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Automobile Engine

4 Stroke Cycle

Automobile: Main systems


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Engine convert energy of fuel to energy of motion Powertrain transfer power from engine to driven wheels Brakes slow and stop vehicle Steering control direction of travel Suspension
Absorb bumps Maintain alignment Keep wheels in contact with road

6. 7.

Electrical generate and distribute electricity Body protect occupants (

Automobile: Main Theme


Visually apparent how form follows function. Visually Accessible. How it works is there to see if look in the right place. Components performing specific function in overall system also very apparent. Systems and subsystems of components contributing to overall operation also readily apparent in automobile.

Engine
Engine Chemical energy of fuel and air Fuel Air Convert chemical to Kinetic energy (energy of motion) Heat Kinetic Energy Engine RPM Exhaust

System Boundary automobile engine

Start at location where air and fuel are burned and work out from there. Put the car together starting with the combustion

Engine: Underlying Principle


Internal combustion engine
Energy conversion device Heat engine Heat -> Work

Converts energy of fuel into energy of motion. 4 stroke cycle Otto cycle

Engine Construction
Basic generic Internal Combustion Automobile Engine. Start where air/fuel are burned and work out from there. Strip off components Engine put together in two halves
Upper half = head Lower half = block Seal between upper and lower = head gasket

Engine Engine head Engine block Engine head gasket

Engine Construction
Look at single cylinder Most automobile engines have more than one cylinder Same process in each one

Engine: Main Parts


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Cylinder contain burning air/fuel hole in metal block Piston convert pressure of burning air/fuel to force metal plug Crank convert linear to rotary motion crank-shaped metal Connecting Rod Transfer force from piston to crank metal bar Spark plug Ignite air/fuel mixture Insulated gap Intake port allow air/fuel into cylinder hole in engine head Intake valve control flow through intake port upside down metal T Exhaust port allow exhaust to exit cylinder hole in engine head Exhaust valve control flow through exhaust port upside down metal T

Valves

Crankshaft

4-Stroke Cycle

4-Stroke Cycle

4-Stroke Cycle Details


Cams
Open and close intake and exhaust valves. Camshaft: several cams connected together. OHC: Over head Cam, cam is above valves, allows higher engine speeds. DOHC: Double Overhead Cam, separate control of intake and exhaust valve to optimize performance.

Timing Belt (also timing chain, timing gears)


Connects crankshaft to camshaft Coordinates opening and closing of valves with up and down motion of pistons. Insures that valves are opened and closed at proper time.

Flywheel
Heavy metal disk at the end of the crankshaft. Helps to smooth out surges from the power strokes to keep engine rotating at a uniform rate.

Rings
Help seal pistons to cylinder walls

Firing Order
Each cylinder in different part of the cycle Insures always one cylinder pushing the others Smooths out vibrations Distributes heat input to engine block

Multi valve engines


Small valves move quicker

Illustrations
Form following function More than one design possible
Valve trains Timing

Firing Order

1 P E I C

2 E I C P

3 C P E I

4 I C P E

Rings

Rings

Cams

Valve Trains (Cam Variation)

OHC and OHV

OHV and OHC Valve Trains

Timing
Gear Chain Belt

Connects crankshaft and camshaft Coordinates valves and pistons

Timing Belt

Timing Chain

Timing Gear

Flywheel

Multi Valve Engines


Normal Innovation

Rotary Engine

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