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Language tft

Grammar gl

Here's a list of some common words and phrases we use to talk about grammar.
Adjectives describe people, things, events, etc: He's very ambitious. I was frightened.This movie's exciting. Adverbs say when, how or how often something happens: He played soccer yesterday. She's speaking slowly.We always go shopping on the weekend.

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This language reference book contains

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expressions you have studied and

Articlesarethewordsa,anandthe.Alan istheindefinitearticleithe isthedefinitearticle.Zero article is when we do not use an article in front of nouns. Collocations refer to words that often occur together: commt a crime, do homework, heavy traffic. Compound nouns are words made of two or more nouns joined together: stoplight,trafficiam,
billboard. Contractions are short verb forms: |m, we're,
was

y'oi'i'','*noror ttu

dentb Book.

n't, it's.

,,I{iow :to,',i.rt,h.,

Language Lft

The infinitive is the main form of a verb usually used She expects me to do my homework every night.

with to: l've decided to get a better iob.

There are three main ways to use this book: Read it after class and review allthe language that you studied in the lesson. . Study it during class to give you a better understanding of the lesson's grammar focus.

Modalverbsexpresspossibilityandgivingadvice: She couldn'tswimwhenshewasfive.Youdon't need to take an umbrella.We must hurry. lt might rain tomorrow.
Nouns refer to people,
a

nima ls

nd objects: teacher, cat, book, water.

Objects are nouns or pronouns. They usually come after the verb and tell us who or what is affected by the verb: They bought o house. She opened the door. I like him.
Prefixes go before a word root to give the word a new meaning: overcooked,supermarket, underdeveloped.

Use the vocabulary and useful expressions when you need

them in real-life

Prepositions a re words such as in, on, above, below.f hey usua lly come before a nou n or pronou n: We live in London.The bookstore is above the phone store.

Page

Page Unit 09 Unit ro Unit 11 Unit rz Unit r3 Unit r4 Unit r5 Unit 16


lrregular verbs Pronunciation chart
24
27

4 7 9 12 15 18 zo 22

29
31

Pronouns are words we use instead of nouns.There are different types of pronouns: Subject pronouns, such as l,you,they;Objecf pronouns, such as me, him,them; Possessive pronouns, such as mine, yours, hers; Re lative pronou ns, s uch as where, who, whose; Reflexive pronou ns, such a s myself ,yourself . Subjects are nouns or pronouns. They usually come before the verb and refer to the main person or thing of the sentence:Ashley loves listening to music. My mother is a doctor. Mango trees grow in
Mexico. Tenses are different forms of the verb used to express different times: Present tenses talk about time now: l'm busy at the moment. She's talking to herfriend.

34 36 39
41

There is no future tense in English-we use different verb forms to talk about the future: Children will learn by computer in the future. I'm going to vist lndia next summer. She's playing tennis tomorrow.

Pasttensestalkaboutthepast:lsawyouintheparkyesterday.l'vebeenscubadivingthreetimes.
used to live in Paris. He was driving home when his car broke down. Verbs are words like to ask,to play,to be,to have,to cook.Ihey usually describe actions or states.

43

44

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Spelling of -ing forms


Present simple
o We use the present simple to talk about: Things that are generally true or facts: -fuu LLve Lw a bLa houseI dow't hqve a gardew. Habits and routines: t ge to work, at e every dag.
t+ow oftew do gor.t gp swLvwvwLwgz

. . . . .

For most verbs, we add -ing:

clean
watch

+ *

cleaning

watching

that end in -e, we omit the e before adding -ing: driving (not driveing) moving (not moveing) move * For verbs that end in -le, we change the ie toy: dying (not dieing) die * lying (not lieing) lie * For short verbs that end in one vowel + one consonant, we double the consonant: getting get run * running For verbs that end in one vowel +y or w, we add -ing:

drive -+

For verbs

Snow

play * +

playing

snowing

. .

without to. To make questions, we use do/does + subject + infinitive without to. For regular verbs, add -s to the infinitive for the third person singular form: t Lau the dntt*s. ) lleLausthe drwv,*s.
To make negative sentences, we use do/does + not + infinitive

Present contnuous for future time

We use the present continuous to talk about a definite future arrangement or -rheg are. goLwg to a oowoeyt ow
plan. We often say when it

will happen: satwrdag wLght. (They

have tickets for the

Present contnuous
. .

We use the present continuous for actions happening now:

-they're watohLvtg a n*ovLe.

concert.) what aye tot doLwg thLs weebewdi (What are your plans for this weekend?) We also use be going to + infinitive without to for future arrangements: what are Vo& aoLwg to do thLs weekewdt However, the present continuous is

tle's LauLwa the auLtar -r______fjWe form the present continuous with subject + to be (am/is/are) +verb -ing.

more natural.

Time expressons'

.
I

Some verbs are not used in the continuous form: believe,forget, want, like, love, hate, need, prefer, understand, know, remember.

Furniture
armchair bookshelf chest of drawers coffee table curtains
desk

Comparative and superatve adjectives


n
A

ft tt
C

light
plant
rug
sofa

A. ALs svwaLLerthawB. A Ls the stwaLLest.


$zo
F

telephone wastebasket

Verb + noun collocations related to moving house


to to to to
clean the kitchen floor/the walls/the carpets decorate the living room/the bathroom/the bedroom deliver a new sofala ref rigerator/a washing machine

fix the roof/the doorlthe windows to move the furniture/the sofa/the rugs to move in to a new house/place/apartment to organize a fa rewel l/housewa rmin g party

lnvitations
Making an invitation
Would you like to come to my party on Satu rday? Can you come? Accepting

Subject and object questions


r
Declining
Thanks for asking me, but...
Su

bject

verb

object

ld

love

to!

That's really nice of you. That would be great! See you there.

l'm afraid I can't. That's really nice of you, but...

. . . .

)ohw

Aww. We use subject questions to find out about the subject of a sentence: who caLLed Aww? ln subject questions we use who/what + verb + object. We do not use auxiliary verbs or invert the subject and verb: sov,*ethLwg haewed. what haewedt ( what dLd hayewz \ We use object questions to find out about the object of a sentence: who dLd_ohw oaLL? ln object questions we use wholwhat + auxiliary verb + subject + infinitive without
to. We use auxiliary verbs (be, have, do)and we invert the subject and auxiliary verb.

oaLLed

Continents
Africa Anta rctica
Asia Austra lasia Europe

con and could for ability


a a

We use can to talk about present ability. I can do something means "l am able to do it" or "l know how to do it":

I oawLau the awLtar.


We use could to talk about past abllity: -r------f, eLvLs PresLeu oovtLd sLwa veru weLL. va

North America
South America

Geographical features
desert
isla nd

Affirmative

She can ,emember faces

but not names.

jungle
la ke

Can you speak ltalian?

mountaln range
flver
sea

. Can and could are modalverbs.They


.
related to nature
t oaw'tto oowLetotheparty. X

are used with other verbs.They do not have

different forms for the third person. They are followed by the infinitive without to:

vailey volcano

Adjective+noun
exotic plants
ra

col locations

. .
.

)waw oaw u-wderstawd ewgLLsh verg weLL. r'


They are not used with the auxiliaries do/did. To form negatives of modal verbs, we add not:

re species

rocky coastline

\ovc dow't oawLay weLL. We oovtLdwtbeLLeve Lu r'


To

rough seas
sandy beaches thick rain forest

form questions, we invert the modal and the subject.

Talking about ability: be good ot

.
Talking about Iocation
It's It's It's It's It's

To talk about present and past ability, we can use be good at + noun -ing: She's reaLLu aood at n*ath-teu werew't aood at sort whew theu weye at sohooL.

in central... in eastern... in northern... in southern...

Adverbs of degree

. Pretb/, really and very are used before adjectives and adverbs to modify or
emphasize what you are saying. Really and very are stronger than pretty: yeaLLu aood at Frewch whew I wAs uowwa. I was _ U

in western... It's near the border...

It's not (very) far from...


It's on the coast.

tt was retlLu hot Last Swwdau. she was --veYu aood at card trLcks. ln negative statements,we use very:

tte oaw't sLwq verU <

weLL

jr.

la

--t-

tinking words

Extreme adjectives
Alierfve

We can use although at the start of a sentence but not but:

ALthowgh t've stwdLed ewgLLsh for gears, t stLLL oaw't seak Lt verg weLL- ( t oaw't seak. ewgLLsh vert weLL aLthowgh we stwdLed Lt for gears. ( t oaw read ,w ewgLLsh blJ t {t wd LLstewLwg ver dffiowLt. r' t t fvwd LLstewLwg Lw ewgLLsh ven dLffr,owLt, t oaw read Ltre*.g weLL- \

Survey resuts

Shows
a game show a quiz show a spelling bee
a

talent show

Verb + noun collocations related to competitions


to act in a play to enter a competition to have a special talent to play an instrument

to remem ber numbers/lists to tell a joke

10

w:.nitosO

a'
'.,,.t

(ifl1"

(){

''''"tt'

We form the past continuous

with subject + was/were + verb -ing.


you/we/they
At midnight they were dancing in the moonlight.
Her parents weren't waiting up for her when she arrived home.
,

Past simple

gf r"grl"r

. We use the past simple to talk about completed actions or situations in the past We nLoved to ChLoago Lw t93l . For regular verbs, we usually form the past simple by adding -ed, however:
for verbs that end in -e,add -d: move ) moved for two-syllable verbs that end in -y, change the -y to -ied: study + studied for short verbs that end in one vowel + one consonant, double the consonant:

"rd

rr"g,
Affirmative

l/helshe/it
5he was wearing a beautiful

green skirt.

Negative
Question

lt wasn't raining so they went out for a romantic walk.


How tong was he waiting at the restaurant?
Was I laughing too much?

forms

What were you doing last night? Were they watching the movie?

. Some verbs are irregular:


find + found get + got
know knew meet met take + took

stoP

stoPPed

a a

form the negative, we use was/were + not (wasn'tlweren't) + verb -ing. To form questions, we use question word + was/were + subject + verb -ing.
To

Past simple and past continuous

We use the past continuous and the past simple together when we talk about longer action that was interrupted by a shorter action: Awwa was watohLwg Tv whew the yhowe rawg.

tell

told
They watched the soap opera every week.
She

Anna

Affirmative
Negative
O-uestion forms

watchingTV
P:oo

started ---------------

the phone

rang

------------->

didn't want to marry him.

When did he call his ex-girlfriend? Did they want to stay together forever?

while, os and when


a a

To form the negative, we use did + not (didn't) + infinitivg without to. To form questions, we use question word + did + subject + infinitive without fo.

. We use while, as and wnen to connect two actions happening at the same time . While and as go before the past continuous:
were LauLwa footbaLL. he feLL awd, brotze hLs Leg. whLLe theu UIL) t saw Niole as he was LeavLwg the n*ovLes.

Past continuous

. We use the past continuous

to talk about actions in progress in the past:

What weye tot doLwg at Lo testerdar vr*orwLwgt t -----------l# was TLauLwq {ootbaLL (l started at 9:3o and finished at tt:oo.)

. .

When goes before the past simple:


-rher were

fL?AL*g footbaLL whew he feLL awd bro4e hLs Leg. lf you start with while,as or when,you need to use a comma after the first sentence. lf while,as or when are in the middle,you do not have to use a comma: tt stavted to raLw whLLe she was waLtLwg for hLvw. whLLe she was waLtLwg for hLvw, Lt sta*ed to raLw.

t/_

WVW,,,V;

unitoa

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I

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Relationship expressons with gef
to to to to to to to
get along (with someone)

"gi

"

Expressions of quantity: some and ony


We use some in affirmative statements:

get back together (with someone) get divorced (from someone)

get engaged (to someone) get to know someone get married (to someone) get over someone/a problem to get upset (with someone)

l'wc JJI aoLwa to bwu sovwe soa\. We use any in negative statements:

we dow't have awu haLr geL Left.


ln most questions we use any:
ts there

awu vwoLstvtrLzer Lwthe bathyoovw?


son'?e:

Adjectives relatng to appearance


Adjective
attractive overweight
pa le

>o we have awt Loe Lw the fYeezer? For questions to offer things or ask for things, we use caw t have sovwe rLoe? (Asking for something.) wovtLd govt
LLlze sovwe

Antonyrn ugly slim


tan ned

oo{feea (Offering something.)

Expressions of quantty: much; mony and o

lot of

short

tall

Much is used with uncountable nouns.We use muchin questions and negative statements. We do not usually use much in affirmative statements: t drLwtz

q) water. V

t drLwk vw,oh waten

Phrases for
One daylnight,... After a while,...

telling stories
.

Do uotL do vwwoh exeroLse? No,


q

I dow't

have vwvcoh tLvwe.

Describing when things happen

Many is used with countable plural nouns.We use it in allsentences and


uestions:

The following daylmonth,...


A

few moments later,...

t have vwaw! good frLewds. wLAwt) tLn*es do U llow _ uo,.t ao owt Lw a weet?? A lot ofl lots of are used with counta ble and uncou nta ble nouns. We use them in
all statements and questions: >oes he have llg o-f vwowet?

Eventua lly,... Suddenly,...

t waad
Making the story more interesting
To mylher surprise,...

g_W-{eggsto tr*akethLs

oatze.

Amazingly,...
Eventua lly,... Suddenly,...

14

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::.::. -: - aat a' '

unnos

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i

Articles

Beauty and grooming products


Male aftershave shaving cream
Female
ma keu p

moistu rizer

perfume Both deodorant hair gel


razor

shampoo shower gel


soa p

tooth paste

Beauty treatments and facilities


Facilities
,,'ii,'

Treatments

liiii-

facia

gym hair salon steam room

manicure
massaSe

waxing
jacuzzi
Sauna

swimming pool treatment roorh


jacuzzi
sauna

Recommending and responding


Recommending

Responding
I don't think so. l'm not sure about that Ok, why not!

ld

recommend...

Why don't you...? You must try... You should definitely 9o... How about...? 16

That's a good idea.

That sonds Iike fun!

Giving advice

Jobs
factory worker

We use should/shoutdn'tto saythat something is or isn't a good idea:

journalist
nurse

Yow showLd worVzhard.

We showLdw'!4PLto work Late. o We use should + infinitive without to.

taxi driver
teacher

telemarketer

Adjectives and phrases related to work


bright
challenging creative

. .

To

form the negative of should,we add nof: \ow dowt showld teLL gotLr boss. \

fit
good people skills

We showldw't vwLss the vweetLwg ( To form questions, we invert the modal and the subject' use lmperative verb forms can also be used to give advice.To form the imperative, the infinitive form with no subject: ArrLve owtLvwe awd Loolz svua*-

hardworking
responsible

well-organized

Verb phrases related to work


to a pply for a new job to be fired to earn a good salarY to get a raise to resign from a job to start work earlY to take a lunch break to wear a suit

con, conlt, hove to, don't houg !9

Expressing recommendatons

. .

with question forms of modalverbs, invert the modalverb and the subject: caw c.;cstot ,Lers trt+ ow the oLothes?
+ Have to is a normal present simple verb. For question forms, we use do/does to: subject + have to + infinitive without

>oes h have to aet to work earLy'l tow"orrow?

18

.ro

..,.rW'ntt:""':'

,'i,,t

7,,,,,t'

. Some adjectives
fast + fast

are irregular. Common ones are:

need and don't need . We use need to talk about what we require:

early early fte aot _ vt -earLu. She oaw ruw verV <)- fsst. hard - hard
U
aLL

I weed vwore tLn*e to {vwLsh thLs. Yn Wed two teavws of eLevewpLagers to Lag soooer. We use do/does to make the negative and question forms of need: W doesw't weed aw eg4s. -tere are sovwe Lwthe ovtboard. Do uow weed w,"e to heta uovt thLs afterwoow? t<)t

-heu
late
l-+e

work" veru hard.

late

weveY arrLves Late.

lmperatives

.
.

We use imperatives to tell someone to do something:


cowLe herel l+ave

.
.

good + well weLL. theLawo veYu trel|,Laus I I <-)a) Some adjectives already end in -ly:friendly, ugly,lively,lovely, silly.These words do

wLoe tLvwel

sewd

vwe

a ostoard,l

. .
.

We also use imperatives to give instructions: t+eatlhe oLt, add the owLows awd stLr. Dow'tburwthevwt We make imperatives with the infinitive without to. We use don't+ infinitivewithout toforthe negativeform of the imperative.

not have an adverb form. Adverbs of manner usually go after the main verb or after the object of the main verb: l+e waLtzed sLowLu doww the road. she
taL@ed

Adverbs of manner
Adverbs of manner describe how something happens or how somebody does something. They describe or add meaning to verbs:
t+ waLked awLcLu

--.(,

to hLv,* awLetLu.

Verbs related to cooking

: Adverbs of manner
ngrily badly calmly ca refu lly
a

doww the road.

to add

*e waLtzed qr;.Lclr' dowwthe road. stew -------------l oarefwLLu Leaset ( - \ eLstew carefvl.

to boil
to chop !o fry to mix

ca

relessly ickly

Adverbs are formed from adjectives. We usually add -ly:

to pour
to simmer to sti r

noisily
qu qu

Adjective bad t safe I

Adverb badly
safely

i i i

Example
He cooks very badly.

ietly

We arrived safely.

slowly well

. . .

There are also some spelling changes: For adjectives that end in consonant +y,-y changesto -ily: easy + g5ily she dLd the exeroLses easLLU. For adjectives that end in -le, -e changes toy:

[anguage for review writing


Positive comments

terrible terribly l+e sawa terrLbLu. J t

Negative comments
I

that end in -ic,add -ally: + automatic automatically 'the vwaohLwe does the work a,"&ovwatLoaLLu.
For adjectives

---------------

The menu is really varied. I was very impressed by... They were a big success with.., It's a modern and stylish place
l'd recommend...

was slightly concerned about...

didn't particularly like...

They could improve the...


I had one or two reservations about... Another weak point is...

20

W.r'::..:,;':r:,'

unit *z

.
Future plans with going to

We form

willwith subject + will/won't + infinitive without fo.


A:Go]mso:'5.:gto.]th:,movi5i: B:Sure. I'll get my coat.
t::'t':::':r':.',.::"

Affiam,tv:r: ::

We use going to to talk about decisions we have made before speaking: we're goLwgJpwgtthe qaLa?agos tsl.awds. (We have already decided.)

Negtive,:,l,,1

:,

r';,

A.,Wei'dnltl'hv.,n:ilh,:mOn!i.\:t,,:;::.;;,;;',,,:,:::'.;.:,.t.,,;,;,'.:;;,:

wheye aye vtow qoLnq to stav Lw saw FrawcLsoo? (Where have you decided

B:6*g"v,n lt@n.v.$n f !i;!i ,y,r...,,.,


Ouestion frms When will you be ready to go?
,\Alllt.yo,

to stay?) When we use the verbs go and come,we normally use the present continuous
instead of going to:

|nse.thd

phon_eir Bt15,?'.

:,

::1.:1'

6)here are uow aoLna {or uowr vaoatLow? wLth ,,cs. twother Ls oovwLwg My -U <)
To form going to,we use subject + be (am/is/are) + going to + infinitive.
a!;Ai/}iiAi',,:',,,',,,,',,,',,,,'.,:'::,,,'

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fl

Types of vacations and triPs


a

ll-i nclusive vacation backpacking vacations

cru ise

AffirmatiyE:,:,tl6'gg}ng:m.rch,ne,,iO_b:,,hlf,going.,tq,:eI,,hq.t,,:,,:,
,
..,,.,
a,,,.:::.:.,

::::.::.4 :.a,.,.,).,,aal;.:,..

:....a,,.:,.. ::::

They're going to see the new Jmes Bond movie,


We aren't going to have

excu rsion

flight
package vacatlon sightseeing trip tou
r

egatiG,,':'::i::t,, ot g,ig:tg,:kffirq,:.lrl::!,''.!:l:lt::go'i,n]gr, there.

o.:bq,:'.,:,,:].,

:,:0*:stich,,.,:,,,,

!\It!h

:m

:,l

3Ai1gt

*6.::::',',:,:::t::'

:,

How much is he going to What are you going to


spend? ls she going to invite Jon to the parr?
Are you going

Verb + noun collocations related to booking vacations


to book a vacation to cancel a booking to check into a hotel to order room service to pay with a credit card to set offfor the airport to serve breakfast

':Aitni:::,:.',..a.,..:.,:::.:,,,b'pJ( th:hiitI?:,.:,.,',..:;,,:..::,',.'.:::..,:::

'

:,;

.,: ;1.;; .t ::;.::,.

,.6n,,t..gQ[hg.tQrse,,him?,.,,,,

to drive?

think obout and hope to

Think about and hope to are often used to talk about less definite plans. We are not certain that the plans will happen: we'rethLwlLwq abovLt vwovLwg to the Stats. (We're not sure.)

fi,w ho?Lwg to slr.td! Lw ewgLawd. (l want to but it's not decided.)' We form the structures with think about + verb -ing and hope to + infinitive without to.

:,

Decisions

wilh will
dag.
t'LL

Making a vacation booking Ouestions ! Answers This weekend/in two months' time/next month... When would you like to go?
|

',I

. .

We use uzll/ when we decide something at the moment of speaking:

ft's a

wLoe

qo to theTarlz.

How long are you planning to go for? How about a package vacation in L.A.? What kind of vacation do you like? What's your budget? What does it include? How about a Mediterranean cruise?

For about No,


I

two weeks/a long weekend... went last there last summer. I wnt something with a bit of excitement

We often use lthink/don't think when we use t thLwlz t'LL go to ParLs thLs gear.

willto talk about decisions:

t
il

dow't thLwl we'LL evo! goLwg to

R-ovwe.

we refer beaoh vaoatLows.

and adventure. I can spend up to $z,ooo. Allyour accommodation, meals and internal flights are included. It sounds good, but it's too expensive for me.

22

how long, for and since


Present perfect simple for past experences

. We often use how long,for and since with the present perfect simple to talk
in the past. We do

. We use the present perfect simple to talk about experiences


not say when they happened:

. How longis used in questions: . We usejforwith a period of time andsince with a point in time:
llow Lowq have <) uovt
LLved Lw Las vegas?

about time.

At l+ave Vow evey beewtoeoLLvLaz (ln your life.) B: No, I havew't. -<)worlzed Lw v*awr cot*wtrLes awd he'9 w"et a W's

Lot

of favwor,ts eoLe.

lf we say when the action happened, we must use the past simple: t*e's beewto Lowdow.

t've LLved here fpr sLx n*owths. WE worlzed here sLwoe chr'vstvwas.

Time expressons wth for and since


For

. We form the present perfect simple with subject + has/have


l/youlwe/they
Affrmativ.q,,:
:

WwewtthereLw200L. V f+e's beew there Lw zoot-. \

Since
days

+ past participle.

two

an hour
six yea rs
'

Monday last week


December February t4th

,We, have ben there befofe.

Negative

1''hven't'

ieen,the

Pyra,m

ids'
7

, l-i" She hasnlt visited,London "


,,

He haltriediiteiu,fln:g.

,,

five minutes a long time


'

1996
5 o'clock

ages
a

Question forms
' .,1: .. :. .t
,'

Which sporti have you,,!1ied Have you ever eaten sna ke?
Ys;'[,,hav.:1,'N,

How rnany fihts has,he entered? Has he ever won?


Yes, he has.

while my whole life

My birthday
The start ofthe vacations Iwas seven years old

Short:answers:
a a

l:,h:aen't,

No, he hasn't.

We use ever in present perfect questions to mean "at any time up to now". We can use never in negative sentences to mean "at no time up to now":

A: llave U uoDL ever beew to saLw? B: No, we've wever traveLed abroad.

Adjectives wth -ed and -ing

. Many adjectives
-ed amazed bored emba rrassed

that come from verbs can end in either -ed or -ing.Some


-ing amaztnE boring
em ba rra ssi ng

The past participle of regular verbs ends

common ones are:

Present perfect simple for continuing states


o We use the present perfect simple to talk about actions that started in the past and continue now: A: t-*ow Lowg has AwwA beew Lw AwstraLLa? B: -sh hasbeewtherefortwo twowths. (She arrived there in the past and
is

excited

frightened
i

exciting frightening
i

stillthere now.)

nterested
rprised

nteresti ng

Februa ry

-----

now (April)

terrified
su

terrifying
su

rprising

ti red

tiring

'l
I
tl

Anna arrived in Australia.

in Australia.

;
J:

24

uBt0e

a
We use adjectives ending in -ed to describe how someone feels: t was veyt tLred after swowb oardLwg aLL da y. (Ti re d descri bes my fee
I

gs.)

We use adjectives ending in -ing to describe how someone or something makes us feel or our opinion about something or someone: watohLwg sort owtw Lsbo.wgt (That is my opinion of watching sport.lt bores me.)

Making predictions

We use will/won't to make predictions based on personal opinion: t thLwtz n*ost peopLe wLLL shoP ow the lwterwet Lw the fr,ttr;"re.

Adjectives and nouns related to emotions


19r.!v,:
calm generous
ki

. .

there wow't be awr svt*aLL stoyes, owLy bLg sweYvwarbets. We often use adverbs of certainty with will/won't. Adverbs of certainty go after will but before won't:
t+e'&-dtf,wLteLU-gp to wwLversLty after he {t wLshes soho oL Awwa robabLu wow't ootvce to the artu wext weelz.

nd

satisfied
stressfu
I

, ; : , r r

Noun calm
generositY klndness

--

satisfaction
stress wi,[l:

too%"

ffi ffi

Explaining why you admre someone


Pele is someone I really admire. He's done so much for football/Brazil/sport. What I really like about him is his courage. I love his enthusiasm and passion. He's the kind

Wso% w w
w
,&
:::::

oTo

of person who has to find new challenges.

The first conditional


We use the first conditionalto talk about a possible action in the future and the

He's got strong views, which I respect.

result of that action: rf we go shoLwg ow

satuYday,

t'LL bvcy A wew dress. is

There are two the second is the result clause:


clauses. The

first one, the if clause,

the possible condition, and

Result clause clause lf we have enough money, we'll go on vacation.

The clause can come first or second. When it comes second, you do not need to use a comma: t{ t fgeL sLok tovworyow, I wow't oovwe to worlz.

I wow't oowLe to

work

yf. t

fA

sLclztovworrow.

il

26

=:,:Unit

rO

't ti

\tuc
Money
ATM

1"fr

&i$

Present and past simple passve

bank account bills


cash

We use the passive when the person or thing that does the action is not important or is unknown:

Active
sowLeowe brolze the wLwdow yestevdag.
Passive

change coins currency

'the wLwdow was brolzew yesterdag. (Who broke

disposable income e-money

. .

Collocations relatng to shopping


to get a (good) deal to give (someone) a refund
to find a bargain to offer a discount to place an order to receive a gift voucher to reduce prices to save money (on)

it is unknown/not important.) Thepassiveisalsousedtoemphasizetheobjectratherthanwhodoestheaction. The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive. lf we want to say who did the action, we use the preposition by:

Subject
.

object verb eooaLeoLe vt*adethLsbag. (The emphasis is on local pesps. -rhLs bag was vwade by LooaL?eo?Le. (The emphasis is on this bag and made.)

The passive is formed with to be + pasl participle.


Present sirnple passive Past simple passive

Affirmative
Negative Question form

Japan. The T-shirt isn't designed by Prada.


Playstations are made in Where are the T-shirts made?
Are the T-shirts made in Brazi[?

The house was built in 96o. The museum wasn't opened

until zoo3.
When was the museum opened to the public? Was the Cuggenheim Museum

; Discussing problems and solutions


Explaining problems The main problem is... l'm concerned about... We're having some problems with... Another area of concern is--.

built by Frank Cehry?

Suggesting solutions

'

ld suggest...
We could always... The best solution is to... My advice would be to...

Prepositions wth passve constructons

. We use o;[+ material: . .


tt's vwade of qoLd. We use in + place tt was vwade Lw coLwvwbLa. were fowwd L*_e@g *d. theu <) We use by + person or thing: -hev were vwade bu chLLdrew. ---f, <) -he cLtu was destroued bu the {ure.

One/Another possibility is to.

2E

un*r

12
Materials
china

[]1ffi*{

1.,:'

"t,

Likes and dislikes

cotton
glass

gold leather
meta
I

plastic wood

Nouns and adjectives related to fame


Noun
excellence

Adjective
excel lent
fa mous hel pfu
I

really lik

love

..a

a:..:.:

::::

fame
i

a.:...

hel p

impression
legend
i

impressive

Verbs of likes/dislikes are generally followed by verb -ing or a noun, not by the i nfin itive:

popula rity
5

legendary popular
successfu ta lented
I

UCCes5

ta lent

theu Love opera bwt they dow't LLEe qoLwq to gLgs. ( t dow't vwLwd to watoh oera. \ We use the adverb really to make the verbs stronger: A: t oaw't stawd watohLwq sorts ow-fv. B: I lzwow what uott tvLeAw. t veaLLu hate watohLvvg basebaLL.

Describing locations
Where places are
On the right/1eft... ln the distance... We're now passing...

.
Describing places
There's a wonderful... The area is well-known for... One of the most famous sights is It's the best place for... You'll find....

tike must have an object: A: Do go,,c LLe shoLwg?

B: Yes, t LLkek. B: \es, t Lil"e. \

r'

like vs would like . We use would /ike to talk about things we want in the future:
she'd LLt"eto be a baLLet dawoer whew she gyows
t wowLdw't
LLlze

Directly opposite the


Behind the...

t^?.

to chawge vwylob. We use /ike to talk about things that we enjoy now or enjoy in general: A: Do <) uovc LLke wc,sLc? B: \es, I Love Yook, awd hl ho.

30

T
I

. Like is formed as a normal present simple verb. . Would /ike is followed by the infinitive with to.

A: wowLd uow LLk"e to LLstewto sotn*e vwvcsLo? B: \es, t'd Love to. Do govt have awg oLassLoaL

Events and venues


vwwsLo?

Event
a gig

_*-i

V"nr"
__.

a carnival

the street
a concert hall an opera house
a a

an opera a play a race a radio show a soccer match

theater
track

a radio station a stadium


a TV

Would like can also be followed by a noun if we are talking about now. Would like is a polite way of saying I want: t'd +l LLtze the Lzza. Lease.

a TV

program

studio

Types of TV show
rtoon children's program detective drama game show news broadcast reality show sitcom
ca

wovtLd Vow LLW sgvwe ooffee?


Would /ike is used for offers and invitations: WA^L/ uo,t LLke son*ethLwg to drLwtz?

wowLd uowLLlzeto aoto a oLttb owthewee4ewd?

soap opera

talent show talk show

Entertainment
eating out going to the movies going to (music) gigs going to the theater Iistening to music

Expressing preferences

watching DVDs watching motor racing


watching TV reality shows

r
:t a:.:::,:......

Present perfect vs past simple

Nouns and adjectives related to work


Noun
m bition determination

We use the past simple for completed actions in the past.We often indicate the time when the action happened, or we know the time period is complete: I vwoved to Nw z.eaLawd' Lw Novevwber zooL. t LLved there for two teays. shewrotebto Le*.ersthLs vworwwg. (lt's afternoon now so we know the time
is finished.)

Adjective
am

bitious
ra

We use the present perfect for actions in the past when the time period is not fin is hed: Fle's wow a few ootwetLtLows. (Unfinished time period = his life.) t+e's wrL*ew fowr e-vwaLls this vworwLwg. (lt's rr:3o in the morning so the time period, morning, is not finished.) Ago and last are often used with the past simple. Ago goes at the end of the sentence: I Last wewt to Fyawoe tew teays ago.

encouragement excitement i nterest


respon

determ ined encou ra ged/encou

gi

excited /exciti ng i nte rested/i nte resti ng

sibility

responsible
ten se

te nsion

worry

worried/worrying

Expressions related to ambitions


to become a successful businessman/woman to go around the world to raise money to start a business
to study abroad to train for a marathon to win a scholarship Lo work for a charity

whew dLd yov+ Last go out oLttbbLwg?

Present perfect simple with yef and olreody

We use already with the present perfect to say that something has happened early or earlierthan expected.Already goes before the main verb: F'te's aLreadu {vwLshed hLs hov*ework awd the deadLLwe Lsw't
wwtLL wext rrLday. -fheu owLu ttto/ed Lw Last week awd theu've aLreadu aLwted
v-

Us

the whoLe house.


Yef means "until now" and is used in questions and negative sentences to talk about somethlng that is expected. Yet goes at the end ofthe sentence: t+asw't she arrLved !4a (She will be here but until now she hasn't arrived.) - uow caLLed hLv* uel? A; frave U fJ-_ him but until now,l haven't.) B: Not fJ-r/t. (lwillcall ' The past simple is common in American English when using yet and already to talk about wh'ether an event has happened:

Discussing dreams, ambitions and achievements


ralking_ abo-y!

!ry'ary ytd

amb:tt;ions

Talking about achievements


I was so proud that... My greatest achievement was... Something l'm really proud of is

It's always been an ambition of mine to... l've always wanted to...

ld also like to... One thing ld also love to do is...


One of my ambitions/dreams is to...

mY.

>.Ld govc oaLLBew get?

t aLreadt saw hLn*.

34

*r".,i*

:,14.; Defining relative clauses

. ln reported speech the verb changes. lt moves one tense back:


Direct speech
Present,sirnplet:..':.:,'
"Sh

Reiortd:speech::

. We use defining relative clauses to define the person, place or thing we are
talking about. The information in the clause is essential: I vwet a wowLAw who/that works wLth towr brother(The relative clause gives us essential information about the woman.) where Ls the Lotvtre that was Lw the bedroott*? (The relative clause defines which picture we are talking about.)

:'''

:'.:

Pastiimp:le.:,:
:.,,F*:b:sa,id

r:

:::l

e's

in.

:m art elaps'l',,,,

(tht),shtwalin:hi:s
::r:'::

a;rt,,l5.s:,::,:'.,'.1,':1':.;:,,',;;:':' .

Present aontinrow

,::rPst'tontinireii

::,:::,

"l'm studyin'f.r,'rn} fina1 .rexami:l:


Future,With:tvjJf ' ;:'t,;..,':..' "lt'll rain on Satrday."

,,,Hi;aia:::tht)

"'', :wal itudtetui.:hi5 fi n.l ex rn5i

::.:4.:::

. We link the main clause and the relative clause with relative pronouns.
For peoPl,,e,

CAn . . .:".:...:,..,:a::',,.: ..:..t:. .:.' "5 lie can: aet.a$,si9,1.' (6g 16[.: .;,.,;,:::1;,.;..,; :::i.-.::
:.,t

. ,' r:Lt,.s 11l.ti ,i:h:,cotd

ct:fd:sing',

"'i';' ' ,, ; .:: .

.,

:.rtullO/:that'
,,tii.t,
.

:.t,..:,::a.:,:::'::4,,.
:'':.:

ioutd (no change)


:t:'.:::::.,:..'

,ror,ttiniai1,
,Fo,p!c*'i::

.'.,,,,,,'.,,,

" H e cold,:s:in 8:',and.'d:ac,11:

,urhi,,',,,

,,,.

.,,t,,-,,5,1*!d.,\n;lharigr.*::::::,:,,
"

':'
a year

:
-off

't,-.
.,r.,'

Yo

u
n

ho

dtk,ry,:i:gf,f: b-f,r:

'r.Hri

lf the pronou n (who/which/that) is the object of the relative clause, we often leave it out: F+ave tow seewthehotographs that Awwtoolz? (Photographs is the object of the clause "Ann took the photographs.") t+ave uow seewthehotoarahs Awwtoo? r' Where's the boxthat'was Lwthe lzLtohewt (Box is the subject of the clause "The box was in the kitchen.")

gof

t'o,.O:tte *.!,,,..r,,',,,,,,itt,,,a.,

''ttat}.i.i! take collee. to oing

uerore

soy and tell

. . .
.

lf you state who you are talking to, use tel/. Tell must have a direct object:

ron*toLdthathehad
Tovw toLd vwe

aLaoe at l+aYvaYd.

where's the box was Lw the tzLtohewz \ We do not repeat the object: Do tot L lzwow the vwawJow Ls taLELwg to? (
Do tot lzwow the vwaw_low
Ls

taLLwg to hLvw?

\
.

Reported statements
n When we want to say what someone said, we'can use the person's exact words: Peter saLd, "t wawt to go to ooLLege." (Direct speech)

had a Laoe at tr+aYvavd' ( lf you don't state who you are talking to,use say. Say does not have a direct object. rovw sa'vd v*e that he was reaLLg hapg. X rovw saLd' that he was reaLLg ha1. V You don't need to use that with say and tell: ttl,Loew told n*e (that) he was goLwg to stwdt n.ath. tt,LoOew saLd (that) he was Loolz.n4 forward, to Lt.

that

. Or we can use reported speech:


?eter saLd (that) he wawted to go to ooLLege. (Reported speech)

Phrases related

to education

Adverbs of purpose

to apply to business school to choose a course to earn a degree to graduate from college to offer a scholarship to pay tuition fees to take an entrance exam to train as an accountant

We usejfor + verb -ing to explain the purpose of something or what something is


used for: 'fnLs software Ls wsed

. .

vwel,l*oyv stLok Ls wsed U

fpr sewdl,wg e-vwaLLs. fur storLwg doovcwcewts.

We usejlor + noun to talk about why someone does something: we wewt to the oaf fpr a oo{iee.
t'r,t* goLwg there

fur a vweetLwq.

Education problems
Pttobtem!:,
n u t tyin
:.:,:,,:,:.;,.a: :,,,;,,,-';:',,.,::,,:,:

We use so that + subject + verb when we want to talk about why someone does something: tste bovtght a oonavcter so that he covtLd surf the wet at hovwe.
t

wer,t

owLLwe so

lmproving behavior
,.,e,ltlti!hh,,,!,',,t:.,.,::'',,..,,'':..t,,t,.
;:

that t oowLd {vwd the oheaest dLgLtaL

oavweya.

We also use in order fo + verb when we want to talk about why someone does

gltA::b, itt[,i.ti,.u,ui,t;

.t

n!i

o:n:,,::,:..;:,

;,,';,.;1.

: ;,..:,:,',: ;,,';::.:,,

:,

dise.!.p[ne]ploblQ,mil,,,,;, d
r:

,,,rxP-'t-:ePl::,.:.;,:,;,,
,:,tteiia, paeniL,:
,
..,:.

ptil, 6eh

v.ibr
;,,

,;;:,:,,:'.,,,, ,'

.',,,,,,.,,,,
;:,,

to im prove com m u nication with parents/students to introduce measures to


improve discipline

something. ln order fo is more formal than to: w gave the chLLdrew covwTr,+ters Lw order to see Lf tney oovtLd use thev*.

fight!,n:g,,,,,,',,',:,:'.;, .,

:,'.;..;.,.;;:..:

.cqlpora,l,pu
.

ishment,
:,:"" 1:',:,:.:,:

!nterr: u p!in.,,th{ tq ch r :S,mOkfng,,::

, i i6e.n so.nltq,s: s:pe,d


r

to provide mentrs for


problem students

Future probability
Will, may and might are used for personal predictions about future events. Willis more definite than may and might. Will,may and might are followed by infinitive without to.

tf:Uancy:, : , Verb:1:!r;a

.,,: .:'

' :1

:::;:

:.'

to':pna,tize',

..;:,;,:;

;:::':,'.;

t,.: :':t:.,:t::::: ,::, ' ::: .:: :: r" ::r: :

ln zo5o...
The earth will definitely be warmer.

Most probable

Discussing college information


People Asking for information lU like to know... Could you tell me...? Where can I find out about...?
Whenls the...?

will probably travel more.

c;iynsl information
We offer a wide range o[...
You can choose from... You should

Doctors rnaylnight be able to


cure cancer. We may/might not be able to
use cash.

talk to... There probabty won't be fewer cars,

What extracurricular activities are popular?

There are more details about... What would you like to know?

English definitely won't be the only language.

Least probable

unitrs

-l'
I

Verb + noun collocations related to computers


to burn a CD to click (on) an icon to delete spam to move the cursor to open a document to surfthe net to switch onloff a computer to touch the screen

would and wouldn't . We use would and wouldn't to talk about things we imagine
in the present and future: Az WovtLd uow oT,ew sowLeowe eke's vt"aLLl

or speculate about

B: No, I wowLd.w't d.o that, wovld tor,t? A: r'l_gBew Lt Lf Lt Looked LLEe a Love Let}.erl We form this structure with would/wouldn't +infinitive without

to.

Technology and scence


automated cloning conservation to convert

Adverbs of certainty (certainly, definitely, probably)are used with would/wouldn't

cure/to cure
envi ron menta I ly friend ly

when speculating: -theu'd robabLu {vt Lw weLL. F-r a Bew oevtaLwLt wowLdw wawt to work for swoh a she'd, defi"wLteLu Acoent a iob atthLs cotwawu.

fuel
genetics

svwaLL oaw^pawt.

Review of tenses Asking for information and giving an opnon


Asking for information How big is...? How do you see...? What else can you tell me about...? What special features does it have? Who is it designed for? Why do you think...?

I
1

Giving an opinion
I personally believe that...

l'm convinced that... ln my opinion... Not everyone will agree with me, but,

Without

a doubt...

lrregular
Verbs and their opposites
to buy to sell to find + to lose to give + to take to lie + to tell the truth to love to hate to refuse + to accept to remember + to forget

lnfinitive
be (amlislare)

Past
ri,,p1",,,,,-_ was/were
became began broke
:

Past i been
become

: lnfinitive
1 leave
lend
lose

--**--.;.t t

gfi_ci-nle ''-','-'
begun
broken

,,

i simple i I left
I

Past

participle left lent


lost
made

become

lent
lost made

Crime
to arrest damages/to be awarded damages to deny
evidence

begin
break

make

bring
bu ild

buy can catch choose come do

brought built bought


could

brought

built
bought
been able to

meet put

met put

met

put

quit
read

quit
read rode

quit
read

guilty

caught
chose came

caught
chosen

ride

to murder
tria
I

ring
run
say
5ee
sel
I

verd ict

drink drive eat

did drank
drove ate

come done

rang ran
sa

ridden rung
run
sa

id

id

drunk
driven eaten
fa llen

saw
sold sang sat spoke

seen

sold

Speculating

fa ll

fell

sing sit
spea k

sung
sat spoken

feel

felt
found

felt
fou nd

find

spend
sta nd

fly
get

flew
got got up went
grew hung out
had heard hid

it

get up
8o

flown gotten gotten up


gone grown hung out
had
hea rd

spent stood
SWam

spent stood
SWUM

swim
ta ke

tell

took told

taken

told

grow
hang out
have
hea r

think throw
u

thought threw
understood woke up wore won

thought
thrown
u nderstood woken up worn won

ndersta nd

hide know

knew

hidden known

wake up wear

win

write

wrote

written

42
t[u

Pronunciatio chart

Keywords

Keywords pen, happy


back, but

tit

see,

gat

ltl

did. citv
dav. eisht bed, dress

leil lel

tdt
tkt

two, talk do. dos


game, key game, girl

lr.l
lol

cat, bad

ll
loul

fther, arm bousht. dop

lsl

tqt

watch, chair
Julv

89 no
book. sood foqd, baqt, student but, mqther banan computer

tt
tft
tol

lal
lul lttl

ohotosraoh
hav

lel

ll
lsl

thins the, this


see. citv

Este libro se termin de imprimir en.el mes de febrero

l*l
I

sh[t,
bqy, eye, my

atl laul I ctl

lzl

de 2007, en Litogrfica lngramex, S.A. de C.V., Centeno 162, Col. Granjas Esmeralda, 09810
Mxico, D.F.

olease. eoes

how, now
bov near, here

ttt
lsl
tht lml

shirt, station
plea5ure hat, who man, some

Irl
I erl I srl

hail there
bar

lnl

sug know
sing
li ke

lcrl
lur

door

tour

l\l tlt
lwl

white, we
run. verv
VCS. VOU

iI

t!

lrl tjt

i,