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Enhanced Transmission Line Protection using PMUs

Faraz Z. Khan, Raghavendra. G, R. Nagaraja and H.P. Khincha

Contents
Introduction Proposed scheme Basic architecture Case Studies Conclusion

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Introduction
Transmission line protection is majorly dependent on Distance relay operation Existing Distance relay operation is affected by various factors such as : Presence of Infeed Presence of FACTS devices Load encroachment Fault resistance Power swing Parallel line operation Mutual coupling effect
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Proposed Scheme
Proposed scheme is concentrated to control zone 2 and zone 3 operation of relay as zone 1 operation is generally instantaneous. The scheme utilizes PMU data, double ended fault location algorithm and communication infrastructure for its operation. It does not modifies the existing zone settings thus in case of communication failure, the conventional scheme will be intact. Phasor information has to be transmitted to the PDC only upon detection of fault in zone 1 of slave locations. Zone 3 setting is restricted to secondary line end for simplicity.

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Basic Architecture

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Flowchart

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Flowchart (contd)

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Case Study - Infeed operation

Zone 2 reach of the Master relay is set to cover 50% impedance of the line between buses 2-4 (i.e. 10 km from Bus 2) A three phase to ground fault is simulated at 8 km on line 2-3 from slave 1 location Slave 1 relay detected fault in Zone 1 Computed fault distance = 7.98 km
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Case Study - Infeed operation


Apparent impedance seen by Slave1 relay

Apparent impedance seen by Master relay


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Sequence of operation
1 Zone 1 of Slave 1 triggered 2 The voltage and current phasors at slave 1 and slave 2 are communicated to PDC by the respective PMUs 3 The fault location is estimated by PDC (i.e. 7.8 km) and decision is taken for master relay to trigger 4 The decision is communicated to the PMU at master location 5 The signal received by PMU at master location is transferred to the master relay for triggering zone 2 operation

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Case Study - SVC operation

Zone 2 reach of the Master relay is set to cover 50% of the line between buses 2-3 (i.e. 55 km from Bus 2) Zone 3 covers the entire length of the line between buses 2-3 A three phase to ground fault is simulated on line 2-3 at 90 km from slave 1 location and 20 km from slave 2 location Slave 2 relay detected fault in Zone 1 Computed fault distance = 90.31 km
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Case Study - SVC operation


Apparent impedance seen by Slave2 relay

Apparent impedance seen by Master relay Proposed scheme triggers the Master relay zone 3
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Case Study Load encroachment


Apparent impedance seen by Slave1 relay

Apparent impedance seen by Master relay Proposed scheme blocks the Master relay Zone 3
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Conclusion
Proposed scheme is simple and utilizes basic PMU architecture It can effectively solve existing issues faced by distance relaying It retains the existing setting of the relays thus in case of communication failure, the conventional scheme will be intact. Proposed scheme also performs well for double circuit lines, mutual coupling effect and in presence of fault resistance
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References
q Alstom T&D, Network Protection and Automation Guide, 1st edition, Alstom Grid, July 2002. q S. H. Horowitz, A. G. Phadke and J. S. Thorpe, Adaptive Transmission System Relaying, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 3, No. 4, October 1988. q Tarlochan Singh Sidhu, Rajiv K. Varma, Pradeep Kumar Gangadharan, Fadhel Abbas Albasri and German Rosas Ortiz Performance of Distance Relays on Shunt-FACTs Compensated Transmission Lines, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 3, July, 2005. q Fadhel A. Albasri, Tarlochan Singh Sidhu and Rajiv K. Varma, Performance Comparison of Distance Protection Schemes for Shunt-FACTs Compensated Transmission Lines, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 22, No. 4, October, 2007. q Report of the Enquiry Committee on Grid Disturbance in Northern Region on 30th July, 2012 and in Northern, Eastern and North-Eastern Region on 31st July, 2012. q NERC, August 14, 2003 Blackout: NERC Actions to Prevent and Mitigate the Impacts of Future Cascading Blackouts, February 10, 2004, North American Electric Reliability Council, Princeton, New Jersey. q S. H. Horowitz and A. G. Phadke, Third Zone Revisited, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, January 2006. q Seong-Il Lim, Chen-Ching Liu, Seung-Jae Lee, Myeon-Song Choi and Seong-Jeong Rim, Blocking of Zone 3 Relays to Prevent Cascaded Events, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, Vol. 23, No. 2, May, 2008. qAmr El-Hadidy and Christian Rehtanz, Blocking of Distance Relay Zone 3 Under Load Encroachment Conditions: A New Approach Using Phasor Measurements Technique, Proceedings of the 14th International Middle East Power System Conference (MEPCON), Cairo University, Egypt, December 19-21, 2010. q MiPowerTM User Manual, www.prdcinfotech.com.
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Thank You

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