Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS

Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology


IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

GEOARCHAEOLOGY
IDENTIFICATION TECHNIQUES OF CIRCULAR ARCHAEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES USING SATELLITE IMAGES AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. CASE STUDY: NOVEL CIRCULAR FORTIFICATIONS FROM TIMI COUNTY
Dorel MICLE1, Liviu MRUIA1, Adrian CNTAR1, Leonard DOROGOSTAISKY2, Andrei STAVIL1, Cristian FLOCA1
1

West University of Timioara, Faculty of Letters, History and Theology, History Department 2 Alcatel-Lucent Romania, Timioara

Keywords: remote sensing, satellite images, aerial photography, archaeological site, aerial photo interpretation.

Satellite remote sensing represents the acquisition of information from a distance, in the form of conventional photographic images (in analogic format) or as raster images (in digital format) based on the interaction between objects found on the Earths surface and the sensors of electromagnetic radiation (radiated by the Sun). The detection of electromagnetic radiation is done photographically (photographs) or electronically (spectral imagery). Remote sensing in archaeology is still based, in most cases, on aerial techniques of low altitude prospection, on visible wavelengths and on those closer to infrared. The information is gathered in a digital format that can be amplified, rectified and reclassified using a large array of algorithms and specialized software. Archaeologists tend to increasingly choose remote sensing as a technique of exploration of sites with a minimal disjointing from the surrounding geographical context. These procedures allow for new methods of 3D cartography of prehistoric and historical sites to be developed, as opposed to the traditional 2D approach. Standard black and white aerial photography is usually employed for the purpose of archaeological exploration and site analysis better than images acquired by the infrared scanner, by radar or by colour photography. However, the real benefit of experimentation through remote sensing techniques lies in the use of different instruments and in comparing and correlating the results. Remote sensing can be an identification technique, since the computer can be programmed to search for distinctive signatures or for the energy emitted by a site or for known features in areas where such research was not employed. Such signatures are useful for the recognition of features or patterns. Features such as: elevation, distance from water sources, distance between sites or settlements, transportation corridors and routes can be used to predict the locations of potential archaeological sites. The study is based both on the analysis of satellite images and on the analysis of air photographs, in the perimeter of the Timi County, using as case study the circular fortifications identified through this method, belonging to several historical eras, that have not been previously published. Our study presents the methods and techniques for processing the images acquired, and the subsequent field identification and survey using the total station. The features of these circular archaeological sites are emphasized, their fortification system, and other geomorphologic markers that can be useful for a non-invasive archaeological analysis, as part of a more complex study of landscape archaeology.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

19

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

Fig. 1. Corneti - circular fortifications.

USE OF GIS TECHNIQUES AND TOPOGRAPHIC INSTRUMENTS TO MONITOR THE GEOMORPHOLOGIC PROCESSES AFFECTING ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
Gheorghe ROMANESCU
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of Geography and Geology, ARHEOINVEST Platform

Key words: GIS, topographic instruments, ravine, Cucuteni village.

Even though the active geomorphological processes taking place in Romania are closely monitored by specific institutions, the equipment used is, unfortunately, often inadequate, and this leads to substandard results. The most intense processes are furrowing and landfalls. These often occur in areas with an argillaceous substrate and on surfaces lacking forest vegetation. In this category we can include the Moldavian Plateau and the Transylvanian Depression. By using the GIS techniques and modern topographic instruments, many of the answers expected from dynamic geomorphology will be accurate, and the data bank will be much

20

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

improved. For the morphologic analysis and the dynamic of versant geomorphologic processes, a wide array of modern methods and techniques was used, but they were not always rigorous. In most of the studies, rudimentary and dated methods were used, which were based on wood or metal markers. In order to accurately monitor the current geomorphologic processes, we need to make use of satellite imagery analysis, aerial photographs, electronic equipment, etc. Among the most accurate topographic instruments used to monitor these processes, we mention the following: the Leica 3D Scanner and the Leica Total Station. They were successfully tested by monitoring the ravine from Cucuteni (Iai county). Three years of geomorphological processes measurement allowed for the elaboration of models for tracking the ravines advancement, on for predicting further developments. The elaborated maps constitute the basis for the accurate interpretation of processes that are being increasingly observed.

Fig. 1. Map elaborated according to the data obtained from the 3D scan of the Biceni-Cucuteni ravine, 2010.

IDENTITY IN DIVERSITY. PHOTOGRAMMETRY, 3D LASER SCANNING AND MAGNETOMETRIC ANALYSIS ON GUMELNIA TELLS OF MUNTENIA (ROMANIA)
Ctlin BEM1, Andrei ASNDULESEI2, Carmen BEM3, Bogdan VENEDICT2, Cristi NICU2, Vasile COTIUG2, Ctlin NICOLAE1, Eugen PARASCHIV1
2

National History Museum of Romania, Bucharest Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Department of Science, ARHEOINVEST Platform 3 Institute for Cultural Memory, Bucharest

Key words: Chalcolithic, Gumelnia tell, aerophotogrammetrry, 3D laser scanning, magnetometry, internal structure, delimitation ditches.

We first needed to sketch out a model of unintrusive investigation of Gumelnia tells. Archaeology, on its own, with its destructive character, inherently affects the tells, during the carrying out of the investigation, as well as after the diggings. This generally takes place from natural causes and, more commonly in Romania, from anthropic causes.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

21

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

After more than 100 years of archaeological studies, it is still difficult to properly characterize the complexity of the GumelniaKaranovo VI phenomenon. The study concentrated on tells man-made knolls created by a long and successive habitation of the same location. They are considered the most important habitations of the Gumelnia communities, for more than five hundred years (ca. 4550-3900 BC). Without a coherent strategy for investigating this phenomenon, the studies, carried out according to strict deadlines, were directed especially to the discovery of burnt habitation remains very rich in their archaeological inventory. The internal structure, the landscape, the immediate link of the tell with its geomorphological bases were often unquantified. Consequently, our study was also based on a characterization of these elements. In the beginning, we stressed some different aspects of the comparison between different tells. The pluristratified stations from Stoeneti - Mgura Tangru, Bucani-Pod and Udupu are differentiated by their location, foundation, dimensions, actual landscape, type of previous study, and also by the grade of contemporary anthropic degradation. Thus, the Stoeneti tell is located on an extension of the terrace of the Clnitea brook. Those from Bucani and Udupu developed on low spits from the narrow meadow of Neajlov and from the large meadow of Teleorman. The tell from Stoeneti dominates the meadow from its height of eleven metres, while the tell from Bucani is, at first sight, of not more than 2.8 m in height from the actual level of the meadow. The Udupu tell has a maximum height of 3.7 m, and its surfaces are in direct proportion to these values. The tell from Stoeneti was studied in the 1930s and at the end of the 1950s. The Bucani tell has been systematically investigated since 1998. The tell from Udupu has not been studied so far. The tell from Stoeneti is relatively isolated from the actual settlement. Only seasonal sheepfolds neighbour it. The Bucani tell is close to the actual village, while the one from Udupu is far from any actual anthropic intervention. Their degree of conservation is directly linked to the impact of contemporary anthropic factors. A conjugated analysis of aero-photometrical data (Fig. 1-2), 3D scanning (Fig. 4) and magnetometry (removing, when possible, the perturbations created by the daily variations of the Earths magnetic field and the background noise produced by the existence of some massive geological formations) (Fig. 3), proved that the three tells which are so different today have a similar internal structure. All of them have at least one bounding ditch at the basis of the actual hill, to their exterior (including the small tell adjoining the base of the larger Stoeneti tell). The maximum stratigraphic amplitude is between 3.2 and 4.5 m. The effective habitation area concentrates on the surface, and is rectangularly delimited by the ditch(es) of some palisade(s), and is superposed by the first-level curves of the raised-relief topographic maps. In the tell from Bucani Pod (Fig. 5), archaeological investigations confirmed the magnetometric maps obtained in three different sessions. The stratigraphy of the tell from Bucani-Pod includes three important moments of Gumelnia habitation. They are separated by alluvial sediments or by periods of abandonment marked by important pluvial activity. There are two categories of boundary delimitation works: 1. wide ditches, dug on a quasi-circular contour and left opened, with the excavated sediments deposited along one of the sides, creating a structure which might be described as a dam. They each belong to the Gumelnia A1 (N3) level, around 4400 BC and to the Gumelnia B1 (N1) level, around 3900 BC; 2 narrow and deep ditches, dug on a generally rectangular contour. They are the foundation of some fences, filled shortly after the digging, and, from a stratigraphic point of view, belonging to the Gumelnia B1 (N1) level, or from around 3900 BC. As most of them were dug in anthropic sediments and were covered shortly after that, their identification on the magnetometric maps is quite difficult. They are often mistaken fo the effective remains of the habitation burnt dwellings, fireplaces, ovens, etc. It is noteworthy that the same way of boundary delimitation at least the one using exterior

22

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

ditches also appeared at the dawn of the Gumelnia civilization (around 4500-4400 BC) and at its end (around 3900 BC). We also have to stress the fact that in the case of the large tell from Stoeneti - Mgura Tangru, the exterior ditch was dug at the base of the terrace on which the first inhabitants settled, on a level which is around 6 m lower than the place where the first buildings were raised. Obviously, any defensive scenario is out of the question at this moment. We should also mention the fact that all the ditches were dug before the stratigraphic development of the tells. In the case of the ditches acting as foundations for palisades or fences, the space enclosed by the resulting perimeter was subsequently occupied by constructions totally (as it appears to have happened at Udupu) or partially (as it is the case of the tell from Bucani). This may well have been one of the causes for the proliferation of Gumelnia tells. Since most of them were small in size, it would appear that the settlements initial limits forbade horizontal expansion and development. Over time, this caused repeated and extensive swarmings of some parts of the communities, which will found new settlements where the same pattern was applied and manifested itself.

Fig. 1. Stoeneti - Mgura Tangru. Air photo.

Fig. 2. Stoeneti - Mgura Tangru. Aerial photo with change of the RGB for make the anomalies more visible.

Fig. 3. Magnetometric map of the Udupu tell.

Fig. 4. Udupu tell. Elements of the 3D laser scanning.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

23

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

Fig. 5. Bucani - Pod tell. The reconstruction of the separation ditches or the tracks and foundation ditches for the palisades (the red, blue and green parts were researched during the archaeological dig, while the dark grey parts correspond to the magnetometric information; the red contours show the position of the buildings at the upper level).

THE KOMARIV COMMUNITY FROM ADNCATA. THE EVALUATION OF THE HABITATION CONDITIONS
Vasile BUDUI1, Bogdan-Petru NICULIC2
1

tefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Faculty of History and Geography 2 Bukovina Museum, Suceava

Keywords: Adncata, tumulus necropolis, Komariv culture, habitation conditions, GIS .

In the period from 2000 to 2005, systematic archaeological excavations were carried out in the tumular necropolis from Adncata (Suceava county). Since we were dealing with the only Komariv necropolis from Romania which has been thoroughly investigated, a special attention was paid to an interdisciplinary approach that sought to identify the landscape features with potential for human habitation. To this end, we proceeded with the geographical analysis of the region, using the following sources: topographical maps and layouts, orthophotomaps and field work. To acquire the sites features, we made use the ArcGIS 9.2 geographical information system, which allowed us to analyse the spatial distribution of the geomorphometric parameters

24

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

(altitude, slope, aspect) and to compile the solar radiation factor, as well as to create a series of topographical profiles of the Adncata site. The investigated region has the general appearance of a plateau, slightly fragmented by a hydrographic network composed of one or two HortonStrahler ranges, which enhanced the habitation potential by flanking the settlement with two confluent creeks, Porcul and Grigoreti. The pedological investigations revealed that the forest once spread across the entire field, and also brought forth the soil profiles forest morphology, that is, the presence of the Bt horizon (clay illuviation). The quasi-horizontal surface with a slight southern exposure, as well as with easy access to water, food and wood resources, favoured habitation of the area.

SETTLEMENT DYNAMICS DURING LATER PREHISTORY IN MOLDAVIA (ROMANIA). LAST RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES
Robin BRIGAND1, Olivier WELLER2
2 1 Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR 6249, Besanon CNRS-Universits Paris 1 Panthon-Sorbonne et Paris 10-Nanterre, Laboratoire Archologies et Sciences de l'Antiquit Protohistoire europenne, UMR 7041, Paris

Keywords: Moldavia, natural resources, salt, settlement pattern, Neolithic, Chalcolithic.

The paper aims to extend a collective research initiated by the French-Romanian projects dedicated to investigating the impact of salt springs in Moldavia (Romania) on the Neolithic and Eneolithic settlement patterns, land use and landscape perception during the Late Prehistory. The main objective of these successive programs, dealing with archaeology, ethnology, paleoenvironmental reconstruction and geomatics, was to examine how and why salt resources were controlled and structured in the Eastern Carpathians piedmont, more specifically in its central part (Neam county). This presentation plans to expand the issues addressed by the previous research, in terms of spatial dimensions and thematic scope. The first goal was to explore, with reference to the natural resources and the available archaeological databases on settlement patterns, the Romanian north-eastern territories organization and their dynamics. Taking into consideration the subsequent results compiled for Neam County, a similar spatial analysis methodology was used on a regional scale. For each county, an exhaustive archaeological database was built using most recent previous published repertories. The main goal was to obtain, for each prehistoric settlement, different qualitative indicators regarding the precision of the topographic mapping, the nature of settlement and its chronological framework, as well as of the quality and dating of the archaeological material. The second goal was to focus on natural indicators and their relative attractiveness in order to define their relation with the economic development by chronological periods. In order to understand the settlement patterns, population density and diachronic evolution, the obvious objective was to create a model of the evolution pattern of the areas where traces of human occupation and activity are to be found. Aiming to characterize the evolution of the human influence and of the modes of the territorial conquest, we used methods of spatial analysis and spatial information processing, in a Geographic Information System, more specifically the kernel density estimation and viewshed analysis. The final goal was to evaluate how the territories were constituted and to compare their human dynamics.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

25

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IN THE TERRITORY OF HISTRIA


Octavian BOUNEGRU1, Gheorghe ROMANESCU2
2 1 Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of History, ARHEOINVEST Platform Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of Geography and Geology, ARHEOINVEST Platform

Keywords: Histria, hinterland, Greco-Roman time, resources.

In 2007, the research project The Captation Area of the Resources of the Histrian Territory in Greco-Roman Time. An ecochronological Approach from the spatial Perspective of the Histrian Territory, part of the Exploratory Research Projects Program - 2007-2010, was accepted for financing. From an integrative perspective and with methods specific for the interdisciplinary study, the project approaches the Chorothesy, the famous inscription discovered at Histria in 1914. In this exceptionally significant epigraphic document, M. Laberius Maximus, the governor of Moesia, established the boundaries of the Histrian territory on October 25, 100 A.D. The new analysis of this epigraphic document aims at a holistic approach of the issues concerning the spatial organization of the Histrian territory in the Greco-Roman period, as well as the exploitation of the resources in that area. The main objectives of the project were: - to identify the natural resources in the Histrian territory in the Greek and Roman period; - to determine the size of the natural catchment area and to highlight the dynamics of the natural resources exploitation in the Histrian territory from the Greek to the Roman period; - to ascertain the role played by the Histrian natural resources in the implementation of the human habitat; - to accomplish a habitation typology with regard to the functionality of the main categories of settlements on the Histrian territory, from a diachronic perspective. The research has allowed for the identification of 84 ancient settlements, sanctuaries, necropoleis, fortified settlements, farms, and aqueducts on the Histrian territory from the Greek, Hellenistic, Roman, and Roman-Byzantine periods, as well as the vestiges of the ancient Histrian harbour. The following types of resource exploitation sites were identified, registered, and charted: stone quarries, copper and iron mines, traces of iron and clay exploitations, and a few Roman aqueducts that supplied water to the town. The surveys and systematic archaeological research have confirmed the fact that during the Hellenistic and Roman periods the territory of the town chora stretched in the west and south as far as the Calabeus River in Chorothesy, and in north to the Danube Delta. The establishment of the visibility limits of the boundaries of this territory is of particular importance for the debate on the Histrian territory. To the north and west, these limits largely included the real boundaries of the Histrian territory, which explains to a great extent the direct control Histria had over the resources of the area and confirms the biunivocal relation existing in a Greek colony between the town and its hinterland.

26

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY TOMOGRAPHY. METHODOLOGICAL CASE STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES FROM ROMANIA
Clin UTEU
1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba-Iulia, Iuliu Paul Systemic Archaeology Institute

Keywords: archaeogeophysics, Electrical Soil Resistivity Tomography, stratigraphy, method, standards.

Geophysical investigation is increasingly becoming one of the most desired steps to be included in the strategies of the Romanian archaeological projects, either for systematic or salvage archaeology. If the equipment, from a technological point of view, has already been standardised as a consequence of its widespread international use, with refinements only going into improving the quality of the collected data, we cannot say the same when it comes to the field and laboratory methodology. In this respect, we can state that improvements could be made, particularly in regard to the manner in which ERT is integrated into complex archaeological projects. We consider our approach valuable since it is meant to ensure the improvement of the effective quality of the provided ERT services, while also aiming at amending the relationship between ERT specialists and archaeologists, when it comes to establishing a strategy and interpreting and using the data. The soil resistivity method was one of the first geophysical methods to be applied with success in archaeological investigations, since 1946. Although relatively simple, this method has known in recent years many variations and improvements in its usability for archaeological purposes, especially as a result of advancements in technology and software. Of the several available methods, the electrical soil resistivity tomography - ERT (also known as electrical profiling) stands out, and we hereby present few projects that helped us to establish a more adequate methodology for ERT use in archaeological applications. The main presented aspect concerns the usage of a combined method for an optimum characterization of detected anomalies. The addition of a magnetometrical profile with the same coordinates as the ERT survey, and the use of topographical corrections are discussed in relation to the interpretation of the data. To illustrate these aspects, several archaeological projects that were carried out over the past years will be presented (e.g. Sultana - Malu Rou, Apaa - the medieval citadel, Alba Iulia Str. Decebal nr. 8, Drobeta Turnu Severin - Severin medieval citadel, the tumulus burials from Okland, etc.). The paper will also showcase an illustrative project, namely a study on the defensive system of the fortified settlement from Teleac, Alba county. It includes a presentation of the main phases of the survey, as well as of the overall preparation of the project, of the recording strategy, the creation of a report and result dissemination. An attempt to corelate the results with the stratigraphy from the 1980s campaigns will also be presented. Finally, a discussion will be held on the topic of standardized recording of a geophysical survey, with references to well-known European heritage institutions such as English Heritage and the Institute for Field Archaeologists. Several suggestions towards establishing and applying a standard in Romanian practice will be advanced.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

27

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

Fig. 1. Electrical Resistance Tomography - ERT survey at the Medieval citadel of Apaa-Cetate.

THE ANALYSIS OF THE VIEWSHEDS OF THE MEDIEVAL FORTIFICATIONS FROM THE LIPOVA HILLS, N-E BANAT, ROMANIA
Liviu MRUIA1, Dorel MICLE1, Petru HORAK1, Oana BORLEA1, Lavinia BOLCU1
1

West University of Timioara, Faculty of Letters, History and Theology, History Department

Keywords: GIS, visibility area, viewsheds, medieval fortress, historical geography, landscape archaeology.

From a geographical point of view, the Lipova Hills are a morphostructural part of the greater unit of the Western Hills. They constitute clearly individualized geomorphological units through their deposit structure, their location at the base of mountainous areas and through their altitude. From an administrative point of view, this geographical unit is currently part of the following counties: Timi, Arad and Hunedoara. The area has been only slightly explored from an archaeological point of view; thus, between 2006 and 2010 numerous field surveys were carried out as to identify and map new archaeological sites, producing 265 analytic records for diverse archaeological complexes, nine of which are medieval fortifications that constitute the topic of the present study.

28

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

As a whole, our work aimed at identifying, researching, interpreting and integrating some terrain realities into the generic context of historical geography, as a base component of the cultural landscape. The use of modern interdisciplinary investigation methods and techniques gives substance to the validity of such an approach. This type of investigation of geographical micro-units offers complex information that can constitutre the base of detailed, targeted investigations for the future. The present study attempted, above all, to detect the original landscape inhabited by the respective communities, before it was altered during the modern and contemporary ages.

Fig. 1. Aerial map of intervisibility areas of the medieval fortifications.

All the sites identified through systematic archaeological field research were afterwards georeferenced, mapped and GIS-processed. Different geomorphographic factors were analysed, among them the viewsheds (areas of visibility) of these fortifications. This type of analysis (intervisibility) renders a visualization which highlights the areas that are invisible from one or more observation points. These observation positions can be detailes such as pointed objects (points), linear objects (lines) or area objects (polygons). A thematic coverage was produced, whose Z values represent the visibility (often coloured green) or invisibility (often coloured red) and also observation points (often colored blue) and the image is then rendered. The observation points can be set at a specified elevation, and the array of values for the surface can be modified with custom values, for example the height of the trees. The ArcGIS package also contains the HNTRLAND procedure to determine the area dominated by one or more vantage points, and the VIEWSHED procedure for determining the cells visible from one or more points. The results are very interesting, particularly when we discuss the issue of fortification system or when we attempt to determine the area of authority for a fortified point (cf. the dispute on centre and periphery).

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

29

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

FROM SHOVEL TO NON-INVASIVE SCIENCES. INVESTIGATING A BRONZE AGE SITE IN WESTERN MOLDAVIA
Neculai BOLOHAN1, Andrei ASNDULESEI2, Felix-Adrian TENCARIU2, Silviu GANIA2, Cristi NICU2, Vlad RUMEGA1
2 1 Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of History, ARHEOINVEST Platform Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Department of Science, ARHEOINVEST Platform

Keywords: Early/Middle Bronze Age, settlements, multidisciplinary approach.

The Early and Middle Bronze Age in the area located east of the Carpathians was investigated mainly by pottery found in a cluster of settlements and funerary findings. Coherent ideas about life, relationships of these communities and the landscape are less rather inconsistent, as is clear from the material published until recently. This contribution is setted on my observations from the field and on the contribution of a young and training team from the Arheoinvest Platform. I have paid particular attention to previous research on the type and structure of these kind of discoveries dating from the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age in the area of study and I tried to revaluate my own researches on the archaeological site of Silitea, Romni commune, Neam county. To expand and diversify the observations, in 2008 I turned to non-invasive investigations techniques in Archaeology (mapping, geomagnetic researches, and radiocarbon analyses). On this occasion, I will attempt a brief review, which will illustrate the current archaeological research avatars, a rocky path from the archaeological shovel up to the multidisciplinary approach.

MAGNETOMETRIC PROSPECTIONS IN THE THRACO-GETAE FORTRESS FROM SAHARNA MARE, REZINA DISTRICT, REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA
Ion NICULI1, Vasile COTIUG2, Aurel ZANOCI1, Andrei ASNDULESEI3, Gheorghe ROMANESCU4, Felix-Adrian TENCARIU3, Bogdan VENEDICT3, tefan CALINIUC2, Radu BALAUR3, Cristi NICU3
State University of Moldova, Chiinu Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of History, ARHEOINVEST Platform 3 Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Department of Science, ARHEOINVEST Platform 4 Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of Geography and Geology, ARHEOINVEST Platform
2 1

Keywords: Saharna Mare, Thraco-Getae, fortress, magnetometric prospections.

The rocky hill from Saharna Mare, situated at 1 km south-west of the current Saharna village, constitutes the high terrace of the Dniesters right bank, with lofty and steep flanks on its northern, eastern and south-eastern sides. With a surface area of ca. 12 ha, the hill has witnessed human habitation since the end of the 2nd millennium BC. A semi-oval stronghold measuring 60x64 m and dated to the 10 th-8th century BC, has been archaeologically attested at this location. The fortifications southern boundary is marked by the interfluves steep hillslope, while the eastern, northern and western ones by a man-made defensive work composed of a palisade (a wall of two rows of timber, with the gap between them filled with clay and rocks) and a ditch adjoining to the front.

30

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

Towards the 8th-6th century BC, the inhabited area from Saharna Mare witnessed a considerable widening when it expanded to the central and north-eastern parts of the promontory, forcing the erection of a newer, more complex and sturdy fortification system, that was again rebuild during the 5th-4th century. The defensive system was composed of a wall stretching for ca. 385 m and with a width of ca. 5,6 m, that was built from a wooden case with a core (emplecton) made from a mixture of dirt, sand, gravel and rocks. To the exterior of the south-western side, a ditch, 15 m wide at the top and 6 m at the bottom, was dug parallel to the wall. The defensive potential of the fortress was augmented by three bastion positioned in front of the defensive line, in the central area and on the flanks. During the 2010 campaign, following the partnership signed with the ARHEOINVEST Research Platform from the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, the entire area in question was magnetometrically surveyed, as to trace the path of the fortification works that were archaeologically attested and to identify new archaeological complexes. The resulting magnetometric map highlights the paths of the archaeologically identified fortifications, as well as the existence of other magnetometric anomalies which may represent other various archaeological complexes.

Fig. 1. Saharna Mare - magnetic field map.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

31

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

THE EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE PRE-CUCUTENI-CUCUTENI-TRIPOLYE CULTURAL COMPLEX
Constantin PREOTEASA
History and Archaeology Musem of Piatra-Neam

Keywords: Pre-Cucuteni-Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex, anthropic impact, natural resources, environment.

The present study focuses on the exploitation of natural resources (wood, salt, rocks and metals) by the human communities of the Pre-Cucuteni-Cucuteni-Tripolye cultural complex, while also taking into account the impact of this activity on the environment. Our approach considers the temporary settlements and the extraction points of different raw materials such as salt, clay and flint, built near these sources with the purpose of assuring a more efficient exploitation. We reviewed the different estimates made by specialists accompanied by our observations on the total amount of wood necessary for building, but also for fuel and, implicitly, on the size of the harvested area, for several settlements with a well-known or an approximate number of habitation complexes. At the same time, we emphasized the estimates about the total amount of salt necessary for the human communities from settlements which had demographic estimations, and for their effectives of domestic animals (with conventional average estimates). The study advances several estimates on the size of the harvested areas, the amount of wood necessary for construction and on the salt requirements of some Pre-Cucuteni-CucuteniTripolye communities from settlements with known numbers of dwellings and inhabitants.

PROVENANCE OF NEOLITHIC STONE ARTEFACTS FROM THE BANAT REGION, ROMANIA


Otis CRANDELL1, Florentina MARI2, 3
1

Babe-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology 2 Banat Museum, Timioara 3 "1 Decembrie 1918" University of Alba-Iulia

Keywords: Romania, Banat, raw materials, lithic artefacts, Neolithic.

The objective of the study was to determine the origin of several knapped lithic artefacts at six Late Neolithic sites near Timioara (Romania). To help determine possible sources of the raw materials which were used to produce the artefacts, the artefacts were compared to geological samples of known origin. Rock samples were collected from sources in Cara-Severin and Mehedini counties. In addition to these samples, the artefacts were also compared to rock samples in the Lithotheque of Babes-Bolyai University which came from other locations in Romania. All of the knapped lithic tools (approximately 400) were analysed macroscopically. Some were also thin sectioned for microscopic analysis. The artefacts or the materials used to produce them appear to have come from a variety of sources. The nearest are at least 80 to 100 km away. Some of them appear be over 500 km away. This presentation will look at the artefacts found at the sites and compare them to the

32

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

sources where they likely came from. Finally, we will consider the cultural implications of these discoveries.
Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by CNCSIS-UEFISCSU, PNII-IDEI project Nr. 2241/2008 (Romanian Ministry of Education and Research).

Fig. 1. Overview maps. a: Neolithic sites where the artefacts were found; b: nearest raw materials sources; c: sources of high quality materials further away; d: examples of artefacts.

GEOMORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES WITH IMPACT ON THE ACHAEOLOGICAL SITE FROM HOISETI, IAI COUNTY
Dan LESENCIUC1, Daniel CONDORACHI1, George BODI2
1

Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of Geography and Geology, ARHEOINVEST Platform 2 Institute of Archaeology of Iai

Keywords: archaeological site, Hoiseti, Cucuteni culture, floodplain, river erosion, meandering.

The Hoiseti archaeological site is located on a concave bank of a meander loop in the Bahlui floodplain. From a geomorphological point of view, floodplains are characterized by processes of river erosion, associated with depositing ones. In our case, the modelling agent is the Bahlui River, which displays in the investigated area a riverbed channel that is much meandered and in which processes of bank and in-depth erosion are present. Particularly the bank erosion induces a strong dynamic that triggers frequent horizontal movements. Therefore, these meanders are continuously adjusting to, and influenced by, the banks slope, the riverbeds sediments, the quantity of solid and liquid discharge, the rivers catchment area, land use and

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

33

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

other human activities. Alongside the meanders horizontal movement, a noticeable process is the appearance of microrelief landforms, such as islets and abandoned meanders. The strong meandering process in the Hoiseti area is evidenced by the presence of gooseneck meanders, evolving into self-captured meanders via strangulation. This was caused by the strong erosion of the two opposing curvatures of a loop, until its base is cut-off as a result of the loops downstream migration. As the Bahlui River evolved as part of a normal hydrographical network, at least until the middle of the 20th century when the first hydrotechnical work took place, the meandering process was quite strong, resulting in a shrinkage of the archaeological sites area. After the regularization of the rivers discharge, the lateral erosion of the concave banks was strongly diminished, resulting in significantly reduced rates of meander migration.

MICROMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ANTHROPIC SEQUENCES FROM TELL TYPE SETTLEMENTS IN MUNTENIA
Constantin HAIT
National Museum of Romanian History, National Centere for Pluridisciplinary Researches, Bucharest

Keywords: micromorphology, sedimentary fabric, zone of activity, anthropic activities.

Micromorphological research involves different scales of observation, from the macroscopic analysis in the field, to the stereomicroscope and polarized light microscopy. Microscopic analysis is performed on thin sections of sediment and soil samples taken in their undisturbed and actual orientation, and previously impregnated with synthetic resin. The study is basically an observation of all sedimentary features (texture, structure, porosity, colour, nature of constituents, homogeneity, and degree of compaction) as to identify and rank the diagnosis features which can be attributed to the main anthropogenic, sedimentary and soil forming processes. They correspond to the interaction of the three main categories of processes that create sedimentary deposits in the archaeological context: accumulation, transformation and redistribution. Sedimentary strata from tell type settlements in Muntenia are characterized by a fine and complex stratigraphy and an excellent degree of conservation of mineral and organic constituents and other sedimentary features. The analysis of such anthropogenic deposits from the composition of the studied archaeological structures or from areas located outside, allows the interpretation of sedimentary fabrics (considered as the total organisation of the units) in terms of human activities and associated environmental conditions, as the influence of their action since the accumulation until present. The main types of identified sedimentary units are: - units of construction attributed to different materials prepared for the construction or fitting out of anthropogenic structures; - accumulation units formed in the interior of dwelling structures, in waste or transit areas; - units of transformation under the influence of anthropogenic or natural agents; - natural units formed under the action of physical-chemical and pedological agents. The interpretation of these sedimentary units in the micro-stratigraphic context enables both the understanding of human activity and the main stages in the sites evolution.

34

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

USING GIS IN THE ANALYSIS OF CUCUTENI SETTLEMENTS CULTURE, IN THE EASTERN CARPATHIANS
Elena DELEANU, Dan CRMID
Mihai Bcescu Technical College of Flticeni

Keywords: GIS, Cucuteni culture, salt exploitation, Thyssen polygons.

Geographic Information System (GIS) has become a tool with multiple uses in archaeology, GIS equipment and software being capable of delivering complex geographical information. Thus, mapping information can be used in visualizing, managing and analyzing data obtained from archaeological investigations of a particular site or of a wider area. At the same time, it presents the opportunity to augment the geographical info or other various data we have on a settlement or a grave field. Our analysis was based on this technology, and was individually applied to some Cucutenian settlements whose exact locations (GPS coordinates) are known from previous archaeological investigations. Likewise, data from previous interdisciplinary research of the paleo-ecosystem (palynological and archaeozoological investigations), and from research which inferred the sites functions (exploitation of renewable raw materials, tool production, etc.) was used. We analyzed the settlements from Preuteti-Halt, Preuteti-Cetate, Hbeti, all belonging to the A phase of the Cucuteni culture, in regard to the exploitation of salt during the Neolithic. The analysis can generate, detail or complete geographical interpretations of a site, in terms of 3D mapping, topographical reality, surface orientation in relation to the Sun, hypsometric map, etc. The generated maps are then processed according to a complex sitecatchment algorithm, focusing on the sites subsistence area (5 km radius-wide in the case of agricultural settlements) and the adjoining ecosystem (reconstructed from paleobotanical and archaeozoological data, soil analysis, presence of raw materials near the site, etc.). We then further attempt to determine the settlements boundaries, to this point arbitrarily fixed by archaeologists, by taking into account the size and the importance of the archaeological discoveries, and by dividing the area according to the Thyssen polygons model. This information is then correlated with the available archaeological data, as to allow a social interpretation of the settlement in question, that is, to determine the area of control and influence of a main central settlement over the rest from inside the polygon.

THE SPREAD OF THRACO-GETAE SITES IN THE MIDDLE DNIESTER BASIN


Aurel ZANOCI, Mihail B
State University of Moldova, Chiinu

Keywords: fortifications, civil settlements, spatial arrangement, the Thraco-Getae.

In the 6th - 3rd centuries BC, the area east of the Carpathians was inhabited for the most part by Thraco-Getae communities. Their traces are attested by several archaeological sites, particularly by civilian settlements (over 400 in number) and fortifications (about 113). In terms of topography, we notice that the settlements were not scattered, but concentrated in clusters

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

35

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

comprised of several fortifications and many open settlements. Currently, ten such clusters were identified in the above-mentioned territory. They are usually concentrated in river basins (Dniester, Prut, Rut, etc.) or at the border between the steppe and the forest-steppe. One such case is to be found in the Middle Dniester basin, where 27 fortifications and about 54 civil settlements were mapped (Map 1). At this moment, this seems to be the largest concentration of sites not only in the Dniester basin, but also throughout the whole area inhabited by the Thraco-Getae. The monuments are located along the banks of Dniester, both on its right and left sides, in the area between the localities of Vertiujeni (47 59' 36" North, 28 32' 24" East) in the Floreti District, and ipova (47 36' 18" North, 28 58' 46" East) in the Rezina District. If on the left bank the sites are concentrated close to the river, on the right side they are spread over a distance of up to 18 km west of the river.

Map 1. Spreading of Thraco-Gatae sites in the Middle Dniester basin.

36

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

Concerning this cluster, our attention is drawn to the manner in which the fortifications were positioned. They are arranged in three defensive lines. Thus, the first one, composed of four bulwarked facilities (Racov, Caterinovca, Stroieti and Ofatini), is located on the left bank of the river and close to the water. The second is on the right bank, also near the water, and consists of ten fortifications (Vertiujeni, Japca, Curatura, Rezina, Saharna-Revichin, Saharna Mic, Saharna Mare, Saharna-La an, Saharna-Hulboaca and Buciuca). After mapping, it became apparent that the fortifications which constitute this line of defence were placed on elevated positions dominating the long, narrow lowlands which connected the riverbed with the lands to the west. The third line of defense, consisting of 13 fortifications (Cunicea, Alcedar, Glinjeni-La an, ahnui, Mateui, etc.), was situated at a distance of several kilometres from the Dniester. Most fortresses are found in the basins of the Ciorna River or of other brooks, all right-bank tributaries of the Dniester. Open settlements are located around the fortifications, at a distance of about 0,1 to 1,5 km from the fortified centres. We can also observe a preference for establishing civilian settlements near water sources (the Dniester, Ciorna, Coglnic, etc. rivers). Among the clusters of the Middle Dniester region, some smaller nests consisting of one to three fortifications (e.g. Saharna Mare, Saharna Mic, Saharna-La an) and several other civilian settlements, are observed. As a result of archaeological investigations conducted in a series of fortifications, it was determined that they were permanently inhabited, as attested by the remains of dwellings, ancillary buildings, sewage pits and a fairly rich and diverse archaeological inventory. At the same time, the fortresses could serve as a refuge for communities living in nearby civil settlements. This is attested, for example, at Saharna-La an, where there was a permanently inhabited small stronghold (17560 m) with a larger adjoining enclosure (307254 m) that is practically devoid of traces of habitation. Nonetheless, three open settlements were identified in the fortress environ, and, in case of necessity, the population could take refuge in the large accommodation. Thus, it can be inferred that the small nests represented the living space of a tribal community, and that the clusters of sites, which spreads over an area of about 600 km, can be attributed to a major Thraco-Getae polity from the Middle Dniester region.

URTIM 2009 - AN ORIGINAL PROCEDURE TO ANALYZE SATELLITE IMAGES IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH


Timotei URSU
Salamandra Communication, New York

Keywords: Google Earth Pro, Dacian Sanctuaries, URTIM 2009, satellite image.

Regular satellite-images provided by dedicated software such as Google Earth Pro are analysed using an original technique that permits pertinent results even from images with low quality. The usefulness of the procedure, which produces quality data to be used in archaeological work, was exemplified, for example, by its employment in the investigation of several archaeological sites from Romania, specifically of the Dacian sanctuaries from the Ortie Mountains, in the Southern Carpathians. An explanation of the technique follows. In batches of satellite images, with a focus range between 8 to 30 m from the soil, an intensive colour oversaturation was performed. Then, using the filters for night and day (UV and IR), the computer screen becomes a special sensor

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

37

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

which can reveal more than the limited data offered by the satellites sensors that capture information in the form of visible radiation (i.e. the spectrum of visible light reflected by Earths surface). The URTIM 2009 method produces new images on the basis of UV electromagnetic radiation (with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light) and IR radiation (with a wavelength of 0.7-300 micrometres). These wavelengths from the spectrum of sunlight, reflected by de Earths surface, will reveal traces of past human activities (structures, roads, diggings, pits) that are buried at a depth between 0.50 - 2.50 m, while at the same time ignoring some surface structures. The effect is due to the differences present in the texture of the soil, and due to the fact that all ground structures and features (soil, rocks, bottom of lakes, etc.) have distinct temperatures which will be registered as a different colour-radiation. URTIM 2009 can not differentiate between old and recent human traces, but it can offer archaeologists a useful image of the underground reality, in quadrilaterals areas (ranging from 5 x 2.7 m to 40 x 22 m). Basically, the URTIM 2009 method uses image visualisation software, translating the results to other programs for the best resolution and clarity of the pictures.

Fig. 1. The old sanctuary made of calcar from Sarmizegetusa.

TOPOGRAPHY IN SUPPORT OF ARCHAEOLOGY AT ROMULA


Lucian AMON
University of Craiova, Faculty of Social Sciences

Keywords: Romula, fortification, topographic plan, Ghi Mnstiriceanu.

Romula (Reca - Dobrosloveni village, Olt County) was an important urban centre of the Roman province of Dacia. According to some researchers it was the capital of Dacia Malvensis. A controversial issue concerns the location of the two Roman camps, reported and outlined at the end of the 17th century by L.F. Marsigli as existing in the eastern part of the town, but which have not yet been archaeologically identified (Fig. 1/a). Since an archaeological investigation is currently very difficult to be carried, due to the fact that area was almost entirely superposed by modern constructions, the use of a little-known topographic plan turns out to be, at the moment, the only method applicable. We are referring to the plan of the Reca estate, developed by cadastral engineer Mnstiriceanu Ghi in 1840 (Fig. 1/b). On its basis we put

38

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

forward an original location in the south-eastern part of the village for one of the fortifications, in an area which has not been sufficiently researched from archaeological point of view. The Roman camp seems to be of a rectangular, almost square, shape, with its sides measuring 161.40 x 144.30 m, and is located at a distance of about 407 m from the so-called city centres fortress. This fortification was the only one identified and investigated by archaeological excavations. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm this hypothesis.

a b Fig. 1. The location of the fortifications from Romula in Marsiglis layout (a) and the topographical survey made by G. Mnstiriceanu (b).

UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGY RESEARCH IN MAZOTOS (CYPRUS), STYRA AND MODI (GREECE). PROSPECTION AND CONSERVATION METHODS
Ana-Maria BUIL
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of History, ARHEOINVEST Platform

Keywords: Underwater archaeology, prospection methods, conservation methods.

Underwater archaeology has already completed almost half a century of systematic fieldwork around the Mediterranean. Since 1960, our knowledge of the ancient trade, searoutes, navigation and shipbuilding has been significantly enriched especially as a result of the excavation of wrecks dated to different historical periods. For the Romanian Black Sea coast, connections with Mediterranean island or its mainland suggest maritime activity. Land discoveries and historical sources have proved the intense seaborne trade, in which the cities along the coast where involved throughout history. The task of this presentation is the description of three different models of underwater projects carried out in Cyprus and Greece, which can be implemented accordingly to the surveys or excavations of the underwater sites along the Romanian Black Sea shoreline.

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

39

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

POSTERS

FUNERARY SPACE AND MORTUARY PRACTICES IN THE ALBA-IULIA - LUMEA NOUA SITE. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS
Mihai GLIGOR1, Marius BREAZU2, Tudor BORAN3
1

1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba-Iulia, Department of History, Arheology and Museology 2 Roia Montan Gold Corporation, Department of Environment, Roia Montan 3 1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba-Iulia, Faculty of Science

Keywords: Neolithic, Eneolithic, funerary space, mortuary practices, 3D modeling and reconstruction, geospatial analysis.

The Lumea Nou site is located in the northeastern area of Alba Iulia, on the second terrace of the Mure River, in its middle flow section. Several archaeological campaigns have been conducted here between 1942 and 1947, 1961 and 1963, 1976, 1995 and 1996, 2002 and 2008. Human habitation from the Middle Neolithic to the Late Eneolithic has been archaeologically documented. The findings belong to the Vina, Lumea Nou, Foeni, Petreti and Coofeni cultural groups and the archaeological cultures. Last year's research has shown that the most intense habitation belongs to Foeni communities, to whom we also assign one of the remarkable discoveries made during the 20032005 campaign, i.e. the funerary complex displaying some particular mortuary practices. The human remains, mostly skulls, of ca. 100 people have been unearthed and investigated. Some of the skulls presented round-shaped clogging fractures. The human skeletal remains were not found in anatomical connection. The anthropological analysis confirmed the presence child and adult female and male remains. The archaeological context did not contain traces of violent actions. The AMS dates offer a timeframe between 4600 and 4500 calBC, therefore from the advanced period of the evolution of the Foeni cultural group, a moment which coincides with the beginning of the Eneolithic in Transylvania. The Lumea Nou site suggests a habitation protected by fortifications. The defensive system, consisting of three ditches built by the Foeni communities, suggests the existence of a circular-concentric plan for the settlement. In past years, 3D modelling and reconstruction has been increasingly used to presenting and capitalising from the results of archaeological research. From the reconstruction of the habitat or of artefacts, to spatial analysis, 3D modelling has become an indispensable tool in archaeological research. The scope of this paper is to analyse the funerary discoveries from Lumea Nou, from the spatial topo-archaeological and 3D modelling perspective, mainly using the following methods: (1) the archaeological analysis of the geomorphology of the area, using cartographic and topographic information; (2) the analysis of the spatial distribution of the funerary discoveries, by compiling the topographic plan. The resulting geospatial image offers us some relevant conclusions: the investigated funerary space is located approximately in the middle of the site; no definite correlation between the distribution of the archaeological complexes and the funerary discoveries can be made; there is evidence of unusual funerary practices, gathered from the topographical data, the horizontal and vertical stratigraphy, and the anthropological analyses; by looking at the shape and track of the ditches, it is possible that the purpose of the discovered fortification was to

40

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

delineate and protect the funerary space; 3D model allows the reconstitution of the sites geomorphological features, such as an old riverbed.
Acknowledgement. This work was made possible through the financial support of the Sectorial Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, co-financed by the European Social Fund, under project number POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61104 with the title Social sciences and humanities in the context of global development - development and implementation of postdoctoral research .

THE EFFECTS OF GEOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS ON PATRIMONIAL WORKS FROM IAI RPA GALBEN
Mihai BRNZIL1, Dumitru BULGARIU1,3, Ion SANDU2
1

Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Department of Geology 2 Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iai, ARHEOINVEST Platform 3 Romanian Academy - Iai Branch, Collective of Geography

Keywords: Rpa Galben Ensemble of Iai, degradation, geological and anthropogenic factors.

The Rpa Galben Ensemble historical monument, built in 1898-1900, has a special historical, architectural and practical importance for the Iai municipality. Regular consolidation and restoration works have only temporary limited the development and expansion of new and previous degradation processes which continuously affect the ensemble. The studies performed between 2005 and 2010 aimed to identify the main causes and dynamics of the degradation processes, and to estimate the combined effects that geological and anthropogenic factors have on the monument. The research methodology included: (i) field studies and investigations; (ii) chemical and physical-chemical analysis (IR spectrometry, differential thermal analysis, optical microscopy) performed on the building materials (different types of sandstones and calcareous stones) and the binder used for consolidation, salts deposits and some weathering products of the building materials, pluvial water from the parcel system on top and at the bottom of the ensemble; (iii) theoretical and experimental modelling of physical-chemical weathering processes of the building materials (sandstones and calcareous). The results of the studies show the following: (i) the degradation processes, macroscopically visible, affect the structure and aesthetic qualities of the monument in different manners: the deterioration (cracking, grinding) of the stonewall, salt depositing in the cracks of the wall, the building material and binder are corroded, etc.; (ii) depending on the manner of evolution and the effects they produce, two types of weathering processes of building materials can be differentiated: (a) processes with slow, continuous evolution probably caused by the groundwater, the slow flow phenomena of waves, the stuffing materials behind the walls, the active surface subsidence, etc.; (b) processes with cyclic evolution (with a succession of very fast and slow acting steps) probably determined by the infiltration waters (from the city network and the sewerage system), pluvial waters, exposure to various pollutants, etc.; (iii) geological context of the perimeter favoured the apparition and the evolution of degradation processes geological formations in this area belong to the Sarmatian (bluish ash clay) and to the Quaternary (dusty diluvia clay); (iv) the use of different types of building materials accelerated the evolution of the degradation process the most intense weathering processes have been

GEOARCHAEOLOGY

41

FIRST ARHEOINVEST CONGRESS


Interdisciplinary Research in Archeology
IAI th th 10 -11 JUNE 2011 http://arheoinvestcongress.uaic.ro

observed at the area of contact between different types of sandstones and limestones that were used in the previous consolidations works. The results of the experimental studies and the field investigations provide important information for the future consolidation and restoration works of the Rpa Galben Ensemble.

42

GEOARCHAEOLOGY