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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Imformation module

Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module

As at 03/04

This document is provided for training purposes only and is not subject to the normal updates.

Printed in Germany
2002 Copyright DaimlerChrysler AG Issued by: Global Training This documentation and all its constituent parts are subject to copyright. Any reproduction or re-use requires written permission from DaimlerChrysler AG in advance. This especially applies to any duplication, dissemination, editing, translating, microfilming of this documentation, or storage and/or processing on electronic systems, databases and online services.

Note: The term "employee" always refers to both male and female staff.

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Content

05.03.2004

Title

Page

Model overview ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Engine characteristics..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Fuel system ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 Supercharging........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 Cooling circuit ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................35 Preheating system .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................37 Intake port shutoff (EKAS) .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................39 Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).............................................................................................................................................................................................................41 Exhaust gas guidelines...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................44 Diesel particulate filter (DPF).................................................................................................................................................................................................................45 CDI control unit......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 European On-Board Diagnosis (EOBD) on CDI engines .........................................................................................................................................................................63 CAN Data Bus ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................65 Synchronization .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................66 Heater booster (HB) ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................69 Vehicle settings for test purposes .........................................................................................................................................................................................................71 Safety concept diesel engine.................................................................................................................................................................................................................72

Model overview

05.03.2004

Sales designation A 160 CDI A 170 CDI C 200 CDI C 220 CDI C 270 CDI C 30 AMG CLK 270 CDI E 200 CDI E 220 CDI E 270 CDI E 320 CDI E 400 CDI S 320 CDI S 400 CDI ML 270 CDI ML 400 CDI G 270 CDI G 400 CDI Note:

Model designation 168.006 168.009 203.007/207/707 203.008/208/708 203.016/216 203.018/218/718 209.316 211.004 211.006/206/606 211.016/216/616 211.026/226 211.028 220.025/125 220.028/128 163.113 163.128 463.322/323 463.309/332/333

Engine designation 668.940 668.942 646.962 646.963 612.962 612.990 612.967 646.951 646.961 647.961 648.961 628.961 648.960 628.960 612.963 628.963 612.965 628.962

Displacement cm 1689 1689 2148 2148 2688 2950 2688 2148 2148 2688 3222 3996 3222 3996 2688 3996 2688 3996

Injection system CDI 1 CDI 1 CDI 3 CDI 3 CDI 2 CDI AMG CDI 2 CDI 3 CDI 3 CDI 3 CDI 3 CDI V1 CDI 3 CDI V1 CDI 2 CDI V1 CDI 2 CDI V1

Rated output kW at rpm 55 at 3600 70 at 4200 90 at 4200 105 at 4200 125 at 4200 170 at 3800 125 at 4200 90 at 4200 110 at 4200 130 at 4200 150 at 4200 184 at 4000 150 at 4200 184 at 4000 120 at 4200 184 at 4000 115 at 3800 184 at 4000

Rated torque Nm at rpm 160 at 1500 - 2800 180 at 1600 - 3200 270 at 1600 - 2800 340 at 2000 400 at 1600 - 2400 540 at 2000 - 2500 400 at 1800 - 2600 270 at 1400 - 2800 340 at 1800 - 2600 400 at 1800 - 2600 500 at 1800 - 2600 560 at 1700 - 2600 500 at 1800 - 2600 560 at 1800 - 2600 370 at 1800 - 2400 560 at 1700 - 2600 400 at 1800 - 2500 560 at 1700 - 2600

This table is not exhaustive.

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Model overview

Engine characteristics

05.03.2004

Engine 668

Engine 668 is a 4-cylinder in-line engine, mounted on the front axle carrier across the direction of travel. The engine is inclined at 59 to the direction of travel. The engine construction was specially adapted for the A-Class vehicle concept. Technical features: * Aluminum crankcase (open-deck design) * Cylinder liner of gray iron * 60 valve arrangement (4 valves) * Crankcase ventilation with spiral oil separator * Fuel preheating with fuel preheating valve * Non-classified injectors * Wastegate turbocharger * CDI 1 injection system * EU3 certified In Autumn 2004, the M668 is being replaced in the new A-Class by its successor engine, the M640.
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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Engine characteristics

Engines 611, 612, 613

Technical features: * * * * * * * * * * Gray iron crankcase 4-valve technology VTG turbocharger Oil filter integrated with the timing case cover Oil cooling with oil/water heat exchanger Classified injectors (611, 612 only) De-nitrogen oxide catalytic converter CDI 2 injection system Intake port shutoff EU3 certified

As in previous diesel engines with gray iron crankcases, the cylinders do not have cylinder liners. The engines in this model series have been for the most part replaced by the new 646, 647 and 648 engines.

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Engine characteristics

Engines 646, 647, 648 Technical features: * * * * * * * * * * * * Gray iron crankcase 4-valve technology Electric actuator for VTG turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation valve Flow controlled high-pressure pump Classified injectors (Injector quantity adjustment - IMA) from CDI 3 upwards Electric fuel feed pump in the tank Oxygen sensor (EU4) No fuel cooler/preheating Diesel particulate filter (DPF) as special equipment (EU4) Electric throttle valve actuator CDI 3 injection system EU3 certified (with EU4 diesel particulate filter)

Lanchester balancer As a special engineering feature, the Lanchester balancer was first introduced in the M646, for vibration damping. Its purpose is to compensate the inherent inertia forces in a 4-cylinder in-line engine and thus suppress disturbing vibrations. It consists of two counter-rotating shafts, which are fitted with unbalanced weights. The Lanchester balancer is bolted to the bottom of the crankcase in a gray iron housing in the oil pan, and is driven by a gear on the crankshaft. A drilling in the crankcase provides the oil feed to the balancer. Two spacers ensure the correct gear backlash. When mounting the balancer, gear backlash must be measured again and adjusted if necessary.

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Engine characteristics

Engine 628 Crankcase The two-part crankcase (bedplate design) makes it possible to close off the crankshaft compartment from the oil pan at the bottom. This creates a highly rigid unit, without the need for additional components. The crankshaft compartment is divided at the bottom into four separate compartments by the closed end of the crankcase, one compartment for each pair of cylinders. This forms an enclosed space beneath the piston, which varies according to piston position, and which is only connected with the oil pan compartment by means of special oil return ports (A). The four compartments have no pressure compensation connections with each other. The small oil return ports and the closed crankshaft compartment cause an increased pressure under the piston at the piston downward movement, which is released again at the upward movement. This produces smoother engine operation.
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Cylinder and valve assembly The cylinder spacing is the same as on Engine 611 (97 mm). Consequently, the two aluminum cylinder heads and the valve control elements on the V-engine, with four valves per cylinder, two hollow cast camshafts per cylinder bank, and cup tappets, are of the same design as the 4-cylinder in-line 611 engine. In many cases, the same parts can be used. The cylinder head on the right cylinder bank is identical in construction. The inlet and outlet ports in the left cylinder head are a reverse image of the right. On the in-line engines, the exhaust camshafts and high-pressure fuel pump are driven by a two-row chain, which has been adapted to the 8-cylinder engine by means of the tensioning elements.

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Engine characteristics

Balance shaft To be able to install the V-engine at the front end in W220 series vehicles, without having to make changes to the vehicle body, a V angle of 75 degrees was selected. The same 90### firing interval was achieved by changing the settings of the crank pins on opposing cylinders by 15### relative to each other. The first-order mass moments (vibrations) due to this V-angle are compensated by a balance shaft, which is located in the V-compartment of the engine and rotates counter to the crankshaft at crankshaft speed. The balance shaft carries a centrifugal oil separator (3) at the front end. This is integrated with the front correctional weight.

P03.00-2014-01

Crankcase ventilation and pressure regulator valve A centrifugal oil separator on the balance shaft, driven by the timing chain, separates the gases in the crankcase from the oil particles. The cleaned gases are passed through the intake air pressure regulator valve. The pressure regulator valve (3) is mounted on the oil filter housing. The purpose of this valve is to reduce the flow of gas mixture if there is too high a vacuum between the charge air manifold and the crankcase. At a vacuum of over 50 mbar in the charge air manifold, the connection with the crankcase is closed by a diaphragm, so that no oil vapor / oil is extracted and burned / consumed. To prevent the pipes (A) from freezing up, they are warmed by the engine coolant lines (B) that pass through them.

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Engine characteristics

M612.990 (C 30 CDI AMG) The heart of the C 30 CDI AMG is the advanced turbodiesel engine, which is based on the familiar C 270 CDI (M612). The 612 engine has been completely re-engineered in order to achieve high output levels. Newly developed crank mechanism, oil spray nozzles and oil pump New layout of cylinder head bolts Additional electric in-tank fuel pump High-pressure injection pump and injectors adapted to deliver greater fuel quantities Use of a special electrically controlled AMG turbocharger Newly designed charge air ducting, made of sandcast aluminum and high-temperature silicone hoses Charge air cooler as air/water heat exchanger Belt drive, engine support and engine cover have been adapted Newly developed hardware and software for engine management Controllable glow system with high-temperature glow plugs Electric heater booster no longer necessary Special exhaust system with underfloor catalytic converters no longer necessary Intake port shutoff no longer necessary NEDC fuel consumption 7.6 7.9 L/100 km EU3 certified

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Engine characteristics

Fuel system

05.03.2004

CDI 1

The original CDI 1 system fitted to passenger vehicle engines (M611 and 668) is the same one installed in the M668 (A-Class and VANEO). The difference between this and its CDI 2 successor system is not in the fuel system, however, but in the turbocharger design (see "Supercharging"). The electric shutoff valve (Y75) has been discarded. The maximum system pressure is 1350 bar.

M668, shown on Model 168 B4/6 Y74 Y75 Y76 13 19 70 71 80 A C D F Rail pressure sensor Pressure regulator valve Electric shutoff valve (up to 05/01) Injector Fuel feed pump High-pressure pump Fuel filter Fuel preheating valve Fuel tank Fuel pressure from fuel feed pump Fuel return Fuel high pressure Fuel vacuum
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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Fuel system

CDI 2

The revised 611 engines (CDI 1, CDI 2) and the new 612 and 613 engines (CDI 2) were fitted with variable-nozzle turbochargers (see Supercharging). To distinguish the designations of these engines from the old engines (despite use of the same injection system), the CDI 2 designation has been added. Here also, the electric shutoff valve (Y75) was discarded as of 04/2001. The maximum system pressure is 1350 bar.

M611, shown on the Model 202 B4/6 Y74 Y75 Y76 13 14 19 60 70 80 A C D F Rail pressure sensor Pressure regulator valve Electric shutoff valve (up to 03/01) Injector Fuel feed pump Fuel cooler High-pressure pump Fuel preheating Fuel filter Fuel tank Fuel pressure from fuel feed pump Fuel return Fuel high pressure Fuel vacuum
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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Fuel system

CDI V1

The development of the M628 also brought a range of new components to the fuel system. To indicate the V-engine layout, the fuel system is called the CDI V1. An electric fuel feed pump (M3) is used here for the first time, to provide the fuel supply and support the mechanical fuel pump (13). A failure of this pump causes the engine to switch off when under load. To reduce the energy absorbed by the high-pressure pump and unnecessary heating of the fuel, the quantity control valve (Y94) ensures that some of the fuel flowing to the high-pressure pump is returned directly to the fuel tank. Depending on the engine layout (V-engine), fuel is supplied to both rails by the valve block. The pressure regulator valve and rail pressure sensor are also fixed to this block. The maximum system pressure is 1350 bar.

M628, shown on the Model 220 B4/6 M3 Y74 Y76 Y94 13 14 19 19/23 21 21/7 70 71 80 93 A B C D E F G

Rail pressure sensor Fuel feed pump Pressure regulator valve Injector Quantity control valve Fuel feed pump Fuel cooler High-pressure pump Fuel pressure relief valve Rail Valve block Fuel filter Fuel preheating valve Fuel tank Pressure relief valve Fuel vacuum Fuel pressure from fuel feed pump Fuel pressure from fuel feed pump Fuel return to fuel feed pump with fuel pressure Fuel pressure relief valve Fuel pressure from quantity control valve to annular port in the high-pressure pump Fuel high pressure Fuel return

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CDI 3

The CDI 3 engines 646, 647 and 648 are being brought in to replace the CDI 2 engines 611, 612 and 613. The CDI 3 system contains components and innovations that are already present in the CDI V-system. For example, the fuel system is equipped with an electric fuel pump only. The quantity control valve (Y94) controls the flow to the high-pressure pump. Depending on the load condition, only the fuel quantity that is really necessary is fed into the rail. System components such as the fuel preheater, mechanical fuel feed pump and fuel cooler have been discarded. Consequently, to prevent overheating of the fuel, a temperature sensor (B50) has been fitted to the high-pressure pump. In connection with the quantity control valve (Y94), this sensor prevents the flow to the rail and thus overheating of the fuel (tank protection). The maximum system pressure is 1600 bar.

M646, shown on Model 211 B4/6 B50 M3 Y74 Y76 Y94 19 21 70 80 80/17 A B C Rail pressure sensor Fuel temperature sensor Fuel feed pump Pressure regulator valve Injector Quantity control valve High-pressure pump Rail Fuel filter Fuel tank Fuel feed module Fuel to the filter High pressure line Fuel return
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M612.990 in the C 30 CDI AMG

The structure, function, and controls of the high-pressure system in the C 30 CDI AMG engine are made up of a combination of the CDI 2 and CDI V1 systems. However, the system has been given the designation CDI 2. The new features of the 612 engine are above all the electric fuel feed pump and the quantity control valve (Y94). The maximum injection pressure is 1350 bar.

13 14 19 19/23 21 70 71 80 B4/6 M3 Y74 Y76 Y94

Mechanical fuel feed pump Fuel cooler Fuel high-pressure pump Fuel pressure relief valve Rail Fuel filter Fuel preheating valve Fuel tank Rail pressure sensor Electric fuel feed pump Pressure regulator valve Injector Quantity control valve
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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Fuel system

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Fuel low pressure

Fuel tank with in-tank pump

An electric in-tank pump is installed in the new model series with CDI 3 engines, with the M628 in the W211 and in the C 30 CDI AMG. The fuel tanks on Model 211 with Engine 628 and the C 30 CDI AMG have the same function. The electric in-tank pump (about 0.5 bar) only provides support to the mechanical fuel pump. The delivery pilot pressure is controlled by a valve in the tank. On the CDI 3 system, the electric fuel pump raises the overall low pressure (about 4.5 bar). This pressure is controlled by a valve in the high-pressure pump. The return flow from the engine actuates the suction jet pumps in the fuel tank. One of them supplies fuel from the left half of the tank to the swirl pot. The other pump, in the right half of the tank, maintains the fuel level in the swirl pot, so that there is always sufficient fuel available to the electric fuel pump. The swirl pot is fitted with a valve, so that laborious manual bleeding operations are not necessary if the tank is allowed to run dry. C 30 CDI AMG fuel tank

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Fuel system

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Fuel preheating

Function Fuel has to be preheated in order to prevent engine running faults due to diesel/paraffin characteristics at low temperatures. This improves the fluidity of the fuel and normally enables fault-free operation with winter diesel down to 25C outside temperature. Operation There are three basic different types of preheating system: * Fuel preheater The cold fuel is warmed by coolant. When the fuel is warm, a thermostat stops the flow to the heat exchanger. * Fuel preheating valve The warmed fuel from the fuel return is mixed with the cold fuel. A bimetal valve controls the mixture according to the temperature. * Heating by controlled return flow (CDI 3) For up to 30 seconds after engine starting with fuel temperatures below 20C, there is no throttling of the feed to the high-pressure pump. All of the fuel is placed under high pressure, and its temperature therefore rises. The heated fuel flows through the pressure regulator valve (Y74) to the fuel tank.

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Example of a fuel heat exchanger


71/1

71/8 b

B
a b

Legend: A B c Fuel return from rail Fuel return to fuel tank Connection to fuel filter

a 71/2 71/3 71/6 c 71/5 71/4 71/7

c
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Fuel cooling Various fuel cooling systems are used in vehicles to cool the fuel after it has been heated in the rail: * * * * Fuel cooling by the metal tank only (M668) Fuel cooling by a fuel/water heat exchanger (C-Class, M-Class and all vehicles with M628) Fuel cooling by an underfloor fuel/air heat exchanger (Model 210) Electronic fuel cooling (heating prevention) by a controlled high-pressure pump (CDI 3 system)

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Example: W210

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Mechanical fuel feed pump

Purpose In CDI 1 and CDI 2 engines, the mechanical fuel feed pump (13) ensures a sufficient supply of fuel to the high-pressure pump (19). In Engine 628, it is assisted by an additional electric fuel feed pump (M3). In CDI 3 engines, it has been completely replaced by an electric fuel feed pump. Mechanical fuel feed pump operation Since the high-pressure pump cannot draw in fuel by itself, the fuel feed pump (13) draws the fuel from the tank through the fuel filter, and feeds it through the electromagnetic shutoff valve (Y75) to the highpressure pump.

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a b 13/11 13/12 13/13 A F

Suction side of main filter Pressure side to elect. shutoff valve (Y75) Plug Pressure relief valve opens at aro 3.5 bar Valve spring Fuel pressure from fuel feed pump to shutoff valve (Y75) Fuel vacuum

Fuel pressure: * At cranking speed about 0.4 -1.5 bar * At idle speed about 2.0 -2.5 bar * Integrated pressure relief valve limits the pressure to 3.5 0.5 bar.

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Fuel temperature sensor

Function The fuel temperature sensor (B50) is only installed in CDI 3 engines. It performs the "fuel preheating and "tank protection" functions. Fuel preheating function The NTC resistor in the fuel temperature sensor varies its electrical resistance according to fuel temperature. NTC stands for Negative Temperature Coefficient, i.e. the resistance decreases as temperature increases. When the fuel is cold (< 20C), the pressure regulator valve controls rail pressure. This causes the fuel to heat up.

GT07_16_0006_C81

Tank protection function The rail pressure is lowered to protect the fuel tank from overheating (> 90C). The fuel temperature sensor (B50) measures the temperature of the fuel feed from the tank at the high-pressure pump flange. If the fuel is too warm, the CDI control unit (N3/9) actuates the quantity control valve (Y94) and closes it to reduce the rail pressure. The fuel then no longer flows to the high-pressure pump, but directly back into the tank. B4/6 B50 N3/9 Y94 Rail pressure sensor Fuel temperature sensor CDI control unit Quantity control valve

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Fuel high pressure

High-pressure pump The high-pressure pump is a radial piston pump with three pump elements offset at 120. These are moved by an eccentric on the pump drive shaft. The pump is lubricated with diesel fuel, and this makes the pump vulnerable if fed with air, gasoline, or water. This causes chips to form on the pump elements, or can even cause the pump to block or seize up.

Procedure for incorrect fueling: SI47.10-P-0004A

CDI 3 high-pressure pump In the CDI 3 system, the fuel temperature is detected in the feed to the pump elements, and the feed is controlled by the quantity control valve. The fuel low pressure (about 4.5 bar) is controlled by a pressure relief valve at the pump.

CDI V1 and CDI 2 high-pressure pump in the M612.990 (C 30 CDI AMG) In these systems, the mechanical fuel feed pump is mounted at the high-pressure pump. There is also a quantity control valve located in the base plate. However, this is not controlled by the pressure in the rail (as in the CDI 3), but is actuated according to a performance map and controls the feed to the highpressure pump.

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Rail pressure sensor (B4/6)

Location The rail pressure sensor is fixed to the side of the rail.

Function Its purpose is to measure the current rail pressure and send this to the CDI control unit (N3/9). The pressure regulator valve (Y74) or the quantity control valve (Y94) is then actuated by the CDI control unit (N3/9) through a control loop, until the desired rail pressure is reached. Design The system pressure affects the position of a diaphragm. This causes a change in its electrical resistance, which is then evaluated.

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Check for system leaks when mounting on the rail.

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Quantity control valve

The quantity control valve (Y94) is fitted to the high-pressure pump in all CDI 3 engines, and in the M628 and M612.990. In the CDI 3 system, a requirement-driven high-pressure pump is used. Function Along with the pressure regulator valve (Y74), the quantity control value (Y94) controls the rail pressure. Fuel quantity to the high-pressure pump elements is regulated according to the PWM signal from the CDI control unit (N3/9). In the CDI 3, this prevents undesired high fuel temperatures in the fuel return line, as compared with unregulated high-pressure pumps. By throttling the fuel quantity, the power absorbed by the high-pressure pump is also reduced. CDI 3 operation The fuel from the feed pump (M3) passes into the high pressure pump flange, and from there through the fuel temperature sensor (B50) to the quantity control valve (Y94). The quantity control valve (Y94) sets the fuel quantity according to the signal from the CDI control unit (N3/9). A controlled fuel quantity is thus fed to the three pump elements. This varies the filling quantity in the pump cylinder and therefore the fuel quantity fed to the rail. In the CDI 3 system, the rail pressure is mainly controlled through the quantity control valve. Any excess fuel delivered is passed back through the high-pressure pump return line to the fuel tank. Quantity control is applied: * About 30 s after engine start * Fuel temperature > 20C * Not when coasting CDI V1 and M612.990 operation The fuel regulated by the quantity control valve is fed to the intake of the mechanical fuel pump. The quantity control valve is actuated accordingly by the performance map, and only roughly regulates the feed to the high-pressure pump. The rail pressure is controlled by the pressure regulator valve only.

c Y94 a

a
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Controlled fuel quantity to the high-pressure pump elements b Fuel feed from the fuel pump c Electrical connection Y94 Quantity control valve

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Pressure regulator valve (Y74)

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16/1 16/2

High-pressure feed Return flow

16/3 Y74

Coil Pressure regulator valve

a Magnetic force b Spring force c Ball seat

Function To regulate and stabilize rail pressure according to the control signals from the control unit. Operation The high pressure in the rail is applied through the high-pressure feed (16/1) to the valve seat (c) of the pressure regulator valve (Y74). Rail pressure is set by the pressure regulator valve (Y74) building up a magnetic force (a) that corresponds to the specified pressure indicated by the PWM signal. This magnetic force causes a corresponding outlet cross-section at the ball seat (c). The rail pressure varies according to the quantity of fuel flowing from the outlet. The rail pressure sensor sends the current rail pressure value to the CDI control unit (N3/9). Excess fuel flow back through the fuel return line to the tank. In the de-energized state, the pressure regulator valve (Y74) is closed, since the spring force pushes the ball into the ball seat (c) (only up to 90 bar). When starting, it is held closed by spring force (b) and magnetic force (a). In operation, the fluid pressure (16/1) acts against the magnetic force of the coil (a) and the spring force (b). In CDI 3 engines, the pressure regulator valve controls the rail pressure for up to 30 s after engine start, at fuel temperatures below 20C, and when coasting.

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Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Fuel system

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Fuel injector

Here we examine the injector as implemented on the current CDI 3 system. One important feature of the injector is the newly developed seven-hole injection nozzle, which replaces the previous six-hole nozzle used in the CDI 1, CDI 2 and CDI V1 systems. This allows the nozzle hole diameter to be reduced by about 20 percent. The result is an even finer atomization and fuel distribution, and therefore even better mixture formation. It also reduces the level of particulates in the exhaust flow. However, the heightened throttling effect produced by the smaller nozzle holes causes a lengthening of the injection period, which would be a particular disadvantage as higher power output is developed. For this reason, the injection pressure has been raised to 1600 from the previous 1350. Another feature of all CDI injectors is two-phase fuel injection (flexible combustion process), which compensates for the necessarily higher noise levels of the direct fuel injection system relative to the prechamber engine. This system has been further improved in the 646, 647 and 648 engines through the use of the double pre-injection system (from 60C). The powerful magnetic armature in the new injectors considerably reduces the time interval between the pre-injection and main injection, so that little pilot quantities are now delivered to the combustion chambers twice in succession - in less than a millisecond - thus ensuring even better preheating of the combustion chamber with fewer pressure peaks. Depending on engine speed and load, the double pre-injection changes over to single pilot injection, before being switched off completely at full load. The injection quantity at the injectors is determined by: * actuation of the magnetic coil (actuation period) * opening and closing speed of the nozzle needle * needle lift * nozzle geometry * rail pressure

GT07_16_0007_C03

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Correction functions

Smooth running control The smooth running control reduces irregular engine running when in neutral. The CDI control unit CDI (N3/9) receives an engine speed signal from the crankshaft position sensor (L5) and detects any irregularities in the engine running characteristics. These irregularities in the engine running characteristics are corrected by cylinder-specific adjustment of the injection quantities. The idle speed is therefore kept constant. Smooth running control is active for engine speeds up to about 1200 rpm. CDI 2 injector classification Injector classification was introduced in July 2000 for 611 and 612 engines with CDI 2. The classification of injectors into 3 classes indicates the fuel quantity characteristic of the injectors. This makes it possible to tune the engine software more finely to the tolerance ranges of the injectors. At production, injectors are selected according to their fuel quantity characteristics. Injector identification and procedure * Classified injectors are identified by their part number and the identifier on the magnetic head (circle containing a number from 1 to 3). The number indicates the classification. CDI 2 injectors that do not have a circled number are of classification 2. * If an injector is being replaced on a vehicle with injector classification, the classification number must be assigned to the corresponding cylinder using the DAS system, when adapting the control unit under the Classification menu item.
GT07_16_0035_C71

If classification is not carried out, faults may occur, such as smoke formation, rough engine running or vibrations.

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Two types of injectors can be found in the CDI 3 system: When the CDI 3 was first introduced, the injectors were not classified. These injectors are now identified by a mark on the injector head. There are also no classifications in the control unit.

GT07_16_0032_C71

Injector quantity adjustment (IMA) From the middle of 2003, a 6-digit code was introduced on the injector head for the CDI 3 system update. This conceals an even more finely tuned classification, which is called injector quantity adjustment (IMA InjektorMengenAusgleich). The classification is entered in the DAS system in the usual way. Zero quantity calibration When coasting, the control unit can use the zero quantity calibration to measure the effective dead time of injectors during preinjection. The injection quantity is slowly raised until an increase in rpm can be measured at the crankshaft. The measured length of the actuation period is used by the CDI control unit (N3/9) as a correction value for the start of injection. In connection with the O2 sensor (see next page), injector aging can also be taken into account by the CDI control unit when controlling the quantity of fuel injected.

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O2 sensor in front of the TWC Detects residual oxygen content in the exhaust gas and sends the corresponding signal to the CDI control unit. On EU 4 vehicles, injector aging (long-term drift) is detected using the O2 sensor. In this way, the CDI control unit can adjust the mixture formation through the exhaust gas recirculation rate (in the same way as the self-adjustment in gasoline engines). The broadband oxygen sensor can measure accurately not only at l = 1, but also in the leaner and richer ranges. In connection with the control electronics integrated in the CDI control unit, it sends a clear signal over a wide Lambda range (0.7 < l < 4.0). The O2 sensor (G3/2) is located in front of the catalytic converter.
P07.04-2117-01

a The oxygen sensor has no effect on the DPF!

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CDI 3 high-pressure control circuit

Components involved and signal flows.

Operation The rail pressure sensor (B4/6) measures the current fuel pressure in the rail and sends the corresponding voltage signal to the engine control unit (N3/9). From the input signal, the engine control unit identifies the current engine operating condition and driver intention. To adapt the rail pressure, a PWM signal determined by a performance map is sent to the pressure regulator valve and quantity control valve, until the specified pressure is reached in the rail. The injection quantity depends on the rail pressure and actuation period of the injectors. 21 B11/4 B37 B4/6 L5 N10/1 N3/9 Y74 Y94 Rail Coolant temperature sensor Accelerator pedal sensor Rail pressure sensor Crankshaft position sensor SAM control unit with fuse and driver relay module CDI control unit Pressure regulator valve Quantity control valve

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26

Supercharging

05.03.2004

Overview

The purpose of the supercharging (turbocharger) system is to ensure the appropriate boost pressure for each operating condition of the engine, and so raise the engine output and torque. Various types of supercharging system are installed in the current diesel engines. CDI 1 (M668) CDI 2 (M611, 612, 613) Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG) Pressure transducer and vacuum control unit (continuously variable) CDI V1 (M628) Two VTG turbochargers Electric adjuster (continuously variable) CDI 3 (M646, 647, 648) Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG) Electric adjuster (continuously variable)

Turbocharger type Actuation

Wastegate Pressure transducer and vacuum control unit (continuously variable)

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Wastegate turbocharger (CDI 1)


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VTG turbocharger with pneumatic actuation (CDI 2)

VTG turbocharger with electric actuation (CDI V1, CDI AMG, CDI 3)

Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Supercharging

27

Wastegate turbocharger
110/10

Operation Boost pressure is controlled by opening and closing the bypass (E) (wastegate). The engine exhaust gases are passed through the exhaust manifold into the turbine housing (f) on the turbine wheel (g). The exhaust flow energy (C) sets the turbine wheel turning. This causes the compressor turbine wheel (d), which is connected to the turbine wheel by the turbine shaft, to turn at the same speed. Depending on altitude, the maximum speed can be up to 180000 rpm. The fresh air drawn in by the compressor turbine wheel (A) is compressed (B) and then passed to the engine. When the bypass is open, there is no pre-compression, and the engine operates like a naturally aspirated engine. When the bypass is closed, the exhaust gases flow onto the turbine wheel (g). The bypass flap (a) is actuated by the vacuum control unit of the boost pressure control valve (110/10).

E B H h C

g
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a Bypass flap A Compressor inlet (fresh air) c Compressor housing B Compressor outlet (pre-compressed air) d Compressor turbine wheel C Exhaust gas to the turbine wheel f Turbine housing D Exhaust gas outlet g Turbine wheel E Bypass h Intermediate housing H Oil inlet n Turbine shaft J Oil outlet 110/10 Boost pressure control valve / vacuum control unit
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Turbocharger with Variable Turbine Geometry (VTG)

The turbochargers in the CDI 2, CDI V1 and CDI 3 systems differ only in the way they are actuated (by vacuum control, electrically). Operation The engine exhaust gases are passed through the exhaust manifold into the turbine housing (a) on the turbine wheel. The exhaust flow energy (C) sets the turbine wheel (b) turning. This causes the compressor turbine wheel, which is connected to the turbine wheel by the turbine shaft, to turn at the same speed. The fresh air drawn in by the compressor turbine wheel (A) is compressed (B) and then passed to the engine. The boost pressure is controlled by adjusting the position of the guide vanes (h). 1. At low rpm, the flow cross-section (i1) is reduced by closing the guide vanes (h). This increases the flow velocity of the exhaust gas at the turbine wheel. The rotational speed of the turbocharger therefore rises and the boost pressure increases. 2. At high rpm, the guide vanes (h) are opened progressively, thus increasing the flow cross-section (i2). This reduces the turbocharger rotational speed and the boost pressure falls.

Variable nozzle (VTG) turbochargers are very sensitive. They should in no circumstances be subjected to strong mechanical loads or knocks, as otherwise the guide vanes may seize up or the electric actuator may be damaged. Also, the turbocharger unit and actuator must never be detached from each other, and the length of the control rod must not be adjusted. Faulty turbochargers often give rise to implausible values in the boost pressure sensor.

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P09.40-2014-76

P09.40-2027-76

P09.40-2045-76

Pneumatic actuation (CDI 2) A B C D a b c d e f Compressor inlet (fresh air) Compressor outlet (pre-compressed air) Exhaust gas to the turbine wheel Exhaust gas outlet Turbine housing Turbine wheel Compressor housing Control linkage Pilot stud on control linkage Adjusting ring

Electrical actuation (CDI V1)

Electrical actuation (CDI 3)

g Pilot stud on guide vane h Guide vane i1 Flow cross-section with guide vanes closed i2 Flow cross-section with guide vanes open 1 Guide vanes closed 2 Guide vanes open Y100 Left boost pressure regulator, electric (M628) Y100/1 Boost pressure regulator, electric (M646) Y100/10 Boost pressure regulator, pneumatic (M611)

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Boost pressure control

The boost pressure is controlled by the CDI control unit according to the stored boost pressure performance map. The boost pressure regulator(s) (the M628 has 2 turbochargers) are actuated by a PWM signal from the control unit and determine the position of the guide vanes of the VTG turbocharger. The required boost pressure is thus provided for each engine operating point. In the M628, both turbochargers must be synchronized, in order to avoid uneven pressure buildup. They are adjusted by signals from both hot film MAF sensors in such a way that the same air mass flow rate is present in both the left and right intake systems. If the turbocharger is actuated by a vacuum control unit, a PWM signal is sent to the pressure transducer (Y31/5), which applies the corresponding vacuum at the vacuum control unit and continuously adjusts the VTG turbocharger. In the CDI 3 and CDI V1 engines and in the C 30 CDI AMG, to avoid overrevving of the turbocharger (for example if the air cleaner is clogged), the air pressure is also detected after the air cleaner. Depending on load, this air pressure must not go below a certain pressure value, and must always be in the same ratio to the boost pressure. The input values for the charge air control are as follows: * Charge air pressure / temperature * Atmospheric pressure * Coolant temperature * Oil temperature * Engine load / rpm * Drive position * Air mass (M628, 612 990) * Air pressure after air cleaner (CDI 3, CDI V1, C 30 CDI AMG)

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Y31/5 1 2 3
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Boost pressure control pressure transducer Ventilation (ATM) Vacuum from vacuum pump (VAC) Connection to boost pressure control vacuum control unit (OUT)

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Charge air ducting CDI 1 (M668) CDI 2 (M612)

P09.40-2001-76

P09.00-2009-76

1 107 110 110/1 110/2 110/6

Intake module Exhaust manifold Turbocharger Charge air distribution tube Charge air cooler Charge air pipe

A B C D ATM OUT VAC

Compressor inlet (fresh air) Compressor outlet (pre-compressed air) Exhaust gas to the turbine wheel Exhaust gas outlet Ventilation to major assemblies compartment Outlet from pressure transducer Vacuum from vacuum pump

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CDI V1 (M628)

CDI 3 (M647)

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107 110 110a 110/1 110/2 110/6 B17/8


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Exhaust manifold Turbocharger Turbocharger Charge air distribution tube Charge air cooler Charge air pipe Charge air temperature sensor
Passenger cars Engine Common Rail Diesel Injection (CDI) Specialist training Information module Supercharging

B28 Y100 Y100/1 A B C D

Charge air pressure sensor Left boost pressure regulator Boost pressure regulator Compressor inlet (fresh air) Compressor outlet (pre-compressed air) Exhaust gas to the turbine wheel Exhaust gas outlet

33

Charge air cooling

A mass of warm air has a larger volume than the same mass of cold air. To achieve the optimal volumetric efficiency of the cylinders, the intake air, which has been heated by compression, must be cooled down again. The CDI control unit receives data from the charge air temperature sensor (B17/8). There are two types of charge air cooling system: * Air/water heat exchanger (for example, on M646 in Model 203) * Water heat exchanger (for example, on M628 in Model 220) 110/2 Charge air cooler in the M646 in Model 203 (air/water heat exchanger)

P09.41-2027-01

Water heat exchangers have the advantage of a high degree of efficiency. However, they are expensive and costly to produce (they need a separate cooling circuit with low temperature cooler and circulation pump). They are presently installed in: * M628 (not in Model 163 since an air heat exchanger is used) * M612.990 (C 30 CDI AMG, but different design)

110/2 a, b c
P09.41-2025-11

M628 charge air cooler (water heat exchanger) Coolant connections Expansion reservoir connection

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Cooling circuit

05.03.2004

M628 The distinguishing feature of the cooling circuit on Engine 628 is its complexity compared with other diesel engines. One particular feature is the separate cooling circuit for the charge air cooling and the fuel cooling. Function The fuel cooler (14) is part of the coolant circuit of the charge air cooler (110/2). The circulation pump (M44) in the charge air cooling system is controlled by control unit CDI (N3/9), and delivers the coolant cooled by the low temperature radiator (110/11) to the fuel cooler (14) and charge air cooler (110/2). The fuel (a) from the fuelpreheating valve flows through the fuel cooler (14) and its heat is transferred to the coolant. The low temperature circuit is filled from an expansion reservoir (130) shared with the engine cooling circuit. 14 Fuel cooler 110/2 Charge air cooler 110/11 Low temperature radiator 130 Coolant expansion reservoir M44 Charge air cooling circulation pump a Fuel from fuel preheating valve b Fuel to fuel tank c Vent line A Coolant from low temperature radiator through circulation pump to charge air and fuel cooler B Coolant to low temperature radiator C Pipe to expansion reservoir
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M612.990 (C 30 CDI AMG) Charge air cooling The low temperature circuit is a self-contained coolant circuit, which is filled from an expansion reservoir shared with the engine cooling circuit. The previous air-cooling system has been replaced by an air/water cooling system that applies the counter flow principle. The low temperature coolers are placed one behind the other in the coolant circuit and the coolant flows through each in turn. The circulation pump is continuously adjusted by a PWM signal, according to charge air temperature, engine temperature, accelerator pedal position, and coasting conditions. The pump has integrated electronics for auto diagnostic tests. For example, if the pump becomes seized, it can be freed automatically (by changing the direction of rotation). Compared with simple air cooling systems, controlled charge air cooling ensures a reduced pressure drop on the charging side and shorter response times. Individual control is therefore possible at high outside temperatures, and the air is not cooled unnecessarily at low temperatures. The input signals for the charge air cooling are as follows: * Intake air temperature * Charge air temperature * Engine load 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Coolant expansion reservoir Low temperature cooler 1 Low temperature cooler 2 AC condenser Air conditioning system desiccant Charge air cooler circulation pump Charge air pressure and temperature sensor Measuring point for antifreeze tests Air/water heat exchanger

Service tip: To ensure the same level of antifreeze protection in both coolant circuits, use only premixed coolant (see badge). A measuring point (threaded plug M10x1) is fixed to the top of the charge air cooler, for antifreeze tests on the charge air coolant circuit.

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Preheating system

05.03.2004

Standard preheating system The purpose of the preheating system is to heat the combustion chamber to bring it up the required ignition temperature for the air/fuel mixture. The preheating period of the combustion chamber is divided into: * Preglow In key position 2, the glow output stage (N14/2) and preglow indicator lamp (A1e16) are actuated by the CDI control unit (N3/9). The CDI control unit (N3/9) calculates the preheating time according to the temperature of the coolant. The glow output stage (N14/2) transmits the current to the pencil-type glow plugs (R9). The preglow indicator lamp (A1e16) goes off when the required preheating time has elapsed. * After-glow When the engine is started, the CDI control unit (N3/9) determines the after-glow period according to the temperature of the coolant. During this time, the glow output stage (N14/2) continues to heat the glow plugs (R9). This improves the engine running after a cold start and the warm-up characteristics, prevents blue smoke following a cold start and stabilizes the cold-start engine rpm. If there is signal fault in the coolant temperature sensor (B11/4), the signal from the oil sensor (B40) is used as a substitute.

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A1e16 B11/4 N3/9 N14/2 N73 R9

Preglow indicator lamp Coolant temperature sensor CDI control unit Glow output stage Control unit for electronic ignition start switch Pencil-type glow plugs

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Quick start preheating system in the C 30 CDI AMG

Glow output stage The preheating system in the C 30 CDI AMG is different from standard preheating systems. An electronically controlled preheating system with high-temperature glow plugs is used (the Instant Start System ISS). The micro-controller in the control unit controls the glow plug by time and voltage, so that the heating-up time is extremely short and there is a controlled after-glow. This ensures quick key starting even at temperatures down to -25C, stable idle speed, smooth increase in load and engine speed, and low emissions. The glow output stage still actuates the glow plugs at a minimum battery voltage of 8 Volts. Each glow plug is actuated and monitored individually and sequentially. This reduces the load on the on-board electrical system. 1 Glow output stage

Glow plugs ISS glow plugs are designed for a voltage of 5 Volt and can be identified by a red ring at the plug contact (12 V glow plugs have a blue ring). They also have different glow pin geometry. At starting, a brief over-voltage (11 V) is applied to the glow pin. This allows the preglow time to be reduced to 3 s maximum (quick start). The 5 V voltage level is reached by pulsing the on-board supply voltage (in PWM signals). In this way, a constant end temperature of 850 to 1000C is reached and maintained. A 6 Volt glow plug

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Intake port shutoff (EKAS)

05.03.2004

Different versions of the intake port shutoff are installed in CDI engines. In all engines, the purpose and main function is the same. In the 668 and 648 engines, and in the M612.990, there is no intake port shutoff. In the air intake manifold for each cylinder is a swirl port and a filling port. The filling ports can be closed by flaps. These are connected to each other by a linkage and adjusted by an electric motor (CDI 2, CDI 3) or a vacuum element (CDI 1, CDI V1). They are held in the open position by spring force. In the lower rpm and load range, all filling ports (110/19) are closed by the flaps (110/20). All of the air mass flows through the intake swirl ports. The resulting high turbulence produces a more effective blending of the fuel with air, and therefore more efficient combustion. This reduces the amount of soot particles in the exhaust gas.
GT09_20_0001_C80

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As engine speed and load increases, the filling ports in the CDI 2 and CDI 3 are open continuously, so that there is the best possible ratio of turbulence to air mass at each operating point, and the optimum exhaust characteristics and engine power output are achieved. The flaps in the filling ports are positioned according to the performance map stored in the CDI control unit (N3/9).

a We have learned from experience that the intake port shutoff linkage
can sometimes become detached. The flaps then move around unchecked, since the return spring is located on the shaft of the actuator motor.

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Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

05.03.2004

Function The purpose of exhaust gas recirculation is to reduce the proportion of NOx emissions in the exhaust gas. This is done by lowering the combustion temperature, by feeding the low-oxygen exhaust gases back into the combustion chamber.

Operation The exhaust gas recirculation positioner (left: Y27/9) is actuated by PWM signals from the CDI control unit (N3/9). The CDI control unit (N3/9) sets the quantity of recirculated exhaust gas for the current operating condition, according to the air mass indicated by the hot film MAF sensor. The exhaust gas is recirculated according to the performance map in the CDI control unit (N3/9), as soon as the following conditions are present:
P14.20-2058-76

* * * * *

Battery voltage 11-14 V Shortly after engine is started Engine speed > 500 rpm after idle speed is reached Partial load

Shown on engine 647 101/6 Exhaust gas recirculation cooler 107 Exhaust manifold 110 Turbocharger 110/1 Charge air distribution tube 110/2 Charge air cooler

110/6 110/22 B28/8 Y27/9 Y100/1

Charge air pipe Exhaust gas recirculation port in cylinder head Charge air pressure sensor Exhaust gas recirculation positioner, left Right boost pressure regulator

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Control loop

Actuation

N3/9
Air mass data

Y27/9

Electr. feedback

B2/5

The intake air mass changes If the required conditions are present, the exhaust gas recirculation valve is adjusted according to a performance map.

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P14.20-2029-11

The quantity of exhaust gas recirculated is calculated from the difference between the effective air requirement and the current quantity of fresh intake air. Possible sources of error: * Fault exhaust gas recirculation valve (jammed open/closed) * Exhaust gas recirculation port clogged (carbonized) * Hot film MAF sensor faulty (for example, deviates from performance map)

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Exhaust gas guidelines

05.03.2004

General

Although there have been vehicle emission restrictions since the middle of the 1970s, vehicle emissions have only been falling slowly, partly due to the increasing number of car registrations. This means that exhaust emission standards are becoming stricter and stricter. As an example, the table below shows the European exhaust emission standards for new diesel-powered vehicles (g/km).

Component CO CH + NOx Nox Particulates

Euro1 from 1992/93 2.72 0.97 0.14

EU Guidelines Euro2 Euro3 from 1996/97 from 2000/01 1.0 0.7 0.08 0.64 0.56 0.50 0.05

Euro4 from 2005 0.50 0.30 0.25 0.025

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Diesel particulate filter (DPF)

05.03.2004

Catalytic converter

Diesel particulate filter

From October 2003, in the left-hand drive vehicles shown, 4-cylinder diesel engines (OM646) are now available with optional diesel particulate filter (DPF), Code 474, in combination with the EURO 4 Standard engine version. The 6-cylinder (OM648) engine is available from January 2004. C-Klasse Limousinen Sportcoup E-Klasse Limousinen C 200 CDI C 220 CDI C 200 CDI C 220 CDI E 200 CDI E 220 CDI E 320 CDI S 320 CDI BM 203.007 BM 203.008 BM 203.707 BM 203.708 BM 211.004 BM 211.006 BM 211.026 BM 220.025

S-Klasse

Limousine

The Mercedes-Benz diesel particulate filter (DPF), also referred to in the press as a soot filter, allows the almost complete suppression of the particulate emissions produced by the diesel fuel combustion process. The Mercedes-Benz DPF works without any further additives and, in combination with measures adaptations inside the engine, meets the exacting EURO 4 Standard. Depending on the particular operational profile of the vehicle, the DPF can be used over long mileages with no additional maintenance.
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Components of the emission control system

1 2 3 B19/7 B19/8 B28/8 G3/2

Catalytic converter (120/1) Seal Diesel particulate filter (114) TWC temperature sensor Temperature sensor after TWC Differential pressure sensor of diesel particulate filter Oxygen sensor in front of TWC (does not affect operation of the diesel particulate filter)

Components in engine compartment

B60 M16/5

Exhaust back pressure sensor Throttle valve actuator

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Diesel particulate filter operation The diesel particulate filter (114) consists of a ceramic honeycomb filter body, which is made of silicon carbide coated with the rare metal platinum. The ports in the diesel particulate filter are opened alternated at the front and rear, and separated by the porous filter walls (C) in the honeycomb body. The unfiltered exhaust gas (A) flows into the open ports at the front of the diesel particulate filter (114), and filters through the porous walls of the honeycomb filter body (silicon carbide) to the open ports at the rear. The filtered exhaust gas (B) then passes through the exhaust system. In this way, the diesel particulates are physically retained in the body of the diesel particulate filter, where they are burned during the regeneration (self-cleaning) phase. Fouling of the diesel particulate filter is detected by the CDI control unit by means of the differential pressure sensor (TWC) (B28/8). 114 A B C Diesel particulate filter (DPF) Unfiltered exhaust gas Filtered exhaust gas Filter walls
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An oxidation catalytic converter is mounted upstream of the diesel particulate filter, to absorb hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO). The diesel particulate filter (114) is screwed together with the oxidation catalytic as a single unit, which is located on the right of the engine behind the turbocharger.

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Input/Output signals

1 2 114 120/1 B19/7 B19/8 B28/8

Exhaust gas pressure line before DPF Exhaust gas pressure line after DPF Diesel particulate filter (DPF) Oxidation catalytic converter TWC temperature sensor Temperature sensor after TWC Differential pressure sensor of diesel particulate filter B60 Exhaust back pressure sensor CAN Data bus (Controller Area Network) G3/2 Oxygen sensor before TWC M16/5 Throttle valve actuator N3/9 CDI control unit Y27/9 Exhaust gas recirculation positioner Y76 Fuel injectors Y100/1 Right boost pressure regulator

Y27/9

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Differential pressure sensor

The differential pressure sensor (B28/8) is located at the right rear of the engine compartment, behind the heat shield. Through the exhaust gas pressure lines, it detects the difference in gas pressure before and after the diesel particulate filter. In this way, it can detect soot or ash fouling in the DPF. If the DPF is full, there is a relatively high pressure in front of the diesel particulate filter, and a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure after the DPF. The exhaust gas pressure before the DPF acts on the active side of the silicon diaphragm in the differential pressure sensor (TWC). The exhaust gas pressure after the DPF is passed to the rear side of the silicon diaphragm. The deflection of the diaphragm due to the different pressures is measured, and the pressure differential deduced.
P07.04-2195-01 P07.04-2198-01

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Temperature sensors before/after TWC

The temperature sensor before the TWC (B19/7) is located in the oxidation catalytic converter, above the threaded connection. The temperature sensor after the TWC (B19/8) is located in front of diesel particulate filter, under the threaded connection. Since the maximum permissible temperature in the TWC should be 750C, a sensor is mounted in front of the TWC to monitor the temperature. The temperature in the diesel particulate filter (DPF) should not go above 700C. A temperature sensor is therefore mounted behind the TWC (or in front of the diesel particulate filter). These temperatures are reached only during the regeneration phase.

P07.04-2191-01

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Exhaust back pressure sensor (B60)

This pressure sensor measures the gas back pressure in the exhaust gas recirculation channel, in order to adjust the boost pressure according to the load on the diesel particulate filter. If the exhaust gas back pressure rises, the guide vanes in the turbocharger are adjusted to keep the boost pressure constant. By means of the exhaust gas back pressure sensor, the CDI control unit (N3/9) can distinguish between a higher back pressure and a malfunction. The exhaust gas back pressure sensor is located at the left rear of the engine compartment, in the exhaust gas recirculation channel in front of the exhaust gas recirculation positioner (Y27/9).
P07.04-2204-02 P07.16-2537-14

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Throttle valve actuator (M16/5)

The throttle valve actuator (M16/5) is actuated by a PWM signal from the CDI control unit (N3/9), and controls the quantity of fresh air by means of the throttle valve (1). The throttle valve actuator is active during the regulating phase, to assist the recirculation of warm exhaust gases. This helps the catalytic converter to warm up. The fresh intake air is mixed with the recirculated exhaust gas by means of the exhaust gas recirculation connection with mixing throttle (3). The pressure for the pressure sensor (intake manifold) is taken from the pressure measurement connection (2). The throttle valve actuator is located at the left front of the engine compartment (Model 211), in front of the intake manifold. 1 2 3 4 M16/5

P14.20-2111-02

P14.20-2110-01

Throttle valve Pressure measurement connection for the pressure sensor (intake manifold) Exhaust gas recirculation connection with mixing throttle Electrical connection Throttle valve actuator

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Regeneration (self-cleaning)

The self-cleaning process of the diesel particulate filter is performed automatically by the CDI control unit (N3/9). This is done according to the values measured at the differential pressure sensor (B28/8), but every 1000 km at least. The CDI control unit (N3/9) burns off the particulates deposited in the filter by raising the exhaust gas temperature. The regeneration process can be interrupted by the CDI control unit (N3/9), and restarted later (for example, if the engine is switched off).

To start the regeneration process, both the minimum and maximum conditions must be present.

Maximum conditions: * Differential pressure in the diesel particulate filter * Mileage (km) Regeneration Minimum conditions: * Vehicle speed > 10 km/h * Exhaust gas temperature > 150C * Tank fill level > Reserve * Operating point Idle up to 4000 rpm * No related fault entry in the CDI control unit

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Duration of regeneration

Depending on exhaust gas temperature, the regeneration phase lasts between 400 and 1000 seconds.

Filter full (soot)

Filter empty regeneration

normal on Post-injection off Soot burned off Ash detection

Full regeneration

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Burn-off process

Additional fuel is injected into the cylinder during the discharge stroke and burned off in the TWC. The very hot exhaust gases thus ignite the soot in the diesel particulate filter the soot burns (in the same way as a grill is ignited by a heat gun). If the customer never drives the vehicle in these conditions, the process must be carried out at the workshop. The customer is informed of this by a message on the instrument cluster. This message may indicate: * Diesel particulate filter full of soot (regeneration required) * Diesel particulate filter full of ash (filter exchange required) Measures during the burn-off process: * Post-injection * Exhaust gas recirculation de-activated * Intake air throttling * Boost pressure control * Increase in load: heater booster (depending on battery charge level) and suction fan (100 %) switched on * Driver message "Air conditioning ON" if necessary

GT14_40_0009_C71

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Useful life and replacement

It is not possible to burn off soot deposits without leaving residues. At each burn-off process, a layer of ash is left on the particulate filter. The diesel particulate filter must therefore be replaced at the appropriate intervals. At the 80,000 km maintenance service, the ash content in the filter is measured and the length of time for which the filter can be left in the vehicle is calculated using a formula (see maintenance sheet). A DPF is a genuine reconditioned part, which has passed through the existing Mercedes-Benz reconditioning process for original replacement parts. Parts information (for example, for model series 203) Part number Scope A203 490 00 92 80 Particulate filter, reconditioned (bottom section) A203 490 00 92 Particulate filter, new (bottom section) A203 490 84 14 80 Oxidation catalytic converter, reconditioned (upper section) A203 490 84 14 Oxidation catalytic converter, new (upper section) A203 490 83 14 80 Oxidation catalytic converter/ particulate filter assembly, reconditioned A203 490 83 14 Oxidation catalytic converter/ particulate filter assembly, new The removed diesel particulate filter is re-conditioned (cleaned) by a specialized firm. This process cannot be carried out by the user.

a b

GT14_40_0010_C71

a b

Soot deposits Ash deposits

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Engine oil

A special engine oil has been developed with ExxonMobil for EURO 4 engines with diesel particulate filter (see Specifications for Operating Fluids, Sheet 229.31), which produces less combustion residues (and therefore ash) during operation, thus ensuring a long useful life for the filter. This oil is for vehicles of the BR203 and BR211 series with SA "factory fill" Code 474, and therefore absolutely essential for maintenance operations. The customer can perform oil refills with the oils indicated on Sheet 229.3 and Sheet 229.5 (see SI14.40-P-0001A). Part number A000 989 89 01 10 Scope 1 liter container of "low SPAsh" engine oil

Oil dilution If the vehicle is used exclusively for short trips, or the urban cycle, oil dilution may result due to continual interruption of regeneration process. Nevertheless, the message shown opposite may be shown in relation to the exhaust system, if * the customer has not refilled with oil * the customer uses the vehicle only for short trips. In this case, the oil should be changed.
GT14_40_0011_C71

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CDI control unit

05.03.2004

Function The CDI control unit (N3/9) controls the following systems according to evaluation of the input signals: * Fuel supply * Injected fuel quantity control * Emission control system * Boost pressure control - cruise control (AT only) * AC compressor shutoff * Diesel particulate filter functions It performs the following functions: * Monitors inputs/outputs * Signal plausibility check * Stores errors * Generates substitute values if signals fail (emergency mode) * Diagnosis (readout of stored faults)

P07.16-0234-01

Control units are seldom faulty, and are often replaced unnecessarily. It is therefore indispensable to eliminate all the other possible faults before replacing an expensive control unit. Please contact your local Hotline, and follow their advice first!

SCN coding From 2003 onwards, all engine control units must be SCN encoded, in order to detect or prevent any tampering with the software.

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Function diagram (M646 with DPF)

P07.16-2545-79

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110 110/2 114 120/1 120/2 B2/5 B2/5b1 B4/6 B6/1 B11/4 B17/8 B19/7 B19/8 B28 B28/5 B28/8 B37 B40 B50 B60

Turbocharger Charge air cooler Diesel particulate filter (DPF) Oxidation catalytic converter (near-engine mounted) Oxidation catalytic converter (underfloor) Hot film MAF sensor Intake air temperature sensor Rail pressure sensor Camshaft Hall sensor Coolant temperature sensor Charge air temperature sensor TWC temperature sensor Temperature sensor after TWC Charge air pressure sensor Pressure sensor after air cleaner Differential pressure sensor of diesel particulate filter Accelerator pedal sensor Oil sensor (oil level, temperature, quality) Fuel temperature sensor Exhaust back pressure sensor

G3/2 K40/5kT L5 M3 M4/7 M16/5 M55 N3/9 N10/2kA N14/2 N33/2 R9 R39/1 S40/3 Y27/9 Y74 Y94 Y76y1-y4 Y100/1

Oxygen sensor before TWC Crankshaft position sensor Throttle valve actuator Engine intake port shutoff (Engine 646, 647 only) CDI control unit Glow output stage Pencil-type glow plugs Exhaust gas recirculation positioner, left Pressure regulator valve Quantity control valve Fuel injectors, cylinders 1-4 Right boost pressure regulator

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European On-Board Diagnosis (EOBD) on CDI engines

05.03.2004

0100 A1 A1e26 A1e58 N3/9 X11/4 CAN

Star Diagnosis Instrument cluster CHECK ENGINE indicator lamp Engine diagnosis indicator lamp CDI control unit Diagnosis test connector Data bus (Controller Area Network)

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EOBD is the acronym for European On-Board Diagnosis, i.e. the integrated on-board diagnostic systems installed in vehicles. The diagnostic system integrated in the CDI control unit (N3/9) monitors all exhaust related components and subsystems. The engine diagnosis indicator lamp (A1e58) is used to display any faults that are detected. The engine diagnosis indicator lamp is actuated: * when the ignition is ON, before the engine is started (goes off after the engine is started, if no faults are detected). * if there is a fault in an exhaust related component or system. If there is a fault (for example in the exhaust gas recirculation), it is indicated by the indicator lamp on the instrument cluster. The fault is also stored in the CDI control unit. The CDI control unit checks its inputs and outputs for plausibility. The following data and functions can be read out: * Fault freeze frame data * Exhaust related error codes * Results of tests on continuously monitored systems * Instantaneous diagnostic data

Readiness Code The Readiness Code indicates that tests are running in order to detect faults in various components or functions. This check is carried out at least once each time the engine is started. If a fault is detected, substitute values are created and the engine diagnosis indicator lamp is lit. When the ignition is OFF, an internal circuit ensures a run-on period during which the CDI control unit continues to function. During the run-on period, system tests are carried out and the fault memory is updated. The monitored functions and data depend on the vehicle and engine variants, and therefore varies according to the individual vehicle models. For vehicles with diesel engines, OBD is compulsory starting from 2004 (in accordance with EU Guideline 1999/102/EG). EOBD therefore began to be installed in all Mercedes-Benz passenger vehicles with diesel engines during the year 2003. An additional "Readiness codes" test stage is included in the DAS on the "Control Units" submenu.

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CAN Data Bus

05.03.2004

General

What does acronym "CAN" stand for?

Control Area Network

The CAN is a computer network installed inside the vehicle, which allows communication between the different control units. The data line between the control units is called the CAN Bus. It is used to exchange information between control units (in the same way as a tube conveyor), carrying digital encoded data addressed to certain receiver units. There are various kinds of CAN buses, which operate at different transfer rates. * * * * Data exchange between the individual control units Provide the sensor signals for various systems Reduce the number of electric cables Improve electromagnetic compatibility

Function

Design

For security (in case of data line faults, signal interference), signals are transferred on two lines, but with opposite signs. In principle, one data line would be enough. The CAN bus consists of a twisted pair data line, which connects all CAN participants (control units) together in parallel. The data lines (Low / High voltage states) should not be interchanged. The data are transferred in digital form over the CAN bus at varying intervals. The individual data blocks are defined by protocols, establishing which data are sent or received from which control unit. Any control unit connected to the bus can send or receive data.

Operation

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Synchronization

05.03.2004

Signal forms

In the vehicle, data is sent using various signal forms. Each signal form depends partly on technical factors, and partly on the current function. The following paragraphs describe the signal forms for the synchronization. Description Sine wave signal The sine wave signal is an oscillating signal, which varies continuously over time, around a constant value. t Where used Crankshaft position sensor (L5)

Description Square wave signal The square wave signal is a signal with an on/off phase that remains constant over time t Where used Camshaft Hall sensor (B6/1)

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Diesel engines synchronization Function When the engine is started, the ignition TDC for cylinder 1 is detected from the signals from the crankshaft position sensor (L5) and camshaft Hall sensor (B6/1). Operation When the crankshaft is turning, the teeth on the increment wheel generate an AC voltage in the crankshaft position sensor. At the gap where there are two missing teeth (c), no voltage is generated. At the second negative edge after the gap, the engine control unit detects the top dead center (TDC) position of cylinder 1 and 4 (on 4-cylinder engines).
P07.04-2024-76

At this point, if signal (a) from the camshaft Hall sensor (B6/1) is at 0 V, the engine control unit detects the ignition TDC for cylinder 1. The synchronization signals are also processed by the CDI control unit (N3/9) in order to actuate the injectors (Y76).

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The engine cannot run without the signal from the crankshaft position sensor (L5). If the signal from the camshaft Hall sensor (B6/1) is missing, the engine does not start.

P07.16-2238-06

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Signal representation (Engine 646)

1 2 3

Crank angle Cylinder ignition TDC Signal from crankshaft position sensor (L5)

4 5

Signal from camshaft Hall sensor (B6/1) TNA rpm signal

P07.60-0289-08

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Heater booster (HB)

05.03.2004

Function An electrical heater booster is installed in CDI engines, in order to compensate for the lower heat output due to the high degree of efficiency. Design The fuel heater booster is similar to a stationary heater. It is controlled by the CDI control unit (N3/9) according to engine temperature. The electric heater booster in the coolant consists of a heating element and the heater booster control unit (N33/2) attached directly to it. Here too, the CDI control unit (N3/9) is boss. PTC heater boosters in the air flow of the heating and air conditioning system heat the vehicle interior according to the heating and air conditioning control unit only (for example, in the W211). Electric heater booster in the coolant The heater booster control unit receives the alternator load signal from the alternator controller. In this way, the heater booster control unit detects alternator excess output, which is not currently needed by the on-board electrical system. The heater booster control unit transmits this excess power to the heating element. The heat energy is fed into the coolant circuit. No load is placed on the battery. If a fault is detected, heat output is set at zero. Pre-conditions for actuation: * Engine running * Automatic operation selected on the multifunction display or With E/C button off selected on the multifunction display (heater booster switched on with the E/C button) * Outside temperature 8C * Coolant temperature < 78C The switch-on temperatures can be changed on the STAR Diagnosis system or the instrument cluster in the corresponding menu (see Chapter Vehicle settings for test purposes).

P83.70-3140-11

Shown in the M628

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Overview of the various heater boosters and fuel cooling systems Coola nt alternator A-Class with CDI 1 up to model refinement package 2001 A Class with CDI 1 from model refinement package 2001 C-Class (W203) E-Class (W210) with CDI 1 E-Class (W210) with CDI 2 ML 270 CDI with CDI 2 S 320 CDI with CDI 2 S 400 CDI with CDI V1 E-Class (W211) with CDI 3 E-Class (W211) with CDI V1 X X X X X from 09/2000 X Electric heater booster on wheelhouse Electric heater booster at engine Fuel operated booster heater X Fuel preheating with coolant Fuel preheating with fuel X PTC heating resistor for crankcase ventilation X Coolantheated Fuel cooling with coolant Air-cooled fuel cooler

PTC for warming the interior installed in the heater housing.

X X up to 08/2000

X X X X X X

X X X
Coolantheated

X X X X

PTC for warming the interior installed in the heater housing.

X X

PTC for warming the interior installed in the heater housing. PTC for warming the interior installed in the heater housing.

X X
Coolantheated

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Vehicle settings for test purposes

05.03.2004

Roller dynamometer mode

m You can activate roller dynamometer mode on the instrument cluster using the multifunction steering wheel and multifunction display. 1. Turn ignition key to Position "1". 2. Press and hold the Reset button on the left of the instrument cluster (for about 20 sec) until a beep is heard. 3. Press the "Previous system" button once. 4. Press the "Previous system display" arrow key on the steering wheel once. The roller dynamometer mode appears on the display. 5. Press the "+" key on the right of the steering wheel once. Roller dynamometer mode is activated and indicates ON. The vehicle can now be driven on the roller without being regulated by the ESP (electronic stability program)! 6. To switch off Test Mode, turn the ignition key to Position 1 press the minus key once, then switch off Test Mode. The display shows "With KL 15 OFF". When the ignition is switched "OFF", roller dynamometer mode is deactivated again.
P82.90-2051-06

Note: No errors in the ESP or engine control unit are stored after switching the roller dynamometer mode on/off. (AR54.30-P-1000-01A) From 08/2002, roller dynamometer mode is activated as follows for models 203, 209, 215 and 220: * Ignition key at Position 1 * Within 2.5 seconds, press the reset button 3 times * Using the up/down arrow buttons, the battery charge level and the instrument panel software release can then be viewed, and the ESP roller dynamometer mode menu activated/deactivated; the Oil Level indicator and Engine Model can be displayed on the "Software release" screen by turning the ignition key to position 2 * From 03/2003 onwards, this procedure also applies to Models 211 and 230

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Safety concept diesel engine

05.03.2004

Model / Series A-Class / W168

Fuse F1f1 F1 f2 N10/1 f53 SAM left front N10/1 f54 SAM left front

Diagnostic equipment Ignition ON Ignition ON CDI does not respond --

Effect on vehicle Suction fan runs Suction fan runs Starter does not turn Suction fan runs, coolant warning Engine in Emergency Mode, EPC warning Starter does not turn Suction fan runs, coolant warning Engine in Emergency Mode, EPC warning Engine OFF Suction fan runs Engine OFF Emergency Mode Engine OFF Engine OFF Engine OFF Suction fan runs Engine stops under load Engine OFF

Fault code P 1636; P 1403; P 0100; P 1615; P 1482 --All peripheral components in diagnostic trouble code memory

C Class / W203

E-Class / W210

K40/4 f1 SRB passenger K40/4 f2 SRB passenger

CDI does not respond Communication lost

-All peripheral components in diagnostic trouble code memory but only after repair -P 2502; P 2100; P 1615 P 2199; P 0100; P 2514; P 2120 P 2123 P 2021 P 2004 P 2015; P 2018; P 2021; P 2021; P 2023; P 2035 --

E-Class / W211

f42 Light module N10/1 f43 SAM left front N10/1 f44 SAM left front N10/1 f57 SAM left front N10/2 f4 SAM left rear N40/7 f43 SAM right front N40/7 f44 SAM right front K40/5 f52

Communication error ----Communication error ---

S-Class / W220

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... Die Mitarbeiter werden zuknftig in die Rolle persnlicher Wissensmanager hineinwachsen mssen, die aktiv die Verantwortung fr ihre Qualifizierung bernehmen ... Jrgen E. Schrempp ... Staff must in future assume the role of personal knowledge managers, who actively take Jrgen E. Schrempp responsibility for their own qualification ...

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DaimlerChrysler AG Global Training HPC T301 D-70546 Stuttgart Intranet: http://intra-gt.daimlerchrysler.com

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