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BEARINGS (ctd)

CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION
VISCOSITY
REYNOLDS EQUATION
MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION
PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
FRICTION REGIMES
CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES
OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS
INTRODUCTION
A hydrodynamic (HD) bearing is a bearing which carries
load by sliding. This bearing is often called a bushing or a
babbit or journal bearing. The HD bearings are very
widely used and appear in most kinds of equipment, e.g.
as crankshaft and connecting rod bearings in internal
combustion engines.
The HD bearing may carry load in one of several ways
depending on their operating conditions, load, relative
surface speed (shaft to journal), clearance within the
bearing, quality and quantity of lubricant and temperature
(effecting lubricant viscosity).
If full film conditions apply the bearing load is carried
solely by a film of fluid lubricant, there being no contact
between the two bearing surfaces. In this condition they
are known as fluid film bearings.
INTRODUCTION
Crankshaft, Babbitt metal, plain bearing shell
INTRODUCTION
In mixed or boundary conditions load is carried partly by
direct surface contacts and partly by a film formed
between the two mating surfaces of components.
Plain bearings are relatively simple and hence
inexpensive. They are also compact, light weight, straight
forward to repair and have high load-carrying capacity.
However, if operating in dry or boundary conditions plain
bearings may wear faster and have higher friction than
rolling element bearings.
Mixed and boundary conditions may be experienced even
in a fluid film bearings when operating outside of its
normal operating conditions, i.e. at startup and shutdown.
An HD bearing uses a hardened and polished steel shaft
and a soft bronze bushing. In such designs the softer
bronze portion can be allowed to wear away, to be
periodically renewed.
INTRODUCTION
The beginnings of theory of the hydrodynamic lubrication
have been done in the last decades of the 19th century.
The main persons were here Beauchamp Tower and
Osborne Reynolds.
Tower investigated experimentally the plain lubricated
bearings utilised in British railways. He discovered the
self-acting pressure generation in such bearings.
This phenomenon has been explained by Reynolds who
had developed the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication.
INTRODUCTION
Towers testing device for experiments on lubrication
INTRODUCTION
Towers testing device for experiments on lubrication
INTRODUCTION
Towers measurements of the pressure distribution (7988 vs. 8008 lbf)
INTRODUCTION
Reynolds general view on the action of lubricant: a) parallel surfaces in
relative motion (Poiseuille flow); b) approaching parallel surfaces
(Couette flow).
INTRODUCTION
Reynolds general view on the action of lubricant: c) parallel surfaces
approaching with tangential motion (superposition of the Poiseuille and
Couette flow).
INTRODUCTION
Reynolds general view: d); e) inclined surfaces with tangential motion
only.
1
1
VISCOSITY
Viscosity is a measure of internal friction of a fluid that varies with
temperature and pressure and, sometimes, with shear rate (non-
Newtonian lubricant). Newton postulated that the viscous shear
stresses were directly proportional to the shear strain rate, i.e. to
the velocity gradient
where
shear stress
du/dz rate of shear
coefficient of dynamic viscosity
h
U
dz
du
= =


u

du
dz
z
x
VISCOSITY
The viscous shear stress is proportional to the shear
rate, the dynamic viscosity being the proportionality
factor. So, thicker oils have a higher viscosity value
causing relatively higher shear stresses at the same
shear rate.
In SI system is expressed in Ns/m
2
(1 Ns/m
2
= 1 Pas).
This is quite a large unit and it is more common to use
its submultiple, that is mPas.
In CGS system (centimetre/gram/second) the viscosity
was measured in poise 1 P = 1 g/(cms). Practically used
unit was 1 cP = 1 mPas.
VISCOSITY
Dynamic viscosities are usually measured under high shear
conditions, for example, the cone-and-plate viscometer in
which the viscous shear torque is measured on the cone.
M C
M
C
r
M
r
r
dy
du
= =


= =

=
1
3
2
3
;

VISCOSITY
The kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic
viscosity and the fluid density
In SI system is expressed in m
2
/s, which is again a very
large unit and practically used is mm
2
/s.
In CGS system a unit used was stokes 1 St = 1 cm
2
/s and a
used one was cSt (1 cSt = 1 mm
2
/s).

=
VISCOSITY
The physical principle of
measurement of
kinematic viscosity is
based on the rate at
which a fluid flows
vertically downwards
under gravity through a
small-diameter tube.
Viscosity is measured by
timing the fall of the
liquid level between the
etched rings.
VISCOSITY
Viscosities of some fluids
Parameter Air Water
Mineral
oil
(ISO VG
10460)
Density
[kg/m
3
]
1.2 1000 880
Dynamic
viscosity
[mPas]
0.018 1
202000
Kinematic
viscosity
[mm
2
/s]
15 1
222200

REYNOLDS EQUATION
Reynolds equation takes into consideration both the
equilibrium of forces in viscous fluid (Navier-Stokes
equation) and continuity of flow. We assume for
simplification that:
- Fluid is incompressible and a Newtonian one (the shear
stress is directly proportional to the shear strain rate)
- Fluid properties remain constant; effects due to variation
in temperature and pressure being neglected
- Inertia and gravity forces (mass forces) are negligible in
comparison to friction forces (surface forces)
- The solid bodies remain rigid
- Lubricating film is of sufficiently small thickness that the
fluid pressure can be considered constant through the
thickness of the film
- The bearing is infinitely wide
REYNOLDS EQUATION
In the situation where surfaces are moving tangentially (in
the x direction) with no normal motion and a fluid between
them, if the above assumptions are made the Reynolds
equation reduces to
where h is the local film thickness, h is the film thickness
at the position of maximum pressure and U
1
and U
2
are the
tangential velocities of mating bodies.
In the case of combination of stationary element with
moving one having tangential velocity U we obtain
3
2 1
'
) ( 6
h
h h
U U
dx
dp
+ =
3
'
6
h
h h
U
dx
dp
=
REYNOLDS EQUATION
In the case of the normal approach there is no tangential
motion of the surfaces (U
1
= U
2
= 0), but there is movement
normal to the surfaces. Consider the two parallel flat
plates with respective normal velocities V
1
and V
2
.
Common-sense tells us that a pressure will be developed
in the fluid if the difference V
1
V
2
is positive, and that the
fluid will flow outwards from the point of maximum
pressure. The Reynolds equation confirms this, since
making the same assumptions as before, it becomes
where x is the coordinate of the position of maximum
pressure. This situation is often called 'squeeze film
lubrication.
3
2 1
'
) ( 12
h
x x
V V
dx
dp
=
REYNOLDS EQUATION
The build-up of pressure in a bearing where both types of
relative motion are present (combined longitudinal and
normal motion) can be found by a simple superposition of
the two effects, thus
To find the actual pressure distribution it is necessary to
integrate the equation. Two unknown quantities will then
be present, the integration constant and the value of x.
These are determined by the incorporation of two relevant
boundary conditions. The above equation may be applied
to any pair of surfaces, provided that the appropriate
velocity components are resolved to obtain the
appropriate values of U
1
, U
2
, V
1
and V
2
.
3
2 1
3
2 1
'
) ( 12
'
) ( 6
h
x x
V V
h
h h
U U
dx
dp

+ =
MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION
Two main mechanisms of the pressure generation in the
lubricating film have been demonstrated by Reynolds.
Physical wedge Squeeze film
MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION
Two main mechanisms of the pressure generation in the
lubricating film have been demonstrated by Reynolds:
Physical wedge Squeeze film
MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION
Other pressure generating, which are rarely significant,
are:
Stretch mechanism Density wedge
Viscosity wedge Local expansion
PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
Example of design of the ring-fed journal bearing
PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
Scheme of the pressure-fed plain journal bearing
operating under steady load
PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
Plain journal bearings nomenclature:
F applied load
R bushing radius
r shaft radius
D = 2R bearing diameter
B bearing width
p pressure in oil film
p
*
pressure in the case of oil inlet in the loaded zone
e eccentricity
h oil film thickness
h
0
minimum oil film thickness
angular velocity of journal
angular position of the shaft centre
s = R r radial clearance
S = 2s total clearance
= e/s relative eccentricity
= S/D relative clearance
PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
Friction regimes in plain bearings Stribeck curve:
1 T = const; 2 T const.
FRICTION REGIMES
Boundary lubrication
The friction and wear characteristics of the lubricated contact are
determined by the properties or the surface layers (in nanometer scale)
the underlying solids. The fatty acids are often used as additives
forming boundary layers. Viscosity has negligible effect on frictional
behaviour.
FRICTION REGIMES
Mixed lubrication
A very large proportion of lubricated contacts operate with
a mixture of hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication
mechanisms at the same instant. In mixed lubrication it js
necessary to consider both the physical properties of the
bulk lubricant and the chemical interactions between the
additives and the adjacent solids.
FRICTION REGIMES
Fluid film lubrication
The best way to minimise wear and friction in rolling and sliding
contacts in machines is to separate the solids by a lubricating film.
The lubricant can be a liquid or a gas and the load supporting film can
be created by the motion of the solids (self-acting or hydrodynamic
bearings) or by a external pressure source (externally pressurised or
hydrostatic ones).
FRICTION REGIMES
Elastohydrodynamic lubrication
A special form of fluid film lubrication in which the
development of effective films is .encouraged by local
elastic deformation of the bearing solids is known as
eIastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication (gears, ball and roller
bearings, cams and tappets).
CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
The Reynolds equation for the short journal bearing (shown
in above figure) has in cylindrical coordinates the form
where the mean pressure is
and the film profile (without considering deformation of
mating components and their surface roughness) describes
the following equation

h
r U
z
p h
z
r
p h
6
3
2
3
( ) cos 1 + = s h
D B
F
p
m

=
CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
The integration of the
Reynolds equation gives
in dimensionless form
the Sommerfeld number
as a measure of the
hydrodynamic load
carrying capacity
Figure shows the
extended Sommerfeld
number as a function of
the relative eccentricity
with the relative width as
a parameter.

=
2
m
p
So
CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS
The limiting HD film thickness (that ensures the wear-free
operation of bearing) and recommended roughness
height (peak-to-valley one) is shown in figure.
JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES
To prevent overheating, the clearance and operating
viscosity should be chosen to suit the operating speed.
JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES
The viscosity in graph is that at the operating temperature
obtained (assumed not greater than 20C above inlet temperature).
JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES
Figure gives a guide
to the load capacity of
bearings when
operating with the
previous given
speeds, clearances
and viscosities.
Normally, values of
B/D should not
exceed 1.
JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES
Figure gives
guidance on the
power loss for a
bearing with width
equal to diameter
(B/D = 1). It can be
assumed that the
power loss is
directly proportional
to the relative width
of bearing.
JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES
Figure gives a very
rough guide for the
volume rate of flow
(assuming B/D = 1).
It should be
underlined that the
lubricant flow is
sensitive to changes
in some variables,
e.g. Clearance,
bearing width etc.
OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS
Lobed plain bearings:
bi-directional lobed bearing unidirectional lobed bearing
OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS
Multi-pad plain bearing
OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS
Plain thrust bearings (plain axial bearings, Mitchell bearings)
OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS
Combined plain bearing for radial and bi-directional axial loads