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# Lab Experiments

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Experiment-98

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
KamalJeeth Instrumentation & Service Unit, No-7 NTI Layout, RMV 2nd Stage Bangalore-560 094. INDIA. Email: jeeth_kjisu@rediffmail.com

## Dr Jeethendra Kumar P K and Raksha Shetty

Abstract By determining velocity and frictional loss of energy, law of conservation of energy is verified in the case of a sphere, solid cylinder and hollow cylinder rolling down from an inclined plane. A new instrument is designed and constructed for this purpose that consists of an IRsensor controlled digital stop clock with 1/100th second resolution and 85cm long inclined plane.

Introduction
When a body is lifted above a horizontal level, it acquires potential energy (PE) by virtue of its position. The potential energy is given by PE = mgh Where 1 m is the mass of the object g is acceleration due to gravity at the place (9.8m/sec2 at Bangalore) h is the height

The mass of the body is concentrated at the center of gravity (CG). Hence, h in the above equation is the distance between the CG and the horizontal plane. For spherical ball h is the sum of radius and height of the place as shown in Figure-1.

h'

h = h' + r

## Figure-1, A ball placed at a height h

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When a body is placed on an inclined plane and allowed to roll, it converts the acquired potentional energy (PE) into rotational kinetic energy (RKE) and translational kinetic energy (TKE). Therefore as per the law of conservation of energy [1] PE = TKE + RKE 2

Assuming the path is very smooth and frictionless, the above equation 2 is perfectly true. However, there is a frictional force, which is considered negligible in the above equation. The path can be made frictionless by having smooth surface and providing with lubrication in the form fine power applied on it. By this, it is practically possible to reduce the friction to a minimum but it is not possible to avoid it. Equation -2 is rewritten as mgh =
Where 1 1 mv 2 + I 2 2 2 m is the mass of the object g is the acceleration due to gravity v is linear velocity h is height I is the moment of inertia of the body is the angular velocity 3

The linear velocity and angular velocity are connected by radius of the body hence

## v where r is the radius of the object r

Moment of inertia of the body is given by I = mK2 Where K is called radius of gyration. ...5

## Substituting for I and in Equation -3 we get mgh =

1 1 v2 mv 2 + mK 2 2 2 2 r

mgh =

1 K2 mv 2 ( 1 + 2 ) 2 r

The ratio K2/r2 is a constant for given object. Table-1 lists the values of K2/r2 for different objects. Equation- 7 is further simplified to get the value of h h= 1 v2 K2 ( 1+ 2 ) 2 g r 8

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If the law of conservation of energy is true then the value h calculated using Equation-8, must tally with height of the place from where from the object is allowed to roll. To verify the law of conservation of energy an inclined plane is selected and three different objects namely, the solid sphere, solid cylinder and hollow cylinder are allowed to roll down the inclined plane and travel 50cms on an of horizontal plane. The time taken for body to travel 50cm on horizontal plane is measured and velocity is calculated. Using equation-8 h is calculated. If there is no frictional loss then the h calculated using equation-8 must tally with inclined plane height. If not there is frictional energy loss. The frictional loss is the energy equivalent of difference in the height between experimental value and theoretical value. Difference in height h = hintially adjusted hcalculated using equation-8 Frictional loss = mg h 9 10
K2/r2 2/5 1/2 1*

## Object Solid Sphere Solid Cylinder Hollow Cylinder

Table1-1 Radius (cm) Mass (gm) Length (cm) Material 1.35 10.01 2.2 Steel 1.35 22.83 2.2 Brass 1.35 7.73 2.2 Brass Different objects selected for experiments and their size
(*The inner and outer diameter of the cylinder is assumed same r R)

Experimental Setup
The experimental setup used to verify law of conservation of energy is shown in Figure-2. The inclined plane consists of 85cm long and 12cm wide base over which very fine quality acrylic track is laid at the center. 15cm from one end of the track is made inclined by a bench support. The other end of the track is terminated in an open box for collecting rolling objects. The height of the inclined plan is adjusted by moving the bench underneath and the height is read on a scale placed in line with the inclined plane. The height can be adjusted from 3 to 6cms with a resolution of 0.1cm. A dropping mark is made on the top of the inclined plane to place the object before its release.
Scale

Inclined Plain

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## Digital Stop Clock

A crystal-controlled 1/100th of a second resolution clock is used in this experiment. Figure-3 shows the digital stop clock used in the experiment. IR sensors control the Reset and Halt function of the stop clock. IR emitter and receiver pair is used as sensors. The emitter and receiver are placed face to face on the way of the rolling object. The sensors are housed in bridge type enclosure shown in Figure-4. Two such bridges are used, one carrying the reset -start sensor the other halt sensor. When body passes under the reset-start bridge, the clock resets and starts counting time in seconds. When the object rolls under the halt bridge, the clock stops running. Hence, the time indicated by the clock is time taken to travel a distance from the reset bridge to halt bridge. This distance between these two bridges is fixed at 50cms. Hence knowing time velocity is calculated. The time measured will be very accurate because of crystal control; highspeed sensor and ICs. Further, there is no human interference with time measurement. Figure-5 shows the placement of sensors on the inclined plane.

## Figure-3, Digital time interval measuring clock

Figure-4, Reset and Halt Bridge and inclined portion of the track

The two bridges are fixed to inclined plane and connected to the clock using 9-pin D type connector. The female of the D type connector is fitted rear side of the digital stop clock.

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Inclind portion of the trac Scale Horizontal plane Positioning of reset and start sensor Positioning of Halt sensor Collecting Bin Reset Bridge Halt Bridge

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## Objects selected for the experiment

A solid sphere, solid cylinder and a hollow cylinder are selected as three objects for this experiment. The physical dimensions of which is listed in Table-1. The sphere selected is a perfect spherical in shape otherwise there will be time difference in trials. The pendulum bob will not be a good object for this experiment because seldom they appear spherical. Spherical balls of different diameters are also available and one may try variety of experiments on this setup. Figure-6 shows the objects used in this experiment

Solid cylinder

Solid Sphere

Hollow Cylinder

## Figure-6, Objects used in verifying conservation law

Apparatus
Inclined plane, digital time interval measuring clock (digital stop clock), solid sphere, solid cylinder and hollow cylinder, digital balance and vernier calipers.

## Experimental Procedure The experiment consists of three parts

Part A: Verification of law of conservation energy using solid sphere Part B: Verification of law of conservation energy using solid cylinder Part C: Verification of law of conservation energy using hollow cylinder

## Part A: Verification of law of conservation energy using solid sphere

1. The mass of the solid sphere, solid cylinder and hollow cylinder is determined up to 0.01gm accuracy using digital balance and tabulated in Table-1. 2. The radius is also noted up to 0.1cm accuracy using vernier calipers
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3. The inclined plane is placed on horizontal table and using spirit level the horizontal level is maintained at both the ends of the inclined plane. 4. The D type male connector of the bridges is connected to digital stop clock and clock is set on. 5. By adjusting the bench under the inclined plane, the height is adjusted to 3.5 cm and height h is noted. h = 3.5 cm + 0.65cm = 4.15cm 6. The solid sphere is taken and placed over the dropping mark on the inclined plane and running of the digital stop clock is observed. 7. The sphere is released and it starts rolling down the inclined plane. When it passes through the Reset-start Bridge, it resets (00.00) and starts again. When the ball passes under the Halt Bridge, halt sensor is activated and it stops the clock. The time taken for 50 cm journey is noted in Table-2. The clock halted by the sphere remains in this position for one minute so that one can note down the clock reading in Table-2. After one minute, the clock restarts counting and it is ready for the repetition of the trial. t = 0.78sec 8. Trial is repeated 4 to 5 times and average time is obtained tav = 0.78 + 0.79 + 0.79 + 0.78 + 0.78 = 0.784 sec 5

## The average time is noted in Table-2 and velocity is calculated

V= s t av = 50cm = 63.77cm / s 0.784

## V2 is also calculated and presented in the Table-2. Using Equation-8, h is calculated

2 1 v2 1 + K = 1 4067.31 (1 + 2 ) = 2.90cm 2 g 5 r2 2 980

h=

Note: During the process of measuring time, make sure that the clock is running at instant when the object is released. Watch the track and find whether the object is touching the sides of the track during 50cm of its journey. At any point on the track if the object touches the trace it is foul trial and to be repeated.

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This observation is maintained throughout the experiment. One need not observe the clock after dropping the object.
9. The h = 2.9cm obtained using Equation-8 is not exactly equal to the height fixed at the start of the experiment (4.15cm). The difference in the heights is due to frictional loss. Difference in height h = hintially adjusted hcalculated using equation-8 = 4.15-2.9=1.25cm The difference in height observed is also listed in Table-2. 10. Experiment is repeated by adjusting the inclined planes height to 4.5, 5.5 and 6 cm. In each case, steps 6 to 8 is repeated and velocity is determined and tabulated in Table-2. 11. The average value of the difference in height is calculated and the energy equivalent of the height is calculated and presented in Table-2.

Object

Time (sec)

V (cm/sec)

Table-2 V2 (cm/sec) 2

h calculated (cm)

1.25

## Frictional loss (J)

4.15

5.15

Solid Sphere

6.15

6.65

0.78 0.79 63.77 4067.31 2.90 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.66 0.66 75.75 5739.21 4.10 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.59 0.59 85.03 7230.78 5.16 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.57 88.02 7748.95 5.53 0.57 0.56 0.57 Average difference height h = 1.10 cm Velocity and frictional loss foe solid sphere

1.05 1.078

0.99

1.12

hav =

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## Part B: Verification of law of conservation energy using solid cylinder

12. Experiment is repeated for solid cylinder by measuring its radius, length and mass as tabulated in Table-1. By releasing the cylinder from the dropping point, at different height the velocity is calculated and presented in Table-3. In each case of the height, h is calculated using eqution-8
2 1 v2 1 + K = 1 3867.47 (1 + 1 ) = 2.96cm 2 g 2 r2 2 980

h=

13. Trial is repeated for 3.5,4.5,5.5 and 6cm height of the inclined plane. Table-3 summarizes the value obtained and frictional loss calculated.
Table-3 V2 (cm/sec) 2

Object

Time (sec)

V (cm/sec)

h calculated (cm)

## Frictional loss (J)

4.15

5.15

Solid Cylinder

6.15

6.65

0.78 0.80 62.18 3867.47 2.96 0.82 0.79 0.83 0.68 0.68 74.18 5503.26 4.21 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.60 0.61 81.96 6718.62 5.14 0.61 0.61 0.62 0.59 0.59 84.46 7133.40 5.45 0.59 0.59 0.60 Average difference height h = 1.085 cm Velocity and frictional loss for solid cylinder

1.19

0.94 2.43

1.01

1.20

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14. Experiment is repeated for hollow cylinder by measuring its radius, length and mass as tabulated in Table-1. By releasing the cylinder from the dropping, point at different height the velocity is calculated and presented in Table-4. In each case, h is calculated using eqution-8 h= 1 v2 (1 + 1) = 1 3213.68 (1 + 1) = 3.27cm 2 g 2 980
Table-4 V V2 (cm/sec) (cm/sec) 2

Object

Time (sec)

h calculated (cm)

## Frictional loss (J)

4.15

5.15
Hollow Cylinder

6.15

6.65

0.88 0.88 56.68 3213.68 3.27 0.89 0.89 0.87 0.74 0.75 67.29 4516.41 4.60 0.74 0.75 0.74 0.66 0.66 5.78 75.30 5670.27 0.67 0.66 0.67 0.64 0.63 78.61 6180.53 6.30 0.63 0.64 0.64 Velocity and frictional loss for hollow cylinder

0.88

0.66

0.55

0.41

0.37

0.28

0.35

0.26

## Energy equivalent or frictional loss = mhc gh = 7.73 x 9.8x 0.0088= 0.66J

Results
The results obtained are tabulated in Table-5
Table-5 Object Solid Sphere Solid Cylinder Hollow Cylinder Converted KE (J) PE acquired (J) TKE RKE FL 4.06 2.03 0.81 1.07 9.28 4.41 2.20 2.06 3.14 1.24 1.24 0.50 Experimental results for h= 4.15cm Total 3.91 8.67 2.98

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Discussion
The translational kinetic energy and rotation kinetic energies are calculated by measuring the speed of the object. The frictional loss is the equivalent energy of difference in the heights between the actual height of inclined plane and height calculated using equation-8 assuming law of conservation of energy. In the case of hollow cylinder, the frictional loss is found minimum because of low mass. Frictional loss in the case of solid cylinder is the maximum because of high mass. The frictional loss is due two reasons in this experiment 1. Friction between the track and the object which depends on the mass and the surface 2. Friction between the object and the air. In the case of hollow cylinder, this contribution is more and frictional energy is found to decrease with increasing velocity. This experiment is made possible only by the digital stop clock, which measured time with 1/100th second resolution and its IR control. In general, measurement of time in Physics labs, are restricted to either 0.5 sec using mechanical clock or 0.1sec with digital stop clock. The present stop clock gives small time measurement option and it is very useful for time interval measurements. The sensor can be fitted anywhere and time measurement can be made. In the case of solid sphere and solid cylinder, the difference in height is almost same and constant. This shows a fixed loss of energy. In the case of hollow cylinder due small mass, the air friction is more, which is, indicated by the decrease in the frictional loss with increasing speed.

References
[1] D S Mathur, Elements of Properties of Matter, 10th Edition, Page-80.