by Indian energy company NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation). The foundation stone for Barh I was laid in 1999 but there was at the time doubt about whether the project would ever reach completion, since the Bihar Government was finding it difficult to make land available. Boiler erection of unit-1 (stage-1) is expected to start after settlement of Technopromexport (TPE) NTPC dispute. Barh II was announced in 2006 and is expected to be complete by 2012; NTPC had earlier announced capacity enhancement for 20072012 from 11,558 MW to 17,333 MW, which included Barh II. Barh I cost around Rs.8,500 crore. The power will go to 11 Indian states, 02 union territories (UTs) and Indian railways. Six 400 kV electrical substations link Barh to Kahalgaon, Sasaram and Bihar Sharif. India's economic growth has put strains on its power supply capacity. NTPC was formed in 1975 to accelerate power development of the country, with the Government of India holding almost 90% of the company's total equity shares. Including Barh, NTPC aims to add over 10 GW in new coal-fired plants by 2012. India's Central Electricity Authority (CEA) cleared Barh I in 2001. The project was financed through domestic and external commercial borrowings, with equity from internal resources of NTPC. As one of India's mega power projects, Barh is eligible for benefits like import of capital equipment free of customs duty, and price preference of 15% for domestic public sector undertakings (PSUs). The plant uses super-critical steam generation, with water instantly being converted into steam without passing through the boiling phase. Operating pressures are around 250 atmospheres. The annual coal requirement for Barh is estimated at around 15 million tonnes per annum, met from the Amrapali block of North Karanpura coal fields. NTPC transports coal by rail from North Karanpura to Barh. For Barh I, NTPC awarded the contract to Russia-based power equipment supplier Technopromexport, as part of the Power Machines Group. The group designed, manufactured, supplied, erected and commissioned the three power units for the turbine island. Equipment for each power unit was manufactured at Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod (steam turbines), Electrosila (turbogenerators) and Kaluga Turbine Works (feedwater turbine-driven pumps). The KSB Group produced 18 pump sets consisting of six turbine driven (TDBFP) and three electric motor-driven boiler feed pump (MDBFP) and nine condensate extraction pumps (CEPs). The biggest pump sets have a drive rating of 18,500 kW each and generate a

discharge pressure of 347 ksc. The machines have already reached at plant premise in 2010. Yokogawa India Limited supplied the turnkey automation and control system for the boilers and associated equipment of three power generators. These include the CENTUM CS 3000 R3 Distributed Control System, PRM Plant Resource Manager, DPharp EJA Pressure/Differential Pressure Transmitters and IR8A Infrared Gas Analysers. The Indian state-run Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) won the contract for boilers for Barh II, partnering with Alstom and Siemens. Ansaldo Coldaie had also wanted to bid for the Barh II contract, but reportedly could not meet key technical conditions.[citation needed] "The annual coal requirement for Barh is estimated at around 15 million tonnes per annum."[attribution needed] ENVIRONMENT CONCERNS in BIHAR Wildlife Week reported complaints that Barh would impact the Taal wetlands, which are extremely rich in avifauna. The Barh project was cleared by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) in 2001. Ornithologists have, however, counted 149 species of resident and migratory water birds in the wetlands, which is an important bird breeding site. The area is close to the Important Bird Area (IBA) of Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary. Wildlife Week accused the MoEF of hurriedly pushing the project through, without heeding highlevel advice that a bio-habitat analysis be first conducted as the existing environmental impact assessment was inadequate. Test field set-up for the hot-water performance test of a high-pressure pump at KSB's factory in Frankenthal, Germany. Performance test of a boiler feed pump in KSB's factory in Frankenthal, Germany.[clarification needed] Optimising the seating contour of a butterfly valve in KSB's R&D centre in Gradignan, France. Technopromexport is part of the Power Machines Group. Technopromexport designed, manufactured and supplied the three power units for the Barh I turbine island. * SDM $ SDPO - K K Pathak (Transferred from Barh by Nitish Kumar), R.S Bhatti * Ambuja Cement * Agriculture Science Centre * Barh Court * Barh Railway Station * NH 31, NH 30A * Three movie Theaters - Savita,Neelam * Major colleges: ANS College, SBR College, SNA College, SSD College, Teachers Training College * Major schools:Jagannathan High School, ANS High School, Girls High School, St. Joseph's Convent Girls' High School(+2), LNR Dheebar High School, Berhna High School, Agwanpur High School, LK Sabneema High School, Medha Ashram Residential Public School,

Progressive School, Doon School, DAV Mokama, Notre dame Academy (In NTPC campus), RMV Railly, Adarsh Gyanodaya English School, Saraswati shishu/vidya mandir, * LAI Sweet - Barh is known in distant for the famous "LAI" (a sweet appearing of white ball with orange tint made of Ramdana and khoa) * Karbala - Aurangzeb's Sister's Mazar * Uttarayan Ganga * Sati sthan * Alakhnath, and Umanath Ghat * Sub divisional hospital (200+ bed) 20 km railway flyover track from Barh to Bakhtiyarpur Work on the ambitious flyover track between Bakhtiarpur and Barh in Patna district is to begin soon at an estimated cost of Rs 80 crore. This project has been sanctioned by the Railway Board recently to fulfil immediate operational needs of heavy traffic on the mainline section of Danapur division under the East Central Railway (ECR). According to sources, the Board has sanctioned this project mainly to segregate tracks for goods train services to maintain an uninterrupted coal supply to the NTPC power station at Barh, which is to be commissioned soon. The completion of this project will enable the railways to run at least four to five coal-laden rakes daily from Tilaiya (Jharkhand) to Barh via the Rajgir-Bakhtiarpur section of Danapur division, sources said. An ECR official said the proposed 20-km-long flyover track, which will be the first of its kind in the railways, is likely to give much relief to the railways in maintaining continuous supply of coals to the NTPC power station at Barh. Besides, it would be a new experiment for the railways to use flyover tracks, particularly in the mainline section of Danapur division, he said. That apart, the railways have decided to carry on work on the proposed 50-km-long new bypass Neora-Daniyawan Project running via Punpun. This line will connect DaniyawanBiharsharif-Barbigha-Sheikhpura lines, covering a distance of about 122 km. This project is estimated to cost more than Rs 227 crore. According to sources, the railways are in need of about Rs 12,000 sq ft (1,100 m2) of land all along the 122-km-long route. They have so far acquired land in 25 villages of Nalanda and two villages of Patna district. This project is an old one pending completion. The Railway Board sanctioned Rs 100 crore for the same. The railways have made progress on this project, particularly between the Daniyawan and Barbigha route. However, they have not made much progress on the route between Neora and Daniyawan, sources said. A Railway Board official is optimistic that the completion of this project, which was initiated during the tenure of Nitish Kumar as the railway minister, will prove to be a boon for the

smooth movement of goods trains. Besides, it will ease out heavy traffic movements on the mainline section of Danapur division, which is well above the saturation point, he said. Blocks Barh, Mokama, Bakhtiyarpur, Punarakh, Kushrupur, Ghoswari, Belchhi, Athmalgola, Fatuha, Daniyawa. Bikram Bikram (Hindi: , Urdu: )is a town and an assembly constituency in Paliganj subdivision of Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar.[1] Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Politics * 3 References * 4 External links Geography Bikram is located at 252700N 845200E / 25.4500N 84.8667E / 25.4500; 84.8667. Politics Anil Kumar of Bharatiya Janata Party won the Bikram seat (assembly constituency no. 194) defeating chandarma singh yadav in feb 2005. of Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) in October 2005. Anil Kumar representing Lok Janshakti Party defeated Chandarma Singh Yadav of RJD in February 2005.Ram Janam Sharma of BJP defeated Chandrama Singh Yadav of RJD in 2000.chandarma singh yadav he is the very power full rjd leader in bikram 194.he is doing lots of work for the bikram people in bikram bihta area.he is atarting his political career in college time in bihta. Ramnath Yadav of Communist Party of India defeated C.P.Thakur of Indian National Congress in 1995, Diwakar Sharma of Congress in 1990, Ramanand Singh of Congress in 1985, and Diwakar Sharma of Congress in 1980. Kailash Pati Mishra of Janata Party defeated Diwakar Sharma of Congress in 1977.[2] Bikram assembly constituency is part of Pataliputra (Lok Sabha constituency).[3] 191 Bikram assembly constituency covers Naubatpur and Bikram community development blocks, and Kaoria, Bindaul, Kunwa, Machchhalpur Lai, Yamunapur and Taranagar gram panchayats of Bihta CD Block. Danapur Danapur (Hindi: , Urdu: ) , sometimes known as Dinapur or Dinapore, located on the bank of the River Sone which merges with River Ganges at Digha few kilometers from Danapur, is a satellite town of Patna in Bihar state of India. Danapur is a shelter and hatchery for the migrating Siberian Cranes, locally called Janghil. Also, Danapur is a division of the Eastern Central Zone of the Indian Railways. The Divisional Railway Manager's (DRM) office is situated near Danapur railway station. The area surrounding this station is called Khagaul.

Danapur is the headquarters of the Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa Regiment of Indian Army. The Danapur Cantonment and Danapur station are 5 kilometers away. It was the only white cantonment of the East India Company between at one point of time. It was the largest military cantonment in Bengal, with accommodation for two batteries of artillery, a European and a native infantry regiment. In 1857 the sepoy garrison of the place initiated the rebellion in Patna district (a part of the Indian Rebellion of 1857), but after a conflict with the European troops the sepoys were forced to retire from the town, and subsequently laid siege to Arrah. There are Degree Colleges, namely Bindeswari Singh College and R. P. S. College, affiliated with Magadh University, Bodh-Gaya. Lekha nagar, behind D. A. V. Public School in Cant. Khagaul Road is one of its famous colonies. Flagstaff ghat on the Ganges at Dinapur, Patna, 1859 is one of the oldest ghats. Kachahari ghat and MH ghat are other ghats of the Ganges in Danapur. Gurdwara Handi Sahib, a gurdwara of Guru Tegh Bahadur, is a pilgrimage place for Sikhs. Naulakha temple in BRC and various historical buildings of British rule are places of interest. Dinapur Cantonment Dinapur Cantonment (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a cantonment town in Patna District in the state of Bihar, India. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Dinapur Cantonment had a population of 28,149. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. Dinapur Cantonment has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 77% and, female literacy is 63%. In Dinapur Cantonment, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Dinapur Nizamat Dinapur Nizamat (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a municipality in Patna district in the state of Bihar, India. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Dinapur Nizamat had a population of 130,339. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Dinapur Nizamat has an average literacy rate of 56%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 64% and, female literacy is 47%. In Dinapur Nizamat, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Fatuha Fatuha (Hindi: , Urdu: ) situated at the confluence of Ganges and Punpun, also spelled as Fatwah or Fatwa is a city and a notified area in Patna district in the state of Bihar, India. Fatuha is a part of the capital territory of Patna, the capital of Bihar and lies on its eastern outskirts. The confluence zone of Ganges and Punpun rivers is known as Triveni as the mythical river Saraswati is deemed to unite with these two rivers here. Hence, Fatuha is

regarded as a very sacred 'sangam' place in Hindu mythology. It is said that Lord Vamana laid his step at this 'sangam' while measuring the entire universe as a gift from the demon king Bali. To commemorate it, there is celebrated an annual fair called 'Varuni Mela' on every Vaman Dwadashi day (day of incarnation of Lord Vamana) as per Vikram calender. It is 24 km away from Patna, the capital city of Bihar in the east direction. It is an important industrial centre known for small industries and its handloom industries were also very famous as stated below[citation needed]. It is said that the city's name is intensely connected with the textile industry. It was a very thriving centre of textile industry during medieval period. This industry was so much developed that a particular community called Patwa, expert in textile industry, was concentrated here. It is also said that entire Patwa community has some kind of a root from Fatuha. The city itself, it is said, was named Fatwa after their community's name Patwa. They still form a very large proportion of city's population and many of them still practice in their traditional textile industry despite severe hardships arisen in modern era. Contents * 1 History & Culture * 2 Geography * 3 Economy * 4 Delicasies * 5 Demographics * 6 Recent developments * 7 References History & Culture Fatuha (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is situated at the confluence of Ganges and Punpun. The confluence zone of Ganges and Punpun rivers is known as Triveni as the mythical river Saraswati is deemed to unite with these two rivers here. Hence, Fatuha is regarded as a very sacred 'sangam' place in Hindu mythology. It is said that Lord Vamana laid his step at this 'sangam' while measuring the entire universe as a gift from the demon king Bali. To commemorate it, there is celebrated an annual fair called 'Varuni Mela' on every Vaman Dwadashi day (day of incarnation of Lord Vamana) as per Vikram calender. It coincides with the great festival 'Onam' of Kerala where king Bali is invoked. In Fatuha, Lord Vamana is invoked on this day with great number of rural people assembling on 'Triveni' to take a holy dip at the confluence. It is also said that Lord Sri Krishna and Bheema passed through Fatuha to kill the first great Magadhan king Jarasandha. Jarasandha was a devout Shaivite and used to visit a very ancient temple dedicated to Lord Shiva which was located at a place called Baikunthpur on the banks of the river Ganga near Fatuha. There is a great annual festival at this place on each Mahashivratri and the temple remains vibrant with a large influx of devotees during Shravan Masa as per Vikram calender. This temple is a great

milestone in the history of Shaivism. There is a very famous temple called Siddhnath at the historical Barabar hills in Jahanabad district of Bihar. This temple, it is said, was established during the Mauryan period as both Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka, the great, initially were great champions of Shaivism. The Ganga water carried from Fatuha Triveni is the only water which is offered to Lord Shiva at Siddhanath temple. Fatuha was a great centre for the learnings of the great medieval sant poet Kabir. There is a very large and rich Kabir monastery at Fatuha, which runs many welfare programmes for the local people. Prominent among them is the donation of a very big tract of prime land at the heart of the city to establish a college, which is now known as the Sant Kabir Mahant Vidyanand Mahavidyalaya. In medieval period, Bakhtiyar Khilji, an aide of Muhammad Ghori, passed throgh Fatuha to sack and burn the great universities of Nalanda, Odantapuri and Vikramshila in the year of 1193. The places of Bakhtiarpur and Khursopur near Fatuha still bear the names of Bakhtiyar Khilji and his commander-in-chief Khusro. Burning of these great universities by Bakhtiyar Khilji led to a start of a dark age in India and Bihar in particular as all the great libraries of these universities containing the entire great knowledge of the then India were burned down by him. From then, Bihar has been struggling very hard to come out of acute illiteracy. It was a thriving centre of textile industry during medieval period. This industry was so much developed that a particular caste called Patwa, expert in textile industry, was concentrated here. It is said that entire Patwa community has some kind of a root from Fatuha. The city itself, it is said, was named Fatwa (after their community's name Patwa. In modern era, Fatuha is particularly remembered for its significant contribution in the 'Quit India Movement' started by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942. Two Royal Indian Air Force officers were killed by the local villagers at Fatuha rail station. There bodies were paraded in entire city before throwing them into Punpun river. Geography Fatuha (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is situated at the confluence of Ganges and Punpun. The confluence zone of Ganges and Punpun rivers is known as Triveni as the mythical river Saraswati is deemed to unite with these two rivers here. Rivers Dhoba and Mahatmain (principal branch of river Falgu before disappearing in 'Taal" area) surround the city of Fatuha from its southern sides. From nearby Fatuha starts the famous 'Taal" area which is very famous for rabi crops. Soil of Fatuha is very much fertile as it is drained by multiple rivers including Ganga and Punpun. All types of crops are grown in abundance here. Fatuha is a big producer of vegetables, particularly of onions. It falls in the lower reach of the middle Ganga basin and it bears a typical humid Monsoon climate. NH-30 and NH-30 A pass through Fatuha. NH-30 A connects Patna via Fatuha to Nalanda district and beyond. Fatuha thus serves as the gateway of the capital city of Patna to central and southern Bihar. Similarly, NH 30 connects Patna via Fatuha to North East of India thus making Fatuha as an

eastern gateway of Patna. Fatuha connects to trans-Ganga district of Vaishali through Kachchi Dargah-Rustampur link. Fatuha-Islampur (Nalanda) rail line was also resurrected in 2002 by the then rail minister Sri Nitish Kumar. This rail line is further being expanded to Natesar to connect with Gaya. Fatuha, thus, plays a great role of a combined major rail, road and river junctions. National aquatic animal of India, Dolphin, spread from Buxar to Bhagalpur in Bihar is a very special feature of Fatuha which was seen aplenty here a decade earlier. But recent illegal fishing has cast a great danger to this aquatic asset of India. Fatuha was recently the standalone industrial centre of Bihar producing farm tractors, scooter, etc all at its industrial area. Now these industries are being revived. Right now, Fatuha houses an LPG bottling plant of Bharat Petroleum at its industrial area. Economy Fatuha is a major rural market, catering to the needs of numerous villages which produce all kinds of agrarian and other rural produces like handicrafts, etc. Delicasies Like many other districts in Bihar, Fatuha too has its own kind of delicasy. One of them is Tikri, which is a sweet dish. Mirjai, a sweet prepared from maida, sugar and vegetable oil is a unique dish of Fatuha. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Fatwah had a population of 38,362, with males constituting 54% of the population and females 46%. Fatwah has an average literacy rate of 53%, which is lower than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 60%, whereas female literacy is only 44%. Fatuha has only an affiliated college named Sant Kabir Mahant Vidyanand College under Magadh University which teaches only upto graduation level. It desperately needs a higher quality college. Only then, there would be tangible improvement in its academic atmosphere. In Fatwah, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Recent developments It was the largest development block of Bihar state till its bifurcation. It was the also the first development block unit with its own website and hence was known as the first e-block of Bihar. Fatuha railway yard in its present renovated shape forms the first inland rail container of Bihar. Since August 2007, Fatuha has started functioning as a police subdivision now comprising the police stations of Didarganj, Fatuha, Khusrupur, Daniawa and Shahjahanpur. Chief Minister of Bihar has given special attention to Fatuha Constituency. Many development projects are going on in this area. Some rural areas (Niyamatpur, Kharbhaiya, Sohpar, Saidpur...) in this constituency have progressed a lot. Basic facilities like school, electricity, drinking water and roads are available. Under the master plan of Patna, Fatuha has been declared as satellite city. Recently the chief minister of Bihar inaugurated the Sonalika tractor plant under which many agricultural tools and machines will be manufactured. In January 2011, the first Ganga river police station was inaugurated by the

Chief Minister near Maujipur village of Fatuha. Fatuha was once selected for the establishment of a possible IIM during the gubernatorial tenure of Sri Buta Singh. This project is still pending. Fatuha is one of the largest exporters of onion in the world. It produces about 80% of the state's onion production. Hasanchak Hasanchak (Hindi: , Urdu: ( ) baharawan), is a village in Barh, Patna District, Bihar, India.[1] The Ganges River flows close to the village. Contents * 1 Location * 2 Population * 3 References * 4 External Links Location Hasanchak is located on the National Highway 82A (Barh-Sarmera path). The village is 65 km east of Patna, the capital city of the state and district headquarters. The nearest city is Mokama (12 km east) and Khusropur (20 km west). The nearest railway station is located in Barh, and the nearest airport is Patna Airport. Population The population of Hasanchak is 3030 people (1400 female and 1630 male). There is a 78% educational qualification in the village. Khagaul Khagaul (Hindi: ) is a city and a municipality in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 References * 4 See also Geography Khagaul is located at 2535N 8503E / 25.58N 85.05E / 25.58; 85.05.[1] It has an average elevation of 55 metres (180 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Khagaul had a population of 48,330. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Khagaul has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 77%, and female literacy is 65%. In Khagaul, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Khusrupur

Khusrupur (Hindi:

, Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Patna district in

the Indian state of Bihar. On June 1, 2009, Khusrupur railway station witnessed burning of two trains by a mob protesting the withdrawal of stoppage of trains there.[1] Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Khusrupur had a population of 12,185. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Khusrupur has an average literacy rate of 54%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 62%, and female literacy is 45%. In Khusrupur, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Maner Maner (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Demographics * 2 Politics * 3 See also * 4 References Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Maner had a population of 26,912. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Maner has an average literacy rate of 52%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 61%, and female literacy is 42%. In Maner, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Politics Srikant Nirala of RJD won the Maner seat (assembly constituency no. 192) defeating Sacchidanand Rai of JD(U) in October 2005 and Februruary 2005. Bhai Birendra of SAP defeated Srikat Nirala of RJD in 2000. Srikant Nirala representing Janata Dal defeated Bhai Birendra (Independent) in 1995. Srikant Nirala representing Congress defeated Suryadeo Tyagi of Janata Dal in 1990. Rajmati devi representing Congress defeated Suryadeo Tyagi representing LKD in 1985. Ram Nagina Singh (Independent) defeated Suryadeo Tyagi of Janata Party (SC) in 1980. Suryadeo Tyagi representing Janata Party defeated Ram Nagina Singh representing Congress in 1977. [2] Maner assembly constituency is part of Pataliputra (Lok Sabha constituency). [3] 187 Maner assembly constituency covers Maner community development block; and Aanandpur, Kateshar, Sikandarpur, Parev, Daulatpur Simri, Mushepur, Shri Rampur, Bihta, Dayalpur Daulatpur, Purshottampur Painathi, Bishunpura, Raghopur, Amhara, Kanchanpur Kharagpur, Sadisopur, Painal, Bela, Neora, Makhdoompur and Shri Chandpur gram panchayats of Bihta CD Block. Maner Sharif

Maner Sharif (Hindi:

, Urdu: ) is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of

Patna on NH 30. It is the popular medieval site in Bihar. Maner enjoys position of one of the chief spiritual centers in India. Maner Sharif houses two very popular Muslim tombs: * One of Makhdoom Yahya Maneri known as the Bari Dargah. * Onother of Shah Daulat or Makhdum Daulat, popularly called Chhoti Dargah. Contents * 1 History History Maner Sharif is the place where Makhdum Daulat in 1608 breathed his last. It was then in 1616 that Ibrahim Khan, Governor of Bihar who was also his disciple finished the construction of his mausoleum.[1] Choti Dargah - 1780s painting The building at Maner Sharif is a marvelous one. The walls of the building are adorned with intricate designs. There is a big dome on the top and the ceiling is full of inscriptions depicted from the Qur'an. In the compound of the Maner Sharif you will find a mosque which was also constructed by Ibrahim Khan in 1619.[2] In the ancient times Maner Sharif used to be the principal site of learning and knowledge in the region. The well known grammarian Pini as well as Bararuchi were the residents of Maner Sharif where they have completed their studies as well. Maner is also famous for its sweet delicacy ladoos made with pure ghee. Maner Sweets is the most popular sweet makers to serve the famous brand of laddoos called as "Maner ka Laddoo". They have an outlet in Mauryalok Complex(Patna). Masaurhi Masaurhi (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a Nagar Parishad in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar. Few will know that it was Yadav farmers who, in 1927, talked to Swami Sahajanand Saraswati to aid them in their struggles against the Bhumihar Brahmin zamindars of Masaurhi, and that it was from that beginning that the most powerful movement in India, the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha, emerged.[1] Contents * 1 Demographics * 2 Geography * 3 Politics Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[2], Masaurhi had a population of 46,943. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Masaurhi has an average literacy rate of 56%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 65%, and female literacy is 46%. In Masaurhi, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Geography

Masaurhi is located at 2521N 8502E / 25.35N 85.033E / 25.35; 85.033. Politics Poonam Devi of JD(U) won the Masaurhi seat (assembly constituency no. 187) defeating Raj Kishore Prasad representing RJD in October 2005 and an independent candidate in February 2005. Dharmendra Prasad of RJD defeated Poonam Devi representing SAP in 2000. Ganesh Prasad Singh of Janata Dal defeated Poonam Devi representing Congress in 1995. Yougeswar Goup of IPF defeated Poonam Devi representing Congress in 1990. Poonam Devi of Congress Ganesh Prasad Singh of LKD in 1985. Ganesh Prasad Singh representing Janata Party (SC) defeated Rabindra Prasad of Janata Party (SR). Ramdeo Prasad Yadav of Janata Party defeated Raj Kishore Prasad of Congress in 1977. [3] Masaurhi assembly constituency is part of Pataliputra (Lok Sabha constituency). [4] 189 Masaurhi (SC) assembly constituency covers Masaurhi and Dhanarua community development blocks. Mokama Mokama (Hindi: ) is a city and a municipality in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is located 90 KM east of Patna and is on the rail route connecting Kolkata and New Delhi via Patna. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Economy * 3 Transport * 4 Demographics * 5 People and Culture Geography Mokama is situated on the southern banks of the Ganges. The landscape here is absolutely plain. Here the land strip along the north of Ganges is called Diara which submerges in Ganges during monsoons, On the south of Mokameh is the "Tal" region which also gets submerged with the backwaters of the Ganges during the monsoons. Economy Not surprisingly, the main occupation is agriculture. Traveling through the city, one can hardly see anything, other than crop fields. Main crops are, Lentils, Chickpea, mustard and vegetables. Papaya is also grown here. However, major portion of the Diara and Tal lands remain submerged for 3 months, giving an impression of sea. Mokameh, once was developing as a market and a trading place. But it has suffered because of rise of local criminals and huge haftas demanded by them. Mokama boasts of factories of McDowell's and Bata Shoes, along with Bharat Wagon and Engineering. Transport

Mokama is connected to all the major cities of India by rail and road. However the neighbouring areas lacked any kind of road until recently. In earlier days, ships were used through Ganges for transportation. Due to the present condition of the roads the largest and the best mode of transport in Mokameh is rail. Demographics As of 2010[update] India census[1], Mokama had a population of 96,441. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Mokama has a literacy rate of 96%, higher than the national average of 69.5%: male literacy is 99%, and female literacy is 93%. In Mokama, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age.AUNTA is the most developed village of MOKAMA block. This is only village in mokama which is known as ADARSH GRAM. There are so many industries in Aunta. There is a CRPF training centre at Mokamaghat. People and Culture Most people speak Magadhi here, a dialect called Magahi locally. However, it changes considerably across a couple of Kilometres. Families are very traditional, and often large. However, as people are getting education, they are becoming liberal. Marriages are generally arranged and they involve a large sum of dowry, although illegal. Bride and groom meet only after marriage. Caste system is ingrained in the social fabric of the place in the same way as it exists in other parts of Bihar. Consequently caste based politics plays an important role in the life of the people here. The continuously diminishing infrastructure and unemployment have forced the people to migrate to other parts of India for better opportunities. The common attire of the people includes dhoti, kurta and gamchha, a large rectangular cotton cloth on their shoulders or tied round heads. Women dress in sarees. The most awaited and widely celebrated festival is Chhath, a festival where people worship the setting and the rising Sun in the month of October/November. Nadwan Nadwan (Hindi: , Urdu: ) , a village in Patna district in Bihar in India, is located about 24 km south from Patna and 70 km north from Gaya, the place where Gautum Buddha got enlightenment. Patna's ancient names are Pataliputra and Kusumpur and it was the capital of the great Magadh empire for a very long period of time. It is established on NH-73, and has a very old Railway station(1n 1934) on Patna - Gaya railway route. this railway station is main focus of attraction for nearby 30-35 villages. The village Nadwan was once considered one of the most respected village in the Patna district. However, due to the rise of anti-social activities (between 1998-2002), this village has lost its past glory. But now its glory is coming on track. Education Around 60 years ago, villagers of Nadwan opened a school (now known as Middle School and High School Nadwan). This school has produced many doctors, engineers, and

scientists. This village also has a college, K P S College Nadwan. This is the main source of poor villagers for doing his/her graduation and Post Graduation. Paliganj Paliganj (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a town, a subdivision and an assembly constituency in Patna district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Transport * 3 Politics Geography Paliganj is located at 252000N 845000E / 25.3333N 84.8333E / 25.3333; 84.8333. Paliganj subdivision is composed of the following community development blocks: 1. Paliganj, During British Raj Paliganj was under Zamindari Rule of Late Sri Govind Prasad known as Rajabau of Pali, he always helped poors and alloted free land to many landless and homeless people of his area. He also established schools within his Zamandari area and provided free education to the local people regardless of their status. 1. Bikram and 2. Dulhin Bajar.[1] Transport Paliganj is on NH 98. Politics Nand Kumar Nanda of Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation (CPI(ML)(L)) won the Paliganj seat (assembly constituency no. 195) defeating Dr. Usha Vidyarthi of Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in October 2005, and Dinanath Singh Yadav of Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) in February 2005. Dinanath Singh Yadav of RJD defeated Janardan Sharma of BJP in 2000. Chandradeo Prasad Verma of Janata Dal defeated Janardan Sharma of BJP in 1995. Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav representing Congress defeated Kripa Narayan Singh of IPF in 1990 and Kanhai Singh of BJP in 1985. Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav representing Congress (U) defeated Kanhai Singh of BJP in 1980. Kanhai Singh (Independent) defeated Akhileswar Singh of Congress in 1977.[2] Paliganj assembly constituency is part of Pataliputra (Lok Sabha constituency). [3] 190 Paliganj assembly constituency covers Dulhin Bazar and Paliganj community development b;ocks. Phulwari Sharif Phulwari Sharif (Urdu: the Indian state of Bihar. Contents , Hindi: ) is a notified area in Patna in

* 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Some Important Places * 4 Politics Geography Phulwari Sharif is located at 253439N 850446E / 25.57749N 85.079361E / 25.57749; 85.079361 Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Phulwari Sharif had a population of 53,166. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Phulwari Sharif has an average literacy rate of 63%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 56%. In Phulwari Sharif, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Some Important Places Khanqah Mujeebia, Sheesh Mahal, Shahi Sangi Masjid, Imarat Sharia..." The place has a long religious history that is intensely attached with the birth and development of the Sufi culture in our country. The Sufi saints of the ancient times had made Bihar one of the important centers of religious, social and cultural developments, and Phulwari Sharif was one such region where the Sufi saints had spread their message of love and toleration. The small town of Phulwari Sharif has now turned into a prominent city and a notified area of the Patna, capital city of Bihar.Now it also comes under Patna Municipal Corporation and under the plan of Greater Patna. The present city of Phulwari Sharif constitutes majority of the Muslim population. The civilization of the city dates back to the days of inception of the Sufi culture in our country. The Phulwari Sharif had been frequented by most Sufi saints of that period, one of them being the famous Hazrat Pir Mujibullah.[2] Khanqah Mujeebia Khanqah Faridia& Sheesh Mahal where the Sufi saints had spread their message of love and Peace. Phulwari Sharif can also boast of a religious educational institution like Qazi Noorul Hasan Memorial School, popularly known as the Madarsa which has played a cardinal role in spreading the light of enlightenment to the poor masses of the region. Sangi Masjid of the place bears relics of the rich architectural past of the region. Built in red sand stone by the Mughal Emperor Humayun, the Mosque is one of the main attraction for the tourist and believers of the Muslim religion near the mosque there is a shrine [Tomb} of Lal shah baba its known as Lal miyan ki dargah there is some wellknown people are living there like Babu s/o Ahmed kabir Mr. Eiddu, Mr. qaiser Mr. Nisar malick,Mr. Rehan, Mr.Mumtaz Alam and Mr. Ashraf etc. Politics Shyam Rajak of RJD won the Phulwari seat (assembly constituency no. 193), reserved for scheduled castes, thrice in a row. He defeated Arun Manjhi of JD(U) in October 2005, Uday

Kumar of JD(U) in February 2005, and Sanjeev Prasad Toni of Congress in 2000. Representing Janata Dal in 1995 he defeated Sanjeev Prasad Toni of Congress. Sanjeev Prasad Toni of Congress won the seat thrice, defeating Vidyanand Vikal of IPF in 1990, and Dashrath Paswan of CPI in 1985 and 1980. Ram Prit Paswan of Janata Party defeated Dasrath Paswan of CPI in 1977.[3] Phulwari assembly constituency is part of Pataliputra (Lok Sabha constituency).[4] 188 Phulwari (SC) assembly constituency covers Phulwarisarif and Punpun community development blocks. Rohtas district Rohtas district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. Headquarters: Sasaram Area: 3850 km Population: 2,448,762 (2001 census) Sub Divisions: Sasaram, Dehri, Bikramganj Blocks: Nauhatta, Chenari, Nasriganj, Rohtas, Shivsagar, Dawath, Karakat, Nokha., Vikramganj, Kargahar, Sasaram, Dihri, Dinara, Kochas, Akorhigola, Rajpur, Tilauthu, Suryapura, Sanjhauli. Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Lentils Industry: Cement Rivers: Son, Kaw The Rohtas district is a part of Patna Division, and it has an area of 3850 km (square kilometres), a population of 2,448,762 (2001 census), and a population density of 636 persons per km. The language spoken in this area is Bhojpuri. The administrative headquarters of the district, Sasaram is a place of historical importance. Another important symbol of national pride is Sone Bridge, built over the Sone River.There are two parallel bridges, one for road and another for railway. The road bridge (Jawahar Setu built by Gammon India in 1963-65) over Sone was the longest (3061 m) in Asia until it was surpassed by the Mahatma Gandhi setu (5475 m) over the river Ganges at Patna. The railway bridge is still the longest railway bridge in Asia. The district is also home to the Rohtasgarh fort, which was one of the strongest forts in the medieval age. Contents * 1 Geography and climate * 2 Demographics * 3 Industry * 4 Transport Geography and climate The district has a variety of landscapes within a small area, with flat plains running alongside the Kaimur Range and Rohtas Plateau. The majority of the land is a fertile floodplain of the Son River which is a tributary of the Ganges originating in Madhya Pradesh. The mountains of the Kaimur Range, which is an extension of the Vindhya Range were heavily forested in recent history, however mass deforestation has occurred due to firewood being used as fuel. The area is highly fertile and due to this is densely populated. Villages in the district include Majhigawan, Tipa, Thumba and Nawadih. Tilouthu and Akbarpur are small towns, while Dehri-on-sone and Sasaram are the largest towns.

The climate of the region is sub-tropical and typical of the plains of Northern India, with hot dry summers and cool winters with cold nighttime temperatures. The monsoon is vital for the district as the economy is mainly based on agriculture. Deforestation has led to climate change and has had an environmental impact, with drought becoming more frequent and temperatures becoming warmer. As recently as the early 1990s, nighttime frost used to be common in the winter, however deforestation in the Kaimur hills has had a negative impact. Demographics Rohtas District in 2001 had 24,50,748 people (estimated 2010 population of 30,65,500)-12,83,485 males (52.3%) and 11,67,263 females (47.7%). Male literacy is 60.5%, female literacy 36.5%, and total literacy 49.2%--much lower than average national respective ratios of 75.3%, 53.7% and 64.8% Industry Until 1980, Dalmianagar was one of the major industrial cities in India. It had sugar, vegetable oil, cement, paper, and chemical factories (Rohtas Industries) but now they are closed. Dacoities, extortion and interference from the local mafia led to the downfall of this place. Recently it got bad names because of increasing kidnapping cases, which has flourished because of nexus between local politicians from Lalu Prasad Gang, criminals and the police. This incident has left many local businessmen moving out of the district. The basis for the economy, as in almost all of Bihar, is agriculture. Some major crops include macca, rice, gram and lentils. In 2008-09 budget establishment of railway factory in Dalmianagar has been passed and the campus of Dalmianagar factory has been taken by railway. Recently (NovemberDecember 2008) its foundation stone is laid by Railway Minister Sri. Lalu Prasad Yadav. Dehri On Sone is also famous for coal depot. This market brings customers from all over of North India for coal trading. There is one hydropower generation unit which generates 6.6 megawatts of electricity. The language in this district and the neighboring district of Bhojpur is Bhojpuri. Natwaar is famous for rice production. There are many ricemills located in this area. There are big business man like Ojha Ji, Ram sakal rai and other many people they have big business of ricemills in Natwar Transport This city is well connected with railway and road. Dehri on sone and Sasaram has big railway station with almost all the major train stops there. This place is well connected with the road as Grant Trunk Road passes through the heart of both of Dehri and Sasaram.Sasaram is well connected with Ara by rail as well as road. Banjari Banjari (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a town on the Sone River in Rohtas district, to the south-east of Sasaram at the south-western tip of Bihar, India.

The town is home to Kalyanpur Cement Ltd., one of the largest companies in the state. KCL is one of the oldest cement factory in India, and it is the burning example for fabulous society. Dehri-on-Sone & Sasaram Railway Station, situated on the Mughal Sarai-Gaya railway route, serves this town. Dehri-on-sone is the nearest railway station (38km). The main transport service between dehri and banjari is provided by private buses. Bikramganj Bikramganj (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Rohtas district in the state of Bihar, India. Contents * 1 Geography o 1.1 Important Places * 2 Education * 3 Culture * 4 Transport * 5 Places of Entertainment * 6 Demographics Geography Bikramganj is located at 2512N 8415E / 25.2N 84.25E / 25.2; 84.25.[1] It has an average elevation of 77 metres (252 feet). Important Places VIP COLONY [created by Late Dr. Ramji Singh] situated in Nasariganj Road,Maa Askaamani Mandir (Nasariganj Road),mauni baba ki kutia,Durga maa mandir ,kali mandir , a religious place near by bikramganj - bhaluni dham, brahm baba place,the origin of thora river which starts from Nonhar. Bihar's biggest biskoman factory, there are many kind of production in biskoman, It comes in the Bihar government.There are quite a few decent hotels as well,believe Jairam should be rated as the best among them taking into account its charges and the kind of facilities they provide. However, most of the time during the year is occupancy is almost full. Would advise people to get advance booking done in case one is planning any osry of visit. Education Education facilities in the district are minimal; there are a few colleges, such as A.S. COLLEGE(UNDER VEER KUWAR SING UNIVERSITY),PATEL COLLEGE, TAPESHWAR SING MAHILA COLLEGE. Modern ITI(near shyam takies),Modern ITI(Near Anjabit singh college)Sahabad ITI,Aryamanya ITI,Bhagwan singh ITI,Among schools following CBSE curriculum, there DOLPHIN English school, DAV public school, Krisha sudarshan public school ,Divine light high school etc. Few schools follow state curriculum. mother land convent high school is one of them. It produces number of engineers and docters. Culture

The main festivals of the district are Chatt, Hanuman Jayanti, Eid, Mohrram, Durga pooja, Diwali and Saraswati pooja, Hoii, Raksha bandhan, Christmas. Transport Bikramganj is well connected place by train and bus. This is around 120KM from Patna.The nearest airport is in Patna. and 7 km from Matuli village (Dr. Ramji Singh Home town), around 2okm NOKHA from Bikramganj here largest numbers of Rice mills all over INDIA and NOKHA is famous for NOKHA GARH.MATULI is a ideal village of bikramganj. Places of Entertainment Bikramganj has a number of cinema theaters - Shyam talkies. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Bikramganj had a population of 38,391. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Bikramganj has an average literacy rate of 75%, greater than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 67% and female literacy of 48%. 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Dalmianagar Dalmianagar (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is one of the oldest and biggest industrial towns in India. It is situated at Dehri-on-Sone on the banks of the Son River in Rohtas district of Bihar. This is a city and a Municipality in Rohtas district in the state of Bihar, India, Combinedly known as Dehri-Dalmianagar Nagar Palika. Contents * 1 History * 2 Rohtas Industries BG (5'6") Shed * 3 The Dehri Rohtas Light Railway (2'6") running shed * 4 The Dehri Rohtas Light Railway (2'6") running shed History The Industrial town of Dalmianagar was founded by the famous industrialist Ramkrishna Dalmia,Dalmianagar is the small part of DEHRI ON SONE .A doyens of business in 20th century India and founder of the Dalmia group. He was assisted by his younger brother Jaidayal Dalmia and son in law Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain in establishing many factories of Rohtas Industries Ltd. in Dalmianagar(DEHRI ON SONE). Shanti Prasad Jain took over Rohtas Industries Ltd. from his father-in-law, and under his stewardship, Dalmianagar developed into a massive industrial town from 1940s till 1980s with factories producing sugar, cement, paper, chemicals, vanaspati etc. employing top professionals of the country. Dalmianagar boasted of vast and beautiful housing colony, gardens, clubs, schools, market complexes, hospital etc. for its employees. Rohtas Industries had their own private aircraft in those days and a small air-field near Dalmianagar(DEHRI ON SONE).

The prosperity of Dalmianagar started to decline in mid 1970s as the law and order situation in this industrial town began to worsen. Local mafia indulged in dacoity and kidnapping. Slowly, executives and professionals began to leave and the factories were mismanaged. By mid 1980s factories started to shut down. Massive electricity bills remained unpaid by Rohtas Industries Ltd. to the State Electricity Board. There were irregularities in payment of salaries and wages to employees. By 1990s Dalmianagar looked like a ghost place. ==Rohtas Industries Dalmianagar and Dehri-Rohtas Light Railway==neeraj kumar singh was founder. The Dehri Rohtas Light Railway started off as Dehri Rohtas Tramway Company in 1907 promoted by The Octavius Steel and Company of Calcutta. The original contract was to build a 40 km feeder line from Rohtas to the East Indian Railway's Delhi - Calcutta trunk route at Dehri on sone. Soon thereafter, the tramway company was incorporated as a light railway in order to acquire the assets of the then defunct Dwara - Therria Light Railway in Assam. The DRLR opened to traffic in 1911 and was booming by 1913-14 when it carried over 50,000 passengers and 90,000 tons of freight, the goods traffic mainly consisting of marble and stone. In 1927, a 2.5 km spur was added to Rohtasgarh Fort from Rohtas. Rohtas Industries brought the line up to Tiura Pipradih by adding another 25 km to the DRLR, most of which passed through their property. The DRLR operated a very mixed bag of locomotives. It started off with 0-6-2 tank locomotives, three of which arrived from the Dwara - Therria Railway after it closed in 1909. In the pre IRS years, it also used 0-6-0, 0-4-0 (Sentinal) and 0-6-4 variants of tank locomotives. After the wartime increase in traffic the railway brought as many as eight new ZB class 2-6-2 tender locomotives, orders for which were equally split between Hudswell Clarke and Krauss Maffei. At its peak, the DRLR used to operate two daily passengers trains in each direction from Dehri-on-Sone and Tiura Pipradih, a run of 67 km. Apart from this the railway carried marble and stone traffic to the mainline at Dehri on sone. The railway also purchased several locomotives second hand notable among which were the A/1 class 2-8-4 tank locomotives built by Hudswell Clarke that arrived from the Pulgaon - Arvi system of Central Railway in 1959. Other unique locomotives that operated on DRLR were the several ex. Kalka - Simla Railway K class 2-6-2 tank engines by Kerr Stuart and 2-64 tank engines by Henschel that arrived from the Shahdara - Saharanpur Light Railway. Due to the decline in traffic and competition to road in the late 1970s, the DRLR succumbed and closed to traffic on July 16, 1984. Although the DRLR was a hotspot for narrow gauge enthusiasts from Europe in the 1970s, not much has appeared about it in the media since its closure. Brian Manktelow from London, England decided to unravel the fate of DRLR rolling stock in 1994 and visited the area. Below is a brief trip report:

An unannounced chance visit to the Rohtas Industries works Jan 19th, 1994 proved very fruitful. After making personal contact with the management, we were given permission and a guide to visit all three sites. Rohtas Industries BG (5'6") Shed All seven locomotives were present in and around the shed. The three Jung tanks and the two old East Indian Railway (EIR) 0-6-4 tank locomotives were seen in very clean condition and ready to run. The fourth Jung tank engine was stripped down for long-term repair. The only really grubby looking loco of the lot was the Kerr Stuart saddle tank engine. Considering that these locomotives had not turned a wheel since the early 1980s, they were indeed in remarkable condition and everyone around spoken to was optimistic that one day the order will come for them to return to service and they will be ready for it! Dehri Rohtas Railway 0-6-4T #6 Avonside works# 1982 of 1926. Dehri Rohtas Railway, 1980/01/14 Rhotas Industries Ltd. No.6 is a broad gauge 0-6-4 tank locomotive built by Vulcan Foundry in 1908. Prior to arriving at RIL in 1967, it worked for Eastern Railway as ER No.34308. Locomotive No. Type Manufacturer Makers No. Year 1 0-4-0ST Kerr Stuart 4173 1921 2 0-6-0T Jung 11736 1953 3 0-6-0T Jung 11737 1953 4 0-6-0T Jung 12796 1957 5 0-6-0T Jung 12797 1957 6 0-6-4T Vulcan Foundry 2294 1908 7 0-6-4T Vulcan Foundry 3103 1915 - All locomotives except No.1 & 3 were in good stored condition, looking very presentable - No.1 was in poor condition - No.3 was completely dismantled, under prolonged heavy repair. The Dehri Rohtas Light Railway (2'6") running shed Here it was a completely different story. The railway closed on July 16, 1984 and since then nothing has moved. In the shed there were seven ZB class and three tank engines, one being Kalka Simla Railway. All were seen totally rusted through and shot to pieces with trees and vegetation running riot on, through and around them. They are still locked up and guarded and inaccessible without permission though. Locomotive No. Type Manufacturer Makers No. Year 7-9 ZB 2-6-2 Hudswell Clarke 1806-8 1950 11-12 ZB 2-6-2 Krauss Maffei 17906-7 1954 13 ZB 2-6-2 Krauss Maffei 18300 1955 15 ZB 2-6-2 Slavonski Brod. -1959 24 K 2-6-2T North British ` 18598 1908 6 ` 0-6-4T Avonside ` 1982 1926

RI 1 0-6-4T Avonside 1457 1902 - All locos were seen in poor or derelict condition - No.7-9, 11-13 and No.15 were brought new by DRLR. - No.24 is ex. Kalka Simla Railway, Northern Railway No.529 - RI 1 is ex Dwara - Therria Light Railway - Most of the above locos still had their work plates intact - The ZBs had raised brass numerals on the cabside and raised brass DRLR lettering on some of the tenders The Dehri Rohtas Light Railway (2'6") running shed The workshop is situated a little way outside of the town and was once again found locked up and guarded. Upon entry we found a time warp on the whole place. Two ZB locomotives were seen stripped down in mid repair and seven tank engines in various stages of dereliction. Also present was a small Orenstein and Koppel diesel engine that was locked up in a wire cage compound so details are not available. Also in the works were several items of coaching stock all dating back from the early 1900 and built in Leeds, England. On the railway itself, the old exchange sidings with the mainline were packed with rusting narrow gauge wagons and boxcars. The entire track leading from the sidings and out into the country has been lifted but the track bed was quite easy to follow. The area around the loco shed and in the factory boundaries is still intact although fenced off and inaccessible from the local paths and roads. Vast amount of wagons still survive but all like the locos are in deplorable condition. Locomotive No. Type Manufacturer Makers No. Year Condition 2 0-6-2T Kerr Stuart 3120 1920 derelict 3 0-6-2T Avonside 1459 1902 stripped down 5 0-6-2T Avonside 1856 1920 derelict 10 ZB 2-6-2 Hudswell Clarke 1809 1950 under repair 14 ZB 2-6-2 Krauss Maffei 18301 1955 under repair 23 K 2-6-2T North British 18788 1909 dismantled for scrap 28 2-6-4T Hunslet --derailed at 45 deg. against wall 29 2-6-4T Hunslet --derelict RI 2 0-6-2T Avonside 1458 1902 very derelict -Diesel 0-4-0 Orenstein and Koppel --locked up in wire cage - This is how the workshop was left at closure of the line in 1984 - RI 2 is ex Dwara - Therria Light Railway - No.23 is ex. Kalka Simla Railway, Northern Railway No.514

We have not seen any reports of visits to the works or the railway since this time. Although twelve years have passed since the last reported visit, it would hardly come as a surprise to us if it is still much the same. In Brian's words, "If anything, or at all still exists and you are able to get in all right, you will be in seventh heaven! It was a fantastic time warp, be warned that you will need at least half a day to cover the three sites plus the usual tea and biscuits chat time." A slightly modified version of No.5, the No. 6 engine was a 0-6-4T also built by Avonside in 1926. [Photo by Mick Pope] Every well equipped railway needs an ambulance coach. This is the Dehri Rhotas Railway's version powered by a converted jeep. How do they turn the jeep at the destination? Easy, they insert a jack under the centre and spin it round - which is fine unless it falls off part way round - which it did on our visit!. Dehri on Sone, 1980 ==Closure of Industrial Complex, Dalmianagar(DEHRI ON SONE),BIHAR Of total of 12,629 workers employed in Rohtas Group of Industries Prior to its Closure in July 1984, 10,312 workers were permanent and remaining 2,317 were either contract labour or casual worker. Excepting 444 employees engaged in essential services including security services, all were thrown out of employment, Thus together with the unemployed registered with the local Employment exchange numbering 3,28,839, the total number of workers seeking employment as in June, 1987 added up to 3,41,024. The situation further worsened when thousand of people who were earlier engaged in ancillary industries in some form or the other also lost their job. In 2009 Rohtas Industries Ltd. has been undertaken by Indian Railway to start manufacturing of Freight Bogie and Coupler for high capacity, higher axle load wagons; but it is not going properly. As per information given by the Minister of State for Railways, Shri K.H. Muniyappa in a written reply in Lok Sabha on 15th April, 2010, the factory is to come up on Public Private Participation (PPP) basis. Technology to be utilized in this plant is yet to be obtained by Indian Railways. Further progress will start with acquisition of new technology. . Now there is also a news that NTPC is setting up a plant nearby and would provide housing to its employees in some of existing houses in the colony. Dehri Dehri On Sone DEHRI (Hindi: name: DehrionSone or ) (Traditionally called , New English

, Means on the Bank of Sone River) is a city and a

Municipality in Rohtas district in the state of Bihar, India. It is a Sub Division under Patna Division and Headquarter of The Bihar Military Police (BMP-2) as well as The Police headquarters of the Sahabad Range. This city is also known as Industrial Town of the Rohtas district.DEHRI ON SONE is Well connected by road & rail.Dehri has Own Airbase,but this time not working in proper way.Dehri is located on the bank of Sone.Dehri On Sone boasted

of vast & beautiful colonies,Educational institutes,Hotels,Restaurants,Hospitals,Clubs,Marketing places,Theaters, etc. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 About Closure of Industrial Complex, Dalmianagar(DEHRI ON SONE) * 3 Demographics * 4 Climate * 5 Education * 6 How to reach Dehri On Sone * 7 Business * 8 Hospitals * 9 Places to see o 9.1 Indrapuri Barrage o 9.2 Rohtasgarh Fort o 9.3 Sasaram * 10 Festivals * 11 Shopping * 12 Hotels & Restaurants * 13 Theaters in DEHRI ON SONE * 14 Educational Achievements * 15 Nearby Villages Geography Dehri, a small town in northeastern India, lies on the bank of the Sone River with an average elevation of 99 metres (324 feet). It has a Railway station on the Grand Chord railways route. Until 1984, it had three railway stations. There were two separate railway stations called DehrionSone - one for narrow gauge Dehri Rohtas Light Railway and one for the Grand Chord Line. The two railway stations had no rail link because of gauge difference and were separated by a road called Station road. The third station, Dehri City Railway station, was situated at the centre of the town on Dehri-Rohtas light Railway route. The Grand Trunk Road/ (NH 2) passes through the heart of the town. Dalmianagar the industrial town is just beside Dehri. Dehri is also called Dehri-On-Sone and sometimes combined as Dehri-Dalmianagar. The main occupation of the local population is agriculture - principally rice, Lime stone and Coal Trading.DEHRI has own Airbase,but this time it is not working in proper way. About Closure of Industrial Complex, Dalmianagar(DEHRI ON SONE) The Industrial town of Dalmianagar was founded by the famous industrialist Ramkrishna Dalmia, a doyens of business in 20th century India and founder of the Dalmia group. He was

assisted by his younger brother Jaidayal Dalmia and son in law Sahu Shanti Prasad Jain in establishing many factories of Rohtas Industries Ltd. in Dalmianagar.(DEHRI ON SONE) Shanti Prasad Jain took over Rohtas Industries Ltd. from his father-in-law, and under his stewardship, Dalmianagar developed into a massive industrial town from 1940s till 1980s with factories producing sugar, cement, paper, chemicals, vanaspati etc. employing top professionals of the country. DEHRI ON SONE boasted of vast and beautiful housing colony, gardens, clubs, schools, market complexes, hospital etc. for its employees. Rohtas Industries had their own private aircraft in those days and a small air-field at DEHRI ON SONE. The prosperity of Dalmianagar started to decline in mid 1970s as the law and order situation in this industrial town began to worsen. Local mafia indulged in dacoity and kidnapping. Slowly, executives and professionals began to leave and the factories were mismanaged. By mid 1980s factories started to shut down. Massive electricity bills remained unpaid by Rohtas Industries Ltd. to the State Electricity Board. There were irregularities in payment of salaries and wages to employees. By the 1990s, Dalmianagar looked like a ghost place. A total of 12,629 workers employed in Rohtas Group of Industries Prior to its Closure in July 1984. 10,312 workers were permanent and remaining 2,317 were either contract labour or casual worker. Except for 444 employees engaged in essential services, including security services, all were thrown out of employment. Thus together with the unemployed registered with the local Employment exchange numbering 3,28,839, the total number of workers seeking employment as in June, 1987 added up to 3,41,024. The situation further worsened when thousands of people who were earlier engaged in ancillary industries in some form or the other also lost their job. Demographics As of the 2001 Indian census,[1] Dehri had a population of 119,007. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Dehri has an average literacy rate of 66%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 74% and, female literacy is 57%. Official language is Hindi and English. People speak in Hindi but mostly in Bhojpuri.Some well educated people speak English. DEHRI ON SONE is divided in 39 wards. Climate Dehri becomes quite hot during summer. Although summer temperatures may reach 43 to 48 degrees Celsius, the average summer temperature is 38 degrees. During winter the temperature is around 5 to 10 degrees Celsius. Normal rainfall is 950 mm. The best time to visit is between October and March. Education Dehri does not have many good educational institutes for higher degrees; however, for primary education, it offers many government supported and private schools, which provide education in Hindi medium as well as English medium. A few of the famous schools

are GEMS English School, Model School, DAV Public School, RBS Education Foundation,Holistic Heritage Academy, Sun Beam Public School and Dehri High School,Dillion High School, High School (Inter College) Dalmiangar, STR School etc. There are many girl's school - Rama Rani Jain Balika Uchch Vidyalaya, Balika vidyalaya, Dalmianagar and one womens' college - Mahila College. For higher education, there are several UG colleges:Jawahar Lal Nehru College, Jagjeevan College, Women's College and RKS College,Baba Ganinath College,Mata Gujari Mahila College. There are plenty of private institutions and facilities. It is also a good environment for technical education, many iti in Dehri,like Govt. ITI, prabha ITI on NH-2, and vishwkarma ITI in katar (DEHRI ON SONE).NARAYAN MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL,Jamuhar(DEHRI ON SONE).Polytechnic College is under construction in DEHRI ON SONE. The City now has a vast pool of professionals working in the reputed organizations of the country and abroad. How to reach Dehri On Sone You can reach DEHRI ON SONE via road or Train from different part of india.DEHRI ON SONE have own Airbase,but this time it is not working.All major train stops at Dehri On Sone Jn. station like Newdelhi-Ranchi Rajdhani Exp,Poorva Exp,Garib Rath,Purushottam Exp,Jalianwala bagh Exp,Parasnath Exp,Shipra Exp etc., more than 2 dozen Express train stops at Dehri on Sone station. Dehri on sone is situated between Varanasi & Dhanbad on NH-2.DEHRI ON SONE Jn. is the most important Railway station between Mughalsarai and Gaya. Business Business here is principally based on agriculture, Lime Stone and one very good business area is the coal depot, where trading of coal takes place and which employ more than a lakh of people including people from other parts of the state and the country. The coal depot is the second largest coal trading place in the country.DEHRI exports sand in all over india. Hospitals Narayan Medical College & Hospital Jamuhar(DEHRI ON SONE),ESI Hospital,Gems Hospital,Govt. Hospital,Bose Clinic,Jeewan Jyoti,Life line are Famous Hospitals of this town.Large number of victims/patients come for treatment because DEHRI has large number of doctors. Places to see Indrapuri Barrage,Rohtas Fort,Naulakha mandir,Shershah Tomb,Hanuman Mandir,Annicut Park,and one of the best mohalla "Gandhi Nagar" to see.It's a great place to see. Indrapuri Barrage Indrapuri Barrage is one of the longest dams in India, storing a large amount of water. It is located nearly 5 km from Main Town. From it flow 2 major and several other small canals which supply the whole of western and central Bihar with water for irrigation.

Rohtasgarh Fort Rohtasgarh Fort Situated at Rohtas, 40 km south of Dehri on sone on Kaimur Range and 1500 m above sea level, It is easily accessible via NH 2C (National Highway 2C originating from NH 2 the Grand Trunk Road at Dehri itself) Famous for Rohtasgarh Fort. Rohitashva, son of King Harishchandra founded the town of Rohtas Garh in Rohtas district, Bihar, as well as Rohtak, Punjab, originally Rohitakaul, meaning from the Kul (family) of Rohit. The Rohtas Fort is one of the most ancient forts of India. The culture of the Sone Valley is best symbolized by the Rohtasgarh Fort, which is a testimony of strength and power. Places of interest here are Hathiya Pol and Elephant Gate, The Aina Mahal, Jami Masjid and Habsh Khan's mausoleum, Ganesh Temple, The Hanging House, Rohtasan Temple and Devi Temple, Diwan-e-khas, and Diwan-e-aam. There are many water falls in this area, falls from top of kaimur hill towards east and joins Sone River and one can also Visit Dhurwan Kund & Gupta Dham caves, Shergarh fort on this Hill. Mausole de Sher Shah Suri Sasaram Sasaram Situated 17 km West of Dehri, Sasaram is easily accessible via Grand Trunk Road/NH 2 and by train. Sasaram has a railway station (Junction) on Howrah-New Delhi Grand Chord line of the Indian Railways, connecting Calcutta and New Delhi, Head quarter of Rohtas District as well as the Sadar Subdivision Sasaram. There are several monuments near town. It is famous for the Sher Shah Suri Tomb, a hexagonally-shaped tomb built of stone, which dates back to the middle of the sixteenth century. This tomb is the second highest tomb in India. It is situtated in the middle of a big tank. It is a fine specimen of the pathan architecture, and a tourist attraction. Recently Sher Shah Suri Tomb was selected as "3rd Wonder of Bihar" [2] and nominated for "7 Wonders of India." [3] The tomb of Hasan Khan Suri, father of Sher Shah, is also located in Sasaram. His tomb is also known as Sukha Roza. There is a temple of Goddess Tarachandi and a small inscription of Pratap Dhawal on the rock close to the temple of Chandi Devi. Hindus assemble there in large numbers to worship the goddess. Festivals Major festivals are Holi, Durgapuja, Dussehra, Diwali, Chitragupt Puja, Bhai dooj, Teej, Vat Savitri pooja and most important is Chhath.Chhath is very nicely celebrated in the town after Patna. The whole town is decorated like heaven. Wherever people from town have migrated, they come back to celebrate this festival. People dedicate themselves in social services like cleaning of roads, helping others during this festival. Shopping

There are two main markets, Dehri Bazaar and Station Road Bazaar. There is no local speciality of Dehri markets. But you get fresh fruits & vegetables at station road market and dalmianagar bazar. Shopping center at old GT Road called Sinha Complex which is single largest 7 floor shopping complex in town is going to open shortly. Dehri is also known for its jewellerys it is a big hub of jewellery manufacturing for local towns and cities like Garhwa, Daltonganj, Sasaram, Aurangabad, Bhabhua etc. Hotels & Restaurants Rimjhim Hotel is the oldest hotel with excellent facilities in the town which is situated in pali road.Urvashi Hotel,Vandana Hotel,Hotel Sonebreez,Upkar hotel,Samrat Hotel,Aashirwad Hotel are some important Hotels of DEHRI ON SONE.There are many Hotels situated at Station Road in DEHRI ON SONE.Hanumani Niketan,Sufi niketan,Vivah Mandap,Agrasen Bhawan,Lagan Mandap etc. are some important Marriage Purpose Hotels in DEHRI ON SONE.Family restaurant,Chahat,Urvashi restaurant are famous restaurants of Dehri On Sone. Theaters in DEHRI ON SONE Jai hind,Apshra,Trimurti,Rohit Chitra Mandir,Delight are the important Theaters of this city Educational Achievements In 2005 it was golden year for Dehri as Manish Kumar topped in metric exam in whole Bihar whose is currently in Bharath University. Nearby Villages Katar, Bastipur, Narayanpur(village of amit kumar tiwary ), Bheria, Tar-bangala, Manikpur, Manoura, Badiha, Darihat, Makrain, Saron, Bisrampur, sakhra and Baligaon. The KATAR village The unique name of the village Katar has got its name from one of the incident that took place at the time of first Independence of war i.e. 1857. Katar means a knife. Villagers killed some British police using knife and threw their bodies in the nearby well, since then it has got its name. Katar is one of the village surrounded by the other villages like Narayanpur in the North, Shankarpur in South, Sone River in East and Bhaluari in West. This village has population around 1500-1600. It has two Govt. primary school located in the vicinity and one DAV public School run by private organisation. Out of this two Govt. primary school one is situated in the blessing surrounding of "Goddess Kali". Some of the people who have got their primary education from this school are serving in different Govt. as well as private sector for the nation. This village is one of the fastest developing village in the area. The educational percentage of the village people is increasing rapidly. It has one famous temple in the village which is Kaali Mandir. All the people who get married take the blessings of Maa Kaali while going for marriage and after return. During Durga puja this temple witness a huge gathering of people from nearby villages and also

from far flung areas like Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand etc. One of the largest contribution of this and the nearby villages are that some of them have dedicated their whole life in making one of the nations pride in Industrial sector i.e. Navratna PSU "Bokaro Steel Plant" Koath Koath is a notified area in Rohtas district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Education Geography Koath is located at 2519N 8416E / 25.32N 84.27E / 25.32; 84.27[1]. It has an average elevation of 73 metres (239 feet). One one the main challenges this "big" village faces is the virtual isolation from big cities. Koath lies away from the main highways and people have to resort to travel by rickshaws or horse-carts when they land in Babhanawal adda. The main bridge linking Koath to Babhanawal Adda was broken for decades, albeit it is functional ineffectively now-a-days. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[2], Koath had a population of 20,809. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Koath has an average literacy rate of 48%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 59%, and female literacy is 36%. In Koath, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Education Jagnarayan high school serves to provide high school education for Koath and its neighboring villages. Nokha Nokha (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Rohtas district in the Indian state of Bihar.A notified person Mahendar Prasad of Nokha is also of this Village Contents * 1 Demographics * 2 Economy Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Nokha had a population of 22,338. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Nokha has an average literacy rate of 53%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 64%, and female literacy is 42%. In Nokha, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Economy

Nokha is renowned for the numerous rice mills it has. This makes Nokha the center of rice production in Bihar. Although, the number of rice mills has been decreasing over the years, it still is the main driving force for Nokha's economy. Sasaram Sasaram (Hindi: , Urdu: ) , sometimes also spelled as Sahasram, is the administrative headquarters of the Rohtas district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Connectivity and transportation * 4 Education * 5 Sasaram HVDC back-to-back station * 6 IT and e-Governance * 7 Demographics * 8 Economy History Sasaram is an ancient city, and it is believed that a demon named 'Sahastrabahu' lived near here from the age of 'Ramayana'. Sahastrabahu was killed by Parsuram. Earlier, the name of the city was Sahasram, initials of Sahasrabahu and Parsuram. It is also believed that the name of the city, Sasaram, came from his name Sahastrabahu to Sahasram (Sahastrabahu + Parsuram) to Sasaram. Some historians[who?] also believed that name from Nikulakashakabasu, an ancient king and Parsuram, the warrior sage. Sasaram is the birthplace of the Afghan king Sher Shah Suri, who ruled in Delhi, much of Northern India, what is now Pakistan, and eastern Afghanstan for five years, after defeating Humayun, the Mughal Emperor. After his death, his son Islam Shah, then Adil Shah and Hindu king Hemu, or Hem Chandra VikramadityA, ruled the empire of Sher Shah Suri. Many of Sher Shah Suri's practices were adopted by the Mughals and the British Raj including taxation, administration, and the building of a paved Grand Trunk Road from Kabul to Bengal. Sasaram has a 122 ft (37.2 m) red sandstone tomb of Sher Shah Suri, built in the IndoAfghan style which stands in the middle of an artificial lake. It is an example of medieval Islamic funerary architecture in India. It borrows heavily from the Lodhi style, and was once covered in blue and yellow glazed tiles indicating an Iranian influence. The massive free standing dome also has an aesthetic aspect of the Bhuddhist stupa style of the Mauryan period. There is another tomb, which is the tomb of Sher Shah's father, in the middle of green field at Sherganj, which is known as Sukha Rauza. These tombs were built by Sher Shah.

Sasaram also has a baulia, a pool used by the emperor's consorts for bathing. The NH2 (Grand Trunk Road) passes through the city. The Rohtasgarh fort The fort of Sher Shah Suri at Rohtasgarh is in Sasaram. This fort has a history back to 7th century AD. The fort was built by Raja Harishchandra in the name of his son Rohitashwa, and houses the churasan temple, ganesh temple, diwan-e khas, diwan-e-aam, and various other structures dating back to different centuries, and to different styles of architecture. The fort also served as the headquarters of Raja Man Singh during his reign as the governor of bihar and bengal under the regime of Akbar. Rohtaas fort in Bihar should not be confused with Rohtaas fort, near Jhelum, Punjab, in what is now Pakistan. The Rohtaas fort was also built by Sher Shah Suri, during the period when Humayun was exiled from Hindustan. Sher Shah Suri Tomb, Sasaram Sasaram is also famous for the Maa Tara Chandi Temple (where a fantabulous crowd can be always observed in SHRAWAN month or in DUSSEHARA), and also for the Kaimur mountain. The two waterfalls, which add to Sasaram's scenic beauty, are the Manjhar Kund, and Dhua Kund. A fair is organized at these places every year, after a day of Raksha Bandhan. The two waterfalls have capacity to generate 50-100 MW of electricity, if utilized properly. Sasaram is also famous for Stone Chips and Stone mining industries. Rohtas, in south of Sasaram, known to be the residence of Satyawadi Raja Harischandra. On the name of his son, Rohitashwa, the district is so called Rohtas. Sasaram is also famous for the Samrat Ashok pillar (1 of the 13 laghu shilalekh), situated in a small cave of Kaimur hill, near Chandan Shaheed. Languages spoken in this region are Bhojpuri, Hindi, and Urdu; religions comprise of Islam, Buddhist, Jain, and Hindu. Haji Begum, who fought against British in 1857, belongs to muhalla pathantoli Sasaram is alone woman in Bihar known as Jhansi ki rani of Bihar. She was a land lady at Sasaram having 52 villages near the town. Her family members still live at muhalla pathan toli of Sasaram. The sword of Haji Begum is protected at the house of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan muhalla pathan toli Sasaram.The other notable family is of famous lawyer of his time Hazakat Hussain khan and Sadaqat Hussain Khan.One of the sons of Sadaqat Hussain khan is Shaukat Hussain Khan popularly known as Doolha Sasarami.He is a famous Hasya Kavi.The famliy is said to be belonged to Sher Shah Suri clan and is highly educated and reputed family. Babu Nishan Singh who was the chief of Babu Kunwar Singh's army to fight with Britishers during the 1857 GADAR (freedom struggle), also belonged to this place. Sasaram is also famous for Samadhi of Shree Shree 108 Swami Paramgayanand Puri Ji Maharaj. It is situated in Parampuri (raipurchoure) 7.5 miles (12 km) from Sasaram. People come from all over the world. The ashram also known as Navlakha Ashram.

Jainath Bhawan(House of Verma Family): Jainath Bhawan, is a grand mansion built by late Babu Harihar Prasad Verma & his wife Uma Devi Verma in the year 1945 at Sasaram.The name of the mansion is named after Babu Jainath Prasad, an eminent lawyer of his time.He was a Zamindar and first lawyer to practice in english.Babu Harihar Prasad verma was an eminent citizen and worked as Honorary Magistrate at Sasaram, all his life. The family is still very much attached with their ancestral village at Meyari Bazar undertaking the farming in modern ways.A Secondary School which was established by Late Uma Devi Verma, named Harihar Uma Madhyamik Vidyalaya still runs at Meyari Bazar, now taken over by the government. Members of the Verma family are spread all around the globe,excelling in their respective field of work and are flourishing with their traditional family values. Geography Sasaram is located at 2457N 8402E / 24.95N 84.03E / 24.95; 84.03.[1] It has an average elevation of 101 metres (331 feet). Sasaram is also famous for Samadhi of Shree Shree 108 Swami Paramgayanand Puri Ji Maharaj. sasaram is the oldest city in india. Connectivity and transportation Sasaram is well connected both by Road and Railways by major metros like New Delhi and Kolkata. Sasaram has a Railway station (junction) which is located in the centre of the city on the Grand Truck Road. The railway route through Sasaram is the Grand Chord line of the Indian Railways, connecting Calcutta and New Delhi, which has three railway tracks running in parallel (first in India) Patna Sasaram station is about 100 km (2.5 hours) from Varanasi & 100 km from BodhGaya, the most sacred place for Buddhism. One can catch trains from sasaram to 3 main cities of India Kolkata, New Delhi, and Bombay. One can get a train from New Delhi as well as Kolkata. Some of the trains which stop in Sasaram are Kalka mail, Purushottam Exp, Mahabodhi Exp, Kolkata Mail, Jodhpur Exp, Chambal Exp etc. The main mode of local transportation (inside Sasaram district) are buses operated by both private operators and the state government. The private buses are more frequent and connect to most of the local bazaars. It is one of the best Transport service provider. Some remote areas still have horse carts and bullock carts as mode of transportation. Still around 40% of villages in Sasaram district are yet to see a macadamized. Education Bihar has among the lowest rates of literacy in India Literacy in India#Bihar literacy challenges, and Sasaram shares this trend. Due to the lack of sources of employment, students of higher education often choose to migrate to other cities in search of employment. Key educational institutions in Sasaram: * Medical Colleges, Narayan Medical College & Hospital (NMCH) NMCH is situated on the G.T. Road, 9 KM east from Sasaram near Village 'Jamuhar'.

* Colleges: Sasaram serves as local education hub for students from in and around area of Sasaram. There are 4 government colleges (Sri Shankar Mahavidyala, S P Jain College, Shershah College and one women only colleges "Rohtas Mahila MahaVidhyalaya". The district does not have a single university and most of the students prefer to go to another more developed cities like Patna and Varanasi for higher education. * High School: Sri Shankar Rajakiya Inter College, Town High school, Rama Rani Jain High School (Women) * Convent Schools: Lack of quality education in the government run schools lead to opening of many private schools in the city. There are more than 50 private schools for primary and secondary education. Some of the famous school of Sasaram are Ishwar chandra Vidyasagar Academy (Rauza Road), Rajendra Vidyalaya,maa sharde siksha mandir karan sarai. DAV Public School Sasaram (link DAV Sasaram), Bal Vikas Vidyalaya, St. Paul's school,Bal Bharati(civil Lines), St. Xavier, Bright Career Academy, Pragya Niketan Public School, Saint Michael's academy,etc. Sasaram HVDC back-to-back station At Sasaram, there is at 2456'31"N 8358'17"E (may be wrong facility) a 500 MW back-toback HVDC station for interconnecting the power grids of North and East India together. This facility was inaugurated in 2002 and successfully built by AREVA [1]. At the moment, Powergrid Corporation of India is planning to relocate the scheme to Kolhapur, more than 1,500 away from Sasaram, a 'first of its kind' project that has never been done in the past. Wiki letter w cropped.svg This section requires expansion. IT and e-Governance The eKiosk (Sahaj Vasudha Kendra, Jamuhar) i.e. CSC The First Comman Service Centre (eKiosk) of Rohtas District named SAHAJ Vasudha Kendra, Jamuhar is inaugurated in Jamuhar Village on 15 August 2008. The Information technology revolution will come to village through Vasudha Kendra. The V.L.E., Sahaj Vasudha Kendra, Mr. Kundan Singh Shakrawaria introduce villagers and young boys & girls to how they use the centre for their development and needful. The CSC is ready to help in e-governance facility to Bihar & Central Government. The centre is waiting to start Block information Centre, e-district plan and SWAN, which is in progress. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Sasaram had a population of 131,042 males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Sasaram has an average literacy rate of 65%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, and female literacy is 58%. In Sasaram, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Economy The closure of the industries of dalmia group at dalmianagar resulted in widespread unemployment. Sasaram's economy is mainly driven by agriculture and related industries like rice polishing. Because of the fertile land around the town it acts like a local trading

center for food grains, agricultural products, agricultural equipments etc.This region is also known as Dhan Ka Katora (a bowl of food grains). The rice collected through the open market in sasaram is sold in the markets of Kolkata and New Delhi. There are not many industries except for rock mining. There are many stone industries near, Jamuhar, Karwandia, Tlab and some other places near Sasaram. There is a scope for improvement in the stone industry by proper handling and getting rid of local corruption and undesirable elements . Tilouthu Tilothu is a little town in Rohtas district, Bihar, India, 15 km from Dehri-on-Sone. This city has got its name from Lord Tileshwarnath, a form of Lord Shiva. It was ruled over by Raja Shahmal before independence whose fort still refresh the reminiscences of its owner. Geographical Location Kaimur pahari stands erect in the west of the city whereas river Sone blesses the farmers with its water in the east. It may be developed as a tourist place. There is a very charming & worthwatching waterfall located at the far ends of this small city. It has also got religious importance i.e. one of Maa Shakti's forms in form of a cave is located alongside the waterfall. The waterfall is a hot spot of picnic for people from the near villages. The negligence attitude and the fear of naxalites hinders the required exposure to this place. Tilothu cattle fair is considered to be the largest cattle fair in the state. This town is well connected by road to an important junction Dehri-on-Sone.For primary education, a lot of government supported and private schools are there, where you can get education in Hindi medium as well as English medium. A few of the famous schools are Sarswati Shishu Mandir,Amaltas Niketan and Tilouthu High School etc. For higher education, there are one undergrads colleges: Radha Shanta College. Nearest village Babuganj, Saraiya, Mirasarai, Maharajganj, etc. This city is very popular among near by villages as a place of worship of Lord Shiva. Nalanda district Nalanda district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Bihar Sharif town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Nalanda district is a part of Patna Division. Headquarters: Bihar Sharif Area: 2,367 km? Population: Total: 1997995 Rural: 1701777 Urban: 296218 Sub Divisions: Bihar Sharif, Rajgir, Hilsa Blocks: Giriyak, Rahui, Noorsarai, Harnaut, Chandi (Nalanda), Islampur (Nalanda), Rajgir, Asthawan, Sarmera, Hilsa, Biharsharif, Ekangarsarai, Bena, Nagarnausa, Karai Parsarai, Silao, Parwalpur, Katrisarai, Bind, Tharthari Agriculture: Rich Paddy Fields, Potato, Onion. Industry: Handloom weaving

Rivers: Phalgu, Mohane Villages: Akabarpur(Asthawan,12KM from B'sharif),chhoti att,Pojh, Karai Parsarai, Kanchanpur, Gulni,kewai,jiar, Mafi, Belchi, Paltpura,Momindpur, Begumpur neay by Nalanda University, Bangpur, Dariyapur (Khirauti),Nonaura(one KM from Noorsarai,located in Hilsa Road),Ajaypur (Near Mahadev sthan) Block - Noorsarai,BARAI(near islampur railway station kurtha(hilsa)sathopur, khojakipur, Pojh, Chero, Parnama (Near sarmera),paithna(near about bihar sarif),Palatpur,Bhagvanpur(Ishlampur),Mohaddipur(Bind)Sonchari,Lalsibigha (Near Mahadeo Sthan Hilsa), Sundi-Bigha, Peshaur etc.Saunray is also a village about 5 km west fron Nalanda town. Bihar Sharif Bihar Sharif (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the district headquarters of Nalanda district in the state of Bihar in eastern India. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Economy * 4 Banks o 4.1 Public Sector Banks o 4.2 Private Sector Banks o 4.3 Regional Rural Bank o 4.4 ATMs * 5 Brokerage Houses * 6 Insurance Companies * 7 Institutions o 7.1 Colleges o 7.2 Schools * 8 Cinema Halls * 9 Demographics * 10 Transportation History Biharsharif has the credit to impart the budhism in tibet. The ancient Odantpuri University was located here. The odantpuri university was the third important learning seat of budhism. This university was also a excellent learning centre of Budhism, Hinduism and Philosphy. Bihar Sharif was once the capital of the Delhi Sultanate Governors of Bihar between 13th and 16th centuries, when the city was an active cultural center and an important seat of Islamic thought and learning. The word Bihar may have come from the large number of viharas thus employed in the area that later became Bihar. Originally Bihar

was name of the town, which was headquarters of the rulers in the Magadha region in the medieval period. Later on the headquarters was shifted from Bihar to Patana (current Patna) by Sher Shah Suri and the whole Magadha region was called Bihar. It lies east of the Paimar River, a tributary of the Ganges. It served as the capital of the Pala dynasty (10th century AD) and contains a 5th century AD Gupta pillar . Nearby lie the remains of Odantapuri (q.v.), a great vihara, or college of Buddhist learning, from which the name Bihar was derived. Geography It is located 62 km from Patna, the capital of Bihar state. It is 13 km from the ruins at Nalanda and well connected with Patna via train and buses. Also, It is well connected with Kolkata, Ranchi and Delhi. There is a small town located on the top of a craggy rock. The old center of the town has examples of medieval Islamic architecture, such as the Bukhari Mosque. Thousands of pilgrims of all religions visit the tombs of Makhdoom Sheikh Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri, a Muslim saint of 14th century, and the Syed Ibrahim Malick Biya. Economy Agriculture is the prime activity as it is an ideal place for agriculture-based industry. Tourism activities in nearby places like Nalanda, Rajgir and Pawapuri boost economy of this town very much. This town supplies agricultural products like cauliflower, potato, mustard seed and other vegetables to neighboring states. Although economy is mainly based on agriculture products, footwear and garments are also manufactured at household industries. Banks Public Sector Banks * Allahabad Bank * AXIS Bank * Bank of Baroda * Bank of India (2 Branches) * Canara Bank * Central Bank of India * Corporation Bank * IDBI Bank * Oriental Bank of Commerce * Punjab National Bank * State Bank of India (4 Branches) * Syndicate Bank * Union Bank of India * United Bank of India Private Sector Banks

* Axis Bank * ICICI Bank * HDFC Bank Regional Rural Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank [Non Functional] * Nalanda Co-Operative Bank [Not Functional] ATMs * SBI Bazar Branch ATM * SBI Hospital More ATM * SBI Kachchari Road Branch ATM * SBI Railway Station ATM * Canara Bank Branch ATM,Khandakpar * Bank of India ATM, Bharaopar * Punjab National Bank ATM, MG Road * ICICI Bank Branch ATM Ranchi Road * IDBI Bank Branch ATM, Maghra market, Bharopar * Axis Bank Branch ATM,Ranchi Road,Opp. Govt. Bus Stand * Axis Bank ATM,Etwari Bazar,Mogul Kuan Brokerage Houses * Angel Broking Ltd. - Ramchandrapur * ICICI Direct.com - Ramchandrapur * Religare Broking - Nai Sarai * HDFC Securities - Bharaopar Insurance Companies * Bajaj Allianz * LIC * Oriental Insurance * National Insurance * New India Assurance * United Assurance * SBI Life * TATA AIG Institutions Colleges * Alama Iqbal College * Nalanda College http://nalandacollegebiharsharif.com/ * Kisan College * Sardar Patel Memorial College * Soghra College

* Nalanda Mahila College * Paru Mahto College * KST College http://kstcollege.com Schools Government Schools * Adarsh High School * Government Girls High Schhol * Soghra High school * Nalanda Collegiate * National High School, Shaikhana * National High School, Bari Pahari * Patel High School * Town High School Private Schools * DAV Public School * RPS School * Eden Garden School * Rosemaryland School Cinema Halls * Ajanta * Kisan * Kumar * Naaz * Vandana Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Bihar had a population of 231,972. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Bihar has an average literacy rate of 60%, higher than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 67% and female literacy of 52%. Some 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Transportation The town is well connected by railway to all the major cities e.g. Delhi (Shramjeevi Express, 2392) (Magadh Express, 2401), Patna (Many local and express trains are available at regular interval) to Kolkata, Kanpur, Lucknow, Allahabad and Varanasi. This town is also well connected by road to major cities like Patna, Rajgir, Ranchi, Dhanbad, Kolkata, Gaya, Hazaribag and Jahanabad. Also, buses for these cities are available at regular interval. Hilsa

Hilsa (Hindi:

, Urdu: )is a sub-division of district Nalanda, the famous Buddhist

knowledge center. It is situated at about 45 km south-east of patna. The place has produced many freedom fighters and was an important hub during freedom struggle. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Demographics * 4 Economy * 5 Education o 5.1 Colleges o 5.2 Schools * 6 Places of interest * 7 Leaders and Famous person * 8 Festivals * 9 Connectivity Geography Hilsa is located at 2519N 8517E / 25.32N 85.28E / 25.32; 85.28.[1] It has an average elevation of 45 metres (147 feet). History It is said that in ancient time i.e. Mahabharat Kaal when Krishna with his brother Balarama came here during the Journey. He felt thirst. Then Balarama dug a source in the ground for water. That place is known as "Pakki Taalab" i.e. is situated at nearby Kaali Asthan. The "Pakki Taalab" is now encroached with illegal constructions. This pond had plenty of water hence the name Haldharpur (Hilsa). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Hilsa had a population of 37,748. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Hilsa has an average literacy rage of 59.5%: male literacy is 66%, and female literacy is 46%. In Hilsa, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Economy Banks * State Bank of India * Allahabad Bank * Punjab National Bank * Nalanda co-operative Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank ATM * State Bank of India ATM

Broking Firms * Angel Broking Ltd Education Colleges * S. U. College (Magadh University) * Mahanth College (Magadh University) * S. P. College (Magadh University) Schools * Ram Babu High School * Mai High School * D.A.V.high school * Adarsh Vidya Mandir Places of interest * Kali Mandir * Varun tal * Narmdeshwar sthan(Daroga kuan) * Surya Mandir * Old Temple of Shiva * green court campus Leaders and Famous person Ashutosh kumar manav Ram charitra prasad Dr. Uma devi Badrinarayan prasad Festivals The Hindu women celebrate Tij, Jitiya, Chhath etc. with great religious fervor. The important festivals of Hindus are Durga Puja, Diwali, Basant Panchami, Shivratri, Holi, Ramnavami and Janmashtami. The important festivals of the Mohammedans are Muharram, Sab-e-Barat, Ramzan, Id, Bakrid and Fatiha-duaz-Dahum. Chhath is the most sacred festival for the region. Importance of it can be seen as it defies all the barriers of religions. There is a old mosque which is said to be built by mughal emperor. Connectivity The place is served by a State Highway 4 and broad gauge rail route (incidentally till a decade ago it was a few places in India which had a functional narrow gauge railway). Hilsa is directly connected to New Delhi by Magadh Express. It is also connected to Patna and Gaya / Ranchi by three other passenger trains named as 1) Patna Fatwah Islampur Passenger 2) Buxer Islampur Passenger 3) Islampur Rajendra Nagar Express 4) Islampur New Delhi Magadh Express .

Distance from Patna is only 44 KM. Also it is directly connected to famous places like Gaya, Bodhgaya, Nalanda, Bihar Sharif, Rajgir and Jehanabad via road. Ekangarsarai Ekangarsarai is a town in Nalanda district of Bihar, India Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Location * 3 Economy Geography It is located at 25130N 85140E / 25.216667N 85.233333E / 25.216667; 85.233333 at an elevation of 55 m above MSL.[1] Location National Highway 110 passes through Ekangarsarai.[2] Nearest airport is Patna Airport. Economy Banks * Central Bank of India * Nalanda co-operative Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank Broking Firms * Angel Broking Ltd. M:9263121819 Islampur Islampur (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Places of Interest * 3 Transport * 4 Demographics * 5 Economy * 6 School and College * 7 People of Islampur Geography Islampur is located at 2509N 8512E / 25.15N 85.2E / 25.15; 85.2[1]. It has an average elevation of 63 metres (206 feet). Islampur is not a "City". Politically and demographically it is something between a town and a village which is called a Notified Area. Islampur has a Nagar Palika (Municipal Council). Islampur is also known as Islampur Nagar Panchayat. Places of Interest

There are remains of a Garh (Hindi:

) (a Palace surrounded by houses for the staff of the

landlord), other 200 year old buildings near a big Taalab (a clay and brick built pond) that says volumes about this places past history. It is situated between great places of ancient civilization particularly Hindu, Buddhist and Jain. Bodh Gaya, Nalanda, PaavaPuri and Raaj Ghrih (or Rajgir). Transport Islampur had Small gauge railway line since 1922s which recently has been converted into broad gauge line and is connected directly to the Delhi by Magadh Express.A new train Hatiya-patna-Islampur intercity 3252 (down) express is also running. Currently 2 express and 1 fast passenger and 2 trip of DMU trains are running on this line. With the advent of the Buddhist Circuit roads in Islampur are set to develop further. There are two ancient settlements, Bauli Baugh and Pakki Talao, nearby housing many antiquities of note. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[2], Islampur had a population of 29,855. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Islampur has an average literacy rate of 54%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 62%, and female literacy is 46%. In Islampur, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Islampur is known as a place where all the different communities live harmoniously. With economic growth the new businesses are setting up in the area. Vehicle dealerships have opened and a four lane highway under construction connecting to Rajgir. Economy Banks * State Bank of India * Nalanda co-operative Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank * Allahabad Bank * Sahara Bank School and College Islampur has a number of schools and a college. * Darsgah islami islampur * Snatak College,Islampur * G.M.K High School * Subhash High school * Saint Joseph High School * Rajkiya Madhya Vidyalaya (middle school) <>government school * Girl school (OPP-islampur police station) <> government school * Koranwa Girl High School <> government school

* Vishnupur High School[10+2],po-Ranipur <>government school * Gyanodaya Residential school People of Islampur People are deeply rooted in tradition. Families are generally compound. Many people of Islampur have emigrated for better opportunities to near by cities and national capital. Here festivals are instrumental in providing a great time for family and friend reunions. Durga Puja is the major festival being celebrated here for so many years and a committee is taking full care for organising the 'mela' on occassin of Durga Puja. Pawapuri Pawapuri (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a holy site for Jains located in the Nalanda district in the Bihar state of Eastern India. Its located about 38 kilometers from Rajgir and 101 kilometers from Patna, the capital of Bihar.[1] Contents * 1 History * 2 Economy * 3 Transport History Replica of Pavapuri temple at Pansara. Mahavira attained Nirvana at Pava. During ancient times about 2600 year ago, Pawapuri was one of twin capital of Mall Mahajanpad which later became the part of Magadha Kingdom and was called "Madyama Pawa" or "Apawapuri", Ajatshatru, who was one of the greatest disciples of Lord Mahavira was the King of Magadh during the lifetime of Mahavir. During the reign of Ajatshatru, Hastipal was the King of Pawapuri. When Lord Mahavira came to Pawapuri he stayed in King Hastipal's "Rajikshala".[2] Around 500 BC, Lord Mahavira, the last of the 24 Tirthankaras achieved Moksha or Nirvana. He was cremated at Pawapuri, also known as Apapuri (the sinless town). There was a great rush to collect his ashes, with the result that so much soil was removed from the place of his cremation that a pond was created.[3] Now, an exquisite marble temple in the middle of a lotus pond, the Jalmandir, stands magnificently on a rectangular island. Another Jain temple, called Samosharan is located here, where the Lord Mahavira delivered his last teaching.[3] Economy Banks * Punjab National Bank * Nalanda co-operative Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank Transport

Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation (Bihar Tourism) provides travel facility from state capital Patna to visit Buddhism circuit, Jain Circuit(Rajgir, Pawapuri) and Sikh Circuit in Bihar. Also, Corporation owns hotels and circuit house at respective tourist places. Rajgir Rajgir (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. The city of Rajgir (ancient Rjagha; Pali: Rjagaha) was the first capital of the kingdom of Magadha, a state that would eventually evolve into the Mauryan Empire. Its date of origin is unknown, although ceramics dating to about 1000 BC have been found in the city. View of Rajgir hills from Jarasandha's Akhara Rajgir is connected to Patna via Bakhtiarpur by rail and road. Bakhtiarpur lies midway between Patna and Mokameh. Road access is byNH 30A to Bakhtiarpur and NH 31 towards south to reach Bihar Sharif. From Mokameh NH 31 to Bihar Sharif. From there, NH 82 will leads to Rajgir. Rajgir is around 100 KM from both Patna and Mokameh. It is located in a green valley surrounded by rocky hills. Indian Railways run trains directly from Rajgir to New Delhi, Shramjeevi Express. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography and climate * 3 Tourism * 4 Demographics * 5 Economy * 6 Transportation and Hotels * 7 Picture gallery History Ancient Indian (Bharata) cities and Places(Title and location names are in English.) The name Rajgir might come from Sanskrit Rjagha 'house of the king' or "royal house", or the word rajgir might have its origian in its plain literal meaning, "royal mountain". It was the ancient capital city of the Magadha kings until the 5th century BC when Ajatashatru moved the capital to Pataliputra. In those days, it was called Rajgrih, which translates as 'the home of Royalty'. The epic Mahabharata calls it Girivraja and recounts the story of its king, Jarasandha, and his battle with the Pandava brothers and their allies Krishna. Jarasandha who hailed from this place had been defeated by Krishna 17 times. The 18th time Krishna left the battlefield without fighting.[1] Because of this Krishna is also called 'ranacora' (one who has left the battlefield)[1]. Mahabharata recounts a wrestling match between Bhima, one of the pandavas, and Jarasandha, the then king of Rajgir. Jarasandha was invincible as his body could rejoin any dismembered limbs. According to the legend, Bhim split Jarasandha into

two and threw the two halves facing opposite to each other so that they could not join. There is a famous Jarasandha's Akhara(place where martial arts are practiced). It is also mentioned in Buddhist and Jain scriptures, which give a series of place-names, but without geographical context. The attempt to locate these places is based largely on reference to them and to other locations in the works of Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, particularly Faxian and Xuanzang. It is on the basis of Xuanzang in particular that the site is divided into Old and New Rajgir. The former lies within a valley and is surrounded by lowlying hills. It is defined by an earthen embankment (the Inner Fortification), with which is associated the Outer Fortification, a complex of cyclopean walls that runs (with large breaks) along the crest of the hills. New Rajgir is defined by another, larger, embankment outside the northern entrance of the valley and next to the modern town. It is sacred to the memory of the founders of both the religions: Buddhism and Jainism and associated with both the historical Buddha and Mahavira. It was here that Gautama Buddha spent several months meditating, and preaching at Griddhkuta, ('Hill of the Vultures'). He also delivered some of his famous sermons and converted King Bimbisara of Magadha and countless others to his religion.On one of the hills is the Saptparni cave where the First Buddhist Council was held under the leadership of Maha Kassapa. Lord Mahavira spent fourteen years of his life at Rajgir and Nalanda, spending chaturmas (i.e. 4 months of the rainy season) at a single place in Rajgir (Rajgruhi) and the rest in the places in the vicinity. It was the capital of his favourite shishya (follower) king Shrenik. Thus Rajgir is a very important religious place for Jains also. Rajgir is also famous for its association with Haryanka Kings Bimbisara and Ajatashatru. Ajatashatru kept his father Bimbsara in captivitiy here. The sources do not agree which of the Buddha's royal contemporaries, Bimbisara and Ajatashatru, was responsible for its construction. Ajatashatru is also credited with moving the capital to Pataliputra (modern Patna). Geography and climate The city was in a valley surrounded by seven hills: Vaibhara, Ratna, Saila, Sona, Udaya, Chhatha, and Vipula. Rajgir has also developed as a health and winter resort due to its warm water ponds. These baths are said to contain some medicinal properties that help in the cure of many skin diseases. The Saptparni cave is also the source of the Rajgir Hot Water Springs that have curative properties and are sacred to the Hindus, Buddhists and Jains. Another attraction of the region is the ropeway that leads uphill to the Vishwa Shanti Stupa (Peace Pagoda) and monasteries built by Japanese devotees of the Buddha on top of the Ratnagiri Hills. Temperature: maximum 40 C, minimum 20 C. Winter: maximum 28 C, minimum 6 C Rainfall: 1,860 mm (mid-June to mid-September) Dry/warm season: October to Marc Tourism

Vishwa Shanti Stupa at Rajgir, one of the 80 Peace Pagodas around the world. Hindu Devotees bathing in the Brahmakund Rajgir is famous for its hot water springs, locally known as Brahmakund, a sacred place for Hindus. Another major attraction is the peace pagoda, Vishwa Shanti Stupa, built in 1969, one of the 80 peace pagodas in the world, to spread the message of peace and nonviolence. The rope-way that leads to it is another attraction. The Japanese temple is beside the Venu Vana. Venu Vana is an artificial forest, where one can enjoy Eternal peace, and meditate. Bamboo Grove in Venu Vana. Historically, Rajgir has been a very important place, as capital to many empires. Main tourist attractions are the Bimbisar's Jail, the Ajatshatru's Fort, and the Jarasandh's Akhara. Demographics As of 2001 India census,[2] Rajgir had a population of 33,691. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Rajgir has an average literacy rate of 52%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 61%, and female literacy is 41%. In Rajgir, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Economy Banks * State Bank of India * Central Bank of India * Nalanda co-operative Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank Broking Firms * Angel Broking Ltd. M:9263121819 Transportation and Hotels Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation (Bihar Tourism) provides travel facility from state capital Patna to visit Bodh circuit (Bodhgaya, Rajgir, Nalanda, Vaishali, Kesaria, Lumbini, Kushinagar, Sarnath), Jain Circuit (Rajgir, Pawapuri) and Sikh Circuit in Bihar. Also, Corporation owns hotels and circuit house at respective tourist places. These hotels are available for tourist at very reasonable price. Silao Silao (Hindi: , Urdu: )is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is known for the excellent Khaja made by its Halwais. It is also the head quarters of a Block, a small administrative unit, by the same name. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Economy

* 4 Famous Village * 5 Famous Leader Geography Silao is located at 2505N 8525E / 25.08N 85.42E / 25.08; 85.42.[1] It has an average elevation of 60 metres (196 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Silao had a population of 20,177. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Silao has an average literacy rate of 52%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 60%, and female literacy is 43%. In Silao, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Economy Banks * Allahabad Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank Famous Village Silao It is famous local market of surrounding villages Famous Leader Shri Vijay Kumar Singh, Son of Famous Freedom Fighter late "Shri Lakhpat Singh". Mukesh kumar is a famous Social Worker of silao & surrounding villages ,He is also a active worker of Junta Dal (united) party Harnaut Harnaut is a town in Nalanda district of Bihar, India. Native village of Bihar cm Mr. Nitish Kumar is 3 km north-east of it. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Economy * 3 Location * 4 Harnaut rail coach factory Geography It is located at 25220N 85320E / 25.366667N 85.533333E / 25.366667; 85.533333 at an elevation of 43 m above MSL.[1] Harnaut is one of the most prominent block of Nalanda district.It is gate city of Nalanda.Present Bihar Chief minister Mr. Nitish Kumar has been elected many times as MLA from Harnaut legislative assembly seat.His native village Kalyan Bigha is 4 km north-west of Haranut.River muhane passes 1km west of the city. At present this city do not have municipality, but it is under Sabnahua panchayat. People of city are demanding to make it a subdivision. Population of city is nearly around 25,000. This Small and beautiful city is divided into the three parts : Harnaut Beech Bazar, Gonawa Road and Dakwanglaw Road (Now known as Station road). Administrative offices are in Dakbanglow

Road. Harnaut Beech Bazar and Gonawa Road is the commercial area of Harnaut. This beautiful city is having more than 35 private schools and six govt. schools. Economy Banks * Central Bank of India * State Bank of India * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank * Nalanda Co-operative Bank Location National Highway 30A passes through Harnaut. Nearest airport is Patna Airport.National highway 31 also passes through the city. Harnaut rail coach factory A rail coach factory is being constructed near Harnaut railway station.It is about to complete by 2010 Chandi Chandi is a small town in Nalanda, Bihar, India.[1][2] The town's name comes from that of the goddess Chandi Devi, to whom there is a dedicated temple in the town. It has seen a rapid development in these 5 years{2005-2010}. Before 5 years there was very bad road but now it has one of the best road in Bihar. Now{{2010} it also has water supply by government which has started for the first time. Nowadays it has electricity for 21 hours as compared to 8 hours electricity supply before 4 years. These all are due to Bihar's Chief Minister Nitish Kumarji. Government has established Nalanda Engineering College. Here few computer classes had been also established which are always full during running session. The main schools here Gyanodya school, Brightland School,Bapu High School Chandi etc. It has powerhouse from where electricity is supplied to 1/3 of Nalanda. Chandi is also a good place for farming. Potato, vegetables, rice, wheat and mango are main crops grown here.[3] Economy Banks * Punjab National Bank * Madhya Bihar Gramin Bank Broking Firms * Angel Broking Ltd. Flora and fauna The crops grown here vary from place to place. Lychee is also grown here. The soil is very much suitable for farming. Mango is also produced here in larger amount.Ashoka Araria district

Araria district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Araria town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Araria district is a part of Purnia division. The district occupies an area of 2830 km. Phanishwar Nath 'Renu', legendary novelist and story writer, belonged to Araria. Contents * 1 Origin of name * 2 History * 3 Geography * 4 Economy o 4.1 Agriculture o 4.2 Industry * 5 Divisions * 6 Demography Origin of name During the British period, the area where one Mr. Forbes's Bungalow was located was called "Residential Area", which people called as R. Area. Over a period of time, R. Area acquired the pronunciation Arariya. History The territory of the present-day district became Araria sub-division of the erstwhile Purnia district in 1964. Araria district was formed in January 1990 as one of the administrative districts of under Purnia Division. Geography The major rivers of this district are Kosi, Suwara, Kali and Koli. Economy Agriculture Main agricultural produces of this district are Paddy, Maize and Jute. Industry This district has a number of Jute mills. Divisions Araria district is divided into two sub-divisions: Araria and Forbesganj. Araria sub-division comprises 4 blocks: Araria, Kursakanta, Siktti and Raniganj. Frobesganj sub-division comprises 5 blocks: Jokihat, Palasi, Forbesganj, Bhargama and Narpatganj. Thers are six Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district: Narpatganj, Raniganj, Forbesganj, Araria, Jokihat and Sikti. All of these are part of Araria Lok Sabha constituency. Demography The district has a population of 2,158,608 (male 1,128,105, female 1,030,503) and the literacy rate is 34.85% (male 46.50%, female 22.14%) (2001 census). Hindus 1,263,766, Muslims 887,972 (41.13%). Araria

Araria is a town and a municipality that is headquarters of Araria district in the state of Bihar, India. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Description * 3 Arts and Business * 4 Demographics * 5 Places of religious interest * 6 Cuisine Geography Araria is located at 2609N 8731E / 26.15N 87.52E / 26.15; 87.52[1]. It has an average elevation of 47 metres (154 feet). Araria is situated at the northern part of Purnia and Madhepura in Bihar. Borders of Araria are surrounded by Nepal in northern side, Kishanganj in eastern side and Supaul at south-west side. The district came into existence by division of Purnia district on Makar Sankranti day of 1990. District border is adjacent to border of Nepal, so the district is important in terms of security. Jogbani is the last point of Araria and after that Morang district of Nepal starts. Description Araria has rail, bus and road connections. NH 57 runs through the district. Health and medical facilities are sparse in this area; residents go to Purnea for treatment. Araria has approximately equal numbers of Hindus and Muslims. Arts and Business The Hindi language writer Phanishwar Nath 'Renu' was born in this district at Aurahi Hingna village where his family still lives. At present a magazine Parti Palar (Editor:Namita Singh) is published there. The movie Teesri Kasam was shot in villages of Araria. It was Basu Bhattacharya's film, based on Mare Gaye Gulfam written by Phanishwar Nath 'Renu', starring Raj Kapoor and Waheeda Rehman. The chairman of Sahara Group, Subrata Roy was born in Ashram muhhalla of the town. Magician Salil Kumar Kundu who bills himself as Solyl Kundu, was born in Araria. He studied and passed from Araria Higher Secondary School. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Araria had a population of 60,594. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Araria has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 62% of the males and 38% of females literate. 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Places of religious interest 1. Araria has a well known temple of "Mata Kali", known as the Kali Mandir. This temple is reputed to be the largest temple dedicated to Maa Kali in Asia. 2.Araria has also a famous

temple of Lord SHIVA situated at Madanpur. 3. A village north west of Araria known as Shahbazpur has a Shakti temple known as the Chhinmastika temple. It is said that the temple contains body parts of the goddess Shakti which fell when Lord Shiva carried her burnt body. There is also a religious place called Lathijawar Than. 4. A big mosque in center of town attended by Muslim communities of nearby region. Cuisine Being close to Nepal and Bengal, the town combines cuisines from various regions. Fish curries to Chinese - Nepali dishes along with traditional Bihar specials such as Litti-Chokha. Forbesganj Forbesganj ( ) is a city and a municipality in Araria district in the state of Bihar, India. Situated at the border of Nepal & India, the city is an important economic location in the region. One of the biggest business places among the neighboring cities. The infrastructure development here has taken a surge in recent times. With Broad Gauge railway services started on Katihar-Jogbani route & construction of NH-57, the place is going to be benefited big time. Contents * 1 Overview * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Economics * 5 Schools * 6 Colleges Overview The city has a railway station with Broad Gauge & Meter Gauge tracks both. Railway services are available for Katihar(5 Passenger trains daily), Delhi(2487 Jogbani-Delhi Seemanchal Exp., 7 Days in week), Kolkata (3160 Jogbani-Kolkata Exp,3 Days in week),& Saharsa (2 Express & 2 Passenger trains Daily, Meter Gauge). Trains for almost all big locations in India can be boarded from Katihar (98 km from Forbesganj). Frequent bus services are available for Jogbani (Nepal Boarder), Araria (Dist Headquarters), Purnia (Commissionay Headquarters) & Katihar. Many night service luxury buses ply between Forbesganj & Patna (The state Capital). The city has an abandoned airport too which no longer functions. Two People of Forbesganj are well known, Fanishwar Nath Renu and Mr. Kumar Subrat. And the maximum population of Bihar speak Maithily, that is the main language of Forbesganj other than Hindi and English. Geography Forbesganj is located at 2618N 8715E / 26.3N 87.25E / 26.3; 87.25[1]. It has an average elevation of 46 metres (150 feet). Distance from the NEPAL border is only 12 km and the last part of India near Nepal is Jogbani in India.

Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[2], Forbesganj had a population of 41,982. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Forbesganj has an average literacy rate of 61%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 67%, and female literacy is 54%. In Forbesganj, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Forbesganj is the biggest sub division and city of Araria district. Economics Forbesganj, for a long,has been known for jute production. But the advent of fibres and mills closing down owing to non-profitability have made sure that jute industry dies a slow death. With broad-gauge conversion of railways under Unigauge and construction of 4 lane highway, the economic activities are set to benefit. Schools Central Model School(BATHANAHA) Mithila Public School Ebenezer Mission Modern Academy Shishu Bharati Modern Children Academy Saraswati Vidya Mandir +2 Colleges Lee Academy +2 College Forbesganj college Jogbani Jogbani is a town and a notified area in Araria district in the Indian state of Bihar. The town is located between 26.42 North latitude and 87.25 East longitude at a height of 67 (219 feet) above mean sea level. Contents * 1 Transport * 2 See also Transport Jogbani is served by two railway lines One Broad Gauge line branches from the Patna to Katihar main line. The other line comes from Patna in the southeast directly. From this year ie 2008 there will be broad gauge between Jogbani and Katihar.[1] Two trains connect Jogbani to metros, namely Old Delhi(DLI)-Jogbani Seemanchal S.F Express and KolkataJogbani Express. See also * Railway stations in NepalJogbani is served by two railway lines One Broad Gauge line branches from the Patna to Katihar main line. The other line comes from Patna in the

southeast directly. From this year ie 2008 there will be broad gauge between Jogbani and Katihar. Two trains connect Jogbani to metros, namely Old Delhi(DLI)-Jogbani Seemanchal S.F Express and Kolkata-Jogbani Express. Katihar district Katihar district is one of the thirty-seven districts of Bihar state, India, and Katihar town is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district is a part of Purnia Division. The district occupies an area of 3056 km and has a population of 2,389,533 (2001 census). This district was carved out on October 2, 1973 by separating Katihar sub-division of the erstwhile Purnia district. Population: Total: 1825380 Rural: 1653761 Urban: 171619 Agriculture: Rice, Wheat, Maize, Makhana, Banana, Jute Industry: Jute and Paper Mills Rivers: Mahananda, Ganges, Koshi, Righa Divisions The district comprises three sub-divisions: Katihar, Barsoi and Manihari. Katihar sub-division is further divided into 10 blocks: Katihar, Korha, Falka, Sameli, Barari, Kursela, Pranpur, Hasanganj, Dandkhora and Mansahi. Barsoi sub-division consists 4 blocks: Barsoi, Kadwa, Azamnagar and Balrampur. Manihari sub-division has 2 blocks: Manihari and Amdabad. Hasanganj being the largest block which was under the zamindari rule with accres of land under the possession of then Late Shri Jogendranarayan Roy Choudhury. The entire landmass with school, temple and market has been donated to the people from the predecessors who remain in Katihar now with little of the possession under the Paul Choudhury fame. Mansahi was also very active zamindari estate which was at par with Kursela and Falka. Katihar is a town situated in the north eastern part of Bihar state in India. It is headquarters of Katihar district. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demography Geography Katihar is located at 2532N 8735E / 25.53N 87.58E / 25.53; 87.58.[1] It has an average elevation of 20 metres (65 feet). The main rivers of the district are Ganges (southern boundary, 25 kilometres from Katihar Town), Kosi (western boundary, 30 kilometres from Katihar Town) and Mahananda besides many small rivers like Kari Kosi (flowing by the side of Katihar town), Kamla etc. The Kosi (Sorrow of Bihar) merges with Ganges at the south-west boundary of Katihar District.

This district shares a boundary with two states i.e. Jharkhand at the southern side and West Bengal at the eastern side. Bangladesh lies around 80 km east of Katihar town and Nepal lies around 100 km north of Katihar Town. Katihar is a famous Railway Junction with seven railway lines/routes. Demography As of 2001[update] India census[2], Katihar had a population of 2,392,638. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Total Literacy of Katihar District is 35.29% in which Male Literates are 45.51% and Female Literates are 24.03%. In comparison to India and Bihar Literacy Rate of Katihar is very poor. Sex Ratio of Katihar in per 1000 Male is 920 Female. In Katihar, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Barsoi Barsoi is head quarters of a subdivision in Katihar district in the state of Bihar. It is an important railway junction under Katihar division Northeast Frontier Railway zone of Indian Railways.[1] Barsoi Junction(IR Station Code: ) connects four routes as in the north Siliguri Junction on Meter Gauge and New Jalpaiguri Junction on Broad Gauge, on meter gauges Radhikapur near Bangladesh border on east and Katihar Junction on West and on south Kumedpur Junction, Malda junction and Howrah.[2] Kora Korha is a town with sub division office in Katihar district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Transport * 3 History * 4 Culture and civilization * 5 Economy * 6 Communications * 7 Bank * 8 Education o 8.1 Colleges o 8.2 Schools * 9 Places of worship o 9.1 Mandirs o 9.2 Maszids o 9.3 Gurudwara * 10 Places of interest Geography Kora is located at 2537N 8724E / 25.61N 87.40E / 25.61; 87.40. It has an average elevation of 24 metres (79 ft).[1]

Transport Korha is on NH 31 and is the junction point for NH 81, and is well connected by double lane state highway from all the side.[2] History The history of Korha is as old as that of India. The area finds its place in the Mahabharata legend. It is said that during the period of Agyat vaas Pandavas spent its time in this area. It is also said that Lord Krishna has visited the area during Mahabharata period and had lost a mani in near by Manihari (earlier Maniharan). Raja Birat of Morang also visited the place. The place has been under rule of Anga, and Magadha kings during the time of Mahajanpadas. The area was ruled by the kings of Pal dynasties. With the advent of Muslim rule in the North India Ikhtiyar-ud-din Bakhtiyr Khilazi subjugated this area and subsequently this area remaimed under indirect Mughal rule. With the strengthening of British rule Katihar came under the cluthches of Maharazas, Zamindars and Nawabs who were British Indian Agents. Till the trifurcation of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa; Korha remained part of Bengal province and subsequently became part of Bihar Suba. With the passage of time British rule was challenged in India and Korha was in the forefront of the agitation. With the independence of India the people of Korha breathed free along with all the Indians. Korha is a subdivisional town of Katihar District . Culture and civilization The area was tossed between kings, Nawabs, zamindars from time to time and each rule has its impact on Korha. It was the main center of jute industry in Bihar which attracted workers from Mithilanchal area of Bihar, Purvanchal area of UP, Magadh region of Bihar and Bhojpuri speaking belt of Bihar and people from Nepal. The people from different region flocked to this town in search of job in jute factory, match factory and flour mills. Besides the original inhabitant of Kosi-Mahananda-Ganga Region the town witnessed an influx of permanent settlers from different region of Bihar and UP. Its proximity to Jharkhand brought many adivasis close to the town. The partition of India had its own impact on the set up of town. Many wealthy Muslims either migrated to West Pakistan or East Pakistan (now Bangla Desh). But majority of Muslims chose to remain where they were. Many Hindus who came during partition chose to settle at Korha. The migration of Hindus continued till formation of Bangla Desh. Government of India provided them with piece of land to settle now known as Ek(1) number and Do(2) number colonies ,along with them many Bengali Hindus who were already there in Korha also settled in this place to mix with their own during that period of time. Many Bengali Hindus settled in the town wherever they found a place. These people who were once referred as refugees in their own land because of partition has contributed significantly to the culture of Korha.Government of India built a colony for the refugee from Burma near Purana Jute Mill, known as Burma Colony [Tingachhia]. Guru Teg Bahadur the ninth Guru of Sikh, while returning from Assam passed through this place and many local

population embraced Sikhism. The famous village is Laksmipur near Karha Gola. There is a Gurudwara in the town also and there is a sizeable population of Sikhs in the town. There is a sizeable population of Marwari and Sindhi community who are the driving force behind the economy of Korha. Like whole of the East and North-East India they control the trading activity in Korha. In fact in remote villages of this District one may find a Marwari doing business. The Area itself was once the part of undivided Bengal Province and there are many original Bengali inhabitants in the villages and town. The people here speak, Hindi, Urdu, Angika, Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bengali, Marwari, Polia, Surjapuri etc. The Area has a mix of Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh and Jain religion followers. Economy The major source of living is agriculture. There are few industries in near by the place: two jute mills and two flour mill. The jute mills known as Purana Mill and Naya Mill once shaped the characteristics of town. Of late there has been lock outs, re-opening of the mills but the jute industry is in bad shape. There are units which are producing agricultural equipments in tingachhiya. The rice industry is a flourishing business in this area. The industry here is mainly agro based. One of the agro-based industry to join the group is Makhana. The Makhana Phodi (the place where edible makhana is produced from raw makhana) is growing fast. The cloth market here dealing in cotton and sarees is very vibrant and caters to nearby districts and the bordering countries of Nepal and Bangladesh. There are also a couple of old cycle trading companies with huge turnover. Pharmaceuticals business is also pretty good with huge turnover. The main crops are paddy, jute, makhana, banana, wheat and pulses. The agriculture is the mainstay of this area but due to frequent floods, no proper irrigation facility and poor or no electric supply has hampered the rural area dependent upon agriculture. There is large scale migration of poor people to the various cities of India in search of job. Communications Nearby District town Katihar is a major railway station under North-East Frontier Railway. It is a very old station. In fact Katihar junction is a five (Eight if local lines taken together) line junction. 1st line goes to Barauni, 2nd line to Kolkata, 3rd line to Jogbani (Nepal border), 4th line to Guwahati, 5th line to Manihari. The other three local lines go to Purana Jute Mill, Naya Jute Mill and FCI. Katihar is also the headquarters of Katihar Railway Division. The major station under this division includes New Jalpaiguri, Siliguri, Darjeeling, Kishanganj etc. The world heritage Darjeeling Himalayan Railway falls under the jurisdiction of Katihar Railway Division. One can find trains to Nepal and Bangladesh border from here. In fact pre independence this station was connected with present day Bangladesh. All the trains passing through Katihar stops here. One can get a direct train to most of the Indian cities from this station. The notable trains are Rajdhani Express, Capital Express, Avadh Assam

Express, North-East Express, Dadar Express, Amprapali Express, Sikkim Mahananda Express, Amarnath Express, Hate Bazare Express, Bangalore Express etc. Due to lack of poor road network train communication is the only source of communication. The town fall on the national highway, NH-31 passes which passess through the area and . The road connectivity is good. Bus service also good to Purnea, Siliguri, Jogbani, Manihari, Bhagalpur , patna, Ranchi,etc. The nearest commercial airport is Bagdogra (160 km). There is an old time airstrip in nearby katihar town which is mostly used as a helipad. The place is known as Hawai Adda. Korha has a Telecom Sub divisional office. Private players also provide telecom services. The teledensity is high in rural areas as well as urban which reflects the economic development in the recent times of the rural area. Bank There are several Banks and there Branches in Katihar District, amongst them are State Bank of India. Central Bank of India, Indian Overseas Bank, Punjab National Bank, Bank of India, Union Bank, United Bank, Uttar Bihar Gramin Bank (Formerly Koshi Kshetriya Gramin Bank), District Central Co-Operative Bank Allahbad Bank Education There are many colleges and schools in the town. The notables are as follows Colleges * Women College, Korha College in nearby Katihar * R.D.S.College, Salmari (Co-founded by famous educationist,visionary Prof. Md. Ale Rasool in 1963) * Katihar Medical College and Hospital * M.M.Homoeopathic Medical and Hospital * Law College * K. B. Jha College * M.J.M.Mahila College * Sur Tulsi College * Sita Ram Chamariya College Schools * Salmari High School, Salmari * R K High School, Azamnagar * Girls Hihg School, Korha * Kanya Madhya Vidyalaya, Kumhari, * Mahinagar High school * Balia Belown High school * Middle School,Bharri,Kadwa * Gandhi High School, * High school fulhara gorgama mansahi,

* Simna Public School, Salmari * Jawaher Navodaya Vidyalaya, Kolasi * Girls High School, Falka * High School , Bareata * Primary school, Bareata * Mahinagar Middle School * Mahinagar Primary School * Gopinagar Middle School * Kurum Middle School * Girls Project High School,Barsoi * Barsoi High school,Barsoi * Karnal Academy Public School,Sirsa,Katihar * High School Marwari pathshala,Katihar Places of worship Mandirs * Durga Mandir,Barsoi Bazar * Shiv Mandir,Barsoi Bazar * Jain Mandir,Barsoi Bazar * Kali Mandir,Barsoi Sahapara East * Durga Mandir,Barsoi Rly. Station * Durga mandir in Korha * Durga mandir in Falka * Hanuman Mandir, Korha * Hanuman Mandir , Falka * Kali Mandir, Bareata * Shiv Manidir , Bareata * Thakur Bari , Bareata * Burha Baba Aasthan , Bareata * Mahabir Aasthan , Bareata * Shri Kartik & Ganesh Bhagwan Mandir,Gopinagar,Kadwa * Shri Maharaj Mandir,Benibari,Mahinagar Maszids * Madarassa, Falka * Madarassa, Korha Gurudwara * Gurudwara, Laxmipur Places of interest Bareta is situated 30 km West of Katihar and 12KM west of Korha. It is culturally a rich village. Place where Mahatma Ganghi visited and stayed during different movement during

the freedom struggle. Jawaharlal Nehru and many more prominent freedom fighter visited this place. Thus this place carries within itself the glorious past. Farming and business is the main source of living. People here have more economical senses and thus focus more on cash crop like Banana Plantation, Sun Flower Seed, Maize, etc.. Trading in all kind of stuffs like cloths, wheat, rice and others are primary. Though this village is a small one but it is quite very advanced. Literacy rate is also good, having high tech High School and other middle and primary schools. The business and farming in Bareta is being done by every section of the society. The place itself is worth visiting as it full of natural beauty and pleasant climate all around the year. In winter places are full with the migrant birds from around the globe. There are many spiritual places attached with the sentiments of the people. The nearest sub urban area is Falka which stations the block office and the police station. The area is connected to NH-31 and the nearest railway station is Katihar and Bagdogra being the nearest airport (190 km). But to maintain the current status of the area the government should focus on this area. With Nitish Kumar Ruling at Patna this place will surely gets all its due in very short period. And in near future this village will come out as model village of India Manihari Manihari is a town and a notified area in Katihar district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Geography o 3.1 Manihari Ghat * 4 Education Geography Manihari is located at 2521N 8738E / 25.35N 87.63E / 25.35; 87.63[1]. It has an average elevation of 31 metres (101 feet). This place is well known for the Manihari ghat, which connects it to Sahibganj, which is also situated on the bank of the river Gangaes. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[2], Manihari had a population of 21,783. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Manihari has an average literacy rate of 44%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 52%, and female literacy is 35%. In Manihari, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Geography The town is located on the banks of the river Ganges where it meets the river Koshi, thus making the town prone to flooding every year. Manihari is a small border town between Bihar and Jharkhand. Sahebganj is the district town of Jharkhand which is 9 km from Manihari (Nautical mile distance), there is regular ferry service between Manihari and Sahibganj. Manihari is connected by railway link on metre gauge (MG). There are few local

trains which run between Manihari and Katihar. Trains used to travel as far as Tejnarayanpur, (the last station on the NF railway), but in 1999 Tejnarayanpur was completely flooded and the river Ganges flows there now. Manihari Ghat Before Farakka Barrage was constructed, people going to the Darjeeling Hills or North Bengal from Kolkata, used to travel by a Broad Gauge train to Sakrigali Ghat and then cross the Ganges by steamer. On the other side of the river at Manihari Ghat, they used to take a metre gauge train to Siliguri.[3]Once Farakka Barrage was constructed, this route became redundant. There still is a ferry service linking Manihari Ghat with Sahebganj. Education There are two high schools and few middle schools, and one private college. Kishanganj district Kishanganj district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India, and Kishanganj town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Kishanganj district is a part of Purnia division. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Demographics * 4 Literacy Geography Kishanganj district is surrounded by Araria district in the west, Purnia district in the southwest, Uttar Dinajpur district of West Bengal on the east, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal and Nepal on the north. A narrow strip of West Bengal, about 20 km wide separates it from Bangladesh.[2] Kishanganj district is located between 250 20 and 260 30 north latitudes, and 870 7 and 880 19 east longitudes. *3+ Major rivers flowing through the district are Mahananda, Kankai, Mechi, Donk, Ratua and Ramzan Sudhani.[3] History Kishanganj district was formed on 14 January 1990.[3] During the Mughal period, the area was part of Nepal and was called Nepalgarh. When on the instructions of the Mughal emperor, Mohammed Reza captured the fort at Nepalgarh, the name was changed to Alamganj. It later became Kishanganj.[3] Demographics Kishnaganj district had a population of 12.94 lakhs in 2001. It registered a population growth of 30 per cent in the previous decade. A vast majority of the people live in the villages. A predominantly Muslim area, with Muslims forming about 70 per cent of the

population, there also are Hindus Surajpuris and other backward castes predominating. There also are small Santal pockets.[4][5] Literacy Kishanganj district had a literacy rate of 31.02 per cent in 2001, the lowest amongst all the districts of Bihar. The literacy rate of Bihar at 47.53 per cent is amongst the lowest in India, which has a literacy rate of 64.84 per cent. While the male literacy rate in Kishanganj district stood at 42.8 per cent, female literacy at 18.49 per cent was the lowest in India. Geography Kishanganj is located at 260446N 875614E / 26.0793100N 87.9373400E / 26.0793100; 87.9373400. Main rivers of this district is Mechi, Mahananda, Kankai.It is part of Bihar. It's one of the most sensitive districts of India, as the borders of this district are touching Bangladesh and Nepal in south-east and north and Uttar Dinajpur and Darjeeling district of West Bengal respectively. As per the statistics 62% of population is Muslim. The language of Kishanganj is SURJAPURI/Rajbongshi. It is a dialect of Bangla and native language of north Bengal. Kishagan is part of Terai region of Himalaya.Agri-business and handicrafts is the main occupation here.Kishanganj is known for production of high quality tea and jute.In 2009 total export of tea was more than 35 crores.Its the most peaceful area of India. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Kishanganj had a population of 1294063[2]. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Kishanganj has an average literacy rate of 32%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 60%, and female literacy is 28%. In Kishanganj, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age.It is the place from where northeast part of India starts.north eastern feature and lang starts here Educational institutions There are many small and big institutions, but some of the well-known institutions are as follows: * Saraswati Vidya Mandir, Motibag, Kishanganj * G.B.M. School, Dey Market, Kishanganj * Madarsa Anjuman Islamia, Kishanganj * Tauheed Educational Trust's ITI and various institutes, Kishanganj * Karkun Lal High School Alta Kamalpur Kishanganj * Mata Gujari Memorial Medical College and L.S.K hospital * Marwari College, Lahra, Kishanganj * Nehru College, Shafqat Nagar, Bahadurganj, Kishanganj * Shishu Niketan High School, Dangi Basti, Kishanganj * Bal Mandir Senior Secondary School, Caltex Chowk * Insan School and College, Siksha Nagar * Crescent Public School, Sir Sayed Nagar

* Saint Xaviars School, Halim Chowk, Khagra * Mehadul Uloom Madarsa, Khagra * Kendriya Vidyalaya, B.S.F, Kishanganj * Oriental Public School, gattani complex * Town Academy, Kishanganj * Diamond Public School, Dakopara, Kishanganj, * New Ideal Public School Kamalpur * Madarsa Samadia Fulwari Kishanganj * Alim Public School Fulwari * Inter High School, Kishanganj * National High School, Kishanganj, * Azad National College, Thakurganj, Kishanganj * Kharna Madhya Vidyalaya, Kharna, Taiapbur, Thakurganj, Kishanganj * Russell High School, Bahadurganj * Bahadurganj College, Bahadurganj * Sushilahari Inter College, Tulsia, Dighalbank, Kishanganj * Career Plus Computer Education, Kishanganj Study centre of Allahabad AGRICULTURAL INSTITUTE-DEEMED UNIVERSITY,ALLAHABAD * Paradise Mascot Academy, Bahadurganj * Children's Academy, Bahadurganj * Pioneer School, Bahadurganj * SS High School, Sontha * Kisan High School, Singhari * Bishanpur High School, Bishanpur * Hamara School, Gopalpur, Bahadurganj * Madarsa Hifazatul Islam ,Kashibari Aligarh Muslim University is Planning to setup a new branch in KISHANGANJ Rivers * Kanki,Mahesh Bathna, Bahadurganj * Mahananda, Kishanganj * Retwa, Phoolbari Transport According the statistics Kishanganj has a major railhead which is connected to major cities and towns of India. Kishanganj comes under Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) and NH31. This These two routes are connecting northeastern region of India to the rest of India. It has direct train connected to majority of major cities namely- New Delhi, Mumbai, Patna, Kolkata, Guwahati, Bangalore, Chennai, Tiruanantpuram etc. Garib Nawaz express starts from here for Ajmer. Rajdhani Express which runs between Delhi and Guwahati has its stoppage in Kishanganj.The National Highway No.-31 runs along with the railway line. NH-

31 is India's one of the important and busiest Highways.You ca see the national highway 31 in Kishanganj is beautifully made with the chain of flyovers. Bahadurganj Bahadurganj is a city and a notified area in Kishanganj district in the state of Bihar, India. Geography Bahadurganj is located at 2616N 8749E / 26.27N 87.82E / 26.27; 87.82.[1] It has an average elevation of 51 metres (167 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Bahadurganj had a population of 28,224. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Bahadurganj has an average literacy rate of 34%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 69% of the males and 31% of females literate. 21% of the population is under 6 years of age. Village: Plasmani is located near Bahadurganj. Siktihar/Bagana/Saranda is one of the of village in Bahadurganj . Thakurganj Thakurganj is a town and a notified area in Kishanganj district in the Indian state of Bihar.Thakurganj is the second largest tehsil after Bahadurganj in Kishanganj district. It has attracted many indusry companies. Few of them are Tea-factory and Brickmaking industries. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 References * 4 See also Geography Thakurganj is located at 2627N 8808E / 26.45N 88.13E / 26.45; 88.13.[1] It has an average elevation of 82 metres (269 feet). It touches Nepal, West Bengal ,Araria, Kishanganj and Bahadurganj borders. Thakurganj is well connected to Nepal and a bridge is going to build between both contries with the help of Govt of India. Siliguri is the main market for every business in Thakurganj. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Thakurganj had a population of 15,288. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Thakurganj has an average literacy rate of 60%, little bit higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 63%, and female literacy is 44%. In Thakurganj, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Purnia district Purnia district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. The town of Purnia is the administrative headquarters of this district. Purnia district is a part of Purnia Division. The district extends from the Ganges river northwards to the frontier of Nepal.

Contents * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Shrines Geography Purnia has an area of 3,229 square km. It is a level, depressed tract of country, consisting for the most part of a rich, loamy soil of alluvial formation. It is traversed by several rivers flowing from the Himalayas, which afford great advantages of irrigation and water-carriage. Its major rivers are the Kosi, the Mahananda, the Suwara Kali and the Koli. In the west the soil is thickly covered with sand deposited by changes in the course of the Kusi. Among other rivers are the Mahananda and the Panar. Its major agricultural products are jute and banana. It has a total population of 1,878,885 of which 1,720,743 are rural and 158,142 urban. It had 1,185,356 electors in the 2005. The literacy Rate is 28.52%[citation needed] Purnia district has two subdivisions: Purnea and Dhumdaha and they are further composed of fourteen blocks namely East Purnea, Krityanand Nagar, Banmankhi, Kaswa, Amaur, Bainsi, Baisa, Dhamdaha, Barhara Kothi, Rupauli, Bhawanipur, Dagarua, Jalalgarh and Srinagar. History Purnea has a rich Hindu history and a glorious past. During Mughal rule Purnea was an outlying military province, its revenue was mostly spent on protecting its borders against tribes from the north and east.[2] Its local governor raised a rebellion against Siraj ud-Daulah in 1757, after the capture of Calcutta. In 1765, along with the rest of Bengal, the district became a British possession.[3] Purnea is famous for its uniquely designed Ramakrishna Mission where Durga Puja in the month of April is celebrated with due devotion and honour. Purnea is also famous for the oldest temple of Mata Puran Devi, which is hardly 5 km away from the main city. There is a theory that Purnia got its name from that temple. Some people believe that many years ago Purnea was PurnaAranya which stands for "complete jungle", and that's why it has got the name Purnea. Shrines The city also has the Darghah of Hazrat Mustafa Jamalul Haque Bandagi, Chimni Baza. The 'Dargah and Khanquah Alia Mustafia' is located hardly 7 km away from main city. It is also famous for spirituality, communal harmony and Suffism. Its history goes 400 years back, when Hazrat Bandagi came from Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh visiting several Khanqahs and Dargahs from all over India such as the Pandawa Sharif, the Bihar Sharif etc. The Darghah is playing a major role to spread culture, education, kindness, secularism and spiritual spirits in the North East Bihar since its establishment. Deorhi at Garbanili (Purnea) still has the

ruins of Kala Bhawan the ancient Darbar (Palace) of Raja Kalanand Singh, where his successor still lives. Purnia is a city and a municipality in Purnia district of the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Name * 2 History * 3 Climate * 4 Geography * 5 Agriculture * 6 Language and literature * 7 Festivals * 8 Demographics Name The origin of the name appears to have different sources. The name possibly originates from the time of the Pundra Kingdom.[clarification needed][citation needed] Purnia could be an altered form of the old name Purania, derived from the word purain or Lotus, which is said to have grown on the Kosi and Mahananda rivers. This derivation is stated by O'Malley[who?] and is also in the old gazetteer.[clarification needed][citation needed] An alternative could be a derivation from the words Pur Aranya. W.W. Hunter and Buchanan[who?] have mentioned the name of Purnia,[clarification needed][citation needed] it being a forested area, using combination of the words purn and aranya (full and forest).[citation needed] History The bhats of the Pundir Rajputs, state that, having had their origins in Telangana, the Pundirs are descendants of the great Pundra dynasty. A Pundra king challenged Vasudeva Krishna by imitating his attributes, calling himself Paundraka Vasudeva. He was later killed by Vasudeva Krishna in a battle. The founders of five eastern kingdoms, Angas Vangas, Kalingas, Pundras and Suhmas, shared a common ancestry.[clarification needed][citation needed] Purnia has a tradition of at least a few centuries behind it. Under the Mughal rule, the district comprised Sarkar Tajpur, east of the Mahananda and Sarkar Purnia, west of the river. Purnia, at that time was a great military seat under the rule of a Fauzadar as a frontier district; Purnia has always had an extra administrative importance. Even in the early British days, Purnia was considered to be an important responsibility particularly as it was located on the border of Nepal.[clarification needed][citation needed] Climate

Purnia, with the highest rainfall in Bihar state, has a largely humid climate, with humidity rising to above 70%. A cold season, from November to February, is followed by a hot season from March to June. The monsoon season begins in early June and lasts until September, during which 82% of total annual rainfall falls. January, the coldest month, has a mean daily minimum temperature of 5 C (41 F) to 10 C (50 F) 5-10 C, and a mean daily maximum of 20 C (68 F) to 25 C (77 F). Wind is typically light in the non-monsoon seasons, but during the monsoon, storms and depressions originating in the Bay of Bengal cause heavy rain and strong winds. Geography Purnia and its surrounding lands, lies in the sub-montane alluvial tract of the Gangetic plains. There is a hilly tract in the north with a small hill of Calcareous belt, called Chotapahar near Manihari. It has a slope from the north to the south and is traversed by a number of rivers and their tributaries. The district is composed of alluvial soil, partly old and partly new. The old alluvium is found in the north of the district where it consists of kankars (stone dust). The new alluvium is available in the south of the district and is composed of silt, clay and the sand. The alluvial soil is supposed to be brought by the Ganga and its tributaries from the Himalayas and is very rich with fertilizing elements.[clarification needed][citation needed] Agriculture Purnia is supplied by agriculture from its surrounding district. The alluvial soil, irrigated by the Kosi and Mahanadi rivers, has been particularly suited to the paddy cultivation of rice. Other crops grown for Purnia are potatoes, wheat, khesari, chickpeas, chillies peppers, maize, lentils, arhar dal, barley, sugarcane, tobacco, makhana, mung beans, and jute.[1] The previous extensive growing of jute supported a former flourishing jute industry in the city. Language and literature Hindi and Urdu are the principal languages of Purnia, spoken with Maithili, Surjapuri, Polia,[clarification needed] Angika and Santhali dialects. In some parts of Purnia, Bangla is spoken. Purnia is ascociated with many poets and literary figures,[citation needed] including: * Satinath Bhaduri (19061965) novelist and politician. * Phanishwar Nath 'Renu' ( ) (19211977) one of the great Hindi novelists of the post-Premchand era. Festivals Many religious festivals are observed in Purnia. Purnia Hindus celbrate Durga Puja, Diwali, Basant Panchami, Shivratri, Holi, Ramnavami, Janmashtami, Tij, Jitiya,Chhath and Bhatridutiya.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Purnia Muslims celebrate Muharram, Shab-e-Barat, Ramzan, Eid-ul-Fitr, Bakr Eid and Eid-eMilad-un-Nabi.[clarification needed][citation needed] Adivasis celebrate Sarhul.[clarification needed][citation needed] The Chhath festival is celebrated by all religions.[clarification needed][citation needed] Demographics As of 2001 India census,[2] Purnia had a population of 2,543,942. Males constitute 52.2% of the population and females 47.8%. Purnia has an average literacy rate of 35.1%, much lower than the national average of 64.8%: male literacy is 45.63%, and female literacy is 23.42%. In Purnia, 16% of the population is under 30 years of age. Banmankhi Bazar Banmankhi Bazar is a town and a notified area in Purnia district in the state of Bihar, India. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Economy * 4 Education * 5 Specialty * 6 Entertainment * 7 Places to See Geography Banmankhi is situated 32 km away from Purnea, the district town. Banmankhi is a Sub-division. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Banmankhi Bazar had a population of 25,183. Males constitute 55% of the population and females 45%. Banmankhi Bazar has an average literacy rate of 52%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 64% of the males and 36% of females literate. 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Economy It is very famous for its Sugar Mill, which is currently closed. The Sugar Mill used to provide employment to many people. Education Private: Bal-Bharti is one of the best school for primary and middle schooling. Public: Sumrit High school: 6-10 (co-ed) most popular school in banmankhi the students of the school is very talented and laborious, MatuRam Kanya Uccha Vidyalaya: 6-10 (female), G. L. M. College: Higher Education (co-ed), J.C. Science College Specialty The famous pillar of Prahalada (Son of Hiranyakashyapa) is situated here. The Pillar is said to be growing in size! Currently, a temple has been built near the pillar. The idol in the

temple is built from a single piece of stone. The temple celebrates Holika-dahan every year. This occasion attracts a large crowd. Banmankhi also hosts the Ashram of Swami Maharshi Mehi Maharaj. The Ashram is around 2 km away from the Banmankhi Bus-stand. The Ashram hosts satsang on regular basis. The place is marked by immense tranquility and natural beauty. The residents of the Ashram also carry out farming on the premise. The famous Lord Shiva temple (Dhimeshwar Nath Mandir) is situated in Dhima, Banmankhi. Dhimeshwar Nath Mandir is very famous in the area. Every Sunday a large number of devotees come to the temple to offer their prayers to the deities. There are seven ponds around the temple, which have been offered to god by various devotees. Also, the premise has a public inn, which is frequently used to marriage purposes by the citizens. Every year, around Shivaratri, a huge fair is organized near the temple. The fair still is of very old styles with small hawkers and earthen toys! Entertainment Banmankhi has around 2-3 Cinema halls: Saraswati Talkies, Ganesh Talkis, etc. Along with that, youngester also engage is cricket matches. Railway park,The wide area of tree(Gardh) Places to See Maharshi Mehi Maharaj Ashram, Pillar of Prahlad and Mandir, Dhimeshwar Nath Mandir, Durga Mandir, Sugar Mill,etc Kasba Kasba is a town and a notified area in Purnia district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Kasba had a population of 25,522. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Kasba has an average literacy rate of 49%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 57%, and female literacy is 41%. In Kasba, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Gopalganj district Gopalganj is the administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district headquarter is located in the town of Gopalganj and the district is a part of Saran Division. Languages spoken are Bhojpuri and Hindi. Contents * 1 Area * 2 History * 3 Geography * 4 Demographics * 5 Education * 6 Culture * 7 Facilities * 8 Politics

* 9 Notable residents Area The physical (geographical) area of the Gopalganj District approximates about 2033 sqr. Km. Total physical area can roughly be put in two categories i.e. Normal Area and Lowly Area (flood affected area) parts of the six blocks like Gopalganj, Kuchaykot, Manjha, Sidhwalia, Barauli and Baikunthpur are flood affected areas. These areas remain under water in the rainy season. But so far as cultivation and agriculture is concern these areas are called the stock of food grains. Rest of the parts is normal area with full greenery and cultivable land. History Gopalganj is a beautiful land with tremendous historical background and magnificent culture. An ancient state of "Mallyas" known for their bravery and love for civil liberty serves as the frontier of Gopalganj. In Pre- historic time, Gopalganj was part of Nepal, up to the bank of the Saryu river which bounds Siwan district on South of it. Siwan means the boundary - the Southern boundary of Nepal Kingdom . Gopalganj, which till 1875 was only a tiny hamlet, was made a subdivision of the old Saran district in the same year. It became an independent district on October 2, 1973. The old Saran district included the present districts of Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj. The history of Gopalganj is a part of the history of old Saran District. The composite Saran district lies on one of the main lines of the Aryan advance. According to a tradition preserved in Vedic literature, the Videhas marched eastwards from the Saraswati until they reached the banks of the Gandak and were informed by Agni, the God of fire , that their home lay to the east of its broad stream. In obedience to his directions, the Videhas crossed the river and founded a powerful kingdom on its eastern bank ; but it seems likely that some of them settled in Saran, which lay on the line of march, while the majority of them crossed the Gandak. Geography Geographical Location of Gopalganj district lies between 26 12 to 26 39 North latitudes 83 54 to 84 55 East longitudes. The district occupies an area of 2033 km and has population of 2,149,343 (as of 2001). Adjoining Districts North: East & West Champaran District South: Siwan & Chappra District East: East Champaran & Muzaffarpur District West: Uttar Pradesh Major Urban Centres Gopalganj, Sidhwaliya, Thawe, Hatwa, Mirganj, Barauli, Kateya, Vijaipur, Jalalpur, Kuchaikote, Sasa Musa, Sipaya Bazar, Manjha Garh(Block), Sawreji, Uchakagoan (Block), Phulwaria, Songdhawa, Hussepur, Siswa, Uzra naryanpur. Climate

Gopalganj has a varied climate. It is exceptionally hot and dry during summer with temperature reaching as high as 45 degrees Celsius. Gopalganj receives about 500 mm rainfall during monsoons, which is followed by pleasant temperature in winter. District receives an average rainfall of about 290 mm and the temperature varies from 10 to 45 degree Celsius. Demographics Based on the 2001 Census: Population: 2,149,343 (2.59% of the state) Density of population: 1057 Men: 1,072,151 (49.89%) Women: 1,077,192 (50.12%) Urban population: 130,536 (6.07%) Rural population: 2,018,807 (93.93%) % of Scheduled Castes: 12.43% % of Scheduled tribes: 0.29% Sex ratio: 1005 Education Initially Gopalganj had little to offer in terms of good quality education to its residents. Presently Schools and colleges in the city are either run by the government or by private trusts and individuals. The schools are each affiliated with either the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or the Bihar School Examination Board.[2] English is the medium of instruction in most private schools; though government run schools offer both English and Hindi. After completing their secondary education, which involves ten years of schooling, students typically enroll at Higher Secondary School in one of the three streamsArts, Commerce or Science. Gopalganj is best suitable for school level studies and has many notable schools like Kendriya Vidyalaya, Sainik School,Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya gopalganj and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Govt. Residential High School,Hathwa, are playing the vital role in shaping the talent. After Higher Secondary, students have not much option for continuing their studies further here. The city has 290 primary schools, 100 secondary schools, 8 higher secondary schools, 5 colleges, 1 Industrial training institute, and 1 polytechnic college but no other institutions of higher learning, not even a single university and medical/engineering institution. Culture Thawe Durga Mandir Temple of goddess Durga Fairs and Festivals :- Four main fairs are held in the district which attract a number of devotees not only from within the district but also from the rest of the state. These are: the Shri Rama Navami, Holi fair at Gopalganj town, held during the Hindu month of Kartik; the Navaratri-Mahalaxmi fair at Gopalganj town during Navaratri (OctoberNovember); Dasshera and Deepawali.

Thawe Durga Mandir, Jalalpur Durga Mandir and Krishna Temple are very popular religious places. Bhojpuri and Hindi are the main languages spoken here.The main places of interests are Thawe, Jalalpur, Dighwa-dubauli, Husepur, Lakdi Dargah, and Shivpur(lachhwar) Durga Mandir.[3] Facilities The city doesn't have good transport facilities. Public transport in the city is largely dependent on private buses. Taxis and rickshaws are available for hire throughout the day. Narrow and congested roads and the mix of vastly differing types of vehicles have made a problem in the city traffic. It is connected by rail by a loop line origination from Chhapra. Thawe near Gopalganj town, is a rail junction. Sabeyan Hawai Adda is an airport in Gopalganj. The city has 17 Hospitals, 19 primary health centres, and 80 sub-centres. The district has a network of government-run health facilities consisting of the district hospital. Rural hospitals, primary health centres, sub-centres and dispensaries provide basic healthcare to the rural population. The city has good communication facilities also. It has a fully computerized head post office and other 41 branch post offices, 11 telegraph offices and many telecom service providers like Aircel, Airtel, Idea cellular, Vodafone, Uninor, MTS, S-Tel, Tata Indicom, Docomo, Reliance Infocomm, and the state owned BSNL. Internet India, provided the Internet facilty to Gopalganj people from 15th Jan. 2000 onwards which is known to everyone in the town, nowadays we can find so many places with Internet Facility in the District. There is also a local FM radio station named Radio Rimjhim and TV broadcasting channel.There are over five cinema halls that screen movies in Bhojpuri and Hindi. Popular news papers include Dainik Jagran, Dainik Hindustan, Aaj, Prabhat Khabar, Hindustan Times, Sahara Samay, Times of India, etc. The city owns indoor and outdoor stadiums namely Minz Stadium and Ambedkar Bhavan respectively. The city has 5 nationalized and 2 cooperative banks.Automated teller machine(ATM) facilities are provided by SBI, Canara Bank, ICICI, Punjab National Bank, Central Bank of India, Axis Bank, ICICI Bank, Bank of India, Union Bank, Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, Andhra Bank,, and United Bank. SBI Gopalganj also provides an internet banking facility. Politics Gopalganj has been a major player in the politics of Bihar and has produced great leaders such as: Smt. Ram Dulari Singh popularly known as Smt. Ram Dulari Sinha was born in a small village Manikpur in this district, she made her parents and village proud when she did her masters in the pre-independence era when hardly any girl child use to go to school and even did masters in another subject and became the first woman in Bihar to have done double M.A, but the irony is such that Smt. Rabri Devi of the same district an illiterate woman became the first woman Chief Minister of Bihar. Smt. Ram Dulari Sinha of the Indian National Congress was involved in the freedom struggle, she became union minister and later

became the Governor of Kerela, who was an honest politician[citation needed] and a dedicated congress woman. Today her son Prof. Madhurendra Kumar Singh of the Indian National Congress is involved in politics and is holding the leadership of Sheohar and Sitamarhi Districts and the adjoining areas of East Champaran and Muzzafarpur Districts. Mr. Abdul Gafoor was an honest[citation needed] politician who became the Chief Minister of Bihar. When J.P started the movement against the then congress government he quoted that "nobody in the Bihar congress was honest except Smt. Ram Dulari Sinha, Shri. Abdul Gafoor an the then speaker of the Bihar assembly and the rest are corrupt" (it was part of the speech which was witnessed by a massive crowd at the Gandhi Maidan in Patna on 5 June 1975). Mr.Laloo Prasad Yadav and his wife Smt. Rabri Devi are also from the same district. Mr.Yadav became the Chief Minister of Bihar and later when Mr. Yadav was convicted in the fodder scam and send to prison his wife Smt. Rabri Devi took over as the Chief Minister and continued till 2005. Mr.Yadav also became Railway Minister in the U.P.A Government. Notable residents * Smt. Ram Dulari Sinha of the Indian National Congress, Former Union-Minister, and Former Governor (Governor of Kerala) and a prominent freedom fighter. * Abdul Ghafoor first and only Muslim chief minister of Bihar,(1973 to 1975). * Smt. Rabri Devi, Ex. Chief Minister of Bihar, wife of Mr.Laloo Prasad Yadav * Mr.Laloo Prasad Yadav Ex. Chief Minister of Bihar and Ex. Rail Minister of India Barauli Barauli is a city and a notified area in Gopalganj district in the state of Bihar, India. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics Geography Barauli is located at 2624N 8435E / 26.4N 84.58E / 26.4; 84.58.[1] It has an average elevation of 65 metres (213 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Barauli had a population of 34,643. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Barauli has an average literacy rate of 41%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 64% of the males and 36% of females literate. 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kataiya Kateya is a city and a notified area in Gopalganj district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Kateya had a population of 17,896. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Kateya has an average literacy rate of 42%, lower

than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 53%, and female literacy is 30%. In Kateya, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Mirganj Mirganj is a city and a notified area in Gopalganj district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Mirganj had a population of 23,579. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Mirganj has an average literacy rate of 52%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 61%, and female literacy is 43%. In Mirganj, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kuchaikote Kuchaikote is one of the six constituencies of Gopalganj District, in Bihar, India.[1]. The other five constituencies are Hathua, Bhore, Gopalganj, Barauli, and Baikunthpur. History The area around Kuchaikote is on one of the main lines of the Aryan advance into the Indian subcontinent, and was probably occupied in an early period by Aryan races. Until 1875, the town was only a tiny hamlet. The district headquarters is located in the town of Kuchaikote. Languages spoken are Bhojpuri, Hindi, and English. Economy The economy of Kuchaikote is mainly based on agricultural products such as sugarcane, pulses, and grains. It is known for its advances in horticulture. There are two colleges in the field of computer science. The town is well developed with good roads, shopping centres, residential areas, with good infrastructure in communication, health care, and transport. There is an industrial park. Saran district Saran District is one of the thirty-seven districts of Bihar state, India. The district, part of Saran Division, is also known as Chapra district after the headquarters of the district Chapra. Hathwa Raj was a zamindari in the Saran Division of Bihar belonging to Bhumihar Brahmins which encompassed 1,365 villages, was inhabited by more than 391,000 people, and produced an annual rental of almost a million rupees.[2] Contents * 1 Information * 2 Notable residents * 3 See also Information * Headquarters: Chapra * Area: 2,641 km? * Population: Total: 2572980 Rural: 2338624 Urban: 234356 * S.C. Population: Total: 301306 Rural: 277217 Urban: 24089 * S.T. Population: Total: 3231 Rural: 2945 Urban: 286

* Sub Divisions: Chapra, Marhawrah, Sonepur * Blocks: Chapra, Manjhi, Dighwara, Rivilganj, Parsa, Baniapur, Amnaur, Taraiya, Sonepur, Garkha, Ekma, Dariyapur, Jalalpur, Marhaura, Masarakh, Maker, Nagra, Panapur, Eisuapur, Lahladpur, Jantabazar * Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Sugar Cane, Potato, Maize, Vegetables * Industry: Sugar Factories. * Rivers: Ganges, Ghaghra, Gandak * Hotel: Mid Town Hotel, Muncipality Chowk, Chhapra Notable residents * Lalu Prasad Yadav [Former Chief-Minister] * Rajiv Pratap Rudy [B.J.P Leader] Chhapra Chhapra (Hindi: Urdu: )is a city and headquarters of Saran district in the state of Bihar, India. Chhapra is also written as Chapra. It is situated near the junction of the Ghaghara River and The Ganges River. Chapra was the headquarter of district called Saran. Later on, the district was divided into three separate districts: Chapra, Siwan and Gopalganj. Chapra grew in importance as a river mart in the 18th century when the Dutch [1][2], French, Portuguese, and English established saltpeter refineries there. It was constituted a municipality in 1864. The town has major rail and road connections with the rest of India. Contents * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Geography * 4 Tourism o 4.1 Baba Mehandar Nath Temple o 4.2 Aami o 4.3 Sonepur o 4.4 Dhorh Ashram o 4.5 Gautam Asthan o 4.6 Silhauri o 4.7 Great Economist o 4.8 Chirand o 4.9 Bareja o 4.10 Kateyan o 4.11 Olhanpur o 4.12 MUBARAKPUR o 4.13 Sonouli * 5 Economy

* 6 Education o 6.1 Colleges o 6.2 Schools * 7 Notable personalities Etymology Various hypothesis have been put forward about the origin of the name Saran (Chhapra). General Cunningham suggested that Saran was earlier known as SARAN or asylum which was a name given to a stupa (Pillar) built by emperor Ashoka. Another view holds that the name SARAN has been derived from SARANGA- ARANYA or the deer forest, the district being famous for its wide expanses of forest and deer in prehistoric times. History The earliest authentic historical record concerning this district may perhaps be related to 898 AD which suggest that the village of Dighwara dubauli in Saran had supplied a copper plate issued in the reign of king Mahendra paldeva. Maharshi Dadhichi belongs to Saran who had donated his bone to Gods for manufacturing of arms. Cottage of Dronacharya was also situated in Saran. Gautamasthan, 8 km from chapra town, is used to be Maharshi Gautam's ashrama. Lord Rama has provided Devi ahiylya, wife of Maharshi Gautam who become stone due to a curse (by her mistake), her life back. Currently, there is a temple and Vishnupad preserved. The fight of "Gaj" (Elephant) and "Grah" (Crocodile) was made at Sonepur in Saran also. Presently, Sonpur is well known for Asia's biggest cattle Fair on Kartik Purnima (OctoberNovember) every year. Ambica Sthan or ambika bhawani (Ami, Dighwara) is famous for goddess Durga. Kosala country In ancient days Modern Chapra formed a part of Kosala country. The history of Chapra is bound to be history of Kosala which included portions other than present limit of Saran Division. The kingdom of Kosala was bounded on the west by Panchala, by the river Sarpika(sai) in the south, on the east by Gandak and on the north by Nepal. The Kosala consisted of modern Faizabad, Gonda, Basti, Gorkhapur, Deoria in UP and Saran in Bihar. The historical background of the district- as available in the 'Ain-E-Akbari records Saran as one of the six Sarkars (Revenue Divisions) constituting the province of Bihar. At the time of grant of Diwani to the East India company in 1765, there were eight Sarkars including Saran and Champaran. These two were later combined to form a single unit named Saran. Saran(along with Champaran) was included in the Patna Division when the Commissioner's Divisions were set up in 1829. It was separated from Champaran in 1866 when it (Champaran) was constituted into a separate district. Saran was made a part of Tirhut Division when latter was created in 1908. By this time there were three subdivisions in this district namely Saran, Siwan and Gopalganj. In 1972 each subdivision of the old Saran district became an independent district. The new Saran district after separation of Siwan and Gopalganj still has its headquarters at Chapra.

Ashoka Pillar The famous Ashoka Pillar is located about 33 km from Chapra town (5 km from Maker Village). This is the place where Lord Buddha made his 13th stop on his way to attaining 'Nirvana'. He converted "Amrapali" - a local courtesan/powerful prostitute into a saint. This is now a major tourist attraction for Buddhists all over the world and is well maintained by the archaeological survey of India. At Chirand near Chapra ancient (primitive) bones were found and are placed in the Chapra Museum. It is famous for King Maurayadhwaj who was ready to sacrifice his only son to Vaman Avatar Lord Vishnu. Bhojpuri heritage It is also famous for its Bhojpuri heritage. The famous "Bhikhari Thakur" is a famous person from Saran, and is often referred to as the "Shakespeare of Bhojpuri". "Mahendra Misir" also a famous person in Bhojpuri Folk songs. He had specially invented the "Purvi" a style of Bhojpuri Folk song. He was the master in playing of several types of instruments. Bhojpuri is dialect of this place. Chapra is birth place of shri RAM NATH PANDEY the author of famous novel "BINDIYA",he is extra ordinary person in Bhojpuri. Ara (Arrah), Ballia (Balia), Chapra and Deoria, the Bhojpuri heartland, are known as "ABCD" of India due to their people's congruence of language and culture. People of this "ABC" region has taken Bhojpuri across the Indian border to far away places in Fiji, Mauritius, Trinidad & Tobago, Surinam and Guyana when their forefathers were settled there as indentured labourer by Imperial forces. They have adopted their new homeland but still have Bhojpuri in their blood. Geography Chapra is located at 254705N 844339E / 25.7848N 84.7274E / 25.7848; 84.7274.[3] It has an average elevation of 36 metres (118 feet). The district of Saran is situated between 2536' and 2613' North latitude and 8424' and 8515' East longitude in the southern post of the newly created Saran Division of North Bihar. The Ganges constitute the Southern boundary of the district beyond which lie the districts of Bhojpur and Patna. To the north of Saran lie districts of Siwan and Gopalganj. The Gandak forms the dividing line with vaishali and Muzaffarpur district in the east. To the west of Saran lies district of Siwan and the district of Balia in Uttar Pradesh, the Ghaghra constituting a natural boundary between Saran and Ballia. The district is shaped like a triangle with its apex at the confluence of boundary of Gopalganj district and Gandak-Ganges river there are three rivers namely the Ganges, Ghaghra, Gandak which encircle the district from south north east and western side respectively. The district is entirely constituted of plains but there are quite a few depressions and marshes, which cause the formation of three broad natural division. I. The alluvial plains along the big rivers which are subjected to periodic inundation and prone to floods. II. The region of uplands away from the rivers and not subject to floods. III. The diara areas in the beds of the great rivers.

Out of twenty blocks in the districts, Six blocks viz Sonepur, Dighwara, Revelganj, Chapra, Manjhi and Dariyapur are affected by floods regularly. There are six partially flood affect Parsa, Marhoura, Amnaur, Jalalpur, and Ekma. The remaining blocks are free from floods. The soil of the district is alluvial. No mineral of economic value is found in the district. Located just above the Ghaghara River's junction with the Ganges, its 1991 population was 136,877 people. Chapra is a road and rail hub, as well as a center for trade in agricultural products. Tourism Chapra can be reached easily by either train or road. The state capital Patna is only 70 km away. One can reach Chapra by Bus from Patna. Alternatively, one has to first come to Hazipur from patna from where trains are available for Chhapra. The main language here is bhojpuri. Festivals like Holi, Diwali, Eid [disambiguation needed] and Chhath Parva, in which the Sun is worshiped, are major events here.here is a river south end of chapra Baba Mehandar Nath Temple This place is situated about 40 km from chapra. this is a place of lord shiva who is known here as "BABA MAHENDRA NATH". There is an old temple attached with a pond which is spread over 52 bighas. The temple is a very old and thi shivlinga is natural (means this is not made by human being).this is located near to rasulpur- chainpur road and there is an easy facility of four wheelers as well as private vechiles can roam around there. this temple is very famous not only in Chapra but also people from other cities and states offer their prayer. Every Monday there is a big Mela(local fair) in which you can get various things like food items, toys, and materials for women folks. On the day of Maha Shivratri there is a big festival in which lakhs of people come here to offer puja(to Worship). In the month of Shravan (August) people offer water to lord Shiva with Bel patra( Aegle Marmelos leaves) and other materials. This is a story of the king of Nepal (Mahindra) who was a very good ruler, he got a skin disease (Leprosy) and as a rule he had to quit the kingdom. Then he went to the near by temple and lived a hard life there. One day Lord Shiva came in his dreams and told him that do not leave this area, this is your doors to heaven and mukti. One day he had to wash his hands while he was in the jungle , accidentally he reached this Pond ( Pokhra ) to was his hands , as he dipped his hands inside he could see the miracle , that the skin disease was disappearing . He was so happy to see the magic happening and the truth in the words what Lord Shiva told him in his dream. Then, since he was king of Nepal so he made a Temple and made the Pond bigger and announced publicly that anyone who takes a dip in the pond will be free from any sins and will prosper in life and all wishes will be fulfilled if he will come with full devotion and trust. This was the reason why this place was named after the name of Baba Mahindra Nath after the king of Nepal who built the area for common man. So this was the reason why this Pokhara is still there and now Bihar Govt is

doing massive expansion and excisable to all common man. I would recommend that if you all can visit this place to get the blessings from Baba and get all your wishes come true with true devotion. The Story is taken by the near by villagers and Pandas who spend there life inside the Temples and there ancestors have spent lives in the Temples. Jai Mahindra Nath (Surendra Gond, Hussepur, Ekma) Aami Ami is a big village. The place is situated about 37 km east of Chapra and 4 km west of Dighwara. In Ami, there is an old temple known as Ambika sthan. Hence, the name Ami is derived from the main word Ambika, which is another name of lord Shiva's wife Parvati.Near the Ambika temple there is a garden and a deep broad well in which water remains all over the year and never dries up. The believer from far off come to pay oblation in this establishment in the memory of the goddess at this Yagya Kunda. The believers from far off come to pay oblation in the Navratra of April and October. Water offered here by lacs of People vanishes in the Kunda. AMI in Chapra is the place where according to mythology when lord Shiva carried the dead body of "Sati" from the holy yagnakund of Daksh Prajapati, the trunk of Sati's body fell in "Ami" and the holy Shaktipeeth 'Ambika Sthan' was established. This place is famous among Hindus and popularly known as Ami. Shivpuran has the details about the same. This pyre is believed to be still present within the compound of "Ambika Sthan temple" in "Ami" situated on National highway number 19 around 50 kilometres away from Bihars Capital town Patna and about 28 kilometres from Chapra town. Devotees believe that their wishes get fulfilled as they worship in this temple. Around the year, specially during Dussehra, devotees from different places throng to this place. This place is well connected by rail (the nearest station, Dighwara, is 3 kilometres away) and by road from Patna. Also around three kilometres from Ambika Sthan there is a small town, "Dighwara", which might had earlier known as "Dirgh-dwara" (main gate)is said to be the maingate of King Daksh's yagna area, the father in law of Lord Shiva.Ami is the village of Rich persons. Sonepur Internationally famous for Asia's largest cattle fair held on the occasion of Kartik Purnima,it is also the head quarters of Sonepur Anchal. Sonepur is a Nagar Panchayat and is noted for its Railways platform which is one of the largest in India. So far as religious aspect of Sonepur Mela is concerned, special significance is owing to the temple of shree Hariharnath and the site of the battle of Gaj-Grah and rescue of the former by Hari During Kartik Purnima Ganga Snan or ceremonial bathing in the Ganges is held by Hindus to be unusually efficacious. On the day of full moon (Kartik Purnima) immense crowd assembles and take bath. The Mela commences on that day and lasts for more than a fortnight. The Shiva temple, Kali temple and other temples and historical religious monuments are situated here and social and economical activities are at the highest peak during the Mela period. People

come here to pay their oblation to the lords and thus its importance is not within Sonepur of Bihar rather it is of India and world fame. Dhorh Ashram This place is situated towards north of Parsagarh where many exhibits of archaeological importance can be seen. On the bank of river Gandaki and ancient temple of Bhagwan Dhadheswar nath is situated in which a gigantic Shiv Ling of stone is there. This place is exactly 45 km from chapra district headquarters. An old temple is here which is made by Nepal naresh. Near this temple a local market is situated name janta bajar, this market is famous due to this temple. There a large mela gets organised on shivratri. While any one is preferring the road way this place is situated almost in the middle of MAHARAJGUNJ and BANIYAPUR. 8 km away from parsagarh in north. Sonpur is the holy place of Hindus. Gautam Asthan In the epic Ramayana, there is a mention of Gautam Rishi who had cursed his wife who turned into stone. Later Lord Rama had released Ahalya from her stone statue and as per religious belief, the purification of Ahilya was meted out here. The Ashram of Gautam Rishi is situated 5 km west of Chapra. Ramayana describes it as Ahalya-Uddhaar. This place is situated near ganga river where a big fear running in a year on kartick purnima. in this place lot of temple are made in a ground like 1. Ram, Laxman, Sita; 2. Devi Ahilya; 3. Goutam Rishi; 4. Bajrangbali; 5. Jamant Ji and a big foot mark of lod Ram. Silhauri This is an important place as per the child Episode of Shiv Puran and Ram charitra Manas. The mohbhan of Narad depicts the place to be here. This ancient place is 2 km away from Marhowra, and 24 km away from Chhapra. Morhowra is connected to Chapra by Rail line. It helps devotes to visit the holy place. On every Shivratary, mela is organized here during which the devotes of Baba Shilanath come to pay their obeisances. There is a very famous temple of Shankar Bhagwan. By: Bhushan this place was originally known as narainpalia. Near marhowrah there is even a old temple which known the name of ghardhdevi. It has a story the when sait rahashu bhagat called goddess then she came to him step by step during her journy she stayed at marhowrah.therefor that place named ghardhdevi.there are so many interesting history of marhowrah Great Economist There are two person come in picture when we discuss about economics. 1.Late Sri Bhagawat Giri born in Mubarak pur Village who was a Great teacher and kind person who had done lot of work for poor student and education system in his locality. 2.Late Sri Gorakh Narain Singh who was born in Marhowrah and get first prize in London in exam of economics. Chirand

Chirand is situated 11 km south east of the district headquarter near Doriganj Bazar at the north bank of river Ghaghra. The result of the excavation there reveals about four thousand years old developed culture of Pashan age. Inhabitants of Chirand were engaged in Animal Husbandry, agriculture and hunting. In whole of India new Pashan age culture was firstly revealed here. Chirand had become an important urban place. Mahadani King Mayurdvajh's palace's archeological remains are still found here, just on the bank of Ganges-Saryu sangam at Chirand area. Chapra also has maharshi Dadhichi's ashram. Dadhichi was a great tapasawi, he has donated his bones to make Lord Indra's vajra to help them in fighting with asurs. Bareja Bareja is a village in Chapra district and is situated in the middle of Chapra and Siwan. The place is 9 km away from Manjhi, which is the UP Border. The village is under Manjhi Block which borders UP. Bareja was a big melting pot of politics during independence movement. During the Salt Movement, Bareja was one of the few villages that manufactured Salt and actually sent it to the English. The Bareja High School was founded way back in 1940s and was the only high school in the area for years. Pandit Girish Tiwari, a well-known freedom fighter from the village rose to be the first education minister of Bihar. Bareja also had some very affluent Jamindars who owned property running in millions during British era. The village presently is populated by most of the castes except Rajputs who live in almost all the villages surrounding it. Kateyan Kateyan is a village in Chhapra district and is situated in the 40 KM north from the main district centre. The village is under Lahladpur block. Kateyan was a big political witness during independent India.Before independence it was ruled by KAYASTH Jamindar Babu Dineshwar Sahay and Babu Nath Sharan Sahay. The Man Rani Anirudh Narayan High School was founded in 1985 inaugrated by former state education minister Smt. Uma Pandey. Kateyan has given a great Hindi & Bhojpuri poet and writer Sri Anirudh Narayan Verma who wrote very famous mahakavya Aarya Anarkali. Olhanpur Olhanpur is a big Village in Chhapra district and its far from 15 km from chhapra town as well as this village is under Marhaurah Block. In Olhanpur village one historic masjid is situated which is made by Emperor shah Jahan people called Shahi Masjid .The founder of Khuda Baksh Library(Khuda Baksh Library is situated at Patna which are very famous in Asia for Persian and Urdu books) is also belongs to Olhanpur. This village has one of the best school in Chapra District i,e Islamia High School. MUBARAKPUR Mubarakpur is a village in Chhapra district and is one KM east of Olahanpur. This village is named after Mubarksah the famous sufi sant. His samadhi is situated in Mubarakpur.The famous Hindi teacher late sri Rameshwar Pandey, was a teacher in Islamic High School,

Olahanpur. His house is situated in the eastern part of the Village. These village is also famous for Roopkala Mandir. These village has great people like Shri Jaganath Prasad who is well known for helping poor people and he is a great socialist. The places to see in Mubarakpur are Chat Ghat and shiv temp. Sonouli Sonouli Sonauli village is situated in Bihar, Chapra District, Bihar. This village is very beautiful in Chapra District Total population is about 6000 (source census 2010) in this village you will find all religion and caste. whole day there is bus available between and sonouli, chapra and Siwan there is local market where you can find local fresh vegetables and fruits and nearest railways station is Mashrakh which is connected to Chapra and Gopalganj, There is 3 Private English Medium School Two Government School One Private Hospital, One Marriage Hall, Two Maszid. One Temple and Many Medical and Grocery Outlets This Village is about 700 Years Old. Economy The main commercial site is the municipal chowk. Hathwa market is famous for selling cloths. On 11 August 2006, Union Railways Minister Lalu Yadav announced setting up of a locomotive factory in the district. The famous chocolate factory MORTON was located at Marhowrah. Sugarcane, Iron, Cotton factory are also located at Marhowrah. Education Colleges Jai Prakash Vishwavidyalaya (University), Chapra is one of the premier universities of Bihar. Serving the needs of higher and quality education of the people of Saran commissionary, it has completed its 14 years and has entered its 15th year. With 21 constituent colleges and 9 affiliated colleges, it is offering courses at the Under Graduate level and Post Graduate level in most subjects. With a student strength of thousands of students, J.P. University is amongst the largest universities of Bihar. Main colleges of chapra are Rajendra College, Jagdam College, Ramjaipal College, J.P.Mahila Collage, SDS College, Dr. R.N.Singh Evening College, T.S College, P.N. Singh College Parsa, Jaglal Ray College, P.C. Science College, H.R College Amnour, Bishweshwar Dayal Sinha Memorial Mahila Mahavidyalaya, and many more. Schools Shri Yamuna Chari High School, Driyapur, R.J.HIGH SCHOOL (BISHWAMBHER PUR),Sadhu Lal Prithvi Chand High School(Sidhighat,Chapra), Rajendra Vidhya Mandir,Maker,B.B RAM High School, Nagra.(Hakim) High school Marhowra, Silhauri, bajitpur,sonoho,saran,high school Amnour share dias with top schools in bihar,Parsa, Zila School, Visveswar Seminary, Saran Academy, Rajput High School, Brahmin School, Hariji High School, Aphar and R.S.K.S. High School Khalpura, Darihara High School, Darihara are very good schools for boys & Girls whereas Govt. Girls' High School, Janak Yadav Girls High School and Arya Kanya Girls School are good schools for girls, and also the another important government school is Gautam

Rishi Uccha vidyalay which is in Revelganj. Apart of it J.M. High School Raipura (Garkha), Islamia High School, Olhanpur, B.N.High School,Mohamadpur. Saran are also the good schools. There is another very popular and having brilliant academic record school.25 km north on Gudari-Baniyapur Road MISHRI LAL DHARMNATH PRASAD HIGH SCHOOL,KANHAULI,BANIYAPUR,SARAN situated on the bank of a very popular pond named Paigambarpur pokhara.-Dharmendra Mohan Srivastava (student of 1967 Batch.) By-Rupesh Kumar (mithepur) Rampurkhoram High School by Surenra Gupta (Student of 1982 Batch.) Notable personalities Chapra is the home of freedom fighter and notable political leader Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan, Mazaharul Haq. Jaiprakash Narayan University has been opened in the name of Jai Prakash Narayan "stalwart of Indian politics". Renowned author Shailendra Sengar belongs to Sawari Jalalpur near Chapra. Chitragupta, the famous music composer of Bollywood, hailed from Chapra and his Music Director duo son Anand-Milind are still bringing glory to this place. Pandit Ramavatar Sharma, Acharya Pandit Kapil Dev Sharma (Padma-Vibhushan) who had been the scholar of about 13 languages, Dr Govind Sharan, Pandit Bharat Mishra, and Dr. Harihar Nath Saran, Bindeshwari Prasad Verma, Dr. Katyayan Pramod Parijat Shastri ( Bharatacharya ) who is a well known Astrologer, Mythologist and scholar of Sanskrit, Hindi, Bhojpuri, Bangla, English etc. has contributed his writings in the forms of articles, poems in many leading national newspapers and magazines like Dainik Hindustan, Dainik Jagran, Aaj, Dharmayug, Saptahik Hindustan and Kadambini.He has written many books like Bauddh Darshan, Ajatshatru ( A Biography Of Dr. Rajendra Prasad ), Udte hue Sanyasi aur Kandaraon ki Kalbhairavi and many others.He had also Edited the historical Newspaper of Post Independent era like Gomati.Dr. Shastri is the pioneer to launch the written astrological Predictions in the Indian Newspaper.After spending his 9 years into Rashtrapati bhawan as Being closely associated with President Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Dr. Radhakrishnan he took the name of Chhapra in to new heights.All these notable personalities belonged to the soil of Chhapra. This place had also given 6 Chief Ministers to Bihar State. Great Bhojpuri poet and folk artist Bhikari Thakur who is known as Shakespeare of Bhojpuri is also a son of Chhapra(saran) district. [1] Bidesia, the play entitled by Bhikari Thakur, has made history by its popularity. Bhikari Thakur is the people's poet in Bhojpuri and in his poems are reflected the joys and sorrows, the toils and tears of the simple rural folk of his area. Mithilesh Prasad Srivastava alias Natwarlal(in famous thug) also belongs to Chapra. Among freedom-fighters Ramdeo Singh from Village Thahara West, Maker was one of them who fought for the country against British rule and went to Chapra jail for 3 months. Among NRI's Sabita Singh, a daughter of Chhapras Mukrera village, is judge of the District Circuit Court of Massachusetts in USA. She is the first South Asian judge in the

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Her grandfather was a senior lawyer in the Chapra district court.chapra is famous district of India. Sidharath Gautam belongs to Chhapra, he is Founder & CEO of SG Group, USA. Recent railway minister of India Mr. Lalu Prasad very famous leader in the world. Dighwara Dighwara is a city and a notified area in Saran district in the state of Bihar, India. Name probably emerged from 'Dirgh-dwar' or literally 'large gate'. This place is said to be the entrance gate of the mythological city of king Daksha. The town is on the banks of Ganges. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Languages spoken in Dighwara * 4 Places of interest o 4.1 In Dighwara o 4.2 Around Dighwara o 4.3 Education o 4.4 Hospitals of Dighwara + 4.4.1 Temple of Maa Ambika, (Aami) + 4.4.2 The ancient city of Vaishali * 5 How to reach Geography Dighwara is located at 2544N 8500E / 25.73N 85.0E / 25.73; 85.0.[1] It has an average elevation of 43 metres (141 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Dighwara had a population of 27,327. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Dighwara has an average literacy rate of 48%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 59% and, female literacy is 35%. In Dighwara, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Villages of Dighwara: * Manupur * Aami * Basatpur * Hematpur * Haraji * Malkhachak * Basti jalal * Farhada * Pipra * Marhavara

* Salhan * Mirzapur Languages spoken in Dighwara * Hindi * Bhojpuri Places of interest In Dighwara There are several common temples of various Hindu deities. Also you can have a beautiful scene of sunset from the banks of Ganges. Around Dighwara Around Dighwara, there are many small historical and sacred places. People from far and near come to visit these places. Education * Girls High School * Shankarpur Road * Jai Govind High School, NH 19 Dighwara * Middle School Dighwara * K N T Collage Dighwara * Y N Collage Dighwara * Ram Jangal Singh College Dighwara Hospitals of Dighwara * Rajkiya Hospital Dighwara Temple of Maa Ambika, (Aami) This is a temple of goddess Durga's Ambika form. The temple is roughly 4 km west from Dighwara town. It is made in an old fort like building on the banks of holy Ganges. The temple is an example of standard north Indian temple architecture. It has a central shrine called 'garvagriha', housing the main idol of goddess Ambika. There is a 'yagya kunda' where still religious acts are done. A large idol of Shiva has been erected recently near the yagya kunda. The ancient city of Vaishali See: Vaishali (ancient city) How to reach Dighwara can be reached by train or by road. Dighwara has its own railway station and the nearest railway junctions are Sonpur and Chapra. Nearest Airport is Chapra. International flights are from Patna. Marhaura Marhaura is a city and a notified area in Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar. Geography

Marhaura is located at 2558N 8452E / 25.97N 84.87E / 25.97; 84.87.[1] It has an average elevation of 52 metres (170 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Marhaura had a population of 24,534. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Marhaura has an average literacy rate of 42%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 54%, and female literacy is 29%. In Marhaura, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Revelganj Revelganj is a city and the oldest municipality in Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 References History This is the birth place of Hanuman, the bhakt (devotee) of Ram. This place is also known for Ahalya Udhar. Here, people can find a temple of Maharishi Gautam. This place is also known as Gautam Asthan in the name of this saint. The ashram of Shringi Rishi is here. Geography Revelganj is located at 2547N 8440E / 25.78N 84.67E / 25.78; 84.67.[1] It has an average elevation of 52 metres (170 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Revelganj had a population of 34,044. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Sonepur, Bihar Sonpur is a town in the Indian state of Bihar, situated on the banks of the River Gandak in Saran district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 See also Geography The town is located at 254200N 851100E / 25.7N 85.1833E / 25.7; 85.1833 at an altitude of 42 metres (137 ft). It is the divisional headquarters of the East Central Railway of the Indian Railways. It hosts one of the world's largest animal fairs. It is on the confluence of four rivers. Domesticated animals had been the sole source of all economic activities since ancient times, explaining why the animal fair has been organised.

The river Gandak must have been the route of the movement of Budha and his followers from Nepal Tarai to Magadh that is why many of the stupas and similar structures, including Ashokas pillars, are found on the banks of the river. The location of Pathar ki Maszid just opposite the meeting point of the gandak, that is southern bank of the ganga, shows the Muslim influence of trade and commerce in medieval times. The current township Patna is just the modern version of the makeshift headquartrs of military establishments of old Patnacity which in turn was later version of Patliputra, the capital of Marya Empire. Of the seven railway stations in the world having the longest railway platforms, five are in India, Sonepur being the one with the second longest platform in the world at 2,415 ft (736 m). It is connected by two rivers, Ganga and Gundak. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Sonpur had a population of 33,389. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Sonepur has an average literacy rate of 60%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 48%. In Sonepur, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. See also * Sonepur Cattle Fair * Hariharnath Mandir Siwan district Siwan district is one of the districts of Bihar state, India. Siwan town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Siwan district is a part of Saran Division since 1972. The town is known for its great past especially for First President of Indian Republic who belonged to Jeeradei.[2] The district is also known as Aliganj Sawan after the name of Ali Bux. Siwan has historical and mythological importance attached to it. Contents * 1 Nomenclature * 2 History * 3 Blocks Name * 4 Geographical Features * 5 Geography * 6 Agriculture and industries * 7 Education * 8 Famous personalities * 9 Tourism Nomenclature Siwan derived its name from "Shiva Man", a Bandh Raja whose heirs ruled this area until Babar's arrival. Maharajganj, which is another subdivision of Siwan district, may have found its name from the seat of the Maharaja there. Siwan is also known as Aliganj Sawan after the name of Ali Bux, one of the ancestors of the feudal lords of the area.

Siwan, situated in the western part of the State, was originally a sub-division of Saran District, which in ancient days formed a part of Kosala Kingdom.The present district limits came into existence only in 1972, which is geographically situated at 2535 North and 841 to 8447 east. The total area of the Siwan district is about 2219.00 Sq. Km with a population of 21,56,428 as per the 1991 census. The district is bounded on the east by the Saran district, on the north by Gopalganj district and on the west and south by two districts of U.P. viz. Deoria and Balia respectively. Siwan, derived its name from "Shiva Man", a Bandh Raja whose heirs ruled this area till Babars arrival. Maharajganj, which is another subdivision of Siwan district, may have found its name from the seat of the Maharaja there. A recently excavated marvelous statue of Lord Vishnu at Village Bherbania from underneath a tree indicates that there were large numbers of followers of Lord Vishnu in the area. As the legend goes, Dronacharya of Mahabharat belonged to village 'DON'in Darauli Block. Some believe Siwan to be the place where Lord Buddha died. Siwan is also known as Aliganj Sawan after the name of Ali Bux, one of the ancestors of the feudal lords of the area. Siwan was a part of Banaras Kingdom during 8th century. Muslims came here in the 13th century. Sikandar Lodi brought this area in his kingdom in 15th century. Babar crossed Ghaghra river near Siswan in his return journey. In the end of the 17th century, the Dutch came first followed by the English. After the battle of Buxar in 1765 it became a part of Bengal. Siwan played an important role in 1857 independence movement. It is famous for the stalwart and sturdy Bhoj-puries, who have always been noted for their martial spirit and physical endurance and from whom the army and police personnel were largely drawn. A good number of them rebelled and rendered their services to Babu Kunwar Singh. The anti pardah movement in Bihar was started by Sri Braj Kishore Prasad who also belonged to Siwan in response to the Non CoOperative movement in 1920. A big meeting was organised at Darauli in Siwan District on the eve of the Kartik Purnima Mela under the leadership of Dr. Rajendra Prasad who had thrown away his lucrative practice as an advocate in the Patna High Court at the call of Gandhiji. In the wake of this movement Maulana Mazharul Haque, who came to stay with his maternal uncle Dr. Saiyyad Mahmood in Siwan, had constructed an ashram on the Patna-Danapur road which subsequently became Sadaquat Ashram. The next phase of the Non co-operation movement known as the Civil Disobedience movement of 1930, was fully implemented in Siwan. In connection with the Satyagrah Movement Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru made a whirlwind tour of the different parts of Bihar. One of the famous meetings he addressed was at Maharajganj. A few persons of present Siwan District who played an important role in the attainment of independence were Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Maulana Mazharul Haque, Shri Mahendra Prasad, the elder brother of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Dr. Sayyad Mohammad, Shri Braj Kishore Prasad and Shri Phulena Prasad. Uma Kant Singh (Raman jee) of Narendrapur achieved martyrdom during the Quit India Movement. Jwala Prasad and Narmedshwar Prasad of Siwan helped Jai Prakash Narayan after his

escape from Hazaribagh Central Jail. One of the most renowed literaturer of this country Pandit Rahul Sankritayayana started peasant Movement here between 1937 to 1938. During his visit to Champaran Mahatma Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malviya visited Siwan and Gandhiji even spent a night at Zeradei in the house of Dr. Rajendra Prasad. The chowki on which he slept then is still kept intact there. History Ancient and medieval history of Siwan; Situated in the western part of the State, Siwan was a part of Kosala Mahajanapada during 5th century BC. A recently excavated marvelous statue of Lord Vishnu at Village Sadiha & Bherbania from underneath a tree indicates that there were large numbers of followers of Lord Vishnu in the area. As the legend goes, Dronacharya of Mahabharat belonged to village DON in Darauli Block. Some believe Siwan to be the place where Lord Buddha died. Siwan was a part of Banaras Kingdom during 8th century. Muslims came here in the 13th century. Sikandar Lodi brought this area under his kingdom in 15th century. Babar crossed Ghaghra River near Siswan in his return journey. During the reign of Moghul emperor Akbar, area of Siwan was covered under Saran, which was one of the six Sarkar for collection of land revenue. Modern history At the end of 17th century, the Dutch came here first followed by the English. After the battle of Buxar in 1764, Siwan (Saran) became a part of Bengal in 1765. Siwan played an important role during first independence movement. Since ancient times, the region was famous for the stalwart and sturdy Bhojpuries, who have always been noted for their martial spirit and physical endurance and from whom the army and police personnel were largely drawn. A good number of them rebelled and rendered their services to Babu Kunwar Singh during movement of 1857. The anti pardah movement in Bihar was started by Sri Braj Kishore Prasad who belonged to Siwan in response to the Non Co-Operative movement in 1920. A big meeting was organised at Darauli in Siwan District on the eve of the Kartik Purnima Mela under the leadership of Dr. Rajendra Prasad, who had thrown away his lucrative practice as an advocate in the Patna High Court at the call of Gandhiji. In the wake of this movement Maulana Mazharul Haque, who came in Siwan to stay with his maternal uncle Dr. Saiyyad Mahmood, had constructed an ashram on the Patna-Danapur road, which subsequently became Sadaquat Ashram. The next phase of the Non co-operation movement known as the Civil Disobedience movement of 1930, was fully supported in Siwan. In connection with the Satyagrah Movement Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru made a whirlwind tour of the different parts of Bihar. One of the famous meetings he addressed was at Maharajganj. A few persons of present Siwan District played an important role in the attainment of independence and rose to the national level. Shaheed Sarai formally called Jublie Sarai in British Raj holds an important place in history of Siwan. The sarai was a hub for the pro independence ignited minds and it

is the place where three soldiers of independence died in British firing. Hence, it was named Shaheed Sarai. One of the most prolific writers of India, Pandit Rahul Sankritayayana, started peasant movement here between 1937 and 1938. During visit to Champaran Mahatma Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malviya visited Siwan and Gandhiji even spent a night at Ziradei in the house of Dr. Rajendra Prasad. The chowki on which he slept then is still kept intact there. Formation as District The major changes in the jurisdiction of the district were creation of Siwan as district and the changes resulting there from due to implementation of Trivedi Award on 10 June 1970. The award resulted substantial alteration of jurisdiction of the district. Siwan was being declared as a district in 1972 in which it was proposed to include 10 blocks of Gopalganj and 13 blocks of Siwan subdivisions. Two blocks Bhagwanpur and Basantpur of Siwan were declared to be added to the jurisdiction of proposed Marhaura subdivision. But after one year later in 1973 Gopalganj was made a separate district with its 10 blocks included in Siwan earlier and thus Siwan constituted its original 15 blocks including Bhagwanpur and Basantpur blocks. Trivedi Award was implemented on 10 June 1970. Thereby fourteen villages of Siwan having an area of 13,092 acres (52.98 km2) were transferred to U.P. and twelve villages of U.P. with an area of 6,679 acres (27.03 km2) were transferred to Siwan. The basis of this transfer was the position of Ghaghara River in 1885. After 1885, the course of the river changed from time to time resulting in intermixing the areas of U.P. with those of Siwan. Hence, the position of 1885 was taken to be the base and those transfer were made accordingly. Before the Trivedi Award, the boundary of Siwan with U.P. was flexible with the course of the river. After the Award, this boundary was fixed by installing pillars on the conspicuous points, the maintenance of which is done by Govt. of Utter Pradesh and the administration of Siwan as per the provisions of the Awards. Thus after this Awards, the so far flexible boundary of Siwan vis-a-vis U.P. on both banks of Ghaghara river was given a stability. Presently four more blocks have been created namely Lakri Nabiganj, Nautan, Jiradei and Hasanpura block. Out of these newly created blocks Lakri Nabiganj is functional and rests of the three are not functional. Thus, there are sixteen functional blocks in the district. Blocks Name Mairwa Guthani Goreyakothi Darauli Ander Hussainganj Siwan Sadar Barharia

Pachrukhi Basantpur Bhagwanpur Hat Maharajganj Daraunda Siswan Raghunathpur Chanp farooqi nager Nautan Ziradei Hasanpura Ukareri Geographical Features Geographical FeaturesThe District Siwan is spanned over the western part of North Bihar alluvial plain's segment of broader Indo-Gangetic Plain. The geographical location of the district is confined between 250 53' to 260 23' North latitudes and 840 1' to 840 47' East longitude .The Deoria district (U.P.) bound it from west, the Gopalganj district from north, the Saran district from east and by the river Ghaghara (Gogra or Sarayu) from south, beyond which lies the district of Ballia (U.P.). The district is constituted of 15 (1991) Anchals (blocks) covering an area of 2219 km2 (856 miles) with a population of 2,170,971 according to 1991 census. This administrative unit embraces only 1.27 percent of area and 2.54 percent of total population of Bihar. It comprises 1437 inhabited and 101 uninhabited villages. As regards the sex ratio in the district, 1069 female population comes to per 1000 male population. Structurally the district forms a part of the alluvium of the broader Indo-Gangetic Plain. The geological formation of the tract is of recent (Holocene) period. The contribution of the Himalayan Rivers to the formation of the tract is significant. It is estimated that the district covers the deposits of alluvium more than 5000 feet depth. Geo-morphologically it forms the part of the Gandak cone which is the outcome of the discharge and silt-charge of the Himalayan rivers to the plain during the phase of deposition. The whole district bears a featureless terrain having general slope from northwest to southeast. The slope is almost imperceptible averaging only 8 inches a mile. The datum line of Siwan, the district headquarters, is 64 metres (210 feet) from the sea level. The district is drained by few small rivers like Jharahi, Daha, Gandaki, Dhamati (Dhamahi), Siahi, Nikari and Sona. The southern boundary of the district is formed by river Ghaghara, the main stream of the area. Among these, Ghaghara is the only perennial river because of its Himalayan source and rest rivers bear different origins. The rivers of the district get inundated almost every year. The area is characterised by certain typical features like 'Chaurs', some of which give birth to short length streams locally known as 'Nadi' or 'Sota'. The rivers Jharahi and Daha are the tributaries of river Ghaghara, while Gandak and Dhamati are of river Gandak. The Siahi and Nikari streams drain to Jharahi, while Sona

drains to river Daha. These streams play important role in carrying out excess water during rainy season. Siwan, the district headquarters, is located on the eastern bank of river Daha. The southern part of the district along river Ghaghara is marked by Draras, which are typical formation of the sand heaping with thin layer of clay and silt over them. Alluvium and Dilution Rae the important works of river Ghaghara in this part, where by boundary problems are created leading to transfer of land to and from the district. The district of Siwan falls in the area, which occupies an intermediary position between the Bhanger plain of Uttar Pradesh and Khader plain of West Bengal. Bhanger ( or Banger ) is the older alluvium containing heavier soil with greater clay proportion, while Khader is the newer alluvial deposit by rier floods. Both types of soils are found in the district, but Khader is limited to the vicinity of the rivers where it is periodically renewed by fresh deposits, especially in DIARA areas. Khader is locally termed as 'Domat' and Bhanger as 'Balsundari'. The Bhanger contains nodular segregations of carbonate of lime known as 'Kankar'.The soil is in many places is sulfurous and extraction of saltpeter has long been an important industry. The saltpeter industry has disappeared with the march of time and changing phase of development. The district gets its place in the transitional zone of drier climatic condition of Uttar Pradesh and moist climatic condition of West Bengal, but nearness to U.P. gives way to experience comparatively drier climatic condition. The area observes hot westerly winds which start in March and last till May, but in April and May light, damp easterly winds blow intermittently and afternoon storms accompanied with rain take the place of the rainless dust storms of U.P. The summer season experiences 'Loo' during May and June having temperature above 1000F (380C). Since the district is in transitional zone the Monsoon rain starts late here, but earlier than U.P., and persists till September. This period provides maximum rain to the area. July and August are the oppressive months due to heat intermixed with high humidity. The winter season is normally pleasant with low temperature. During this period western depressions sometimes give small quantity of rain, which intensifies the existing coldness into chill. The average annual rainfall for 51 years at Siwan is 120 centimeters (47 inches). Geography The global location of Siwan District is between 25 53' to 26 23' North latitudes and 84 1' to 84 47' East longitudes. Siwan covers an area of 2219 km. The district headquarter of Siwan, having same pronunciation, is located on the eastern bank of river Daha. Siwan is situated in the western part of North Bihar. It is bordered by Gopalganj District in the north and by the river Ghaghara in the south beyond, which lies the Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh. In the east of Siwan lies Saran District while Deoria District bounds it from the west. According to the 2001 census the population of Siwan District is 27,14,349 out of which rural and urban population are 2,055,466 & 115,505 respectively. The Literacy Rate in the district is 51.65%. Siwan has distinction of having highest sex ratio among districts of Bihar (1069 female/ 1000 male). The district forms a part of the alluvium of the broader

Indo-Gangetic Plain. This region is marked by some typical geographical formations like 'Chaurs' and 'Draras'. The southern part of the district along river Ghaghara is marked by Draras, which are typical formation of the sand heaping with thin layer of clay and silt over them. Alluvium and dilution Rae the important works of river Ghaghara in this part, where by boundary problems are created leading to transfer of land to and from the district. * Rivers: Gandaki and Ghaghara are major rivers. The district is also navigated by few small rivers like Jharahi, Daha, Gandaki, Dhamati or Dhamahi, Siahi, Nikari and Sona. Along with the smaller ones Ghaghara is the perennial river, which flows alongside the district's boundary. Climate The district observes hot westerly winds which start in March and last till May, but in April and May light, damp easterly winds blow intermittently and afternoon storms accompanied with rain take the place of the rainless dust storms of U.P. The summer season experiences 'Loo' during May and June having temperature above 380C), Since the district is in transitional zone the Monsoon rain starts late here, but earlier than U.P., and persists till September. This period provides maximum rain to the area. July and August are the oppressive months due to heat intermixed with high humidity. The winter season is normally pleasant with low temperature. During this period, western depressions sometimes give small quantity of rain, which intensifies the existing coldness into chill. The average annual rainfall for 51 years at Siwan is 120 centimeters. Administrative Division * Sub Divisions: Siwan, Maharajganj * Blocks: Mairwa, Pachrukhi, Raghunathpur, Andar, Guthani, Maharajganj, Darauli, Siswan, Daraunda, Husainaganj, Bhagwanpur, Hat, Goriyakothi, Baraharia, Habibpur, Siwan Sadar, Basantpur, Lakari, Nabiganj, Jiradei, Nautan, Hasanpur, Firozpur. Agriculture and industries Soil The district of Siwan falls in the area, which occupies an intermediary position between the Bhanger plain of Uttar Pradesh and Khader plain of West Bengal. Bhanger (or Banger) is the older alluvium containing heavier soil with greater clay proportion, while Khader is the newer alluvial deposit by river floods, both types of soils are found in the district, but Khader is limited to the vicinity of the rivers where it is periodically renewed by fresh deposits, especially in "Diara" areas. Khader is locally termed as 'Domat' and Bhanger as 'Balsundari'. The Bhanger contains nodular segregations of carbonate of lime known as 'Kankar'. The soil is in many places sulfurous and extraction of saltpeter has long been an important industry. The saltpeter industry has disappeared with the march of time and changing phase of development. * Major crops: Paddy, Wheat, Sugar Cane, Maize * Important Industry: Sugar factories, Jinning factory, Handloom

Flora Fauna Siwan district is mainly a plain and fertile agricultural land. It has highest temperature in May and lowest temperature in January. The highest rainfall period is August and September. In summer it often faces cyclones. Plants & Herbs : First of all Mr. M. H. Hens who was then forest conservator collected plants but Siwan District does not appear in his articles. At that time it was a Sub-Division of the Saran District. The land of Siwan cannot be divided into botanical zones. Crops : Crops are cultivated in the district as per the seasons. There are mainly two major crops i.e. Khariff and Rabi. Khariff : Its period is June to September and the main crops are Maize, Paddy, Sugarcane, and Millet etc. Rabi : Its period is October to March and the main crops are Wheat, Grams, Peas, Mustards, Soya beans, Sunflower etc. March - January : During this period mainly Kidney beans and summer paddy is grown. Fruits : The main fruits are Mango, Guava, Banana, and Papaya. The other fruits that are grown are Pomegranate, big and small Lemon. Amla are also found in some places. Vegetables : Vegetables are also grown according to the season. Winter season : Potato, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Reddish, Spinach, Carrot, Brinjal, Tomato, Bottle gourd, Pumpkins etc are grown in this season. Rainy Season : Ladyfinger, Bitter gourd, Ghewara etc are grown during this season. Trees : The district has no forest area. The trees that are found in orchards and roadsides are Mango, Litchi, Eucalyptus, Pipal, Banyan, Shisham, Neem, Ashok, Coconut, Palmyra etc. Flowers : The flowers that are found are Rose, Fern & Cactus, various types of Croton, Jasmine, Lily, Christhemum etc. Education ===Educational Institutions ===[[Media:[[Media: * Siwan Engineering & technical Institute Siwan * Unani Medical College, Nawalpur, Siwan * Islamia High School, Purana Qila, Siwan * D.A.V. P.G. College (Siwan) * D.A.V. Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital * Z.A. Islamia College (Siwan) * Islamia High & Middle School, Mahabiri Saraswati Vidya Mandir (CBSE) * VM Inter College. VM High & Middle School, DAV High & Middle School, * Vidya Bhawan Mahila College * D.A.V. Public School (CBSE), * Mahabiri Saraswati Shishu Mandir (CBSE) * Kendriya Vidyalay (CBSE) * Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya (CBSE) * Don Bosco High School * Daroga Prasad Ray College (Ckanil ) D.A.V.Public School (Srinagar

* Vatayan school (CBSC)]]]] Famous personalities Freedom Fighters * Khuda Baksh Khan - Born on 2 August 1842 in Ukhai, 7 km from Siwan. His immense collection of books and manuscripts gave birth to Khuda Baksh Oriental Public Library in Patna. * Dr. Rajendra Prasad - A close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru is the icon of Siwan. After independence, he became first president of India. * Maulana Mazharul Haque - Veteran mass leader and Symbol of Hindu -Muslim Unity during independence movement of India. * Shri Braj Kishore Prasad * Shri Phulena Prasad * Bhumitra Prasad Sharma alias 'Vaidya Jee' - Originally from Kanpur, UP was a close associate of Dr Rajendra Prasad. * Uma Kant Singh alias 'Raman jee' of Narendrapur achieved martyrdom on 9 August 1942 during the Quit India Movement. * Shri Zawwar Hussain-He was a freedom fighter and was imprisoned during the British Raj. belonging to the Zamindar Family of Haveli Hussaingang, he joined the Socialist party and later Congress and was the cabinet minister in State Govt form period of 1970-1978 as Finance, Education Road and transport etc. He was also the chairman of the education Committee for the improvement of the education syaytem in Bihar. he was also Vice Chancellor of Bihar and Magadh university. Doctor * Dr. Ashok Thakur * Dr. Arvind sinha (ultra sound specialist) * Dr. Pramod Kumar (Ultra Sound specialist) Advocate * Adv. B.B. Verma, * Adv. Maya Prasad, * Adv. Madan Kumar, * Adv. Srikant singh, * Adv. Lalan Singh, * Adv. Shri Babu, * Adv. Virendra Singh * Adv. Ghanshyam Prasad S Technologist/Engineer: * Satyendra Dubey:- Though Siwan has given the nation many engineers but nobody in recent history could make an impact on the society as Satyendra. He was a true national hero as he exposed the corruption in the Highway projects among the Officers and

Contractors. He was killed in the process, but his cause was highlighted allover the Country. He once believed that the era of robbing the citizens in the name of taxes and giving them to the hands of goons and criminals will no more be acceptable. Siwan is proud of Satyendra Ji * Azad Ansari staying in the pakawalia village,Post:Machakana,via-Hussainganj,Police Stn.: Aanar,Dist:Siwan-841237,works on Embedded System acquired through software design and development, hardware, simulation and modeling, front end development and calibration. Literary * Allama Jamil Mazhari,Renowned Urdu scholar. * Padma Shri Prof. Hasan Askari, Historian. * Paigham Afaqui, Urdu novelist. His novel Makaan is a landmark in Urdu literature. His other books Mafia, a collection of short stories and Darinda (collection of poems) are important contributions to Urdu Literature. * Sant Kumar Verma : His books were, 'Babu' first biography on Dr. Rajrndra Prasad. Ghag aur Unki Kahawatein, and many more books and stories in Bhojpuri * Baidyanath Pandey: "Rayees". The name "Rayees" was the love of Siwan which was been honored to Baidyanth Pandey.The legendary personality who ware always there to needy persons.He belong to Zamindar gharana where there was no lack of wealth.He contributed with his life to provide a better future for the people of Siwan. Some footmarks are still foundable in the form of "Baidyanath Pandey Sanskrit Mahavidyalay" an institute which is dedicated for Sanskrit Study affilited from "Darbhanga University" Wrestlers * Mohammad Alamgir (Kapia Hatta) * M Shakil Khan (20082010) * Sheo Shankar Yadav (Ramgarh) * Sheo Nath Mehto (Ustaad) (Nagai) * Mohammed Tawheed Siddiqui (Heyatpur village) * Shaikh Mohibul Hasan Siddiqi [DHOBI MASTAAN ] Of HATHOURA * Shaikh Mohammad Israil Siddiqui [DADA] of HATHOURA Teacher * Mr.S C Srivastava, * Shri RajBalabh Singh,(Retd.Teacher) President Award winning teacher from Basantpur block,District-Siwan * Miss Rehana Begum(B.A.& B.Ed) of Village: Pakawalia, Post:Machakana,viaHussainganj, Police Stn.:Aanar,Dist:Siwan-841237(Bihar). Journalist * mr. Shubhendu Srivastav, TV Journalist(active in national media). subhampoliticalview.blogspot.com

Tourism * Don: The Don village under Darauli block has remnants of a fort which is said to be connected with the famous Acharya Dronacharya, the guru of both Kaurav's and Pandav's. Dona's stupa is a lesser-known but popular Buddhist pilgrimage site, despite its isolated location. The Buddhist traveler Hiuen Tsang mentions a visit to Don in his account of his travels in India. He describes the stupa as being in ruins. The account of Dona's distribution of Buddha's ashes and being given the vessel is a mentioned in the end of the Mahaparinibbana Sutta, which is described in Maurice Walsh's The Long Discourses. Presently Dona's stupa is a grassy hill and has a Hindu temple built over it. Nearby is an exceptionally beautiful statue of Tara now being worshipped as a Hindu goddess. This statue was carved in the 9th century A.D. After the Buddha's cremation a dispute arose as to how his ashes should be divided. Eventually a Brahmin named Dona was given the task and he did it to the satisfaction of all the eight claimants. As a reward for his services, he was given the vessel in which the ashes had been collected and from which he had divided and he announced that he would enshrine this vessel in a stupa. This stupa later became a popular destination with pilgrims. When Hiuen Tsiang went there it was already in ruins but it still sometimes emitted a brilliant light. Don can be visited by road from Siwan, a major railway station on GorakhpurGuwahati route. Private vehicle is advised, as road condition beyond Siwan is very bad. Alternatively, this place can be visited by road in a day trip from Kusinara via Gopalganj. * Mehandar: Mehandar (near by Birti village) is in Siswan Blcok has beautiful temples of Lord Shiva & Lord Vishwakarma. The place is visited not only by the people of the locality on the Shivaratri day & Vishwakarma Puja but also by the all over places. It is known for its temple and a pond scatted over an area of more than 500 bighas. It is said that one Nepal king built these and took his bath in the pond and got his leprosy cured. * Amarpur: Amarpur village is situated at 3 km. West of Darauli. Ruins of the mosque of red bricks are still available in this village on the bank of river Ghaghara. This mosque was built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Shahjahan (16261658) under the supervision of the Naib Amar Singh but the work was left incomplete. The village derived its name from the builder of the mosque Amar Singh. * Mahpur: Shaheed Baba Ki Mazar, Purab Tola Bazar, Mahpur settled on a planned way on the banks of River DAHA. * Faridpur: Situated just near Andar, Faridpur is the birthplace of Maulana Mazharul Haque who played an important role during the freedom movement. Sadaquat Ashram in Patna originally belonged to him. He was a symbol of Hindu Muslim unity during freedom movement of India. * Hussain Ganj:9 KM form Siwan, this is a historical resattlements of the Zamindars who escaped from the British annexures from Banda Dist(UP) to Hussianganj. settled on a

planned way on the banks of River Gandak. The haveli which is a mini fortess like with its mediaeval construction using red bricks(Lahori Bricks) and massive walls and Structure is maintaind till date by its inhabitants. * Darauli: A block headquarter now is said to be have been founded after the name of Dara Shikoh the elder son of the Emperor Shahjahan. Its name was Daras Ali, which later on was changed into Darauli. There is reminiscence of Mughal period ruins where a big mela is held every year on the Kartik Purnima. * Hasanpura: It is a village in the Hussainganj block. It is said that Makhdum Sayyad Hasan Chisti, a saint who came from Arabia to India and settled here, found it. He founded a Khankhah too. * Lakri Dargah: It is the place of pilgrimage for the Mohammedans. The village is so called because it contains the tomb (Dargah) of a Mohammedan saint, Shah Arjan of Patria, in which there is some good woodwork. The story runs that the saint, attracted by the solitude of the place, performed a Chila here, i.e., gave himself up to religious contemplation for 40 days. He also set up a religious establishment, which was endowed by the Emperor Aurangzeb. The anniversary of the saint's death is celebrated the 11th of Rabius-sani every year which attracts a large crowd. * Mairwa Dham: A block headquarters now, there is a celebrated Brahma Asthan, locally known as Hari Baba ka Asthan, the shrine having been built over the relics of the saint. There is also a mound called Chananriyam Dih from an Ahirni woman who is now worshipped in a shed built in front of the Dak bungalow, which occupies the top of the mound. The shrine is on the bank of the Jharhi River and fairs are held in Kartik and Chaitra months. There is also a leper home at Mairwa known as Kustha Sevasram, which is doing useful work. * Ziradei: It is a village in the Hussainganj Block. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first President of the Indian Republic, belonged to this village. * Maharajganj: A block headquarters now, it was also called Basnauli Gangar. It is the largest bazaar in the district. This was the place where great hero of Indian Independence Movement, Shri Phulena Prasad centralised his activity and fought against the British. * Bhikhabandh: A village in Maharajganj Block, there is a big tree under the shade of which Bhaiya-Bahini temple is situated. The story runs that these brother and sister fought Mughal sepoys in the 14th century and died here in course of fighting. * Famous shrines of Siwan Town: Baba Ajagaib peer, Hussain ka karbala, kali Mandir, Mehendra Nath mandir, * Bagaura: Bagaura is village in Darundha police station were encestor of Shri Koslendra Prasad Sahi ruled from centuries. * PIYAUR:Piyaur is situated at a distance of 16 km.south of Siwan. This place is located on the bank of river Daha and comes under Raghunathpur constituency.Piyaur has its own panchayat which includes Deipur,Basantnagar,Jhaua,Kabilpura and Ujraha. According to

Census 2001,TRU is Rural,total population is 3054.Census Village Code is 01665700.Piyaur's anchal karyalaya(Block) has been changed from Hussaingunj to Hassanpura.Now the block is Hassanpura and police station is M.H.Nagar(Mazhar-ul haque Nagar)Hassanpura.Mahatma Gandhi said,"India is a country of villages,one needs to see our country,visit to a village of this country".To my mind,Piyaur has become a bright dream of M.K.Gandhi.Indeed,Piyaur is being to be an ideal village and progressing by leaps and bounds.This village is known for their literacy rate growth. Piyaur has generated a number of persons who have been living abroad such as Canada, London, Iran, Kuwait, UAE and KSA etc.(Written by M.Minhajuddin). * Bilashpur...Bilashpur is 16 km west far Siwan and 2.5 km east to Mairwa Dham. Near by railway line.*CKANIL* * Khalispur-A village,5 km from siwan town, must to visit. There is a very long minaret(13floor height), fully covered with tiles, and that village is having all facilities and maintain all standard which a small city possess. * punak The first Indian chief engineer of bihar's native village punak is one of educated and developed village of siwan district. * Pachlakhi:It is the birth place of Phulena Prasad and situated 10 KM far from the district headquarter * Nadiyon:It is a village known for lala kamala laal, a renowed zamindar of British later came to support of Indian movement.he is also known for his quarrel with benipuri and rahul sanskrityan * Bhawrajpur:It is panchayat under Ander block,this village is Famous for the temple of Goddess Kali,LORD Shiv & Lord Hanuman ,Lord KEshavNath Brahma.The story runs in this area that any body who goes in thease temple for worship with some wish god Fullfill that man wish( ) . This village is also marketing place for neighbouring village.other village pepole use to come here for marketing.lot of pepole of this village are staying in U.A.E,IRAK (More Details www.atozsiwan.blogspot.com. Sarari: It is the place of pilgrimage for the Hindus.where a big mela is held every year on the Dashhara (Navratra).which attracts a large crowd. and big mela is held every Friday (Mohammad Alamgir, Kapia Hatta. * Ukareri it village near 1k.m. from ghaghra river.a big fair every year organise in this village after seven days of dipawali.this fair called name is 'chhath pooja'.it is very big festival of north-east women. Narhan: It is situated in southern part of Siwan near bank of Ghaghra River(30KM from Siwan city). It's a hindu pilgrim place.Peoples come here for holy bath in Ghaghra river on Kartik Purnima, Makar sakranti, Mauni Amavasya & worship in various holy temples. On this occasions a big fair has organised which attarcts a big crowd. Some famous temples are Shree Nath Ji Maharaj Temple, Maa Bhagwati Temple, Ram Janki Temple, Maa Kali Temple

& Thakur Ji Temple which has surrounded all parts of this village. It is also famous for great Joloos Samaroh which organised by local people after Durga Puja (VijayaDasmi)on ashwin purnima. Education Colleges: 1.DAV College (under J.P. University), 2.Z A Islamia College 3.Daroga Rai College 4.VidyaBahwan(for women) Medical Colleges 1.Unani Medical College and Hospital 2. Dayanand Ayurvedic Medical College 3.Siwan Homeopathic Medical College Engineering College 1.Siwan Engineering and Technology Institute Schools: 1.DAV High School Siwan 2.Z a Islamiya high School Siwan 3.M.S.V.M.School Siwan 4.Maghar High School 5.Basantpur high School 6.Vatayan School 7.Donbasco School 8.D.A.V.Public School,kabir math kandhwara,siwan 9.D.A.V. Public School,gaushala road,siwan 10.Delhi Public School,siwan Best places * Best Places: 1.Shanti but briksh,siwan 2.sonar toli chowk,siwan 3.purani bajaji,siwan 4.hafizy chowk,siwan 5.badi masjid,siwan 6.hanuman mandir,shukla toli 7.kachhari mandir,siwan 8.town hall,siwan 10.ekta indoor stadium,siwan 11.rajendra stadium siwan 12.babuniya more,siwan 13.darbar cinema

14.Krishna cinema,siwan Shops 1.Kumar Sweets 2.vishal mega mart 3.swarn mandir jewellers,siwan 4.Fashion house 5.Photo Gallery 6.Apoorva sweets 7.kalkatta nursing home 8.Jain sweets 9.kanak mandir 10.jhon dresses 11.Amrapali hotel 12.Jipsey Caf Maharajganj Maharajganj is a city and a notified area in Siwan district in the Indian state of Bihar. Maharajganj is also a city and district in Uttar Pradesh state in India Geography Maharajganj is located at 260627N 843009E / 26.1075N 84.5025E / 26.1075; 84.5025.[1] It has an average elevation of 66 metres (216 feet). Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[2] Maharajganj had a population of 20,878. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Maharajganj has an average literacy rate of 50%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 61%, and female literacy is 40%. In Maharajganj, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Mairwa Mairwa is a city and a notified area in Siwan district in the Indian state of Bihar. Mairwa is just 10 km west to the Birthplace of the first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad. One of the most popular places of Mairwa is the Hari Ram temple. In addition to this two villages which is very near to Mairwa is of great historical importance one is done and the other is Kanhauli as the name suggests Done which is originated from the word Drona is considered to be the birth place of the Dronacharya the famous guru of the Pandava's and the Kaurava's during the Mahabharata time and Kanhauli was earlier named as kanhaiya wali baawali (small pond) and as time passed this village got its present name the people of this area tells that during Mahabharata when lord Krishna was coming to join the battle his army halted at this place and found themselves into great danger as there was no water and the army started dehydrating but lord Krishna came to there rescue and ordered them to dig a small pond and to there surprise the army got water just

after digging a small pond, today also in the south of this village there is a small area known as Taal(pond)and this is the only place which is considered as that kanhaiya wali baawali. Geography Mairwa, situated in the western part of the State, was originally a block of Siwan District, which in ancient days formed a part of Kosala Kingdom. which is geographically situated at 2535 North and 841 to 8420 east. Mairwa is bounded on the east by the Siwan district head quarter, on the north by Gopalganj district and on the west and south by two districts of U.P. viz. Deoria and Balia respectively. East Champaran East Champaran (Hindi: , Urdu: Mariq apra Zil) is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district headquarters are located at Motihari. The district occupies an area of 3969 km2 and has a population of 3,933,636 (as of 2001[update]). East Champaran is a part of Tirhut Division. Contents * 1 Places of interest in East Champaran * 2 Notable personalities Places of interest in East Champaran Mehsi is an entry point of East Champaran if you are travelling from Patna, Muzaffarpur to Raxaul, connected both by railway and roadway. This small community has a number of places of interest at the east side of railway station. These include Mirza Halim Shah mosque, dargah, a very old library 'Nagrik Pustakalaya', an old High School (Tirhut Vidyalaya) of the English period, orchards of lichi and mangoes and other places of interest. There are many button factories, a small scale industry, although most of the people depend upon agriculture and commerce. Mehsi was the birthplace of the writer and intellectual, Rajkamal Chaudhary. The last sentence about the birth place of Rajkamal Chaudhary is not at Mehsi of District East Champaran, but it is at Saharsa district of Bihar. The mazar of Hazrat Maulana Mohammad Abdul Aziz is in the Kodaria village, Post: Kodaria, via Phenhara. He is a very powerful saint of Awaisiya silsila. His Urs is celebrated every year on 11th and 12th Fasli Vaishakha (according to the Hindu calendar). On the evening of 11th Fasli Vaishakha, there is a Miladun Nabi after the Magrib nimaz, then Salat-o-Salam and dua. On the 12th Fasli Vaishakha at 10:30 am, the chaders are taken from his room, where he died, to his Mazar Sharief. Then there is Chader Poshi and Milade-Nabi. After Milad there happens Salat-o-salam and dua. After dua, a lunch for all the devotees. Phenhara is a small town in this district. It has a very old middle school, which was established before 1930. Mahatma Gandhi once visited this place. Phenhara provides an example of Hindu and Muslim unity. Phenhara is a well educated and politically aware town. This town has a sangam of Middle School, H F High School and Madrasa Islamia.

Kesariya is in the south eastern portion of the district. It is the location of the Kesariya Stupa, locally known as Deura, one of oldest stupas. Dhaka is one of the towns in the district. Siraunais a village of East Champaran. Kasturba Gandhi once visited here to teach the people the basic educational concepts of Mahatma Gandhi. Raxaul is a major town in the district of East Champaran. It is the border town of India with Nepal. This town is known as the Gate way to Nepal. It is connected by NH28A and is 32 km away from Chhapawa (on NH28A), 52 km from Motihari (the District Town) and 60 km from Bettiah - the District town of West Champaran. Now this town has been made the Subdivisional town under the District of East Chaparan. Manjur Alam the famous advocate of Madras High Court, who studied at Eton College England is from Raxaul town. Birganj - the Second Big City of Nepal is just 3 km away from this town. Adapur is a famous town with Police Station, Block, Prakhand and Railway Station of same name. It is located on the northern tip of East Champaran district bordering Nepal and is situated at a distance of 13 km by rail from Raxaul. Lauria is a popular historical place, the site of a great Ashokan pillar. It has a reputation as the place of the world's first democracy[who?], which we know as Luchhawi Ganrajay. NGO in Motihari "KHWAB FOUNDATION" Notable personalities * Madhurendra Kumar Singh (Congress Leader) * Suresh Kumar Mishra (Congress Leader) * Radhamohan Singh (B.J.P Leader) George Orwell, a great writer was also born in the district headquarter, in 1903. There are many developed village in motihari district.DUDHIYAWA SAREYA(OJHA TOLA) is one of the developed village in motihari. Areraj Areraj (Hindi: ) is a town and a notified area in East Champaran district in the state of Bihar, India. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Education * 4 Notable people * 5 Places of interest Geography Areraj is located at 263301N 844048E / 26.55031N 84.68013E / 26.55031; 84.68013 Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Areraj had a population of 20,245 with males constituting 52% of the population and females 48%. Areraj has an average literacy rate of

45%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 64% of males and 36% of females literate. 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. Education Areraj is the educational hub in the East Champaran. This town is a mini BHU in Bihar. One can can can Middle School, High School, Sanskrit College and Degree college with a Saraswati temple in the same campus. A famous play ground is available which is the centre of all these educational institution. Instead of a poor maintenance it has not lost its importance. If you come to Areraj dont forget to have a look of this unique spot. There are a dozen of private educational institutes are available in this small town. One of them is Rashtra Bharti Avasiya Vidyalay which was started on 2nd October 1986. Sri Rama Shankar Pandey is the Co- founder of this excellent institute. He is a well reputed person. He has contributed more and more for the Department of Education in Bihar Government. After retirement he established this School and still contributing much more than his last professional job. This school is unique because of its own rules and regulations.This school got the more importance due to its locality. School was started in this location by the respected director due to its historical importance. Our one of great Ashoka pillar is behind of this school. Ashoka pillar is the symbol of the strength and this school has contributed and still my school is contributing in national strength. Notable people Ramarshi Dev Trivedi (190576). He is one of the most renowned freedom fighter of Champaran. He was nicknamed as "RUKHIJI"- 'a squirrel' because Britishers could not catch him and he would flee away after executing his task during the freedom struggle. A special task force was formed by the Britishers to arrest him. He was later arrested and was sentenced 58 years of imprisonment but spent only 8.5 years in jail during the national freedom movement because India got independence.He was also given KALA-PANI jail, but before his departure to Andaman India got freedom. Post independence he ran Khadi Gramudyog (a small khadi industry). He donated all his property for land reform movement carried by Vinoba Bhave and refused to take pensioner pass (A pass given to all national freedom fighter) because he believed that he had not participated in the freedom struggle for personal gain. He died in 1976. Places of interest Areraj is a holy city of North Bihar which is 28 km. south West of Motihari, The district headquarters and the nearest railway station, linked with a double length road now designated a state highway. The Someshwar Nath Shiv Temple attracts lakhs of pilgrims from other districts as well as Nepal on the occasion of Shrawani Mela (During July-August) and is enshrined to Shiva as the presiding deity.

Chakia Chakia is one of the important and commercial towns and a Nagar Panchayat in Purbi Champaran district in the state of Bihar, India. The associate post office is called Barachakia, Pin Code 845412. It is served by a broad gauge train. The Sugar cane mill is now defunct. The railway station is called Chakia. It is also the closest railway station to Kesaria Stupa, a Buddhist pilgrimage site. Contents * 1 River * 2 Demographics * 3 Buddhist tourism River This town has a river Budhi Gandak flowing by it.Budhi Gandak is branch of Gandak. chakia is sub divisional headquarter town and also block headquarter. During the British rule the champaran sugar mill was founded in 1905, right now the sugar factory is closed since 1995. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Chakia had a population of 16,618. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Chakia has an average literacy rate of 51%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 60% and female literacy of 40%. 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. Buddhist tourism Kesaria Stupa This Buddhist stupa is the largest in the world, with a height of 104 ft. Kesaria is located at a distance of 110 km from Patna, in the Champaran (east) district of Bihar. You can reach here by flying to Patna, & driving for another 34 hours from there. Alternatively, you can take a direct train "SaptKranti Express" to Chakia, from Delhi\New Delhi, & drive a 30 minutes further. Dhaka, East Champaran Dhaka is a town and a notified area in the district of East Champaran in the state of Bihar, India. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 Demographics * 3 Education * 4 Notable people * 5 Politics Geography Dhaka is located at 2641N 8510E / 26.68N 85.17E / 26.68; 85.17[1]. It has an average elevation of 55 metres (180 feet). Demographics

As of 2001[update] India census[2], Dhaka had a population of 32,618. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Dhaka has an average literacy rate of 38%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 47% and, female literacy is 28%. In Dhaka, 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. Education Mahatma Gandhi Antrastriya Vidyapith is located at Sri Krishna Nagar Motihari. Notable people Madhurendra Kumar Singh Senior Congress Leader, Member A.I.C.C,a dedicated Congressman from Bihar. * Madhurendra Kumar Singh [Congress Leader] * Sitaram Singh [R.J.D.Leader] * Raghunath Jha [R.J.D.Leader] * Late Motiur Rahman [R.J.D.Leader] * Mrigendra Kumar Singh [Youth Congress Leader] * Faisal Rahman [J.D-U Leader] Politics Dhaka is part of Sheohar Parliamentary Constituency and is itself an Assembly Constituency,leaders such as [1] Late Ram Dulari Sinha,[2] Late Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha and currently their son Prof. Madhurendra Kumar Singh who is leader of the Congress party has an influence in this area, and he is the face of Congress Party in this and adjoining areas. Mrigendra Kumar Singh (Youth Congress Leader) and Faisal Rahman (Youth J D-U Leader), both are the future of this Constituency and Bihar.They have the potential of becoming great leaders of the future. Faisal Rehman at such a young age became the President of youth wing of J D-U and on the other hand Mrigendra Kumar Singh President, Sheohar L.Y.C is the future of Sheohar Lok-Sabha Constituency. Nek mohammad (mukhiya) the other old congress party worker last 20 year,a devoted worker of congress party in dhaka. Lauthaha Lauthaha (Hindi: ) is a city and a notified area in Purba Champaran district in the Indian state of Bihar. Geography Lauthaha is located at 263747N 845435E / 26.62961N 84.90964E / 26.62961; 84.90964 Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Lauthaha had a population of 7744. Males constitute 63% of the population and females 37%. Lauthaha has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 78%, and female literacy is 70%. In Lauthaha, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Motihari

Motihari (Hindi:

) is the headquarters of East Champaran district (Purvi Champaran

district) in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Cultural heritage o 4.1 Bhojpuri and Hindi o 4.2 Tallest Buddha Stupa in the world * 5 Mahatma Gandhi and Motihari * 6 Noted personalities of Motihari o 6.1 Ramarshi Deo Trivedi 'Rishi ji' o 6.2 George Orwell o 6.3 Azizul Haque and Fingerprint Science * 7 Education o 7.1 R.N.M. Ayurved College o 7.2 Dhanwantari Ayurved Bhawan o 7.3 M. S. College o 7.4 Dr. S. P.Singh College of Teacher Education * 8 Heritage History In 1866 Champaran was made into a district with Motihari as its headquarters. On 1 December 1977 the Champaran district was divided into two and Motihari became the headquarters of East Champaran district. The municipality of Motihari was established in 1879. Though no authentic data is available, one of the oldest structures in Motihari appears to be the Briksha Sthan Math, a temple of the guardian deity of Motihari, dating back to 1805. During the British era the town flourished and it became one of the important centers in North Bihar. To know more about Motihari, go to ApnaMotihari.com Geography Motihari is around 165 km from Patna, the capital of Bihar, 50 km from Bettiah, and 82 km from Muzaffarpur. The city is very close to Nepal. Birgunj, the second largest city of Nepal, is 55 km away. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Motihari has a population of 101,506 with 54% males, 46% females, and 15% of the population is under 6 years of age. Motihari has an average literacy rate of 69%, higher than the Indian national average of 59.5%. Cultural heritage

Bhojpuri and Hindi The languages of Motihari are Bhojpuri and Hindi. Bhojpuri is one of the oldest languages of India.[citation needed] but some part of the disdrict like Jihuli & Police Station Patahi areas use Vajjika. Maithili is also spoken in few districts. Tallest Buddha Stupa in the world Motihari is reported[who?] to have the tallest and the largest Buddhist stupa in the world, following its discovery in 1998 through excavation by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Rising to a height of 104 feet, and much reduced from its reported original height, it is still one foot taller than the famous Borobudur stupa in Java. The Kesaria stupa is located near the town of Kesaria, 120 km from Patna, capital of Bihar. According to the National Informatics Centre of East Champaran (Motihari), the Kesaria stupa was 123 feet tall before the 1934 earthquake in Bihar. Originally the Kesaria stupa was reported to have been 150 feet tall, 12 feet taller than the Borobodur stupa, which is 138 feet, according to the A.S.I. report. At present Kesaria stupa is 104 feet and Borobodur stupa is 103 feet. The height of Sanchi stupa, a world heritage site, is only 77.5 feet. Legend states that Buddha, on his last Journey, is reported to have spent a memorable night at Kesaria. Mahatma Gandhi and Motihari Motihari was the place where Mahatma Gandhi started his 'Satyagrah' (Quest/Search for Truth). According to the All India Congress Committee (AICC) ([2], the farmers of Champaran were forced to sow Opium and/or Indigo on a certain portion of their farm plots. They then had to sell the same at a fixed price to the English Traders/Planters. This would cause losses and subsequent hardships to farmers.[3] Furthermore, these crops would render the soil infertile and further increase the woes of the helpless farmers.[4][5] Raj Kumar Shukla, a farmer in the region, invited Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (who had only recently returned from South Africa) to come help them in their plight. Thus, Mahatma Gandhi decided to come to Motihari. On 10 April 1917, the AICC report states that "a large crowd of people of Champaran witnessed the greatest architect of Indian Freedom Struggle in Motihari." The British, fearing unrest, ordered him to leave the district. His refusal to do the same led to his arrest. He was offered bail on the condition that he would leave the district. Gandhi reportedly refused to leave the district or put up bail. In his statement to the Court Gandhi reportedly said, "As a law-abiding citizen my first instinct would be, as it was, to obey the order served upon me. But I could not do so without doing violence to my sense of duty to those for whom I came. I feel that I could just now serve them by remaining in their midst. I could not therefore voluntarily retire. Amidst this conflict of duty I could only throw the responsibility of removing me from on the administration". Subsequently, when mass disapproval of his arrest became evident, he was released. A museum and a stone pillar have been laid down in the memory of Mahatma Gandhi's presence in Motihari. It also contains Gandhiji's courageous statement given before the

Magistrate inscribed on a stone. According to Sri Chandra Bhusahan Pandey, National Informatics Center: East Champaran, Motihari, "The foundation stone of this Gandhi memorial pillar was laid on June 10, 1972 by the then Governor, Mr. D.K.Barooch, and it was dedicated to the nation by Mr. Vidyakar Kavi, a grandson, on 18 April 1978.... The 48 foot long Chunar stone pillar stands exactly on the place where Mahatma Gandhi was produced before the court of the then S.D.M., Motihari in violation of orders under section 144 Cr. P. C. as far back as April 18, 1917. Mahatma Gandhi first Satyagrah was experimented on this soil of Motihari in Champaran and so Champaran has been starting point of Indias independence movement launched by Gandhi ji." Ramarshi Deo Trivedi "Rishi Ji" [1900-1976] from Mamarkha (8 km from Areraj) became influenced by Gandhiji. When Gandhiji left for the national movement, Ramarshi Dev Trivedi continued the freedom movement in Champaran. Noted personalities of Motihari Abenezer Inder " " Abenezer Inder is an indian film maker[screen & dialogue writer-editor-Director]he is a associate member of Western India Film Producers Association,Mumbai,India & proprietor of various film banner "God creations".Champaran Motihari is a petarnal home of Abenezer Inder,presently he is working in a film project CHUNAAV.these film is based on 1970's JP Aandolan,India Ramarshi Deo Trivedi 'Rishi ji' Rishi ji was one of the most renowned freedom fighters of Bihar. He was a very close associate of Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Vinoba Bhave, who addressed him as 'Rishi ji'. He was also known as Badshah as he established a parallel government in Champaran which was known as Badshah ki Sarkar. A special task force was formed by the Britishers to arrest him. He was arrested in 1942 and was sentenced 58 years of imprisonment. He was released in 1947, after independence, and later he spent his days in his Ashram in Malaahi where he ran a Khadi Gramudyog (A small industry). He donated all his property for land reform movement "Bhoodan Movement" carried by Vinoba Bhave and refused to take pensioner pass (A pass given to all national freedom fighter) because he believed that he had not participated in the freedom struggle for personal gain. He died in 1976. George Orwell George Orwell George Orwell, author of books Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, was born in Motihari in 1903. His father Richard Walmesley Blair was a deputy posted in the opium department in Bihar. However, when he was one year old, George left for England with his mother and sister. Until recently, the town of Motihari was largely unaware of its connection to Orwell. In 2003, Motihari discovered its role in Orwell's life when a number of journalists arrived in

the city for Orwell's hundredth birthday. Local officials are making plans for the construction of a museum on Orwell's life.[6][7] Azizul Haque and Fingerprint Science Azizul Haque (Khan Bahadur Azizul Huq) was one of the two Indian police officers who worked with Edward Henry in the development of fingerprint classification, known as Henry Classification System, still widely used in the world. "It was Khan Bahadur Azizul Huq who evolved a mathematical formula to supplement Henry's idea of sorting slips in 1024 pigeon holes, based on fingerprint patterns. Rai Bahadur Hem Chandra Bose made further contribution to the fingerprint science by evolving an extended system of subclassificaiton, a telegraphic code for finger impression and a system of single-digit classificaiton.[8] Both Haque and Bose eventually received honoraria and recognition from the Government of India. At the time of final approval of the honorarium for Haque, the Home Department (Government of India) noted, "It appears from the information now received that he (Haque) was Sir Edward Henry's principal helper in perfecting the scheme and he actually himself devised the method of classification which is in universal use. He thus contributed most materially to a discovery which is of worldwide importance and has brought a great credit to the police of India.[9] Upon retirement from the Police service in Bengal and Bihar, Khan Bahadur Azizul Huq settled in Motihari, and he is buried there. Education Motihari has many educational institutions like Munshi Singh mahavidyalaya affiliated to B.R.A.Bihar University one of the oldest degree college in champaran which was used as jail in the British rule, Zila Government School is one of the best and oldest secondary high schools of Bihar and was established in 1911 by British government. Other notable schools are Mangal Seminary (1927), Gopal Sah Vidyalaya (1918), M.J.K. Girls High School, Gopal sah Vidyalay ( previously this was Hakok academy in this hostel Goerge orwell bornt). There are also several colleges for higher learning such as Mahila College (college for females), S.N.S. College, L.N.D. College, K.T.College near Singhiya gumti. All are affiliated to B.R.A.B.U. an engineering college named as Motihari Engineering College was esablished by Bihar Government as well as College of Ayurvedic and Unani Medicine (Homeopathy Medical Collge, Motihari) is also there to provide medical education. Many people from Bihar and India attend these educational institutions. R.N.M. Ayurved College Ravindra Nath Mukharjee Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, the second oldest medical college in Bihar, was established in 1955. This College is under Baba Saheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar Bihar University and recognised by CCIM (Central Council of Indian Medicine). Dhanwantari Ayurved Bhawan Dhanwantari Ayurved Bhawan, an ayurvedic medicine manufacturing company on the karma bhumi of Rashtra Pita Mahatma Gandhi. This group has been serving ayurveda science 1978, started in guidance of Dr. K. M. Jha M.D. (Ay.) B. H. U.

M. S. College This is one of the oldest college of Motihari. It is on the name of freedom fighter Shri Munshi Singh. It comes under Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, MUZZAFARPUR. Along it there are five more colleges in this town. The present college building was a jail earlier but converted to college in 1948. There are several industries in Motihari sub-division, which comprise of small-scale industries such as a paper plant factory, a sugar mill, and some other small-scale industries. In a recent development a Sugar factory is under development in sariyatpur which will produce sugar, ethanol & power in several Megawatt, Motiharis sugar mill is considered to be one of the biggest in Bihar. Motihari is well connected by road and rail. The local railway station there is Bapudham Motihari which is connected to all metropolliton cities and national capital with trains. With educational institutions, mills and factories, and historical sites like Gandhi Sangrahalaya, jheel, Gandhi maidan, and natural scenery of the surrounding country side bordering the foothills of the Himalayan range, Motihari is an attractive place for people to live, work, attend educational institutions, and it is also a delightful place for visiting. In surrounding villages of Motihari, most people's livelihood depends on agriculture and dairy. Motihari area is also famous for its Litchi fruit and Mitha Alua (sweet potato). Dr. S. P.Singh College of Teacher Education This college is recognised by NCTE in Oct'2009 to run a B.Ed. Course with an annual intake of 100 students. It is affiliated to Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, MUZZAFARPUR. It is the only college in this town for B.Ed. Course. www.drspsinghcollege.com Heritage * Someshwar Nath Temple o Location-Areraj, Motihari o It is one of the oldest temples in Hindu mythology and its importance can be seen in the holy month of sawan. * Kesariya Stupa o Largest Buddhist Stupa in the world located in kesariya. * Gandhi Sangrahalaya o Location-Motihari near Town thana * Jheel-also known as Motijheel o Location-Motihari o It divides the city in two parts. * Motihai Civil Court o Location-Motihari * M.S.(Munsi Singh)College o Location-Motihari * S.N.S.(Shri Krishna Narayan Singh)College

o Location-Motihari * Libraries o Urdu Library + Location-Motihari + It is one of the oldest libraries from the British rule * Navyuvak Pustakalaya o Location-Motihari Gaytri Mandir Location- Motihari Raxaul Raxaul (Hindi: ) or Raxaul is a sub-divisional town in the East Champaran district of the Indian state of Bihar. It is situated on the India-Nepal border with Birganj (in Nepal) on the other side of the border. Contents * 1 Demographics * 2 Places of interest o 2.1 Jama Masjid o 2.2 Sun Temple o 2.3 Border crossing to Nepal * 3 Transport o 3.1 Rail o 3.2 Roads o 3.3 Air * 4 Hospital * 5 Education * 6 Business * 7 Life Style Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Raxaul Bazar had a population of 41,347. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Raxaul Bazar has an average literacy rate of 58%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 66%, and female literacy is 48%. In Raxaul Bazar, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Places of interest Jama Masjid The Raxaul Jama Masjid is a very old mosque situated on the National Highway NO. NH-28A beside the Raxaul Police Station. It is the central mosque of Raxaul sub-division. Hundreds of worshippers offer daily prayer in this mosque. On Fridays, the mosque is packed with devotees from all parts of the town. Sun Temple

The Sun temple is a temple to the sun god, which is surrounded by water. It is near the police station, situated just beside the market.others temples like Mata Mandir, Ramjanki Mandir,Sato mai Mauje and Naga Math are also famous. a very well situated KALI MANDIR is also famous here from where we can see whole of raxaul.it is one of the biggest temple of RAXAUL. Border crossing to Nepal This is the only official international border crossing in India through which anyone can pass with no requirement for a visa or even a passport. But it's possible only for Indians and not for foreigners. Transport Rail Raxaul is connected to major Indian cities by rail. There are direct trains to Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Patna, Lucknow and many cities. One can reach Raxaul by train from Delhi by Satyagraha Express, Saptkranti Superfast or Sadbhavana Express. After the completion of the Darbhanga to Narkatiaganj broad gauge route under Unigauge, most trains from north-east states will run along the Raxaul route. Roads Raxaul is connected to major cities of India by National Highway no. 28A. The capital of Nepal, Kathmandu is connected through this highway. There is a new bus terminal, named the "Baba Bhim Rao Ambedkar Bus Terminal". Air There is a civilian airport which is not operational. Raxaul can be reached by flying to Birgunj. That airport is 27 km from Raxaul and has direct flights to Kathmandu. Hospital In Raxaul, The Duncan Hospital is the only secondary referral centre run by the voluntary sector for 3 districts in North Bihar (6 million people) and Southern Nepal (5 million people). The service priorities of the hospital are Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medicine, Surgery, Orthopedics, Pediatrics, Ophthalmology, Dentistry and Radiology. The Hospital was started by Dr. H. Cecil Duncan in 1930, and later set on its present course by Dr. Trevor Strong and his wife Patricia, establishing a fine surgical and obstetrical. The biggest Leprosy Hospital in Bihar is situated at Raxaul in Sunderpur Village. Little Flower Leprosy Hospital was started by Baba Christdas in the year 1981. Education Khemchand Tarachand College, recognized by Baba Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Muzzafarpur is the only government recognized institution of higher learning in this region, Now citizens of Raxaul are aware about the importance of study. Therefore some new English medium schools like DPS, GDS Academy, S.A.V.,K.H.W have been opened and S.V.M is also contributing with an Indian cultured education in Raxaul.Manjur Aalm, renowned

advocate of Madras High Court and international scholar of Eton College, England, is from Raxaul. Manjur Alam is president of Human Rights Association and Chairman of Vision India 2047 Foundation.baby land academy is the one of oldest school of Raxaul(estb-1973)it is situated in koiriya tola. Hazarimahal High School which has given a number of scholars to Raxaul is situated in the heart of town. Business Nearly 60% people are depend upon Nepal, Mainly person does have their own shops with full of Nepalies customers, Transport business is also Life Style Life Style of Raxaul is Pretty good. Sugauli Sugauli is a city and a notified area in East Champaran district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the setting for Rudyard Kipling's story "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi". Demographics As of 2001[update] India census[1], Sugauli had a population of 31,362. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Sugauli has an average literacy rate of 42%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 51%, and female literacy is 32%. In Sugauli, 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. Muzaffarpur district Muzaffarpur District (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is one of the thirtyseven districts of Bihar state, India, and Muzaffarpur town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Muzaffarpur district is a part of Tirhut Division. Muzaffarpur is one of the largest commercial and educational centres of North Bihar. It is famous for litchis which is a fruit famous for its juicy taste. Muzaffarpur is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district headquarters are located at Muzaffarpur. The district occupies an area of 3173 km and has a population of 3,743,836 (as of 2001). Mark Twain, while on way to Kathmandu, stayed in the local Muzaffarpur Club and relished this beautiful East Indian town. History Muzaffarpur district, The Land Of Leechi was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. The present district of Muzaffarpur came to its existence in the 18th century and named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) under British Dynasty. Purbi Champaran and Sitamarhi districts on North, on the South Vaishali and Saran districts, on the East Darbhanga and Samastipur districts and on the West Saran and Gopalganj districts surround Muzaffarpur. According to the mythological epic 'Ramayan' King Janak, the father of Sita ruled Videha, which is a traditional name for the entire region including eastern Nepal and northern Bihar.

Sitamarhi, a town in this region, ascribes to the Hindu mythological belief where, Sita (other name Vaidehi: The Princes of Videha) sprang to life out of an earthen pot while Rajarshi Janak was tilling the land. Sita was to become the wife of Lord Rama, the central figure in the Ramayan. As per recorded history the Vrijjan Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis. Ajatashatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred river Ganga and Ajatashatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali. Vaishali, a center of religious renaissance, Baso Kund, the birth place of Mahavir, the 24th Jain Tirthankar and a contemporary of Lord Buddha continue to attract visitors from across the international borders. From the visit of the Chinese traveller Hieuen Tsangs till the rise of the Pala Empire, Muzaffarpur was under the control of Harsha Vardhan. After 647 A.D. the district passed on to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings continued to have their hold over Tirhut until 1019 A.D. Later Chedi kings of Central India ruled till they were replaced by the Sena dynasty in 11th century. Between 1210 & 1226, Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, was the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. He, however, could not succeed in conquering the kingdom but extorted tributes. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district. The history of Muzaffarpur will remain incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in the north-east part of Champaran) and its founder Nanyupa Deva who extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal. During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to one Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to the Muslims but the Hindu chief continued to enjoy complete autonomy. By the end of the 14th century, the whole of North Bihar including Tirhut passed on to the Rajahs of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century until defeated by Sikandar Lodi of Delhi. Meanwhile, Hussain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal, had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut. The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and with the decline and fall of Mahood Shah, north Bihar including Tirhut formed a part of the mighty

Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed yet the petty powerful chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area till the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur and after his fall a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal dynasty and Tirhut formed a part of it. The East India Company, after the battle of Buxar in 1764, controlled over whole of Bihar. The success of the insurgents at Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district. In 1908 the young Bengali revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, an 18 year-old, was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy who was actually mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After Indian independence in 1947, a memorial to this Bose was constructed at Muzaffrapur. The visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Muzaffarpur district in December 1920 and again in January 1927 had political effect in arousing the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the countrys freedom struggle. The significance of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilization arises out of its position on the frontier line between two most spiritual influences and is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts. Muzaffarpur fostered political leaders and statesmen alike among whom were Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, George Fernandis and Acharya Kriplani etc. The language of the region is Vajjika,-a close mix of Maithili and Bhojpuri. Coordinates: 2610N 8525E / 26.167N 85.417E / 26.167; 85.417 Influential Leaders * Rajni Ranjan Sahu [Senior Congress Leader] * Capt. Jaynarain Pd. Nishad [Present M.P] * Madhurendra Kumar Singh [Senior Congress Leader] * Amar Pandey [R.J.D Leader] * Vinita Vijay [Congress Leader] * Prof. Mahanth Shyam Sunder Das[Ex. MP,Member of Various Parliamentary Committee,Professor of Economics in L.S.College] Muzaffarpur (Hindi: , Urdu: About this sound pronunciation (helpinfo)) is a town in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is the capital of the district. Muzaffarpur, famous for Shahi lychees,[1] is the largest city of northern Bihar. It is situated on the banks of the perennial Burhi Gandak River, which flows from the Himalayan foothills. Muzaffarpur is one of the many gateways to Nepal. Clothes and food-grains are traded between Nepal and Muzaffarpur. Contents * 1 Geography * 2 History

* 3 Climate * 4 Economy * 5 Lichi * 6 Demographics * 7 Cuisine * 8 Transit o 8.1 Railway o 8.2 BUS o 8.3 AIRPORT * 9 Education o 9.1 Institutions of Higher Education * 10 Prominent people of Muzaffarpur o 10.1 Politics o 10.2 Others * 11 References * 12 External links Geography Muzaffarpur is located at 2607N 8524E / 26.12N 85.4E / 26.12; 85.4.[2] The town lies in a highly active seismic zone of India. In the disastrous earthquake on 15 January 1934, much of the town suffered severe damage and many lives were lost.[3] It has an average elevation of 47 meters (154 feet). This saucer shaped, low-centered town lies on the great Indo-Gangetic plains of Bihar, over Himalayan silt and sand brought by the glaciers and rainfed meandering rivers of the Himalayas. The soil of the town is highly fertile, well drained and sandy, white colored and very soft. The landscape is green all year round. The town is surrounded by the flood plain dotted with ponds and oxbow lakes, with sparkling sandy river banks and clean air and water. Numerous private fruit orchards and idyllic rivers are also nearby. The city has a water-table just 20 ft. below ground level. The city has a nonoperational civil Aerodrome, Patahi, belonging to the Airport Authority of Indiawhich is now somewhat damaged. Muzaffarpur now is a rapidly growing city. The growth in the last decade has been phenomenal, but a lot is yet to be done. Thousands of villagers migrated to this town from nearby villages in the rapid urbanization of post-independence India, but this has created serious law and order problems. The drainage system and garbage disposal system is disorderly and practically non-existent. The downtown areas of Muzaffarpur are Tilak Maidan Road, Kalyani and Saraiyagunj. These areas are densely populated with small shops selling a plethora of goods and services. Motijheel is the main shopping area. Chakkar Maidan has a small encampment of members of the Territorial Army [4] non-departmental unit 151 Inf Bn (TA) JAT. Muzaffarpur Town has ancient temples like Baba Garib Nath (Shiva Temple) [2], Chaturbhuj-sthan, Raj Rajeswar Devi Kali (Durga)build by darbhanga maharaj, Temple of Raj Darbhanga and Kalibari, the Kali temple. There are also several large and

small places of worship of other religious communities like the Sikhs (Gurudwara at Ramna), Rama Krishna Ashram (in Bela Mithan Pura), Muslims (Badi Masjid at Company Bagh, Data Kambal Shah Mazaar near Purani Bazaar, Bada Imambara near Banaras Bank Chowk & Badi Karbala at Sariyagunj), Buddhists, Jains, Christians, and others. History Main article: Muzaffarpur district Muzaffarpur district, The Land of Lychee, was created in 1875 for the sake of administrative convenience by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut. The district is named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil (Revenue Officer) under the Raj. It is bounded by the Purbi Champaran and Sitamarhi districts to the north, the Vaishali and Saran districts to the south, the Darbhanga and Samastipur districts to the east and the Saran and Gopalganj districts on the West. It has won international encomiums for its delicious Shahi Lychee and Chinese Lychee fruits. The recorded history of the district dates back to the rise of the Vrijjan Republic, when the center of political power shifted from Mithila to Vaishali. The Vrijjan Republic was a confederation of eight clans of which the Licchavis were the most powerful and influential. Even the powerful kingdom of Magadh had to conclude matrimonial alliances in 519 B.C. with the neighboring estates of the Licchavis. Ajatshatru invaded Vaishali and extended his sway over Tirhut. It was at this time that Patliputra (the modern Patna) was founded at the village Patali on the banks of the sacred Ganges river, and Ajatshatru built an invincible fortress to keep vigil over the Licchavis on the other side of the river. Ambarati, 40 km from Muzaffarpur is believed to be the village home of Amrapali, the famous Royal court dancer of Vaishali. From the visit of the Hieuen Tsang until the rise of the Pala dynasty, Muzaffarpur was under the control of Maharaja Harsha Vardhan, a powerful sovereign of North India. After 647 A.D. the district passed to the local chiefs. In the 8th century A.D. the Pala kings gained control over Tirhut and kept it until 1019 A.D. Chedi kings of Central India also exercised their influence over Tirhut until they were replaced by the rulers of the Sena dynasty towards the close of the 11th century. Sometime between 1211 and 1226, Ghais-u-ddin Iwaz, the ruler of Bengal, became the first Muslim invader of Tirhut. However, he could not succeed in conquering the kingdom, merely extorting tributes. It was in 1323 that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq established his control over the district. The history of Muzaffarpur would be incomplete without a reference to the Simraon dynasty (in the north-east part of Champaran) and its founder, Nanyupa Deva, who extended his power over the whole of Mithila and Nepal. During the regime of Harasimha Deva, the last king of the dynasty, Tughlaq Shah invaded Tirhut in 1323 and gained control over the territory. Tughlaq Shah handed over the management of Tirhut to Kameshwar Thakur. Thus, the sovereign power of Tirhut passed from the Hindu chiefs to the Muslims.

Towards the close of the 14th century the whole of North Bihar, including Tirhut, passed to the kings of Jaunpur and remained under their control for nearly a century, until Sikandar Lodi of Delhi defeated the king of Jaunpur. Meanwhile, Hussain Shah, the Nawab of Bengal, had become so powerful that he exercised his control over large tracts including Tirhut. The emperor of Delhi advanced against Hussain Shah in 1499 and got control over Tirhut after defeating its Raja. The power of the Nawabs of Bengal began to wane and, with the decline and fall of Mahood Shah, north Bihar formed a part of the mighty Mughal Empire. Though Muzaffarpur with the entire north Bihar had been annexed, the petty chieftains continued to exercise effective control over this area until the days of Daud Khan, the Nawab of Bengal. Daud Khan had his stronghold at Patna and Hajipur, and after his fall, a separate Subah of Bihar was constituted under the Mughal dynasty, with Tirhut forming a part of it. The victory of East India Company in 1764 at the battle of Buxar gave them control over the whole of Bihar and they succeeded in subduing the entire district. The success of the insurgency in Delhi in 1857 caused grave concern to the English inhabitants in this district and revolutionary fervor began to permeate the entire district. Muzaffarpur played its role and was the site of the famous bombing case of 1908. The young Bengali revolutionary, Khudi Ram Bose, a boy of barely 18 years, was hanged for throwing the bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy, who was mistaken for Kingsford, the District Judge of Muzaffarpur. After independence, a memorial to this young revolutionary patriot was constructed at Muzaffarpur, which still stands. The political awakening in the country after the First World War stimulated nationalist movement in Muzaffarpur district as well. The visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Muzaffarpur district in December 1920 and again in January 1927 had tremendous political effect in arousing the latent feelings of the people and the district continued to play a prominent role in the country's struggle for freedom. Muzaffarpur played a very significant role in the history of North-Eastern India. The peculiarity of Muzaffarpur in Indian civilization arises out of its position on the frontier line between two most vibrant spiritual influences. To this day, it is a meeting place of Hindu and Islamic culture and thoughts. All sorts of modified institutions, representing mutual assimilation, rise along this border line. It has undoubtedly been this highly diversified element within her boundaries that has so often made Muzaffarpur the birthplace of towering geniuses. In August 1934, a colossal 8.1 magnitude earthquake struck the area, completely demolishing the city. Damage was extensive not only in the region but also in Kolkata and Kathmandu. The region was shaken strongly again in the 1988 Bihar earthquake. Climate The summer, between April and June, is extremely hot and humid (28/40 deg C,90% Max.) and winter is pleasantly cool, around 06/20 deg C. The air pollution is lower than in other areas, so the air is comparatively clean. The best months to visit are October through

March. It is best to avoid visits in the summer and the monsoon season (Mid June to September) due to prolonged power cuts, the heat, and flooding in the town. Economy Muzaffarpur is famous for exporting Lichi. Long ago, the area was famous for hand-woven textiles, sugar cane, indigo, opium and other products. The district has a few sugar mills, which are now old and dilapidated. It is the commercial hub of North Bihar and the wholesale market for Mumbai, Surat and Ahmedabad. Textile mills in the famous Marwari community dominate Suta Patti. The commercial hub of the town is Motijheel. The area around Muzaffarpur is largely agricultural. The principal crops are rice, wheat, pulses, jute, maize and oil seeds. Cauliflower, cabbage, tomato, radish, carrot, beetroot, among others, are also grown. Rice and wheat account for most of the area under cultivation. Maize is the next important crop for the district. Sugar cane, potato and barley are some of the non-cereal crops grown. The district is famous for its delicious mangoes, and its lychee, which are exported to other parts of the country and even abroad. The main livestock of the town are cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry. Muzaffarpur Town has several industries, big and small. The railcar industry is one of the town's most important industry. Muzaffarpur is a important centre for the wholesale cloth trade. Lichi The lichi crop, which is available from May to June, is mainly cultivated in the districts of Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Sitamarhi, West & East Chaparan, Darbhanga and Samastipur, an area of about 25,270 hectare. Total lichi production is about 3 Lakhs tonnes. This area produces roughly 70% of national output in 54% of the area under cultivation in the country. The quality of lichi exported from India is considered to be the highest, though India's share of the world lichi market amounts to less than 1%. The name of the lichi produced in Muzaffarpur is "Shahi Lichi" which is famous all over the world. The another specialty about Muzaffarpur lichi is that here lichi is sold in terms of numbers i.e. per hundred while every where lihi is old per kg. Demographics As of the 2001 India census,[5] Muzaffarpur had a population of 305,465. Males constituted 54% of the population and females 46%. Muzaffarpur had a literacy rate of 60%, close to the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy was 62%, and female literacy was 57%. Thirteen percent of the population was under 6 years of age. Many languages are spoken in Muzaffarpur. The major dialect of the region is Vajjika a mix of Maithili and Bhojpuri. Hindi and Urdu are the official languages. Other dialects spoken, from various regions of Bihar, include Angika, Bhojpuri, Maithili and Bengali. Cuisine There is no specific, authentic and purely "Muzaffarpur cuisine" as such: most of the cuisine can at best be termed regional cuisine. The basic ingredients are rice, wheat flour, lentils

(green and yellow), root and leafy vegetables, Indian spices, ground nut oil, Mustard seed oil, ghee, sugar and jaggery, among others. The traditional breakfast includes jalebi, poori, samosa or potato curry served hot with any of a variety of chutneys and finished with milk tea. Indianised Chinese dishes such as noodles, Tandoori dishes and South Indian dishes are also eaten. Most of the ethnic cuisine and special dishes are cooked during festivals, religious functions and marriages. In modern Muzaffarpur, ethnic cuisines have given way to the oily, hot and spicy foods of the Pan-Indian type. Toddy is a fermented juice of the palm tree which has about 5%8% alcohol and is very popular as "Poor Man's Beer" in Muzaffarpur. A variety of spicy dry, baked, fried, deep fried or curried mutton, chicken, fish and shellfish are prepared and eaten. Mughalai and a few Continental dishes, such as macaroni or spaghetti, duly Indianised, are home cooked and relished by some people. Pre- and postdinner Betel nut(Paan) chewingv is very popular, along with chewing tobacco. Transit 3 Types of connectivity available in City Railway Muzaffarpur Railway Station is a main railway junction. Ram Dayalu Nagar & Narayanpur are small Stations. Trains for the all the major cities of India are available from here. BUS Bariya, Bhagwanpur, & Ram Dayalu Bus Stands are main Bus Station and many more small stands are there for Connecting Bihar To Bihar or Interstate. AIRPORT Patahi Airport is Proposed for full time in few years. Education Muzaffarpur is the 2nd leading centre of education in Bihar after Patna. It has a medical and an engineering college and is seat of one of the oldest universities of Bihar (Bihar University, now known as B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University). The first President of Indian Republic "Dr Rajendra Prasad" was a teacher in the Greer Bhumihiar Brahman College, Muzaffarpur. Institutions of Higher Education * Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology (1954): Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology is one of the premier technical institutions of eastern India. It is under administrative control of the Department of Science and Technology and wholly funded by the Government of Bihar. It is affiliated with B.R.A. Bihar University, and offers UG courses in seven streams of engineering, with postgraduate specialisation in Machine Design and Thermal Engineering. The institute caters to the research and development activities of the state of Bihar. * S.K.Medical College (1969) * B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University: Bihar University is a public university located in the north prime of Bihar state in the city of Muzaffarpur in India. This university has 37

constituent colleges. Distance education courses are also offered, and the university also organizes symposia, seminars and workshops. The university is a premier institution of teaching and learning in the city and has various full-time and part-time offerings ranging from undergraduate to postgraduate and research level courses. The university also acts as a link between colleges and institutes located across the state in providing higher education. The following colleges are associated with Bihar University. o Langat Singh College: This is the oldest college of Muzaffarpur. Affiliated to the University of Bihar, it has had the likes of Dinkar, a famous Hindi poet, Dr. Rajendra Prasad the first President of India, and Acharya J. B. Kripalani as its faculty members. o Vaishali Institute of Business & Rural Management. o L.N.Mishra College of Business Management. o L. N. T. College o Mahant Darshan Das Mahila Mahavidyalaya o Ram Dayalu Singh College: This college is named after the first assembly speaker of Bihar. It is now one of the premier colleges of Bihar. Students study Science, Arts, Commerce, and Geography. Students from West Bengal, Assam, Orrissa and Kerala come to study commerce and English. o Mahesh Prasad Sinha Science College o Ram Manohar Lohia College o Shri Shreekrishna Singh Law College: This college is named after the first chief minister of Bihar. Established in year 1948, it is one of the premier law colleges in the state of Bihar. College has always attracted some of the greatest lawyers of Bihar as its faculty like Mr. Pramod Kumar Shahi. o Nitishwar Singh College o ABCD Prominent people of Muzaffarpur * DR.MANAZIRUDDIN,a renound acadmecian. * Ramvriksh Benipuri, a prominent Hindi writer * Janki Ballabh Shastri, a prominent Hindi poet.. * [MD. Farooque] , a Deputy Director of account in BSEB * [Vikas Kumar], Businessman, Parashar Automobiles Politics * Padma Bhushan Vindhyeshwari Prasad Varma * Sri Digvijay Narain Singh, politician and grandson of Langat Singh * George Fernandes * Rameshwar Prasad Sinha, politician and member of the Constituent Assembly of India * Raghunath Pandey * Suresh Kumar Sharma * Jai Narain Prasad Nishad

Others * Jankijivan Prasad, freedom fighter * Freedom Fighters Khudi Ram Bose, Jubba Sahni and Bhama sah * Sir Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh, India's first ambassador to Nepal and later an ambassador to Japan (from 1958). He was also the second Governor of Punjab in 1953 and then governor of Uttar Pradesh from 1980 to 1985.[6] * Dr.Shyamnandan Sahay, First V.C. of Bihar University. A college of B. R. Ambedkar Bihar University is named after him. * Rai Bahadur Tunki Sah, famous philanthropic businessman * Sri. Langat Singh Founder of Langat Singh College * Sanjay Kumar Singh, Name changed to Sanjay Soni Singh is a first player from this district to play for India in U-19 Level cricket Kanti Kanti is a city and a notified area in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Kanti had a population of 20,873. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Kanti has an average literacy rate of 48%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 57%, and female literacy is 38%. In Kanti, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Motipur Motipur is a town and a notified area in Muzaffarpur district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001[update] India census,[1] Motipur had a population of 21,933. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Motipur has an average literacy rate of 43%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 52%, and female literacy is 33%. In Motipur, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Sheohar district Sheohar is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. The district headquarters are located at Sheohar, and the district is a part of Tirhut Division. This district was carved out of Sitamarhi district in 1994. The district occupies an area of 443 km and has a population of 514,288 (as of 2001). This district has mixed population of Hindus and Muslims. Agriculture is the main stay. It is one of the most flood affected district in Bihar. Due to over flooding of the Bagmati and Budhi Gandak rivers. Dekuli (Dhancoul) is a holy place popular for ancient temple of lord Shiva. SINGAHI-INDERWA is located on BAGMATI river and frequently devastated by its flood. Literacy rate is low. Main occupation is agriculture.Rudimentary form of feudalism is still visible. People focus less on earning and education.They are more interested in Netagiri.Inhabitants are frequently involved in petty quarrels among themselves.

ADAURI is most populated village of Sheohar District and it is a most educated village too. It has five Polling Booths starting from Booth no 1. ADAURI has given the political birth of veteran leader Raghunath Jha who caused the creation of this District. FATMA CHAK: A well educated village situated at a distance of 4 km from district head quarter, Sheohar. Fatma Chak is situated on the bank of river Bagmati which is not alive for the last one decade. People lost a lot due to this ferocious Bagmati river as its name appears bagh mati means tiger mind. However this village has a mixed population of Hindu and Muslim. Its an examlpe of peace and harmony tending to composite culture. Most people of this village are in teaching job and who are not in job are well educated and cultured due to Madrasa Islamia Arabia Dumri founded by Late Haji Mubarak Hussain in 1956 on the boarder of Fatma Chak and Dumri village. When it was instituted thousands of thousand students came here from different distant districts of Bihar to attain knowledge. Haji Mubarak Hussain, founder of this madrasa alone instituted this madrasa to educate muslim students specially poor students of the society and to a greater extent he got success in his mission. Outstanding quality of this madrasa is that one child can learn from primary to M.A. in the same premises. Besides, one can can get higher degree in different subjects without any hindrance. As of now Md. Shamsul Hasan, the grand son of Late Haji Mubarak Hussain, is the secretary of Madrasa Islamia Arabia Dumri. He has done a lot to renovate this madrasa and consequently after a long interval students are coming to this madrasa in large numbers because besides food and lodging clothes, books and copies are provided to the poor students by Md.Shamsul Hasan, secretary of the madrasa Dumri.Despite all these there is derth of schools and colleges in the district,even a small hospital is not seen for the villagers in 10 kilometer radius for the except a single hospital in the head qaurter. All the villagers can do nothing but only look forward to the govt. and any angel. Sheohar is around 150 km in the north and east from Patna, the capital of Bihar. The buses to Sheohar passes through Muzaffarpur. It is 55 km from Muzaffarpur. Sheohar is connected to the adjoining districts (East Champaran headquartered at Motihari, Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi) by road. Sitamarhi lies to the east of Sheohar. To the west is East Champaran. To the south-east is Muzaffarpur. Buses connect to Chapra & mehassi. There are no railways connecting these districts. The main occupation of the people of this district is agriculture. All types of crops are produced. Varieties of rice, wheat, and a number of rabbi crops are produced. The nearest airports are : Jaiprakash Narayan International Airport, Patna (174 km) Gaya International Airport, Gaya (~244 km) The nearest railhead : Sitamarhi. Local Transport : Auto-rickshaws, Cycle-Rickshaws, Tangas, Jeeps, Bus. Locals use bicycles, scooters, motor cycles

Tourist Season : October to March. Festivals : Chat, Durga Pooja, Holi Clothing : Light cotton in summer and heavy woolen in winter (specially during November to February). It is very cold in winter and very hot in summer. Weather in Sheohar : Weather in Sheohar Facts and figures : Year of formation : 06-10-1994 Area 443 : km2 Latitude : 260 2N Longitude : 850 3 E Population (2001) : 5,14,288 Males : 2,71,261 Females : 2,43,027 Population density : 1161 Per km2 Sex Ratio : 896 Literacy Rate : 37.01% STD Code : 06222 *River: Bagmati. Population: Total: 377699 Rural: 363784 Urban: 13915 Blocks: Sheohar, Tariyani, Piprahi, Dumri-katsari. CHRISTIANS IN SHEOHAR' Bro.V.PETER ROYAN From Bangalore was the first Christian Missionary sent to Sheohar District from Gospel Echoing Missionary Society (GEMS) in the year 2000 Influential Leaders * Madhurendra Kumar Singh [Senior Congress Leader] * Ms. Rama Devi [B.J.P. MP] * Md. Sharfuddin [M.L.A. JD(U)] * Hari Kishore Singh [J.D(U). Leader]. * Md Anwarull haque [Ex MP SHEOHAR] * Mrigendra Kumar Singh [Youth Congress Leader] * Raghunath Jha [R.J.D Leader] * Ajit Kumar Jha ( RJD Leader). * Sanjay Kumar Gupta [ M.L.A. Belsand) * Shiv Shanker prasad gupta [1st chairman of sheohar nagar panchayat] Influential Leaders in past * Late Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha [Freedom-Fighter & Member.1st Lok-Sabha, Father of Cooperative movement in Bihar] * Late Ram Dulari Sinha [Freedom-Fighter, Former Union Minister & Former Governor] * Late Thakur Girija Nandan Singh [Former M.P]

* Late Bujhawan Sah [ Freedom Fighter', M.P. Candidate] Sheohar Sheohar is headquarters of Sheohar district. Contents: - Geography/Demographics/Politics Geography Sheohar is located at coor 26.52N, 85.3E.[1] It has an average elevation of 53 metres (173 feet). The district contains five blocks: Piprahi, Purnahiya, Sheohar, Taryani and Dumri Katsari. The district was carved out of the district of Sitamarhi in 1994. After Indias independence the 1st parliamentary elections were held in 1952. Sheohar was part of Muzzaffarpur North-West parliamentary constituency, after the first delimitation Sheohar became part of Sitamarhi Parliamentary constituency. After the 2nd delimitation process the name of this particular constituency was changed to Sheohar, realizing the important role played by Sheohar in this part of Bihar. And since then the name of this particular constituency has remained to be Sheohar. Earlier Sheohar was a Block, but somehow the government realized and declared it a district. Sheohar is the smallest District of Bihar. Sheohar is part of Sheohar Parliamentary constituency. Sheohar Parliamentary constituency consists of six-assembly segments; Riga, Belsand, Sheohar, Madhuban, Chiraia and Dhaka assembly segments. Demographics The district occupies an area of 443 km and has a population of 514,288 (as of 2001 census). Politics In particular Sheohar Parliamentary constituency is dominated by Rajputs so the natural leadership of this constituency has been mostly with the Rajputs. [1]Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha was the first Member of Parliament from this particular constituency, was elected in 1953 (lok-Sabha) from Muzzffarpur North-West {Sheohar was part of the same constituency}. Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha was involved in the freedom struggle and was prominent leader of the cooperative movement. Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinhas wife *2+ Smt.Ram Dulari Sinha like him was also involved in the freedom struggle and was elected Member of Parliament several times in 1980 and 1984 respectively. She was also Member of Parliament from Patna Parliamentary constituency in 1962. Ram Dulari Sinha brought this constituency into limelight, when she became Union Minister and held important portfolios which includes I&B, Industry Steel&Mines, commerce, Labour Home and so on, was also Cabinet Minister in the State Government, nonetheless was elected Vice-Chairman of International Labour Organisation.Later on she became the Governor of Kerela. Before joining electoral politics she was a principal of a reputed college.

Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinhas and his wife Smt. Ram Dulari Sinhas legacy does not end here. As of today their son Prof.Madhurendra Kumar Singh is holding the command of Sheohar Parliamentary constituency. An educated leader like his parents.A congress party loyalist like his mother contested the [3] 1989 Parliamentary elections on congress ticket. Madhurendra Kumar Singh Prof.Madhurendra Kumar Singh entered politics during his student life and became the Vice-President of National Students Union Of India and Bihar Pradesh Youth Congress successively, Sitamarhi District Congress Committee President, Secretary of Bihar Congress Committee and held several other posts within the organization. He came into limelight from the student politics and co-operative movement.Currently he is [4] member of All India Congress Committee and also a Professor in Psychology. Recently he has been inducted in the Committee for Flagship of the Congress Party. This Committee is formed to keep a check on the Central Government policies and schemes in the Non-Congress ruled states and to make sure that these policies are followed and implemented by the state Government. Other than Madhurendra Kumar Singhs family Sheohar has given opportunity to one of the leaders of his time Thakur Girjanandan Singh who was elected Member of Parliament (1977) once. But unlike him his son Thakur Prabhakar failed to provide leadership and the electorate of Sheohar rejected him in 1980 and [5] 1984 Parliament elections, as he failed to save his security and lost to Smt. Ram Dulari Sinha both the times. Another important leader who managed to become union minister once was Hari Kishore Singh, he represented this constituency twice in 1989 and 1991 respectively. Later he became Indian Ambassador to Syria. But ultimately the electors of Sheohar rejected him, as he has never been loyal to any party, he kept hopping from one political party to another. Another important leader was Raghunath Jha, due to his efforts the Bihar Legislature declared Sheohar as a District.Has represented Sheohar assembly constituency several times from different political parties and was elected to parliament from Goplganj and Bettiah parliamentary constituencies in 1999 and 2004 respectively, but lost from Sheohar parliamentary constituency once in 1991 against Hari Kishore Singh. Presently his son Ajit Jha represents sheohar assembly constituency. Anand Mohan, the only leader with criminal background in the history of Sheohar Parliamentary constituency,was elected twice in 1996 and 1998 respectively.this was the period when criminal elements entered politics and won. Here was a man convicted of serious criminal offences, gained the sympathy of electors in 1996 and won the election from jail and was later released on Bail. Currently serving life-imprisonment, convicted in the murder of a Government Officer, was barred from contesting 2009 elections. Due to his criminal Background and outsider tag (he hails from a different District) was rejected in 1999 and 2004 elections and in [6] 2004 General Elections his security was forfeited. In 2009 elections his wife contested on this seat and like her husband failed to save her

security deposit. Their chapter is over as the electorate of not only Sheohar, but also whole Bihar rejected the candidates from criminal background. In [7] 2004 Sitaram Singh of R.J.D represented Sheohar parliamentary constituency, but as of the electorate of Sheohar rejected him, his security was forfeited and stood 3rd. The electorate of Sheohar chose Rama Devi of B.J.P who is currently Member of Parliament from Sheohar. This is for the 2nd time in the history of Sheohar Parliamentary Constituency; The electorate has chosen somebody other than Rajputs. Main reason being that the political parties did not put up a better option for the electorate, so there was minimal voting from the Rajput community. Sitamarhi district Sitamarhi is one of the districts of Bihar state, India, and Sitamarhi town is the administrative headquarters of this district. Sitamarhi district is a part of Tirhut Division. Population: Total: 2682720[2] Rural: 1894203? Urban: 119593? Agriculture: Paddy, Wheat, Sugar cane, Maize, Lentils Industry: Sugar Factory, Rice and Oil Mills. Rivers: Bagmati, Lakhandei Contents :- History/Politicians/Details of district History This is the place where Sita was born, the main character of the epic Ramayana. The district is situated along the border of Nepal. In 1875, a Sitamarhi subdistrict was created within the Muzaffarpur district.[3] Sitmarhi detached from Muzaffarpur and became a separate district as of December 11, 1972.[4] It is situated in the northern part of Bihar. The district headquarters are located in Dumra, five kilometers south of Sitamarhi. Sitamarhi is a sacred place in Hindu mythology. Its history goes back to Treta Yug. Sita, the wife of Lord Rama sprang to life out of an earthern pot, when Raja Janak was ploughing the field somewhere near Sitamarhi to impress upon Lord Indra for rain. It is said that Raja Janak excavated a tank at the place where Sita emerged and after her marriage set up the stone figures of Rama, Sita and Lakshman to mark the site. This tank is known as Janakikund and is south of the Janaki Mandir. In course of time, the land lapsed into a jungle until about 500 years ago, when a Hindu ascetic, named Birbal Das came to know the site by divine inspiration. He came down from Ayodhya and cleared the jungle. He found the images set up by Raja Janak, built a temple over there and commenced the worship of Janaki or Sita. The Janaki Mandir is apparently modern and is about 100 years old only. The town however contains no relics of archaeological interest. It has witnessed communal violence lead by local politicians in the past but on the whole both the leading communities here a good rapport. This district is often bereaved by

natural calamities. One of the most devastating is excess flooding due to mis-management of the banks by both civilians and government officials. Politicians Late Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha [Former MP & Freedom Fighter] Late Ram Dulari Sinha [Former Union Minister & Governor & Freedom Fighter] Madhurendra Kumar Singh [Senior Leader,Congress Party] Mrigendra Kumar Singh [Youth Congress Leader] Mahesh Ram [Dalit Leader from Congress Party] Sitaram Yadav [Former M.P] Details of district Headquarters: Sitamarhi Area: Population: Total: 2682720[2] Rural: 1894203? Urban: 119593? Sub Divisions: Sitamarhi Sadar, Belsand, Pupri Blocks (Taluks): The district is divided into 17 blocks: Bairgania, Bajpatti, Bathanaha, Belsand, Bokhra, Chorout, Dumra, Majorganj, Nanpur, Parihar, Parsauni, Pupri, Riga, Runni Saidpur, Sonbarsa, Suppi, Sursand.[5] Four of these blocks were created more recently: Parsauni, Suppi, Chorout and Bokhra.[4] Villages: Pokhraira,Bath Asli, Akhta,koily, Dumari, Sahiyara, Mahuain Pathrahi,(Bajpatti)Kharka, Ajamgarh, Andahara, Bhasepur, Gosaipur, Tilaktajpur, Sarhachia, Kodhiyar, Rasalpur, Bela, Dheng, Maniyari, Madhopur, Amanpur, Rudauli, Matiyar, Baduri, Hanuman Nagar, Punaura, Ratwara, Paktola, Mehsaul, Madhuban, Chakmahila, Dumra, mohanpur, bhavdepur, Bhairokothi, Bhupbhairo, Bariyarpur,jainagar,dostia, Chhaurahiya, Janipur, Madhesra. School/college: Shabnam Academy, SRK Goenka College, [MKS College Chandauna Pupri],Thakur Jugal Kishore Singh College,Lakshmi High school,Delhi Public School,S.H.B.S. Boarding school D.A.V. Public School, Mathura high school, J.B. HIGH SCHOOL MAJORGANJ Agriculture: Sugarcane, Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Lentils Industry: Sugar Factory (Riga Sugar Mill is an important industrial set up at Riga), Rice and Oil Mills. Rivers: Bagmati, Lakhandei Connectivity: National Highway 77 connects the area to the Muzaffarpur district and Patna to the South. State highways link it to the Madhubani (to the east) and Sheohar (to the west) districts. Railroad lines connect Sitamarhi to Darbhanga (Broad-Gauge) and Raxaul and Narkatiaganj (meter-gauge). Sports: Heman Trophy (cricket) is organised every year at the Goenka College Ground, which adds some zeal to the life of the youths. Cricket is played in every nook and corner of the district.

Festivals: Deepawali, Eid, Chhath Puja, Durga puja, Vishwakarma puja, Sarswati puja, Mahashivratri, Holy deep in Baghmati on kartik Purnima and other festivals are celebrated with great enthusiasm. Fairs: Maha Shivratri Mela, Vivah-Panchami Mela & Ramnavami Mela (huge market of cattles, horses and elephants are the main feature of these fairs) Languages: Vajjika, Maithili, Hindi, Urdu Temple: Maa Vaishno Devi Mandir& Maa Janki Madir. Sitamarhi is a town and the district headquarters of Sitamarhi district, Bihar, India. Contents:History/Geography/Climate/Connectivity/Market/Tourism/PunauraDham/HaleshwarSthan/ Panth Paakar/Education/Educational&ResearchInstitutes/Schools/Colleges/Politics/Influentialpoli ticians/Media personality from Sitamarhi History The name Sitamarhi, derives from "Sitamahi", meaning "hermitage of Sita"[citation needed]. It is the mythological birthplace of Sita, and the spiritual centre of many sages and saints. This district is often bereaved by natural calamities. One of the most devastating is excess flooding[2][3][4] due to mis-management of the banks by both civilians and government officials.[5][6] This town was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake of 1934. Geography Sitamarhi is located at26.6N 85.48E.[7] It has an average elevation of 56 metres (183 feet). sitamarhi district is drained by rivers such as baghmati, aghwara, lakhandei (lakshman rekha), manusmara & few other minor streams. the northern portion of sitamarhi falls in foothills of himalaya. here elevation increases as one goes from south to north. Climate Sitamarhi has a monsoon type of climate. Like most parts of northern India it receives maximum rainfall by southwestern monsoon. Connectivity Sitamarhi is connected by road network from the adjoining districts.Major roads are NH 77 & NH 104. Sitamarhi is situated on "Darbhanga Narkatiyaganj" railway line with sitamarhi being the biggest railway station of district.Another broad gauge line between Muzaffarpur & Sitamarhi is under construction. Sitamarhi has direct train service for Varanasi,Kanpur & New Delhi. Market Sitamarhi market is good for farmers. They send their spices and food product to Nepal. Mahanth sah chowk is the main centre of market. Gudri bazar is known for spice market and fresh fish. Sonnapati is the place of Goldsmith. The city has a sufficient market to cater the daily needs of the people. Sitamarhi is one of the best raising districts of bihar. All the

products available in market comes from Muzaffarpur and Patna. Markets near to Nepal border has abundance of Chinese products. All kind of digital products can be found here. Many youths in the border area are involved in smuggling items from Nepal. The illegal import is too difficult to check, as the international border is not fenced. Locals grow vegetables in abundance and there is gudri market, which provides them a good place to get good price. Tourism Sitamarhi has been pointed as a great hindu religious site as per survey done on general maps of india. Some great places include punaura, jaankisthan and haleshwarsthan. Punaura Dham Punaura Dham is the birth place of Maa Sita, as per the Hindu mythology, Sita came out of a vessel when Raja Janak was ploughing field. Mithila state was facing the situation of drought, to overcome the drought, Raja Janak started ploughing field, when the plouging reached Punaura, the plough struck a vessel, due to the strike of the lower portion of the plough, the vessel broke and Sita came out of it. The place was the karmabhoomi for maharishi pundarik. Raja Janak offered him the new baby but he denied the offer. As he was a saint he had no consistency in living. Raja Janak brought the baby child to his palace in Janakpur. The baby was named Sita, as the lower portion of the plough SIT had struck the vessel and she was born. Punaura Dham has nothing of archaeological interest presently but as per the locals they saw some buildings buried inside the ground during 1934 earthquake.[8] Haleshwar Sthan Haleshwar sthan is the place from where Raja Janak started ploughing the field. This place is having a Shiva temple, which is believed to be the first shiva-linga established in the state of Mithila. This place can be good for the archaeological survey, the old mandir parishar was having stone shikhara, which dates back to treta yuga. Presently, no archeological survey has been made, but the manuscripts on the stones found are probably 7,000 years old. The Savan mela of this place is famous in northern Bihar and Nepal. The temple was in ruins until 2000 but the then District Magistrate Mr. Arun Bhushan Prasad took initiative for the renovation. He start coming to this place and started to clean the nearby areas, it ignited enthusiasm to the locals. People started giving their service without any incentive. The temple got renovated. Stones were found in the course, these stones are kept in the mandir parishar.[8] Panth Paakar This is the place which is believed to be the staying place of Maa Sita, when she was going from Sitamarhi to Janakpur. The place is having a big PAAKAR tree, its the belief of locals that the tree dates back to treta yug. Raja Janak sat here while in way.[8] Education

The holy land of Sitamarhi is blessed by some of the most prestigious schools and colleges of Bihar which includes, Educational & Research Institutes Primary Schools 1479 Middle Schools 619 High Schools 64 Basic Schools 9 Madarsas 26 Sanskrit Vidyalayas - 20 Graduate Colleges - 25 Industrial Training Institutes 1 SC Residential High School 1 Project Girls High School - 17 Kendriya Vidyalaya 1 Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya - 1 Schools N.S D.A.V Public school Saraswati vidya mandir Delhi Public School St.joseph's mission school Hellen's school Front-age Acharya sudarshan public school Jawahar Navodaya school Central School Gayatri Gyan Mandir Mathura High School M.P High School L.M.H.S. Pupri Government Middle School, Awapur Colleges S.R.K Goyenka college Thakur Yugal Kishore Singh College Sri Laxmi Kishori College Raghunath Jha College Ram Sewak Singh Womens College Sri Madhuri Yadav College RSS Science College RSS Mahila College

JS College Politics This district has produced leaders such as Late Thakur Jugal Kishore Sinha[9] (freedom fighter, member of 1st Lok-Sabha and popularly known as the father of co-operative movement in Bihar), and [10] Late Smt.Ram Dulari Sinha (freedom fighter, member of Indira Gandhi's Council of Ministers and Rajiv Gandhi's successively.) Late Smt. Ram Dulari Sinha later became the Governor. She was also elected Vice-Chairman of the International Labour Organisation.Currently the leadership of Sitamarhi and adjoining areas is held by Madhurendra Kumar Singh of Congress Party. Madhurendra Kumar Singh Senior Congress Leader, Member A.I.C.C,a dedicated Congressman from Bihar. Arjun Rai is the present Member of Parliament(Lok Sabha) from Sitamarhi Lok Sabha Constituency from JD(U).[11] While Sunil Kumar Alias Pintu is Member of Bihar Legislative Assembly from BJP.[12] Influential politicians Madhurendra Kumar Singh [Congress Leader] Arjun Rai [M.P., J.D-U Leader] Sunil Kumar'Pintu' [ M.L.A., BJP Leader] Smt.Kiran Prasad [BJP Leader] Sitaram Yadav [Senior R.J.D Leader] Navalkishore rai [Ex-M.P from J D-U] Media personality from Sitamarhi Adarsh Kumar Inqalab, Associate Producer and writer, STAR NEWS, Delhi. Divya Tomar, Assistant Producer & Singer, National News Channel IBN7, Delhi. Vijay Chandra jha, Chief reporter of INDIA TV & SAHARA SAMAY. Navneet ji , Reporter of AAJ TAK & DANIK JAGRAN. Salman Sagar, Crime Reporter of Star News. Bairgania Bairgania (Hindi: ) is a town and a notified area in Sitamarhi district in the state of Bihar, India. Geography Bairgania is located at 26.75N 85.2833E Demographics As of 2001 India census,[1] Bairgania had a population of 34,821. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Bairgania has an average literacy rate of 43%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 66% of the males and 34% of females literate. 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. Belsand

Belsand is a town and a notified area in Sitamarhi district in the state of Bihar, India.since it lies in a plain which is prone to flood so ample amount of alluvium is there ,so agriculture is mainstay here. A sugar mill was to establish here which unfortunately couldn't turn in reality. Secondary activities here are those for which local production acts as raw material. Main market areas(pertaining to tertiary sector)are around kothi bazaar and belsand chauraha (square) Contents 1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 Festival 4 Cuisine 5 Crops 6 How to reach 7 Tourism 8 Education 9 Sports Geography Belsand is located at 26.45N 85.4E.[1] It has an average elevation of 55 metres (180 feet).it has also few ruined buildings of British time which are collectively said kothi(mansion).there is a bazaar near the kothi.it is about 22 kilometers from the district headquarter(sitamarhi).the area is flood prone as it lies amid 2 rivers .the first being baghmati & other one is a minor stream. The Belsand block lies in the southwestern portion of the Sitamarhi district. To the south and east, is it bordered by the Runni Saidpur block. On the north, it borders the Parsauni block. Demographics As of 2001 India census,[2] Belsand had a population of 17,821. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Belsand has an average literacy rate of 33%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 66% of the males and 34% of females literate. 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Festival The major festival of this area is Chhath puja in which people offer their prayer to Lord Sun.Almost all the people wherever they are, their major desire is to celebrate Chhath puja at their home with their family members and villagers.Holi and Diwali are other two festivals celebrated with so much of gaiety. Other festivals such as Dusshera, makar sakranti,Id, Christmas and others are also celebrated with full enjoyment. Among all festival celebrated here what remains common is enjoyment , co-operation and brotherhood. Cuisine

"Khichdi", the both of rice and lentils, seasoned with spices, and served with several accompanying items like curd, chutney, pickles, papads, ghee (clarified butter) and chokha (boiled mashed potatoes, seasoned with finely cut onions, green chilies) constitutes the lunch for most on Saturdays and is a staple food here. Afternoon meals mostly consists of Rice and vegetables while the dinner will consist of Rotis (flatbread) and lentils. Belsand is also known for the sweet delicacies of Bihar including chena ka jalebi, Kala Jamun. Crops The major food crops are rice, wheat and maize. Apart from it this area is major producers of sugarcane, tobacoo and other cash crops. People here are very laborious. Lentils, sun flower and mustard is also grown in this area. Crop and agriculture has given rise to many agro based industries in this area. How to reach The town is 50 km from Muzaffarpur, which is the biggest town of north Bihar and 22 km from Sitamarhi, its district headquarters. 24 hour bus service, both private operators and government, run BSRTC buses to provide connectivity to the village from Muzaffarpur, Patna and Sitamarhi. Nearest railway stations are: Muzaffarpur jn:50 km Sitamarhi :22 km One can find a large number of trains from Muzaffarpur junction to almost all parts of India. People prefer to go to Muzaffarpur for catching a train. Nearest airport - Patna :125 km Tourism A large number of tourist places are there in nearby area. Janki Mandir at Janki Asthan: 22 km from here It is located in western part of Sitamarhi.The temple is nearly 100 years old.A large number of tourist visit this place. Punaura Dham :20 km This is the birth place of Goddess Sita.It is said that once Raja Janak ploughed the field for rain. It is now declared as Religious Tourist Spot by Government of Bihar. other famous tourist places in nearby area are: Vaishali, Garib Sthan,Muzaffarpur Education Belsand is one of the oldest major centres of learning in Bihar. This is the educational hub of nearby area. Many private schools have come up. Good Government school and colleges here. It provides good education to the students. Nearby villagers are also coming up for education here. Sports As in the rest of India, cricket is the most popular sport in Belsand. There are several cricket grounds (or maidans) located across the village. Dumra Dumra is a town and a notified area in Sitamarhi district in the state of Bihar, India. Geography Dumra is located at 25.02N 83.97E.[1] It has an average elevation of 86 metres (282 feet).

Demographics As of 2001 India census,[2] Dumra had a population of 14,538. Males constitute 57% of the population and females 43%. Dumra has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80% and, female literacy is 73%. In Dumra, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Dumra is the Head Quarter of district Sitamarhi. District Magistrate, District Judge and Supritendant of Police are based at Dumra with their residence and offices. Janakpur Road Janakpur Road is a city and a notified area in Sitamarhi district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001 India census,[1]Janakpur Road had a population of 13,341. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Janakpur Road has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 72%, and female literacy is 55%. In Janakpur Road, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Pupri, an agro-based industrial town, is located in Sitamarhi District in Bihar. It is around 30 km south-east of Sitamarhi. The town is noted for the famous Baba Nageshwarnath temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva. Janaki Temple, dedicated to Goddess Sita, is a nearby attraction. The town is directly connected with Nanpur (8 km south), Bajpatti (17 km north-west) and Jaynagar (34 km north-east) by road. Madhubani (south-east), Benipatti (north-west) and Sitamarhi (northwest) are ideal tourist destinations. Nearest airport is Patna Airport. Janakpur Road Railway Station, of Eastern Railways, serves this town Runni Saidpur Runni Saidpur is a town and a block located in Sitamarhi district, Bihar, India. It is situated on the southern bank of the Lakhandei River. National Highway 77, the main national highway connecting Sonbarsa-Muzaffarpur-Hajipur passes through Runni Saidpur. Thus it is a gateway to Sitamarhi and parts of Nepal. This town is basically a block headquarter. Even though it is managed by gram panchayats, it is far more developed than many small town run by nagar panchayat. Even this is far bigger than belsund which is a near by sub-division.Local people say it as just saidpur. Runni is name of another village which is a mile south of it. The name of this block is combinedly Runni Saidpur. Out siders know it as Runni Saidpur only.In early days this area had large number of mango orchards. Contents :- Geography 2 Culture 3 Festival 4 Crops 5 Fruits 6 Market

7 How to reach 8 Education 9 Tourism Geography The village town is situated between Lakhandei river in the north and the Bagmati river to the south. This area has been hit by flood many times, though the land is very fertile. It is basically gangetic plain with alluvial soil. The whole area lies to the south of the Someswar mountain range of the southern Himalayas in its north and the holy Ganges in its south. Summer is moderate and the winter is chilling cold. Runni Saidpur is located at 26.383N 85.4833E.[1] It has an average elevation of 47 metres (154 feet). The Runni Saidpur block lies in the southwest corner of the Sitamarhi district. It is bordered by the Belsand and Parsauni blocks to the northwest, Dumra to the north, Bajpatti to the northeast, and Nanpur to the east. On the south, it borders the Minapur and Aurai blocks of the Muzaffarpur district. Culture It is located in at the confluence of Mithila, Vajji(Licchvians) and Bhojpur region of Bihar. Most of the people are either Maithils or Vajji. But their culture is deeply affected by Bhojpur too. Language spoken is Hindi, English, Bajjika (Vajjika), bhojpuri and Maithili. But the local people used to talk in Bajjika which resembles with Maithili, bhojpuri and Hindi which is a consequence of its location being surrounded by these regions. People give importance to their family before their personal interest. The area has got a rich culture. They respect their guests too much. Education is first preference among the people. Their culture festival such as Sama which is played by girls of the area for their brothers good wish is one of the most famous one. It is really enjoyable to see this festival in the chilling cold of the winter season. The major cultural event is marriage in this area which takes a large amount of preparations and arrangement with many cultural rituals. Festival The major festival of this area is Chhath puja in which people offer their prayer to Lord Sun.Almost all the people wherever they are, their major desire is to celebrate Chhath puja at their home with their family members and villagers.Holi and Diwali are other two festivals celebrated with so much of gaiety. Other festivals such as Dusshera, makar sakranti Id, Christmas and others are also celebrated with full enjoyment. Among all festival celebrated here what remains common is enjoyment , co-operation and brotherhood. Crops The major food crops are rice, wheat and maize. Apart from it this area is major producers of sugarcane, tobacoo and other cash crops. People here are very laborious. Lentils, sun flower and mustard is also grown in this area. Crop and agriculture has given rise to many agro based industries in this area. Fruits

This area is famous for litchi sahi and china. The litchi crop is available from May to June only.There are large number of mango and litchi orchards in this area. Export of these licthi bring a large amount of foreign currency to the country. At the same time it is boosting the economic scenario of the whole area. Market This is one of the biggest market in nearby area. Better it can be called the wholesale market of southern sitamarhi. Balusahi (locals say balsahi) of runni saidpur is famous across the country and is supplied up to delhi. The market is very cheap and well developed one. The market provides most of the need of local people. How to reach The town is 35 km from Muzaffarpur, which is the biggest town of north Bihar and 25 km from Sitamarhi, its district headquarters. 24 hour bus service, both private operators and government, run BSRTC buses to provide connectivity to the village from Muzaffarpur, Patna and Sitamarhi. Nearest railway stations are: Muzaffarpur jn:35 km Sitamarhi :25 km One can find a large number of trains from Muzaffarpur junction to almost all parts of India. People prefer to go to Muzaffarpur for catching a train. A new railway line is being constructed between Sitamarhi and Muzaffarpur. After its completion the town will have its own railway station. Nearest airport - Patna :120 km Gaya :210 km Varanasi:370 km Education This is the educational hub of near by area. Many private schools have come up including DAV group of educational institutions.Other private run conevent schools are also there. Government run schools are also there.Gyan Bharti Morsand is the best educational institution of the area, providing good education on very low fee. Tourism A large number of tourist places are there in nearby area. Janki Mandir at Janki Asthan: 25 km from here It is located in western part of Sitamarhi.The temple is nearly 100 years old.A large number of tourist visit this place. Punaura Dham :25 km This is the birth place of Goddess Sita.It is said that once Raja Janak ploughed the field for rain. It is now declared as Religious Tourist Spot by Government of Bihar. other famous tourist places in nearby area are: Vaishali

Garib Sthan,Muzaffarpur Talkhapur Talkhapur is a town in Sitamarhi district in Bihar in India. The population of the town is 15961. The sex ratio is 53% male and 47% female. Literacy rate is 57% in males and 39% in females. Vaishali district Vaishali District is a district in Bihar state, India. It is named after the Vaishali (ancient city). The history of Vaishali district is thus very ancient, and finds mention in the Indian classic Mahabharata, as well as in Buddhist and Jain tradition. Contents 1 Ancient Vaishali 2 Current-day Vaishali 3 Influential people Ancient Vaishali Main article: Vaishali (ancient city) Vaishali derives its name from King Vishal of the Mahabharata age. Even before the advent of Buddhism and Jainism, Vaishali was the capital of the vibrant republican Licchavi state since before the birth of Mahavira (c. 599 BC), which suggests that it was perhaps the first republic in the world, similar to those later found in ancient Greece.[2] In that period, Vaishali was an ancient metropolis and the capital city of the republic of the Vaishali state, which covered most of the Himalayan Gangetic region of present-day Bihar state, India. Very little is known about the early history of Vaishali. The Vishnu Purana records 34 kings of Vaishali, the first being Nabhaga, who is believed to have abdicated his throne over a matter of human rights and believed to have declared: "I am now a free tiller of the soil, king over my acre." The last among the 34 was Sumati, who is considered a contemporary of Dasaratha, father of the Hindu god, Lord Rama. Numerous references to Vaishali are found in texts pertaining to both Jainism and Buddhism, which have preserved much information on Vaishali and the other Maha Janapadas. Based on the information found in these texts, Vaishali was established as a republic by the 6th century BC, prior to the birth of Gautama Buddha in 563, making it the world's first republic. In the republic of Vaishali, Lord Mahavira was born. Gautama Buddha delivered his last sermon at Vaishali and announced his Parinirvana there. Vaishali is also renowned as the land of Ambapali (also spelled as Amrapali), the great Indian courtesan, who appears in many folktales, as well as in Buddhist literature. Ambapali became a disciple of Buddha. A kilometre away is Abhishek Pushkarini, the coronation tank. The sacred waters of the tank anointed the elected representatives of Vaishali. Next to it stands the Japanese temple and the Vshwa Shanti Stupa (World Peace Pagoda) built by the Nipponzan Myohoji sect of Japan. A small part of the Buddha's relics found in Vaishali have been enshrined in the

foundation and in the chhatra of the Stupa. Near the coronation tank is Stupa 1 or the Relic Stupa. Here the Lichchavis reverentially encased on of the eight portions of the Master's relics, which they received after the Mahaparinirvana. After his last discourse the Awakened One set out for Kushinagar, but the Licchavis kept following him. Buddha gave them his alms bowl but they still refused to return. The Master created an illusion of a river in spate which compelled them to go back. This site can be identified with Deora in modern Kesariya village, where Ashoka later built a stupa. Ananda, the favourite disciple of the Buddha, attained Nirvana in the midst of the Ganga outside Vaishali. Current-day Vaishali Vaishali district is a part of Tirhut division and Hajipur town is the district headquarters. The district of Vaishali came in to existence on 12/10/1972. Earlier it was the part of old Muzzafarpur district. The district covers an area of around 2036 km and the population is around two million. Agriculture is the main activity and banana, paddy, wheat, maize , tobacco and lentils are the major crops. Headquarters: Hajipur Area: 2,036 km? Population: Total:2718421 Rural:2531766 Urban:186655 Subdivisions: Hajipur, Mahnar, Mahua Blocks: Mahnar, Sahadai Buzurg, Vaishali, Bidupur, Goraul, Raghopur, Lalganj, Hazipur, Mahua, Jandaha, Patepur, Sahdeibuzurg, Rajapakar, Bhagwanpur, Chehrakala, Premraj, Patedhi-Belshar, Desari, Taiyyopur, Sarai, Manibhakurahar Agriculture: Banana, Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Lentils. Industry: Sugar Factory Rivers: Ganges, Gandak, Nun, Kadane, Baya, Dumari Wala Nadi etc. Influential people Raghubansh Prasad Singh [Present M.P, R.J.D leader] Jagannath Rai [Former M.L.A & M.L.C, Congress leader] L.P.Shahi [Former M.P., Congress leader] Late Hemant Shahi [Former M.L.A., Congress leader] Veena Shahi [Former M.L.A.,JDU leader, former minister in R.J.D Govt.] Munna Shukla [Former M.L.A., LJP and JDU leader] Nityanand Rai (M.L.A.of Hajipur & BJP Leader) Satish Kumar (JDU MLA of Raghopur) Goraul Goraul is a town in Vaishali district in the state of Bihar, India. The local language spoken by the people is Vajjika.

Goraul Sugar Mill was one of the most productive sugar mills in this area once upon a time. The adjoining catchment area used to grow huge amount of sugarcane. The sugar mill has shut down since. The agriculture land use pattern has shifted from sugarcane to other cash crops like tobacco and traditional food crops and vegetables. This place has a rich talent pool and has contributed immensely to various professions and industries like bureaucracy, engineering, management and information technology (most of whom have migrated to urban centres in India and beyond) Goraul is very close to Vaishali garh( Vaishali or Vesali (Pali) was a city, the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. It is one of the first governments in the world to have elements of what we would today consider democracy. At the time of the Buddha, Vesali was a very large city, rich and prosperous, crowded with people and with abundant food. There were seven thousand seven hundred and seven pleasure grounds and an equal number of lotus ponds. Its courtesan, Ambapali, was famous for her beauty, and helped in large measure in making the city prosperous. The city had three walls, each one gvuta away from the other, and at three places in the walls were gates with watch towers. Buddhaghosa says that Vesali was so called because it was extensive. ) Goraul is well connected with rail, road and air. Goraul railway station which used to facilitate movement of sugar from the sugar mill to the markets now facilitates the seasonal movement of migrant agricultural labourers and movement of educated in search of employment to urban centres. Goraul has immense potential as a centre for horticulture and agro-processing (fruit pulp) industries. The entire region is dotted with plantations of 1) Mango - delicious local varieties which are increasingly getting lost in targeted marketing campaigns of alphonso and dussehri 2) Lychee - amazing varieties which lose much of their temper in transportation and need to be tasted straight from the plantations 3) Betel leaf - which is considered to be an addiction (when taken with tobacco) and as a digestive when taken with cardamom and cloves. 4) Banana - amazing varieties of banana can be found here. Area is filled with banana trees. Contents 2 Politics 3 Festivals Politics Goraul plays a major part in Bihar as well as in Indian politics. Late Sri Vindhyeshwari Prasad Varma(a.k.a. Binda Babu) of Manpura village was the first speaker of Bihar assembly after independence(1946-1962). His contribution to public affairs earned him the recognition of Padma Bhushan in 1961. He spent his last years with his eldest son Late Sri Ram Chandra Prasad Varma in the village till his demise on 22nd Jul 1968.His eldest grandson Shri Ishwar Chandra Varma presently resides here.

Festivals Holi, Shiv Ratri, Durga Pooja, Dussehra, Deepawali and Chath Pooja are the prime festivals. Local Muslims take out Taziya processions that go to even the Hindu households and celebrate other Muslim festivals in a very congenial environment. Hajipur Hajipur (Hindi: ) is the headquarters of Vaishali district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is famous for producing bananas, and has a modern railway zonal office. Patna, the capital of Bihar is only 10 km from Hajipur. Mahatma Gandhi Setu, one of the longest bridges in the world, links it to Patna. Contents 1 Origin of name 2 History 3 Geography 4 Demographics 5 Places of interest 6 Transport 7 Education 7.1 Schools 7.2 Colleges & institutes Origin of name The town is known by the name of Hajipur as it was founded by a King of Bengal named Haji Ilyas Shah who ruled between 1345 to 1358 A.D. Inside the fort built by this king in Hajipur there is a mosque called Jami Masjid, a plain building measuring 84.5 ft (25.8 m) long and 33.5 ft (10.2 m) broad. In ancient times it was called Ukkacala. This place is near about 18-19 KM far from Capital of State(Patna). History In the ancient time, it was known as Ukkacala and was the first village to come after crossing River Ganga at Patna. The village of Hajipur gained significance, as it was the venue of one of the discourses given by Lord Buddha. Buddha preached the Cula Goplalaka Sutta, a Middle Length Discourse, here. Along with that, it is also of interest because a portion of Ananda's ashes were enshrined in the town, the closest disciple of Lord Buddha.Ananda acted as the Buddha's personal attendant for twenty years and outlived him by several decades.[1] Hajipur, earlier in British India was a small town in muzaffarpur district of bengal situated on the confluence of ganges and gandak. Hajipur figures conspicuously in the history of struggles between Akbar and his rebellious Afghan governors of bengal. Hajipur(Vaishali)-find its origin way back in history from the mahabharata period. It is the place where democracy found its origin around 600BC.Ancient Lichhavi republic was

established in this land only. It is the place where Lord Mahavir took birth and Gautam Buddha delivered his last sermon and announced his Parinirvana. It is also renowned as the land of Ambapali (Amrapali), the great Indian courtesan. Geography Hajipur is located at 25.68N 85.22E.[2] It has an average elevation of 46 metres (150 ft). Hajipur is the district headquarter of Vaishali after its separation from Muzaffarpur on 12/10/1972. The district has 3 subdivisions, 16 blocks, 191 Gram Panchyat & 1638 villages and is surrounded by Muzaffarpur (East), Patna (South), Samastipur (East) and Saran (West). The Hajipur town being bounded by Narayani Gandak river in the west and holy Ganga in the south, has scope of further expansion in east and north direction only. Very Good network of rail, road and water transport exists in the town connecting it with other parts of district as well as state and country. Famous Mahatma Gandhi Setu (5575m long, Prestressed box culvert type RCC bridge) over river Ganga connects it with Patna, the state capital while another rail and road bridge over Gandak connects it with Sonepur, headquarter of a railway sub-division under ECR, . The plain terrain of town and its nearby places is famous for banana, Litchi and mango plantations. The region looks green with plants and trees growing in semi-tropical monsoon climate. However, months of MayJune are extremely hot and DecemberJanuary are very cold. Demographics As of 2001 India census,[3] Hajipur had a population of 119,276. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Hajipur has an average literacy rate of 60%, close to the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 67%, and female literacy is 51%. In Hajipur, 16% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hajipur is a small town,headquarter of vaishali district Hindi and Urdu is language used by Hajipurians,Bajjika being the local language. Agriculture is main activity and banana, paddy and wheat are the major crops. After formation of Eastern Cenral Railway Hajipur became its headquarter since 1 October 2002. Hundreds of staff of railway and its supporting agencies has their temporary home at Hajipur and many have settled themselves from outside. Places of interest Ramchaura Mandir.[4] A Hindu temple, Pataleshwara Nath is situated on the western outskirts of Hajipur. Go to the centre of town and ask for the way to Ramchaura. The temple on the top of the stupa is called Ramchaura Mandir. A famous temple named Budi Maai is in Ismailpur (Harauli) village of Hajipur. Mahadev Math in Rajason situated on the bank of river Ganges. it is also a historical temple. Maamu Bhanja (Mazaar of maamu bhanja) a muslim pilgrimage near jadhua on hajipur mahnar road has many old history. every year an urs celebrates here. Kaun Haara Ghat.[5]

It is considered one of the main ghats of Ganga-Gandak, where worshiping and cremation has been performed for centuries. This ghat has got its name based on an ancient legend. According to this legend, "The famous fight of Gaja(elephant)-Graah (crocodile), which is well covered in Indian scrdiptures, is the reason behind people asking -kaun haara. Hence the name. Scriptures tell that Lord Vishnu had to interfere in the fight to save his devotee Gajaraj, who was being drowned by crocodile. Both Gaja and Grah were gandharavas. But due to some curse they became Gaja and Graah. Lord Visnu killed Graah to give him instant salvation, and saved life Of Gajaraj. The depiction Of fighting Gaja Graah is an emblem for the city, and is prominently shown on the Hajipur railway station's dome, and other notable places. Nepali Mandir.[6] West of Hajipur, on the confluence of the Gangas and the Gandak is situated this unique Shaivite shrine. Made in the late medieval period (18th century), by (Mathabar Singh Thapa) one of the army commanders of Nepal, the temple brings-in a fresh pagoda-style architecture of the Himalayan Kingdom to the plains of the Ganga. This temple is built largely of wood. Another distinctive feature of this temple is its fine wooden carving, which includes, of others, generous erotic scenes. Both in style and finish, largely drawn in from the Himalayan world of architecture, Nepali Temple at Hajipur remains quite singular and inimitable. Mahatma Gandhi Setu.[7] The Mahatma Gandhi Setu (bridge) is the important link between north and south Bihar. It has been constructed over the Ganga near village Jadhua and connects Hajipur with Patna. This is one of longest river bridge having length of 6.75 km. The four lane prestressed RCC bridge was commissioned into service during the year 1982. Traveller get an enthralling experience and panoramic view of lush green banana plantations by Crossing the bridge. Sonepur Fair.[8] Located opposite Hajipur, is a small place of Sonepur where fortnight long cattle fair is held every year starting from Kartik full moon day (October/November). The place goes lively at the onset of winter with the mass holy deep in river Gandak by Hindu at Kaun-hara Ghat. Besides being claimed as the biggest animal fair in Asia, the fair entertain visitors with circus, Tamasha (folk plays), Nautanki (folk dances) and sell everything from elephants to birds; agricultural equipments to vanity items; winter garments to wooden furnitures. Government Department of Rural Development, Department of Agriculture etc. organises training and exihibitions for the farmers coming from all over. The visitors can stay in hotels at Hajipur or they can hire luxury Swiss cottages erected on sand dunes beside river Gandak. The tent and cottages are provided by State Tourism Department only during fair. Vaishali Mahotsava.[9] Ancient village of Vaishali is located 35 km North-West of Hajipur. The place can be reached by road and offers many archeological places to see which includes Buddha Stupa, Ashokan

Piller, Abhisek Puskarani (coronation Tank of Vajji Rulers) etc. All the places can be seen during day long visit by arranging a private transport. Vaishali Mahotsava (great celebration) is held every year on Baisakh Purnima (Full Moon Day of 1st Hindu Month) during mid-April to celebrate the birth anniversary of 24th Jain Tirthankar Lord Mahavir who born here in the village Kundalpur, 4 km from Vaishali. The soil of this land is blessed by the visit of Lord Buddha twice during 3rd century BC. Transport Rail link Hajipur is the headquarters of East Central Railways. Three rail lines connect it to Muzaffarpur, Chhapra, and Barauni. Important trains like Guwahati Rajdhani Express(2235/2236), Vaishali Express(2553/2554),Bihar Sampark Kranti Express(2565/2566), Garib Rath Express (2203/2204), Swatantrata Senani Express(2561/2562), Sabarmati Express, Lohit Express, Lichhavi Express(4005/4006) and all other trains passing through this route have stoppages here. Air Patna Airport - 13.2 miles (21.2 km). Patna airport is well connected through road. Buses , taxis, auto available 24*7. Roads Buses and auto-rickshaws connect the city with the state capital Patna. Buses are also available to Muzaffarpur, Goraul, Samastipur, Raxaul, Motihari, Bettiah, Siwan, Chhapra, and Siliguri. Education Schools G.A.Inter School,Jai Govind High School,Pekauli,Gyandeep Central School.Jadhua,Green Field Public High School,Jadhua, Oasis Public School, Sri Mulkjada Singh High School, Guru Vasisth Vidyayan, Gyan Jyoti Public School, St. Paul's High School,Baghmali, St Paul's School, Izra, Surajdeo Memorial School, Indian Public School, St. John's Public School, DAV Public School, Kendriya Vidyalay, Town High School, Xavier's School, Dighi High School, Hajipur Girls High School, Oxford High School, Vaishali Central School Rajason, Vikas Vidyala, Prem High School, SKS Seminary, Raj Kishor High School(Badi yusufpur), B.D.Public School,R.S.PUBLIC SCHOOL,R.S.Kids,Sagar Academy School,saraswati vidya mandir,Jay Mata Di Public School(M.P.colony),Maunt Carmel Public School(Near Kakrahata Bhawan),Hi-Tech Public School,Children's paradise, P.K.Jha residential high School,Sahyogi High School,Christ Church High School,Royel Model Residential School,Juhari Bajar, Green Garden Public School(Hathsarganj),r.k middile school (imadpursultan sahdullahpur),St.joseph's public school, (sarai)Residential Students' Academy(Raj Bhawan,Bagdulhan).. Colleges & institutes S N S College, R.N. College,B. M.D. College, Deo Chand College, Jamunilal College, Vaishali Mahila Mahavidyalaya,Women's College, RBS college Ekara, Sukhdew Mukhlal College

Jadhua,Chaurasiya Raj Kishore Mahavidyalaya Yusufpur,Teachers Training College Dighhi,B.S. Inter-College, ANM Training School, Kent Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Industrial Training Institute (ITI), Institute of Hotel Management & Applied Nutrition, Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology (CIPET), National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER). Lalganj Lalganj is a city and a municipality in Vaishali district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents 1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 References 4 See also Geography Lalganj is located at 25.87N 85.18E[1]. It has an average elevation of 42 metres (137 feet).The one of the famous temple in the city is 'Surya Mandir' which is located in the mid of the city. Demographics As of 2001 India census[2], Lalganj had a population of 29,847. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Lalganj has an average literacy rate of 51%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 60%, and female literacy is 42%. In Lalganj, 18% of the population is under 6 years of age. Mahnar Bazar Mahnar Bazar (Hindi: ) is a city and a municipality in Vaishali district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001 India census[1], Mahnar Bazar had a population of 37,354. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Mahnar Bazar has an average literacy rate of 43%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 52%, and female literacy is 33%. In Mahnar Bazar, 20% of the population is under 6 years of age. West Champaran district West Champaran (Hindi: , Urdu: Marib apra Zil) is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. It is a part of Tirhut Division. The district headquarters are located at Bettiah. The district occupies an area of 5229 km and has a population of 3,043,044 (as of 2001). It is known for its porous border with Nepal, as well as the high levels of crime and smuggling that accompany this. It was the main transit point for Ganja and Weapons travelling between India and Nepal, however the new government in Bihar has led to a significant reduction in kidnapping and smuggling in the area.

Contents 1 Statistics 2 Notable people Statistics Headquarter: Bettiah Area: 5,228 km2 Population: Total: 2,333,666 Rural: 2098298 Urban: 235,368 Sub Divisions: Bettiah, Bagaha, Narkatiaganj Blocks: Bettiah, Sikta, Mainatand, Chanpattia, Bairia, Lauria, Bagaha - 1, Bagaha - 2, Madhubani, Gaunaha, Narkatiaganj, Manjhaulia, Nautan, Jogapatti, Ramnagar, Thakraha, Bhitaha, Piprasi Agriculture: Rich paddy fields, Sugar Cane, Cane reeds Industry: Sugar Factories Rivers: Gandak Notable people Mahatma Gandhi started Satyagrah Andolan from here. Valmiki Rishi wrote Ramayana here. Famous hindi poet Gopal Singh Nepali who became the one man army was born in Bettiah. Sarayu Dwivedi was born in Bhitaha Nizamat. He was highly qualified in Shanskrit. Bagaha Bagaha (Hindi: ) is a city and a municipality in Pashchim Champaran district in the state of Bihar, India. Contents 1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 General information 4 Attractions 5 Bagaha Panchayat 6 Industries Geography Bagaha is located at 24.53N 85.03E. It has an average elevation of 135 metres (442 feet). Demographics As of 2001 India census,[1] Bagaha had a population of 91,383. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Bagaha has an average literacy rate of 38%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with 66% of the males and 34% of females literate. 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. General information Bagaha is on the banks of the Gandak river. The area is very fertile due to its location in the terai of the Himalayas. The main crops grown here are sugarcane, wheat and rice. The place

was infamous for its crime and a flourishing kidnapping industry, but, after the change of government in the state, the crime is nullified. Development has been seen. The road connecting to Patna is now National Highway 28B. Electrical supply has drastically improved with six hydroelectric plants, of which two are already working. Bagaha itself is a Police district with its own superintendent of police. Town has three cinema halls, one civil court, one subdivisional hospital, and government and private high schools and colleges. Bagaha is divided into two blocks Bagaha-1 and Bagaha-2. Bagaha-1 includes the main market of Bagaha, i.e., Bagaha Bazar, hospital. Bagaha-2 includes Bagaha Civil Court, Railway Station, Sugar mill. One cinema hall named Chitrangada is in Bagaha-1, the other two lie in Bagaha-2, named Kamla Talkies and Dhruv Talkies. The town is well connected to Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Amritsar,Deharadoon, Haridwar, Delhi, Porbandar Gandhinagar and Varanasi with superfast trains. Some of the trains run through bagaha are Awadh(Bandra) Exp., Saptakranti Exp., Satyagrah Exp., MotihariPorbandar Exp., Bapudham Exp., Awadh Asam Exp., Dehradoon Exp., Purvanchal Exp., Jannayak exp. etc A person who lives in a village(Banchahari) of Bagaha district, named "Harendra Kumar Singh" is the a great ideologiest personality in this area. He has deep knowledge in every fields like Astrology, Geography, History, Litrature, Political Science, Society, familly relations etc. He is a Teacher in Government School in Banchahari. Attractions Bagaha is the newest district of Bihar. Bagaha is well known city in West Champaran district, Bagaha and the areas nearby are full of natural beauty and historical significance. Around 10 km away from Bagaha, is the Valmikinagar Wildlife Sanctuary. The forest is full of subtropical trees like sal, sagwan, bamboo, and cane. It is also full of royal Bengal tigers, black bears, pythons, leopard, and many species of deer and birds. The Department of Tourism in Bihar state is now giving special packages for this area for better tourism options. The Valmikinagar area is in Bagaha police district, and is now gaining popularity with its motels and Guest houses on the bank of Budhi Gandak with the boundary of Nepal. In present time Bagaha becomes a very fast developing district. A village named Banchahari have not a well identitty but there are some important peoples are living in this village. A person of Banchahari named Kundan Singh is now the part of the one of the Best Industry in world. He is working as a HR manager in Deloitte. About 35 km from Bagaha bazar (bagaha-1) is a small hamlet called Valmikinagar, a place of strategic as well as mythological importance. It is said that this was the place where Sita stayed with her two sons when banished from Ayodhya by Lord Rama. Two temples are their with remnants of the Hawan Kund, etc. After Valmikinagar, Nepal starts and there is a large barrage on the Gandak river that is the border between the two countries. The forest

area is full of old temples of religious significance. Valmikinagar forest is taken under tiger reserved project.There is an old Saligram Temple in the middle of the town it is believed that the Saligram was brought in a Chunauti and the size of the Saligram stone has enlarged in bigger size. The Temple has very large premises.Bagaha and the regions close to it are full of scenic beauty and historical significance. Around 10 km from Bagaha is the Valmikinagar wildlife sanctuary. The forest is full of subtropical trees like sal, sagwan, bamboo and cane and is home to animals like the royal bengal tiger, black bear, python, leopard and many species of deer and birds. About 35 km. from Bagaha is the small village of Valmikinagar, a place of strategic as well as legendary importance. It is believed that this was the place where Sita resided with her two sons after being banished from Ayodhya by Lord Rama. From the point where Valmikinagar ends, Nepal starts and there is a big barrage on the Gandak River, which acts as the border between the two countries. The forest region has many old temples of religious significance. The Valmikinagar forest has been registered under tiger reserved project. The nearest famous town to bagaha is Gorakhpur, which can be easily reached through railway, as a number of trains run via bagaha for Gorakhpur. In the way to Gorakhpur there is a famous religious place named "Madanpur Wali Mata(Maa Durga)". It is said that wishes are fulfilled there if wished with deep heart. There is a historical place in NandanGarh where the Ashok pillar was found. Bagaha Panchayat Bagaha is divided into two Block (Parakhand), Bagaha-I and Bagaha-II. mc Village Panchayats of Bagaha-I: Bansgawn Manjhariya, Bargawn,Baswariya, Bhairoganj, Bhaisahi Padar Khap, Bibi Bankatwa, Chandra Pur Ratwal, Chandraha Rupbaliya, Chautarwa Lagunaha, Hardi Nadawa, Inglisiya, Kolahua Chautarwa, kuuti, Mahipur Bhathaura, Majhauwa, Mehura, Nadda, Parsa Banchahari, Patilar, Raibari Mahuawa, Salaha Bariyarwa, Singari Pipariya, Siswa Basantpur, Tesrahiya Bathuwariya, Bairagi Sonbarsa, Bairati Bariyarwa, Bakuli Pachgawa, Balmiki Nagar, Balua Chhatraul, Belahawa Madanpur, Bharchhi, Binwaliya Bodsar, Borwal Narwal, Champapur Gonauli, Chamwaliya, Devariya Taruanwa, Dholbajwa Laxmipur, Harna Tanr, Jimari Nautanwa, Kharhat Trivawni, Laxmipur Rampurwa, Mahuawa Katharwa, Mangalpur Awsani, Naurangiya Dardri, Nayagaon Rampur, Paikwaliya Marjadpur and Santpur Sohriya Village Panchayats of BAGAHA-II: Bairagi Sonbarsa, Bairati Bariyarwa, Bakuli Pachgawa, Balmiki Nagar, Balua Chhatraul, Belahawa Madanpur, Bharchhi, Binwaliya Bodsar, Borwal Narwal, Champapur Gonauli, Chamwaliya, Devariya Taruanwa, Dholbajwa Laxmipur, Harna Tanr, Jimari Nautanwa, Kharhat Trivawni, Laxmipur Rampurwa, Mahuawa Katharwa, Mangalpur Awsani, Naurangiya Dardri, Nayagaon Rampur, Paikwaliya Marjadpur, Santpur Sohriya, Semara Kathkuiya and Yamunapur Tarbalia Industries Sugar factory

Distillery (Under Construction) Bettiah Bettiah (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the headquarters of West Champaran district in the state of Bihar, near the Indo-Nepal border, 225 Kilometres north-west of Patna. Bettiah, pronounced as 'Betiya', derived its name from 'baint' (A special type of plant which is similar to cane; used for furniture making and also finds its application during festivities). It was grown here extensively in the past but not at present. Its spelling - Bettiah was first used during British period and it remains so. [1] Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Prominent places 4 Prominent Villages 5 Demographics 6 Education 7 Banks 8 Notable people 9 Temples 10 Masjids 11 Churches 12 Ponds 13 Cinema halls 14 Transportation History The city inherits a very rich culture. It is the birth place of famous poet Gopal Singh 'Nepali'. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi started the Satyagraha movement from here in 1917. In 1959, when The Prime Minister Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru visited Bettiah, said that "This city will be the fifth Metro City of the country.". During The British rule, the entire region surrounding Bettiah was extensively used for indigo plantation. Indigo cultivation yielded quick benefits to the British colonizers but frequent cultivation of indigo even for few years ruined the entire subsoil decreasing the possibility of any further cultivation of any kind. Even now, the regions of Indigo cultivation in the past are barren & have only scrub vegetation in stark contrast. Bettiah Raj was well known for its eighteen hundred square miles of land, yielding a rental of almost 2 million rupees which was second largest in BIHAR. In India the land rental system was termed as zamindari, which was later banned by the government and all the rented land was acquired. Geography Bettiah is located at 26.8N 84.5E.[2] It has an average elevation of 65 metres (213 feet). Bettiah has hot summers and chilling winters. In summers the temperature goes up to 44-

46 degrees Celsius while in winters the temperature goes as low as 25 degrees Celsius. It has heavy annual rainfall of about 200240 cm which often causes floods. Bettiah lies in the alluvial plains of gandak basin. It is located near the River Gandak. A small rainfeeded river name Kohda ( Means Red Pumpkin in Hindi) crosses this city near K R High School. The region faces mild thunders during the change of season. There is a huge forest reserve area near Bettiah which is called 'Udaypur forest area' (Udaypur Jungle), which comes under the tiger saving project called 'Valmiki Vyaghra Pariyojana'.There is one most famous village namely 'Jagirahan' 9 kilometers in west from Bettiah. It was well known since 1976 due to foundation of Madarsa Nurul Islam (Islamic Awareness School). This School was founded by Mr. Abdul Aziz who is the first Islamic scholar in the Baghi & Pipra Panchayet. Toward that day, It has been running properly & bringing up many students. Prominent places Bettiah has two notable open fields known as "Bada Ramana"("Ramana" means field in local vernacular) and "Chota Ramana" respectively. Bada Ramana also home to the football stadium known as "Maharaja Satadium" and an orphanage known as "Anathalaya" It borders with a "math"("Math" means spiritual place) known as "Santawan Das Math". Chota Ramana is home to the city centre known as "Town Hall". It is a venue for important meetings and functions. Chota Ramana borders with the "Saat Saheed Sthal"("The Seven Martyrs") and the city library. Notable markets in Bettiah are Meena Bazar and Lal Bazar. Prominent Villages 1. Jagirahan 2. Pipra Nawrangia 3. Belbanwa 4. Harpurwa , 5. Machcharganwa 6. Mahabir Pur Demographics As of 2001 India census[3], Bettiah had a population of 116,692. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Education Schools 1. Alok Bharti Sikshan Sansthan 2. K.R.(Khrist Raja) High School 3. Assembly of God Church School 4. Saraswati Sishu Vidya Mandir 5. St.Michael Academy 6. St.Xavier's Higher Secondary School 7. St .Teresa Girls' High school 8. Notre Dame Public School

9. Natarhat Public School 10. Raj Inter College 11. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya 12. Bipin High School 13. Kendriya Vidyalaya 14. National Public High School 15. Amna Urdu High School 16. Madrasa Islamia 17. Yatimkhana Bagariya 18. Radha Dulari Sarswati Sisu mandir 19. Holly Mission Public School 20. Gyanoday Bharti School 21. St. Marry Public School 22. St. Remigious Public School 23. St. Jhon Girls High School 24. Tirwah National Public High School 25. Madrasa Nurul Islam Jagirahan founded in 1976 Alok Bharti Sikshan Sansthan: It was founded by Late Mr. Hari Babu in 1965. It is well known for Education and Discipline. The alumini of this school have joined the top universities/IITs/NITs/Medical/MBA/C.A/UPSC in India. There are many successful Engineers, Doctors, IAS Officers and NDAs. Some of them are A. Devnath, Sajjad, R.K.Barnawal, Md. Nehal, P.K. Gupta, J.K. Gupta, P.R. Dubey, A.K Pandey and many others. Assembly of God Church School: The school is well known for its education quality and discipline. Students from here are well placed in almost each of the top university/C.A/IITs/Medical/MBA Colleges in India. K.R.(Khrist Raja) High School: It was established in the year 1927 and was a boys school till 1998, when co-education started in this school. The alumni of this school have joined almost each of the top universities/IITs/ medical colleges in India. There are many successful Actors, Engineers, Doctors. Some of them are Satrudhan Sinha, Manoj Bajpai, A.K Roy, C.K Gupta, R.C Ram and many others. St.Xavier's Higher Secondary School: It was established in the year 1999, in the K R High School campus and has emerged as one of the best schools of the town. Saraswati Sishu/Vidya Mandir: It was built in the year 1989 and is located in Dr. Hedgewar Nagar which is 5 km east of Bettiah. The school has established itself as an important place for learning. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya: It is another premier school for learning in the district. It is located in Vrindavan (6 km from Bus Stand). Colleges 1. Maharani Janki Kunwar College (named after late Maharani Janki of Bettiah Raj)

2. Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav College (RLSY College, Bettiah) 3. Mahila College (Woman's College) 4. Gulab Memorial collage (named after Shaikh Gulab ,a freedom fighter). Maharani Janki Kunwar College: There is a plan to convert Maharani Janki Kunwar Hospital (biggest hospital in North Bihar) into a Medical college and also to establish engineering and management colleges. Ram Lakhan Singh Yadav College: This college transformed into a reputed educational institution from small college started from one room in early eighties. It's the first college to offer BCA Degree(Bachelor of Computer Application) in West Champaran. Madarsa Nurul Islam Jagirahan: It was founded by Late Mr. Abdul Aziz Sahib in 1976 to bring religious revolution in Muslim people. Mr. Abdul Aziz was neither renowned person nor big scholar but he was only awarded Mowalwi degree from Bihar Urdu Madras Board. Mr. Abdul Aziz had been working to make this fruitful for Muslim people as he could educationally & financially. Very soon, Rich persons of the village started to extend their hands to help him to educate the generation. Some of them, devoted their lands to establish a hut for this education place. Many people were getting interest gradually to improve it. Banks Due to developing market and business, many banks have come forward to provide with loans and facilities. Lists of bank currently operating in Bettiah: 1. State Bank of India 2. Canara Bank 3. Axis Bank 4. Punjab National Bank 5. Allahabad Bank 6. ICICI Bank 7. ING Vysya 8. HDFC Bank 9.Bank Of Baroda 10.Union Bank of India Notable people Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, started Satyagrah Yatra from Bettiah in 1917 Gopal Singh Nepali, famous poet from Bettiah Manoj Bajpai, famous bollywood actor Temples 1. Durga Badi Mandir 2. Durga Bagh Temple 3. Kali Mandir

4. Shiv Mandir ITI colony 5. Santoshi Mata Mandir 6. Santawan Das Math 7. Joda Shiwalay Mandir 8. Shri Rani Sati Mandir Masjids 1.Jangi Masjid 2.Madarsa Islamia Masjid 3.Kalibagh Masjid 4.Mansa Tola Masjid 5.Baswaria Masjid 6.Mahawat Toli Masjid Churches 1. Catholic Church Ponds 1. Sagar Pokhra 2. Uttarwari Pokhra 3. Haribatika Pokhra Cinema halls 1.Ajanta 2.Janta 3.Liberty 4.Supriya 5.Urvashi 6.Pitambra Transportation Bettiah is well connected by roads and railways and by airplane to all major cities. Railways provide with cheap transport and trade. Due to the opening of broad gauge and new trains, Bettiah has got new lease of life. There is a non - operative airport in Bettiah which was operated in the past during old British time. Chanpatia Chanpatia (Hindi: ) is a city and a notified area in Paschim Champaran district in the state of Bihar, India. Demographics As of 2001 India census,[1] Chanpatia had a population of 22,029. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Chanpatia has an average literacy rate of 49%, lower than the national average of 59.5%; with male literacy of 58% and female literacy of 39%. 19% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Chanpatia is 17 kilometres from Bettiah. Farming is the main industry in the area. The Budhi Gandak river runs through the town. Narkatiaganj Narkatiaganj is a city and a notified area in Pashchim Champaran district in the Indian state of Bihar. Contents 1 Demographics 2 Major places of Narkatiaganj 3 Educational Institutions 4 Places of interest 5 References Demographics As of 2001 India census[1], Narkatiaganj had a population of 40,830. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Narkatiaganj has an average literacy rate of 59%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 68%, and female literacy is 49%. In Narkatiaganj, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. Major places of Narkatiaganj Narkatiaganj Railway junction is a part of north-east railway. It is well connected with major cities of India like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata. There are many trains which connect these places to NarkatiaGanj. Major areas include Shanti Nagar,Poorani bazar,Shivganj,Naya tola,Prakash Nagar,Marwari Moohalla,Suman Vihar,Professor's Colony,Pokhra Chowk,Alok Vihar,Pandey tola,Hardia Chowk etc.Sujoy Dutta a prominent personality in legal field, once used to live in this very place of Narkatiaganj. Educational Institutions TP Verma college is situated at the outer part of the town which has curriculum for graduations and intermediates. High School Narkatiaganj is the biggest school of the town with more than two thousand students. There are two more schools in the town, namely,Railway boys high school and Matisara kunwar girls high school. Places of interest This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please improve this section if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (January 2011) Narkatiaganj is a subdivision of west champaran, a district of North Bihar. Here, historical "CHANAKI GARH",which is said to be a palace of CHANAKYA in the period of MAURYA Chandragupta, is situated.Very near to Narkatiaganj an "IRON PILLAR" established by King Ashoka is also present, representing the glorios history of India. A witness of 1917 SATYAGRAHA movement,the famous "BHITIHARWA ASHRAM" also represents the sacrifices of Mahtma Gandhi.

NEW SWADESHI SUGAR MILLS Ltd,a SUGAR COMPANY of Birla group, is important source of for the economy of this town.various temples such as Birla Mandir,GOPALA BABA Mandir,Satyanarain mandir,and Big mosque represent the religious faith of the people of this town. A river known as Harbora river show the natural beauty. The Main market place is situated very near to the Police station as well as the Railway Station, hence is very crowded. The market showcases a good mix of modern as well as traditional stuff. For the movie buffs, the town offers three Cinema halls - Himalaya,Bhagwati,Jaishree. Hindi, Bhojpuri films are the main attractions here. In this town, T.P.Varma College(Bhim Rao Ambedakar University,Muzaffarpur) is the centre for higher studies situated in Gopala Sthan. Nowadays lots of institutions are coming forward for the educational development of this city. People of this town are very petriotic and religious. Durga Puja & Chhatth Puja are the main festivals which celebrated in great spirits. Ramnagar, Paschim Champaran Ramnagar is a city and a notified area in Pashchim Champaran district in the Indian state of Bihar. Demographics As of 2001 India census[1], Ramnagar had a population of 38,549. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ramnagar has an average literacy rate of 48%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 57%, and female literacy is 38%. In Ramnagar, 19% of the population is under 6 years of age. Neha Pathak an illuminary in legal field use to live in this very place of Ramangar