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CONTENTS:

INTRODUCTION

VISCOSITY

REYNOLDS EQUATION

MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION

PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

FRICTION REGIMES

CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES

OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS

INTRODUCTION

A hydrodynamic (HD) bearing is a bearing which carries

load by sliding. This bearing is often called a bushing or a

babbit or journal bearing. The HD bearings are very

widely used and appear in most kinds of equipment, e.g.

as crankshaft and connecting rod bearings in internal

combustion engines.

The HD bearing may carry load in one of several ways

depending on their operating conditions, load, relative

surface speed (shaft to journal), clearance within the

bearing, quality and quantity of lubricant and temperature

(effecting lubricant viscosity).

If full film conditions apply the bearing load is carried

solely by a film of fluid lubricant, there being no contact

between the two bearing surfaces. In this condition they

are known as fluid film bearings.

INTRODUCTION

Crankshaft, Babbitt metal, plain bearing shell

INTRODUCTION

In mixed or boundary conditions load is carried partly by

direct surface contacts and partly by a film formed

between the two mating surfaces of components.

Plain bearings are relatively simple and hence

inexpensive. They are also compact, light weight, straight

forward to repair and have high load-carrying capacity.

However, if operating in dry or boundary conditions plain

bearings may wear faster and have higher friction than

rolling element bearings.

Mixed and boundary conditions may be experienced even

in a fluid film bearings when operating outside of its

normal operating conditions, i.e. at startup and shutdown.

An HD bearing uses a hardened and polished steel shaft

and a soft bronze bushing. In such designs the softer

bronze portion can be allowed to wear away, to be

periodically renewed.

INTRODUCTION

The beginnings of theory of the hydrodynamic lubrication

have been done in the last decades of the 19th century.

The main persons were here Beauchamp Tower and

Osborne Reynolds.

Tower investigated experimentally the plain lubricated

bearings utilised in British railways. He discovered the

self-acting pressure generation in such bearings.

This phenomenon has been explained by Reynolds who

had developed the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication.

INTRODUCTION

Towers testing device for experiments on lubrication

INTRODUCTION

Towers testing device for experiments on lubrication

INTRODUCTION

Towers measurements of the pressure distribution (7988 vs. 8008 lbf)

INTRODUCTION

Reynolds general view on the action of lubricant: a) parallel surfaces in

relative motion (Poiseuille flow); b) approaching parallel surfaces

(Couette flow).

INTRODUCTION

Reynolds general view on the action of lubricant: c) parallel surfaces

approaching with tangential motion (superposition of the Poiseuille and

Couette flow).

INTRODUCTION

Reynolds general view: d); e) inclined surfaces with tangential motion

only.

1

1

VISCOSITY

Viscosity is a measure of internal friction of a fluid that varies with

temperature and pressure and, sometimes, with shear rate (non-

Newtonian lubricant). Newton postulated that the viscous shear

stresses were directly proportional to the shear strain rate, i.e. to

the velocity gradient

where

shear stress

du/dz rate of shear

coefficient of dynamic viscosity

h

U

dz

du

= =

u

du

dz

z

x

VISCOSITY

The viscous shear stress is proportional to the shear

rate, the dynamic viscosity being the proportionality

factor. So, thicker oils have a higher viscosity value

causing relatively higher shear stresses at the same

shear rate.

In SI system is expressed in Ns/m

2

(1 Ns/m

2

= 1 Pas).

This is quite a large unit and it is more common to use

its submultiple, that is mPas.

In CGS system (centimetre/gram/second) the viscosity

was measured in poise 1 P = 1 g/(cms). Practically used

unit was 1 cP = 1 mPas.

VISCOSITY

Dynamic viscosities are usually measured under high shear

conditions, for example, the cone-and-plate viscometer in

which the viscous shear torque is measured on the cone.

M C

M

C

r

M

r

r

dy

du

= =

= =

=

1

3

2

3

;

VISCOSITY

The kinematic viscosity is the quotient of the dynamic

viscosity and the fluid density

In SI system is expressed in m

2

/s, which is again a very

large unit and practically used is mm

2

/s.

In CGS system a unit used was stokes 1 St = 1 cm

2

/s and a

used one was cSt (1 cSt = 1 mm

2

/s).

=

VISCOSITY

The physical principle of

measurement of

kinematic viscosity is

based on the rate at

which a fluid flows

vertically downwards

under gravity through a

small-diameter tube.

Viscosity is measured by

timing the fall of the

liquid level between the

etched rings.

VISCOSITY

Viscosities of some fluids

Parameter Air Water

Mineral

oil

(ISO VG

10460)

Density

[kg/m

3

]

1.2 1000 880

Dynamic

viscosity

[mPas]

0.018 1

202000

Kinematic

viscosity

[mm

2

/s]

15 1

222200

REYNOLDS EQUATION

Reynolds equation takes into consideration both the

equilibrium of forces in viscous fluid (Navier-Stokes

equation) and continuity of flow. We assume for

simplification that:

- Fluid is incompressible and a Newtonian one (the shear

stress is directly proportional to the shear strain rate)

- Fluid properties remain constant; effects due to variation

in temperature and pressure being neglected

- Inertia and gravity forces (mass forces) are negligible in

comparison to friction forces (surface forces)

- The solid bodies remain rigid

- Lubricating film is of sufficiently small thickness that the

fluid pressure can be considered constant through the

thickness of the film

- The bearing is infinitely wide

REYNOLDS EQUATION

In the situation where surfaces are moving tangentially (in

the x direction) with no normal motion and a fluid between

them, if the above assumptions are made the Reynolds

equation reduces to

where h is the local film thickness, h is the film thickness

at the position of maximum pressure and U

1

and U

2

are the

tangential velocities of mating bodies.

In the case of combination of stationary element with

moving one having tangential velocity U we obtain

3

2 1

'

) ( 6

h

h h

U U

dx

dp

+ =

3

'

6

h

h h

U

dx

dp

=

REYNOLDS EQUATION

In the case of the normal approach there is no tangential

motion of the surfaces (U

1

= U

2

= 0), but there is movement

normal to the surfaces. Consider the two parallel flat

plates with respective normal velocities V

1

and V

2

.

Common-sense tells us that a pressure will be developed

in the fluid if the difference V

1

V

2

is positive, and that the

fluid will flow outwards from the point of maximum

pressure. The Reynolds equation confirms this, since

making the same assumptions as before, it becomes

where x is the coordinate of the position of maximum

pressure. This situation is often called 'squeeze film

lubrication.

3

2 1

'

) ( 12

h

x x

V V

dx

dp

=

REYNOLDS EQUATION

The build-up of pressure in a bearing where both types of

relative motion are present (combined longitudinal and

normal motion) can be found by a simple superposition of

the two effects, thus

To find the actual pressure distribution it is necessary to

integrate the equation. Two unknown quantities will then

be present, the integration constant and the value of x.

These are determined by the incorporation of two relevant

boundary conditions. The above equation may be applied

to any pair of surfaces, provided that the appropriate

velocity components are resolved to obtain the

appropriate values of U

1

, U

2

, V

1

and V

2

.

3

2 1

3

2 1

'

) ( 12

'

) ( 6

h

x x

V V

h

h h

U U

dx

dp

+ =

MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION

Two main mechanisms of the pressure generation in the

lubricating film have been demonstrated by Reynolds.

Physical wedge Squeeze film

MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION

Two main mechanisms of the pressure generation in the

lubricating film have been demonstrated by Reynolds:

Physical wedge Squeeze film

MECHANISMS OF THE FLUID FILM FORMATION

Other pressure generating, which are rarely significant,

are:

Stretch mechanism Density wedge

Viscosity wedge Local expansion

PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

Example of design of the ring-fed journal bearing

PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

Scheme of the pressure-fed plain journal bearing

operating under steady load

PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

Plain journal bearings nomenclature:

F applied load

R bushing radius

r shaft radius

D = 2R bearing diameter

B bearing width

p pressure in oil film

p

*

pressure in the case of oil inlet in the loaded zone

e eccentricity

h oil film thickness

h

0

minimum oil film thickness

angular velocity of journal

angular position of the shaft centre

s = R r radial clearance

S = 2s total clearance

= e/s relative eccentricity

= S/D relative clearance

PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

Friction regimes in plain bearings Stribeck curve:

1 T = const; 2 T const.

FRICTION REGIMES

Boundary lubrication

The friction and wear characteristics of the lubricated contact are

determined by the properties or the surface layers (in nanometer scale)

the underlying solids. The fatty acids are often used as additives

forming boundary layers. Viscosity has negligible effect on frictional

behaviour.

FRICTION REGIMES

Mixed lubrication

A very large proportion of lubricated contacts operate with

a mixture of hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication

mechanisms at the same instant. In mixed lubrication it js

necessary to consider both the physical properties of the

bulk lubricant and the chemical interactions between the

additives and the adjacent solids.

FRICTION REGIMES

Fluid film lubrication

The best way to minimise wear and friction in rolling and sliding

contacts in machines is to separate the solids by a lubricating film.

The lubricant can be a liquid or a gas and the load supporting film can

be created by the motion of the solids (self-acting or hydrodynamic

bearings) or by a external pressure source (externally pressurised or

hydrostatic ones).

FRICTION REGIMES

Elastohydrodynamic lubrication

A special form of fluid film lubrication in which the

development of effective films is .encouraged by local

elastic deformation of the bearing solids is known as

eIastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication (gears, ball and roller

bearings, cams and tappets).

CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

The Reynolds equation for the short journal bearing (shown

in above figure) has in cylindrical coordinates the form

where the mean pressure is

and the film profile (without considering deformation of

mating components and their surface roughness) describes

the following equation

h

r U

z

p h

z

r

p h

6

3

2

3

( ) cos 1 + = s h

D B

F

p

m

=

CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

The integration of the

Reynolds equation gives

in dimensionless form

the Sommerfeld number

as a measure of the

hydrodynamic load

carrying capacity

Figure shows the

extended Sommerfeld

number as a function of

the relative eccentricity

with the relative width as

a parameter.

=

2

m

p

So

CALCULATION OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS

The limiting HD film thickness (that ensures the wear-free

operation of bearing) and recommended roughness

height (peak-to-valley one) is shown in figure.

JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES

To prevent overheating, the clearance and operating

viscosity should be chosen to suit the operating speed.

JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES

The viscosity in graph is that at the operating temperature

obtained (assumed not greater than 20C above inlet temperature).

JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES

Figure gives a guide

to the load capacity of

bearings when

operating with the

previous given

speeds, clearances

and viscosities.

Normally, values of

B/D should not

exceed 1.

JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES

Figure gives

guidance on the

power loss for a

bearing with width

equal to diameter

(B/D = 1). It can be

assumed that the

power loss is

directly proportional

to the relative width

of bearing.

JOURNAL BEARINGS DESIGN GUIDELINES

Figure gives a very

rough guide for the

volume rate of flow

(assuming B/D = 1).

It should be

underlined that the

lubricant flow is

sensitive to changes

in some variables,

e.g. Clearance,

bearing width etc.

OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS

Lobed plain bearings:

bi-directional lobed bearing unidirectional lobed bearing

OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS

Multi-pad plain bearing

OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS

Plain thrust bearings (plain axial bearings, Mitchell bearings)

OTHER TYPES OF PLAIN BEARINGS

Combined plain bearing for radial and bi-directional axial loads

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