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CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF AXIAL FLUX TYPE RELUCTANCE MOTOR USING 2 AND 3-DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

Kyung-Ho Kim *, Yun-Hyun Cho*, Do-Hyun Kang**, Yen-Ho Jeong**, Jong-Mu Kim **

* Dong-A University, Korea,


ABSTRACT The paper is proposed the static and dynamic characteristics analysis algorithm for the Axial Flux type Reluctance Motor(AFSRM) considering the nonlinear magnetic phenomena. To investigate the non-linearity parameters of magnetic equivalent circuit, the designed 4phase AFSRM is analyzed by the 2D and 3D finite element method as functions of input current and angular displacement. Field solutions from finite element analysis are processed to give the energy conversion loop and the flux linkage curve as functions of input current. The output performance of AFSRM was calculated using FEM analysis, the current, torque, back EMF and output power wave of AFSRM are simulated from the motion equation by MATLM/SIMULINK. The simulated characteristics for a 4-phases, 24-poles TSRM are verified by experiments on a p~-&~Qpe motor.

**KEN,Korea

have simple doubly salient pole structure. Fig.] shows the cross section configuration of 4 phases AFSRM. Fig. 1 The cross section configuration of 4- phase AFSRM

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1. INTRODUCTION

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Many of the S W were developed and investigated for various applications. Switched Reluctance Motors have simple salient pole structures. Their excitation power is supplied with the each phase current. Most of them e f i b i t a high level of saturation. These make their magnetic characteristics complicated. In this paper, 4-phase AFSRM is used for estimate the equivalent magnetic parameter with the magnetic non-linear phenomena. The calculation methods of these characteristics from the field solutions of 2/3D finite element analysis will be introduced. Their comparison is discussed in detail. 2. THE CONFIGURATION AND BASIC EQUATION OF AFSRM
AFSRM is the speed variable step motor that can convert the electrical energy to mechanical energy with high efficiency. These Motors differ with conventional machines in that: (1) the air-gap flux is in radial direction, while the effective conductors are radial positioned, and (2) stator and rotor cores are of U type. These motors

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0-780?-7090-21011$10.00 02001 IEEE.

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3. THE MAGNETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AFSRM

(a) Stator assembly

The doubly salient AFSRM have independent phase windings on the stator and a rotor usually made of steel laminations. Several mathematical models have been reported for predicting the static and dynamic performance of AFSRM motors. They can be grouped into two main categories, namely those based in numerical simulation using the finite element method(FEM) and those based on experimentally measured parameters In this paper, two and three dimension FEM are used to analysis the magnetic characteristics of the motor. For this motor, the solution of the magnetic field with different rotor displacement and each phase excitation are obtained. The fundamental equation of the 2 D finite element analysis is as follows

dei)=yg= f ~ x ~ . ~ = ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ , y , ) - ~(1) (-n,,y,)i


S S

(b) Rotor assembly

Fig.2 Stator and Rotor assembly Table 1. Designed model of Axial Flux Type S F W

An accurate prediction of the parameters and the characteristics of an AFSRM using FE method are difficult. Because, the field distribution in the AFSRM is not highly uniform. In the FE literature, the mesh resolution in the critical regions is often suggested when attempting to improve the accuracy. It is important to calculate the electromagnetic energy in the field accurately because the stored energy is often used as a convergence criterion for the FE solution and also in the computation of other quantities such as torque. The energy density of the element is given by

Length of Rotor Size of coil

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10.45[mm] For those elements in the iron region, where the relation between field intensity and flux density is nonlinear, the integration of (2) has to be canied out numerically. 19.5[mm]
4 [phases].

Pole length Phases Diameter of Rotor Length of Rotor Size of coil


Tum number

3 . 1 FLUX LINKAGE
The total flux linked by each tum of the phase winding given by the Gauss formula

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l [ " ]

160[mm]
500[mm]
x

# = 1B.nd.s
S

(3)

3[m]

8O[tum]

Where S is the area enclosed by the winding tum. Replacing by V X A and using Stokes theorem, (3) becomes

Core

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Where the line integration is performed around a close contour formed by the sides of the winding.
3 . 2 INDUCTANCE

A realistic control strategy for the AFSRM drive has to take into consideration the mutual dependence between motor parameters and excitation, and the limitations of the switching circuits, as shown Fig.3 Fig. 3 is the equivalent circuit for the modeling of a AFSRM. In Fig. 3, the dotted-line region is estimated as the equivalent parameter obtained from the finite element method simulation results

The winding inductance is an important parameter. This has considerable impact in the motors operation and is a key parameter in the simulation of the AFSRM. When flux linkage profile is available, the incremental inductance can be computed from the change of flux linkage to a small change in the excitation current at the same rotor position.

L=- dA(8,i ) di
3 . 3 GOVERNING EQUATIONS
The voltage equations of the stator phase windings can be written as

T
Fig 3. Analysis model of AFSRM

F.E.M. Analysis Region

dil, V, = R,i, +-+I, de


Where

di, -

v, is

dt

the input voltage,

R, is the winding

resistance, 1, represents the leakage and extemal inductances, i , is the phase current, q is the number of phases, 2, is the flux linkage. The generating torque equation and the mechanical equation are Eq. (7) and ( 8 ) , respectively

At low speed, the rate of increase of the current following the tum-on is high because the back-emf at low speed is small. And peak current has to be limited by chopping. But at high speed, the back-emf becomes dominant. When the AFSRM is to be operated as a variable speed drive, two different switching strategies are used. At low speed, Current level has to be limited by current control. At high speed, both the ignition and the conduction angles should be controlled.

Where T ,I and represent the torque, current and rotor angular position respectively.

do T, = J,-+B,o+Tf dt
Where

+TL

(8)

J , is moment of inertia, B, is viscous damping coefficient, T is friction torque, and TL is load torque.
(a) element mesh

3 . 4 CONTROL STRATEGIES

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0 01
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0

MMF[AT]

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degree['

Fig. 5 Flux profile

(b) unaligned position


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15

MMFIATI

mTo

degree[' ]

Fig. 6 Inductanceprofile

(c) aligned position Fig 4. Flux density and Flux vector distribution Fig. 5 shows flux profile versus MMF and position per phase. Since the flux of phases is saturated by the phase current, the flux profile shows non-linear properties. Fig. 6 shows that the non-linear properties of the inductance profile, which is increased by raising the MMF and rotor position. The maximum value of a phase inductance is 60[mH], and the minimum value is 18[mH]. Fig. 7 shows dLld6 profile. When exciting MMF increase, this decrease because the core is saturation. Fig. 8 shows torque profile. The maximum value is 80[N.m]. We can determine more proper switching angle.

M M.F[AT)

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degree['

Fig. 7 d L l d 6 profile

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Fig. 1 1 and Fig. 12 show torque curve, which are obtained from the 2D/3D FEM analysis and experiment value at the exciting MMF 1000[AT], 1600[AT].

In these figures, curve profile of 3D analysis is resembled to experiment one.


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In Fig 12, the maximum torque is 63m.m] at exciting MMF 1600[AT].


Torque at 1000 [ATJ

MMF(AT]

degree[' ]

Fig. 8 Torque profile Fig. 9 compares torque of 2D analysis and 3D analysis. As result, the torque of 2D analysis is greater than the torque of 3D analysis considering flux leakage. At 1000[AT], 2D is about 15 % greater than 3D. Fig. EO comparesflux distribution of 2D analysis to 3 0 analysis. At high MMF, flux of 3D analysis is saturation than this of 2 D analysis.

Angle [deg]

Fig. 1 1 Torque distribution of 2D/3D Analysis at 1000[AT]


Torque at 1800 [ATJ

0.00 0.75 1.50 2.25 3.00 3.75 4.50 5.25 6.60 6 . k

7.50

Angle [dag] Angle [des]

Fig. 9. Torque distribution of 2/3D Analysis


0.009
0.008
0.007

Fig. 12 Torque distribution of 2D/3D Analysis at 1600[AT] The input voltage is DC 51O[V]. The current is controlled with pulse width modulation (PWM). When the current increases, on-time of PWM increase. If the reference values of speed and current increase, voltage of square wave with single pulse is fed to motor. Fig.13 shows the power, torque and efficiency of AFSRM at the dynamic state. The maximum torque is 4[KW] at 11OO[rpm]. The maximum efficiency is shown about 90[0/,].

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r
5

0.008 0.005
0.004

0.003
0.002 0.00

0.75

1.50

2.25

3.00

3.75

4.50

5.25

E 00

6i5

7.60

Angle [dag]

Fig. 10 Flux distribution of 2/3D Analysis

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Effaency

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400

ex

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800
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lua

lex

Llsu,

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Fig. 13 Power, Torque and efficiency of The AFSRM


4. CONCLUSION

Accurate prediction of the motor parameters and characteristics of the AFSRM plays an important role in a realistic simulation of AFSRM drive. To investigate the static and dynamic of AFSRM, this paper is analyzed 2D and 3D FEM. The experimental AFSRM with the rated k W is designed and measured. As result of power of 5 comparing those simulation values to experimental one, it is estimated that 3D FEM is more accuracy values than 2D FEM. Because, 2D analysis is not compatible magnetic path of modeling, in order to, 2D analysis model is not concentrated at core, which is saturation. 2D analysis does not consider flux leakage, so simulation value is greater than experiment value.
5. REFERENCES
[ 11 L.E. Unnewehr and W.H. Koch, An Axial Air-Gap Reluctance Motor for Variable Speed Application,IEEE TRANS.,PAS-93,~~367-376,1974 [2] M. Moallem, C. M. Ong, Predicting the steady-state performance of a switched reluctance machine, IEEE pp 529537.1989 [3]T.J.E. Miller Switched Reluctance Motors and Their Control OXPORD, 1993. [4]M. Moallem, C.M.Ong. Predicting the steady-state performance of a switched reluctance machine IEEE 1989. [5]B.C. Mecrow. New winding configurationsfor doubly salient reluctance machines,IEEE IAS Conference Proceedings,Houston,1992

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