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MECH 364 Assignment 2

Problems from the book: 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.13, 2.16, 2.17, 2.22, 2.24

2.2 Consider the undamped, simple oscillator given by
x x
n
+ = e
2
0
It is known that ( ) x A t
n
= + sin e | represents the complete solution to this
system equation.
(a) What are the physical meanings of the parameters e
n
and |? Show that the
velocity x leads the displacement x by an angle of t / 2.
(b) Explain why x alone does not represent a complete state of this system, but
the pair x and x does.
(c) With ( ) x x 0
0
= and ( )
x v 0
0
= as initial conditions of the system, we can show
that A x
v
x
n
= +
|
\

|
.
|
0
0
0
2
1
e
and tan |
e
=
n
x
v
0
0
.
Using these results explain how the amplitude and the phase angle of the
motion are affected by the initial conditions and the natural frequency of the
system. Why are these observations intuitively clear as well?

2.4 Discuss how mechanical vibrations in a robot arm could adversely affect its
performance.
Consider the simplified model of a single-degree-of-freedom robot arm
(single link) shown in Figure P2.4. The link is driven by a dc motor, through a
light shaft of torsional stiffness k
s
.

Figure P2.4 A single-link robot arm.

2.6 Define the terms:
(a) Undamped natural frequency
(b) Damped natural frequency.
Consider the damped second order system given by
x x x
n n
+ + = 2 0
2
,e e
Define the parameters e
n
and , giving their physical meanings within the context of
mechanical vibration. Give an expression for damped natural vibration e
d
of this
system.
Describe the free response of the system for the three cases
(i) , < 1 (ii) , > 1 (iii) , = 1.

2.7 (a) Consider a heavy uniform spring of mass m
s
and stiffness k, with one end
fixed and the other end free to move. Clearly showing all the steps and stating
the necessary assumptions, show that this distributed-parameter system may
be approximated by a massless (i.e., light) spring of stiffness k, with a lumped
mass m
s
/3 at the free end.
Hint: Obtain the kinetic energy (KE) and the elastic potential energy (PE) of
the system and then establish a lumped-parameter system having the same KE
and PE.
k
s

J
l
J
m


u
m


u
l

Motor
Rotor
Robot Link
(Load)
(b) Explain why the lumped-parameter approximation obtained in Part (a)
essentially corresponds to the first mode of the heavy (distributed-parameter)
spring, and not a higher mode. No analysis is needed.
Hint: Consider the assumptions that were made in obtaining the lumped-
parameter approximation.
(c) A heavy spring of mass m
s
was fixed at one end. The free end was pressed
through a distance of A
1
from the static equilibrium position, held stationary,
and released. At the completion of the first cycle of vibration, from this
starting time, the free end was found to be deflected through A
2
from the static
equilibrium position (Note: A
2
<A
1
). Also, the time period of the cycle was
found to be T. Obtain expressions for the following, in terms of the measured
parameters m
s
, A
1
, A
2
, and T:
(i) Damping ratio ,
(ii) Undamped natural frequency e
n

(iii) Spring stiffness k.

2.8 The energy method is useful in determining the equivalent mass and equivalent
stiffness of a vibrating system. Consider the example shown in Figure P2.8.

Figure P2.8 (a) A lumped-parameter mechanical system
(b) An equivalent system.


k
eq

(b) (a)
y
m
eq
y
Torsional
Spring
k
Mass
m
2

Mass
m
1

l
1

l
2

u
First consider the lumped-parameter system shown in Figure P2.8(a). A light, yet
rigid, beam is hinged at one end using a frictionless pivot and restrained using a
torsional spring having torsional stiffness k, at the hinged end. Two point masses m
1

and m
2
are attached at distances l
1
and l
2
, respectively, from the hinged end. Under
static equilibrium conditions, the beam remains in a horizontal configuration.
Suppose that the beam is excited by a small initial push and left to vibrate with
angular displacement u. As a result the mass m
2
undergoes a lateral-displacement
(up and down) vibration y. An equivalent vibratory system is shown in Figure
P2.8(b). Here m
eq
is an equivalent mass assumed to be present at the location of m
2

and restrained by an equivalent linear spring there with stiffness k
eq
.
(a) Explain why gravity effects do not enter into the equations of motion of
Figure P2.8, assuming that u and y are measured from the static
equilibrium configuration.
(b) Obtain expressions for m
eq
and k
eq
in terms of the parameters of the
original system shown in Figure P2.8(a).
(c) What is the natural frequency of the system in Figure P2.8(a)?
What is the natural frequency of the system in Figure P2.8(b)?
Comment on these results.

2.13 The inverted pendulum may be used as a simple model in the stability studies of
inherently unstable systems such as rockets. Consider an inverted pendulum of
point mass m and length l, which is restrained at its pivot (assumed to be smooth)
by a torsional spring of stiffness k. This arrangement is sketched in Figure P2.13.



Figure P2.13 Spring-restrained inverted pendulum used in stability studies.

(a) Derive an equation of motion for this system.
(b) Obtain an expression for the natural frequency of small oscillations u about the
vertical configuration. Under what conditions would such oscillations not be
possible (i.e., the system would become unstable)?

2.16 A reciprocating carriage system of a photocopier is sketched in Figure P2.16. It
consists of a carriage of mass M which is driven by a spring-loaded linkage
mechanism. The four-bar linkage is symmetric with each bar (which is assumed
light and rigid) having a length l. The cross spring has a stiffness k, and has two
end masses m as shown.
O
Frictionless
Pivot
mg
l
u
k
Torsional
Spring

Figure P2.16 The carriage mechanism of a photocopier.
Consider a general configuration where each linkage bar makes an angle u with
the cross spring axis. What is the equivalent mass m
eq
and the equivalent stiffness
k
eq
of the system, with respect to the location of the carriage? What is the natural
frequency of motion of the carriage system in the close neighborhood of this
configuration? Neglect energy dissipation and consider the free (i.e., no drive
force) motion. You may assume that the plane of motion is horizontal.
Would the natural frequency of motion be different if the plane of
motion is vertical with the carriage (M) moving
(a) horizontally?
(b) vertically?

2.17 Cam-follower mechanisms are commonly used to realize timed, periodic motions
having some desired characteristics. For example, they are used in synchronized
x
y
1

Carriage
Smooth
Drive
Pivot
l
u
M
l
l l
m
m
x
1

Linkage
k
opening and closing of valves in internal combustion (IC) engines. A schematic
representation of such an arrangement is shown in Figure P2.17.

Figure P2.17 A vibrating cam-follower mechanism.

The rocker arm is supported on a smooth pivot. One end of it carries a spring-loaded
valve. The other end (drive end) has the follower (roller-type) whose input motion is
determined by the shape profile and the rotatory speed of the cam, which is in
intimate contact with the follower. The following parameters are given:
J = moment of inertia of the rocker arm and follower combination about the
supporting pivot.
m = mass of the valve and stem combination (not included in J)
l = lever arm length of the valve weight from the pivot point.
k = stiffness of the valve spring.
(a) Determine expressions for the equivalent mass m
eq
and the equivalent stiffness k
eq

of the entire system as located at the valve.
(b) What is the undamped natural frequency of rocking motions? What is the
significance of this frequency in the proper operation of the cam-follower system?
(c) If the equivalent (linear, viscous) damping constant at the valve location is b what
is the damped natural frequency and the damping ratio of the system?


y
Valve
u
l
J
m
Rocker
Arm
Cam
Follower
2.22 A centrifugal water pump is to be located at the free end of an overhung beam, as
shown in Figure P2.22. It is required that the operating speed of the pump does
not correspond to a natural frequency (strictly, a resonant frequency) of the
structural system. The following parameters are known:
M = mass of the pump
m = mass of the beam
l = length of the beam
I = 2nd moment of area of the beam cross-section about the horizontal
neutral axis of bending
E = Youngs modulus of the beam material.
Determine an expression for the equivalent linear stiffness k
eq
and the equivalent
mass m
eq
of the beam, as located at the free end. What is the corresponding
natural frequency of vibration of the pump-beam system?


Figure P2.22 A water pump mounted on an overhung beam.

Note: For the required analysis a hint is provide in the figure.


l
o x
v
x
f
Hint:
l
Overhun
g
Beam
E, I, m
Water
Pump
Fro
m
Well
M
2.24 The handle of a hoist is modeled as a rigid light rod pivoted at the bottom and
restrained by a torsional spring of stiffness k, along with a uniform circular disk of
mass m and radius r attached to the top end, as shown in Figure P2.24. The
distance from the bottom pivot to the center of the disk is l. Initially, the handle is
in its vertical configuration, where the spring is in its relaxed state. Obtain an
equation for angular motion u of the handle with respect to this configuration.
What is the natural frequency of small vibrations of the handle about its upright
position? Under what conditions would such vibrations be not possible? Neglect
energy dissipation.


Figure P2.24 A handle of a mechanical hoist.

l
u
k
Torsional
Spring
r
m