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P-1

APPENDIX P-ALLOWABLE EXTERNAL LOADS ON TANK SHELL OPENINGS


Note numbering changes in headers throughout Appendix P (starting with P.2, Limit Loads).
P.1 Introduction
This appendix presents two diIIerent procedures dealing
with loads on tank shells. Section P.2 establishes limit loads
and P.3 is based on allowable stresses. This appendix is based
on H. D. Billimoria and J. Hagstrom`s 'StiIIness CoeIfcients
and Allowable Loads Ior Nozzles in Flat Bottom Storage
Tanks and H. D. Billimoria and K. K. Tam`s 'Experimental
Investigation oI StiIIness CoeIfcients and Allowable Loads
Ior a Nozzle in a Flat Bottom Storage Tank.
P.2 Limit Loads
P.2.1 SCOPE
This appendix establishes minimum recommendations Ior
the design oI storage tank openings that conIorm to Table 3-6
and will be subjected to external piping loads. This appendix
shall be used only when specifed by the purchaser and is rec-
ommended only Ior tanks larger than 36 m (120 It) in diame-
ter. The recommendations oI this appendix represent accepted
practice Ior the design oI shell openings in the lower halI oI
the bottom shell course that have a minimum elevation Irom
the tank bottom and meet the requirements oI Table 3-6. It is
recognized that the purchaser may speciIy other procedures,
special Iactors, and additional requirements. When the use oI
this appendix is specifed, any deviation Irom its require-
ments shall be mutually agreed upon by the purchaser and the
manuIacturer. It is not intended that this appendix necessarily
be applied to piping connections similar in size and confgu-
ration to those on tanks oI similar size and thickness Ior
which satisIactory service experience is available.
P.2.2 GENERAL
The design oI an external piping system that will be con-
nected to a thin-walled, large-diameter cylindrical vertical
storage tank may pose a problem in the analysis oI the inter-
Iace between the piping system and the tank opening connec-
tions. The piping designer must consider the stiIIness oI the
tank shell and the radial defection and meridional rotation oI
the shell opening at the opening-shell connection resulting
Irom product head, pressure, and uniIorm or diIIerential tem-
perature between the shell and the bottom. The work oI the
piping designer and the tank designer must be coordinated to
ensure that the piping loads imposed on the shell opening by
the connected piping are within saIe limits. Although three
primary Iorces and three primary moments may be applied to
the mid-surIace oI the shell at an opening connection, only
one Iorce,

, and two moments,

and

, are normally
considered signifcant causes oI shell deIormation (see P.3 Ior
a description oI the nomenclature).
P.2.3 NOMENCLATURE
outside radius oI the opening connection (mm) (in.),
modulus oI elasticity (MPa) (lbI/in.
2
) (see Table P-1),

radial thrust applied at the mid-surIace oI the tank


shell at the opening connection (N) (lbI),

pressure end load on the opening Ior the pressure


resulting Irom the design product head at the eleva-
tion oI the opening centerline,

2
(N) (lbI),
design specifc gravity oI the liquid,
maximum allowable tank flling height (mm) (in.),

stiIIness coeIfcient Ior the circumIerential


moment (N-mm/radian) (in.-lbI/radian),

stiIIness coeIfcient Ior the longitudinal moment


(N-mm/radian) (in.-lbI/radian),

stiIIness coeIfcient Ior the radial thrust load


(N/mm) (lbI /in.),
vertical distance Irom the opening centerline to the
tank bottom (mm) (in.),

circumIerential moment applied to the mid-surIace


oI the tank shell (N-mm) (in.-lbI),

longitudinal moment applied to the mid-surIace oI


the tank shell (N-mm) (in.-lbI),
pressure resulting Irom product head at the eleva-
tion oI the opening centerline (MPa) (lbI/in.
2
),
nominal tank radius (mm) (in.),
shell thickness at the opening connection (mm)
(in.),

normal operating temperature minus installation
temperature (C) (F),
unrestrained radial growth oI the shell (mm) (in.),

resultant radial defection at the opening connec-


tion (mm) (in.),

(mm) (in.),

(mm) (in.),

(mm) (in.),

coeIfcient determined Irom Figure P-4B,

coeIfcients determined Irom Figure P-4A,



thermal expansion coeIfcient oI the shell material
|mm/(mm-C)| |in./(in.-F)| (see Table P-1),

characteristic parameter, 1.285/()
0.5
(1/mm)
(1/in.),

/ ()
0.5
,
03
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P-2 AP STANDARD 650


unrestrained shell rotation resulting Irom product
head (radians),

shell rotation in the horizontal plane at the opening


connection resulting Irom the circumIerential
moment (radians),

shell rotation in the vertical plane at the opening


connection resulting Irom the longitudinal moment
(radians).
P.2.4 STIFFNESS COEFFICIENTS FOR OPENING
CONNECTIONS
The stiIIness coeIfcients

, and

corresponding to
the piping loads

, and

at an opening connection, as
shown in Figure P-1, shall be obtained by the use oI Figures
P-2A through P-2L. Figures P-2A through P-2L shall be used
to interpolate intermediate values oI coeIfcients.
P.2.5 SHELL DEFLECTION AND ROTATION
P.2.5.1 RadiaI Growth of SheII
The unrestrained outward radial growth oI the shell at the
center oI the opening connection resulting Irom product head
and/or thermal expansion shall be determined as Iollows:
In SI units:
In US Customary units:
P.2.5.2 Rotation of SheII
The unrestrained rotation oI the shell at the center oI the
nozzle-shell connection resulting Irom product head shall be
determined as Iollows:
In SI units:
In US Customary units:
P.2.6 DETERMINATION OF LOADS ON THE
OPENING CONNECTION
The relationship between the elastic deIormation oI the
opening connection and the external piping loads is expressed
as Iollows:

, and

are the shell stiIIness coeIfcients deter-


mined Irom Figures P-2A through P-2L.

, and

are
the resultant radial defection and rotation oI the shell at the
opening connection resulting Irom the piping loads

,
and

and the product head, pressure, and uniIorm or diIIer-


ential temperature between the shell and the tank bottom.

, and

shall be obtained Irom analyses oI piping fexi-


bility based on consideration oI the shell stiIIness determined
Irom Figures P-2A through P-2L, the shell defection and
rotation determined as described in P.2.5, and the rigidity and
restraint oI the connected piping system.
P.2.7 DETERMINATION OF ALLOWABLE LOADS
FOR THE SHELL OPENING
P.2.7.1 Construction of Nomograms
P.2.7.1.1 Determine the nondimensional quantities

/
()
0.5
,

/()
0.5
, and

/()
0.5
Ior the opening confgura-
tion under consideration.
P.2.7.1.2 Lay out two sets oI orthogonal axes on graph
paper, and label the abscissas and ordinates as shown in Fig-
Table P-1Modulus of Elasticity and Thermal
Expansion Coeffcient at the Design Temperature
Design
Temperature Modulus oI Elasticity
MPa (lbI/in.
2
)

Thermal Expansion
CoeIfcient
a
|mm

I 10
6
/(mm-C)|
(inches

I 10
6
per inch-F) C F
20 70 203,000 (29,500,000)
90 200 199,000 (28,800,000) 12.0 (6.67)
150 300 195,000 (28,300,000) 12.4 (6.87)
200 400 191,000 (27,700,000) 12.7 (7.07)
260 500 188,000 (27,300,000) 13.1 (7.25)
a
Mean coeIfcient oI thermal expansion, going Irom 20C (70F)
to the temperature indicated.
Note: Linear interpolation may be applied Ior intermediate values.
03

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WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-3


ures P-3A and P-3B, where YC, YF, and YL are coeIfcients
determined Irom Figures P-4A and P-4B.
P.2.7.1.3 Construct Iour boundaries Ior Figure P-3A and
two boundaries Ior Figure P-3B. Boundaries
1
and
2
shall
be constructed as lines at 45-degree angles between the
abscissa and the ordinate. Boundaries
1
,
2
, and
3
shall be
constructed as lines at 45-degree angles passing through the
calculated value indicated in Figures P-3A and P-3B plotted
on the positive x axis.
P.2.7.2 Determination of AIIowabIe Loads
P.2.7.2.1 Use the values Ior

, and

obtained Irom
the piping analyses to determine the quantities ( / 2

) (

), ( /

)(

), and ( /

)(

).
P.2.7.2.2 Plot the point ( / 2

)(

), ( /

)(

)
on the nomogram constructed as shown in Figure P-5A.
P.2.7.2.3 Plot the point ( / 2

)(

), ( /

)(

)
on the nomogram constructed as shown in Figure P-5B.
P.2.7.2.4 The external piping loads

, and

to be
imposed on the shell opening are acceptable iI both points
determined Irom P.2.7.2.2 and P.2.7.2.3 lie within the bound-
aries oI the nomograms constructed Ior the particular open-
ing-tank confguration.
P.2.8 MANUFACTURER AND PURCHASER
RESPONSIBILITY
P.2.8.1 The manuIacturer is responsible Ior Iurnishing to
the purchaser the shell stiIIness coeIfcients (see P.2.4) and
the unrestrained shell defection and rotation (see P.2.5). The
purchaser is responsible Ior Iurnishing to the manuIacturer
the magnitude oI the shell-opening loads (see P.2.6). The
manuIacturer shall determine, in accordance with P.2.7, the
acceptability oI the shell-opening loads Iurnished by the pur-
chaser. II the loads are excessive, the piping confguration
shall be modifed so that the shell-opening loads Iall within
the boundaries oI the nomograms constructed as in P.2.7.1.
P.2.8.2 Changing the elevation oI the opening and chang-
ing the thickness oI the shell are alternative means oI reduc-
ing stresses, but because these measures can aIIect
Iabrication, they may be considered only iI mutually agreed
upon by the purchaser and the manuIacturer.
Figure P-1Nomenclature for Piping Loads and Deformation
F
R
RADIAL LOAD F
R
LONGITUDINAL MOMENT M
L
CIRCUMFERENTIAL
MOMENT M
C
R
L
M
L /
K
L
t
L
L
W
RM
()
W
RF
(+)
L
(+)
L
()
C
M
C/
K
C
(+)
C
+M
C
D
D
D
W
RF
F
R/
K
R
L
tan
1
(W
R/
L)
W
RM
(L) tan (
L
)
M
T
M
X
X
M
C
M
Y
F
L
F
Y
F
R
F
X
Z
Y
01
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P-4 AP STANDARD 650


Figure P-2AStiffness Coeffcient for Radial Load:
Reinforcement on Shell (L / 2a = 1.0)
Figure P-2BStiffness Coeffcient for Longitudinal Moment:
Reinforcement on Shell (L / 2a = 1.0)
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on shell
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.0
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on shell
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.0
01
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WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-5


Figure P-2CStiffness Coeffcient for Circumferential Moment:
Reinforcement on Shell (L / 2a = 1.0)
Figure P-2DStiffness Coeffcient for Radial Load:
Reinforcement on Shell (L / 2a = 1.5)
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on shell
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.0
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on shell
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.5
Copyright American Petroleum nstitute
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P-6 AP STANDARD 650


Figure P-2EStiffness Coeffcient for Longitudinal Moment:
Reinforcement on Shell (L / 2a = 1.5)
Figure P-2FStiffness Coeffcient for Circumferential Moment:
Reinforcement on Shell (L / 2a = 1.5)
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on shell
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.5
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on shell
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.5
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WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-7


Figure P-2GStiffness Coeffcient for Radial Load:
Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only (L / 2a = 1.0)
Figure P-2HStiffness Coeffcient for Longitudinal Moment:
Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only (L / 2a = 1.0)
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on opening (neck) only
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.0
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on opening (neck) only
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.0
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P-8 AP STANDARD 650


Figure P-2Stiffness Coeffcient for Circumferential Moment:
Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only ( L / 2a = 1.0)
Figure P-2JStiffness Coeffcient for Radial Load:
Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only ( L / 2a = 1.5)
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on opening (neck) only
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.0
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on opening (neck) only
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.5
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WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-9


Figure P-2KStiffness Coeffcient for Longitudinal Moment:
Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only (L / 2a = 1.5)
Figure P-2LStiffness Coeffcient for Circumferential Moment:
Reinforcement in Nozzle Neck Only (L / 2a = 1.5)
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on opening (neck) only
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.5
1 I 10
6
1 I 10
5
1 I 10
4
1 I 10
3
1 I 10
2
Reinforcement on opening (neck) only
a
/
R = 0.005
a
/
R = 0.02
a
/
R = 0.04
R
/
t
L
/
2a = 1.5
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P-10 AP STANDARD 650


P.2.9 SAMPLE PROBLEM
P.2.9.1 ProbIem
A tank is 80 m (260 It) in diameter and 19.2 m (64 It) high,
and its bottom shell course is 34 mm (1.33 in.) thick. The tank
has a low-type nozzle with an outside diameter oI 610 mm (24
in.) in accordance with API Standard 650, and the nozzle center-
line is 630 mm (24.75 in.) up Irom the bottom plate, with rein-
Iorcement on the opening (neck) only (see Figure P-6). What are
the end conditions (, ,

, and

) Ior an analysis oI pip-


ing fexibility? What are the limit loads Ior the nozzle?
305 mm (12 in.),
630 mm (24.75 in.),
19,200 mm (64 I 12 768 in.),
90 20 70C (200 70 130F),
80,000/2 40,000 mm ((260 I 12)/2 1560 in.),
34 mm (1.33 in.).
P.2.9.2 SoIution
P.2.9.2.1 Calculate the stiIIness coeIfcients Ior the nozzle-
tank connection:
/ 40,000/34 1176 (1560/1.33 1173)
/ 305/40,000 0.008 (12/1560 0.008)
/ 2 630/610 1.0 (24.75/24 1.0)
For the radial load (Irom Figure P-2G),
In SI units:

(3.1 I 10
4
)(199,000 N/mm
2
)(610 mm)
37.6 N/mm
In US Customary units:

(3.1 I 10
4
)(28.8 I 10
6
lb/in.
2
)(24 in.)
214 I 10
3
lbI/in.
For the longitudinal moment (Irom Figure P-2H),
In SI units:

(3.0 I 10
4
)(199,000 N/mm
2
)(610 mm)
13.6 I 10
9
N-mm/rad
In US Customary units:

(3.0 I 10
4
)(28.8 I 10
6
)(24)
3
119 I 10
6
in.-lb/rad
For the circumIerential moment (Irom Figure P-2I),
In SI units:

(5.0 I 10
4
)(199,000 N/mm
2
)(610 mm)
3
22.6 I 10
9
N-mm/rad
In US Customary units:

(5.0 I 10
4
)(28.8 I 10
6
)(24)
3
199 I 10
6
in.-lb/rad
P.2.9.2.2 Calculate the unrestrained shell defection and
rotation at the nozzle centerline resulting Irom the hydrostatic
head oI the Iull tank:
In SI units:

(0.00110)(630) 0.7 rad


(12.0 I 10
6
)(40,000)(70)
59.77 mm


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WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-11


Figure P-3AConstruction of Nomogram for b
1
, b
2
, c
1
, c
2
Boundary
Figure P-3BConstruction of Nomogram for b
1
, c
3
Boundary
0.1 or
[1.0 0.75 X
B /
(R t )
0.5
],
whichever is greater
(
/
2Y
F
) (F
R /
F
P
)
0.1 or
[1.0 0.75 X
A /
(R t )
0.5
],
whichever is greater
(
/
aY
L
) (M
L /
F
P
)
1.0
1.0 0.5 1.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1
c
1
b
2
c
2
b
1
0.5
0.1 or
[1.0 0.75 X
C /
(R t )
0.5
],
whichever is greater
(
/
2Y
F
) (F
R /
F
P
)
(
/
aY
C
) (M
C /
F
P
)
1.0
1.0 0.5 1.0
1
1
1
1
c
3
b
1
0.5
0.5
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P-12 AP STANDARD 650

0.032 rad
In US Customary units:

(0.0282)(24.75) 0.7

(6.67 I 106)(1560)(130)
2.39 inches

0.032 rad
PerIorm the analysis oI piping fexibility using , ,

, and

as the end conditions at the nozzle-to-piping


connection.

935 mm (36.75 in.)

325 mm (12.75 in.)

630 mm (24.75 in.)


Determine the allowable loads Ior the shell opening, as in
P.2.9.2.3.
Figure P-4AObtaining Coeffcients Y
F
and Y
L
= a
/
(Rt )
0.5
= (a
/
R) (R
/
t )
0.5
0.1
Two-thirds of the required reinforced area must be located
within a + 0.5 (Rt )
0.5
of the opening centerline
0.7
1
0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0
2
5
10
20
30
Y
L
Y
F
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WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-13


Figure P-4BObtaining Coeffcient Y
C
= a
/
(Rt )
0.5
= (a
/
R) (R
/
t )
0.5
0.1
1
2
0.2 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.0
3
5
10
20
30
Two-thirds of the required reinforced area must be located
within a + 0.5 (Rt )
0.5
of the opening centerline
3.0 5.0 10.0
50
100
200
300
500
1000
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P-14 AP STANDARD 650


Figure P-5ADetermination of Allowable Loads from Nomogram: F
R
and M
L
Figure P-5BDetermination of Allowable Loads from Nomogram: F
R
and M
C
(
/
2Y
F
) (F
R /
F
P
)
(
/
aY
L
) (M
L /
F
P
) 1.0
1.0 0.5 1.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.5
+F
R
, M
L
(tension at A controls)
+F
R
, +M
L
(tension at B controls)
F
R
, +M
L
(compression
at A controls)
F
R
, M
L
(compression
at B controls)
(
/
2Y
F
) (F
R /
F
P
)
(
/
aY
C
) (M
C /
F
P
) 1.0
1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5
+F
R
, M
C
(tension at C controls)
F
R
, M
C
(compression
at C controls)
M
C
M
L
F
R
A
B
0.5
Copyright American Petroleum nstitute
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WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-15


P.2.9.2.3 Determine the nondimensional quantities:
In SI units:
In US Customary units:
From Figures P-4A and P-4B,

7.8 mm (in.)

2.0 mm (in.)

15.0 mm (in.)
P.2.9.2.4 Construct the load nomograms (see Figure P-7):
In SI units:
53,200 N
Figure P-6Low-Type Nozzle with Reinforcement in
Nozzle Neck Only (for Sample Problem)
34 mm (1.33")
2 = 610 mm (24")
= 630 mm (24.75")
03

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Copyright American Petroleum nstitute
Reproduced by HS under license with AP Licensee=Perez Companc/5955403001
Not for Resale, 04/18/2005 08:23:51 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from HS

P-16 AP STANDARD 650


Figure P-7Allowable-Load Nomograms for Sample Problem
(
/
2Y
F
) (F
R /
F
P
)
1.0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5
- 1.0 0.5 1.0 - 0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.79
0.4
0.59
- F
R
, + M
C
(compression at C controls)
- F
R
, + M
C
(compression at C controls)
- F
R
, + M
L
(compression at A controls)
F
R
- F
R
, - M
L
(compression at B controls)
A
C
B
C
M
L
M
C
+ F
R
, + M
C
(tension at C controls)
+ F
R
, - M
C
(tension at C controls)
+ F
R
, - M
L
(tension at A controls)
+ F
R
, + M
L
(tension at B controls)
(
/
2Y
F
) (F
R /
F
P
)
(
/
aY
C
) (M
C/
F
P
)
(
/
aY
L
) (M
L /
F
P
)
03
Copyright American Petroleum nstitute
Reproduced by HS under license with AP Licensee=Perez Companc/5955403001
Not for Resale, 04/18/2005 08:23:51 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from HS

WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-17


In US Customary units:
12,142 pounds
P.2.9.2.5 Determine the limit piping loads.
In SI units:
For

0 and

0,
For

,
For

,
ThereIore,
328,000 N (tension at A controls)
820,000 N (compression at B controls)
For

0 and

0,
For

,
For

,
ThereIore,
550 I 10
6
N-mm (tension at C controls)
550 I 10
6
N (tension at C controls)
For

0 and

0,
For

,
For

,
ThereIore,
385 I 10
6
N-mm (tension at B con-
trols)
195 I 10
6
N-mm (tension at A con-
trols)
In US Customary units:
For

0 and

0,
For

,
For

,
ThereIore,
74,800 lbI (tension at A controls)
187,000 lbI (compression at B con-
trols)
For

0 and

0,
For

,
For

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-------


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----------------


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--------


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Copyright American Petroleum nstitute
Reproduced by HS under license with AP Licensee=Perez Companc/5955403001
Not for Resale, 04/18/2005 08:23:51 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from HS

P-18 AP STANDARD 650


ThereIore,
4.95 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at C controls)
4.95 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at C con-
trols)
For

0 and

0,
For

,
For

,
ThereIore,
3.44 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at B con-
trols)
1.74 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at A controls)
P.2.9.3 Summary
The limit piping loads are as Iollows:
In SI units:

max
328,000 N (tension at A controls)

max
820,000 N (tension at B controls)

max
550 I 10
6
N-mm (tension at C controls)

max
550 I 10
6
N-mm (tension at C controls)

max
385 I 10
6
N-mm (tension at B controls)

max
195 I 10
6
N-mm (tension at A controls)
In US Customary units:

max
74,800 lbI (tension at A controls)

max
187,000 lbI (tension at B controls)

max
4.95 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at C controls)

max
4.95 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at C controls)

max
3.44 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at B controls)

max
1.74 I 10
6
in.-lbI (tension at A controls)
Note: This section is based on the paper 'Analysis oI Nozzle Loads in
API 650 Tanks.
25
P.3 AIternate Procedure for the EvaIuation
of ExternaI Loads on Tank SheII
Openings
P.3.1 SCOPE
This alternative method expands the data presented in the
WRC Bulletin 297. Maximum stress Iactors are presented in
fgures as well as in tables. WRC Bulletin 297 was used to cal-
culate the maximum stress Iactors

at the junction oI the noz-


zle and tank shell. The recommended limitations Ior WRC
297 are 2500, 100. The method is valid Ior all
practical sizes oI tanks.
P.3.2 NOMENCLATURE
2()
1/2
, distance oI nozzle removed Irom any other
gross structural stress continuity, (mm) (in.),
nominal diameter oI tank, (mm) (in.),

diameter oI reinIorcing plate, (mm) (in.),

radial thrust applied at the mid-surIace oI the tank


shell at the opening connection, (N) (lbI),
vertical distance Irom opening centerline to tank bot-
tom, (mm) (in.),

circumIerential moment applied to the mid-surIace oI


the tank shell, (N-mm) (in.-lbI),

generic moment, (N-mm) (in.-lbs),

longitudinal moment applied to the mid-surIace oI the


tank shell, (N-mm) (in.-lbI),

torsional moment applied to the mid-surIace oI the


tank shell, (N-mm) (in.-lbI),
stress intensity, (MPa) (lbI/in.
2
),

all
allowable stress intensity due to applied load on noz-
zles, (MPa) (lbI/in.
2
),
1 I S
d
Ior mechanical loads,
1.5 I S
d
Ior thermal loads,

allowable design stress, (MPa) (lbI/in.


2
),

shear Iorce in transverse (circumIerential) direction,


(N) (lbI),

shear Iorce in longitudinal direction, (N) (lbs),

resultant radial defection at opening connection,


(mm) (in.),
outside radius oI opening connection, (mm) (in.),
outside diameter oI nozzle, (mm) (in.),



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25
'Analysis oI Loads Ior Nozzles in API 650 Tanks, M. LengsIeld,
K.L. Bardia, J. Taagepera, K. Hathaitham, D.G. LaBounty, M.C.
LengsIeld. Paper PVP-Vol 430, ASME, New York, 2001.
03
03
Copyright American Petroleum nstitute
Reproduced by HS under license with AP Licensee=Perez Companc/5955403001
Not for Resale, 04/18/2005 08:23:51 MDT No reproduction or networking permitted without license from HS

WELDED STEEL TANKS FOR OL STORAGE P-19

stress Iactor due to circumIerential moment, (dimen-


sionless),

stress Iactor due to longitudinal moment, (dimen-


sionless),

stress Iactor due to radial thrust, (dimensionless),

stress Iactor (generic), (dimensionless),


L/B, height ration, (dimensionless),

radial bending stress component, (dimensionless),


transverse bending stress component, (dimension-
less),

generic bending stress component, (dimensionless),

radial membrane stress component, (dimensionless),


transverse (circumIerential) membrane stress com-
ponent, (dimensionless),

generic stress component (membrane), (dimension-


less),
thickness oI tank shell at location oI nozzle, (mm)
(in.),

thickness oI nozzle neck, (mm) (in.),

thickness oI reinIorcing plate (mm) (in.),


()()
1/2
, geometric parameter, (dimensionless),
stress reduction Iactor, (dimensionless),

calculated radial stress, (MPa) (lbI/in.


2
),
calculated membrane stress, (MPa) (lbI/in.
2
),

calculated generic stress, (MPa) (lbI/in.


2
),
calculated shear stress, (MPa) (lbI/in.
2
).
P.3.3 DESCRIPTION
Figures P-8 through P-10 provide stress Iactors Ior nozzles
located away Irom a gross structural discontinuity. A gross
structural discontinuity is defned as a major change oI geom-
etry, like a ring or the closeness oI the bottom/shell junction.
The stress Iactors are a combination oI membrane and bend-
ing components Ior each load applied. Equations created
Irom the data in WRC Bulletin 297 were used to produce the
graphs in Figure P-8 through P-10. The graphs represent the
absolute maximum value, which will result in a conservative
estimate oI the maximum stresses at the nozzle-to-shell junc-
tion. Each graph includes the mathematical expression Ior the
plotted graph. The mathematical equations are summarized in
Tables P-2 through P-4. Use oI the mathematical equations
will simpliIy the creation oI computer programs Ior the calcu-
lation oI stresses at the nozzle-to-shell junction.
P.3.4 STRESS FACTORS DUE TO F
R
, M
C
, M
L
Total stress has three components: bending, membrane,
and shear. The stress Iactors Ior calculation oI stresses in the
shell at the nozzle junction have been presented Ior the stress
equations. Moment loads include circumIerential and longitu-
dinal moments.

(
2
)(

o 6

) (Radial Load) (1)


(
2
)( o 6 ) (Radial Load) (2)

/(
2
)|(

o 6

) (Moment Load) (3)


|

/(
2
)|( o 6 ) (Moment Load) (4)
The dimensionless Iactors

and

were obtained Irom


WRC Bulletin 297, Figures 3 through 58 Ior various nozzle
sizes, tank diameters and thicknesses. The absolute maximum
oI these values as used in the stress equations 1 through 4
have been combined into the dimensionless stress Iactors.

o 6

) (5)
The Iactors were plotted aIter transIormation into mathe-
matical equivalents in Figures P-8 through P-10.
The actual maximum stresses Ior specifc nozzles in a tank
can be calculated by

2
)

Ior radial load (6a)


and

/(
2
)|

Ior moment load. (6b)


P.3.5 SHEAR STRESSES DUE TO M
T
, V
C
, V
L
Shear stresses in the tank shell at the nozzle junction may
be estimated by:

/(
2
) Ior torsional moment (7a)

/( ) Ior shear Iorce (7b)


where:

or

.
The total shear stress is the summation oI the three compo-
nents:
Total


(8a)
However, iI shear stresses due to

and

become signiI-
icant, it should be recognized that their maximum value and
zero value occur 90 apart Irom each other. In this case the
components shall be separated into:


(8b)
03
03
Copyright American Petroleum nstitute
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