Sie sind auf Seite 1von 18

DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE

FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
Abstract. We investigate the solutions of diophantine equations of the form
dx
2
d

y
2
= t for t {1, 2, 4} and their connections with ideal theory,
continued fractions and Jacobi symbols.
1. Introduction and History
The aim of this article is a thorough study of diophantine equations of the form
(1) dx
2
d

y
2
= 1 , where d, d

N and dd

is not a square.
For d = 1, this is Pells equation, while the general equation (1) is sometimes called
antipellian. Multiplication of (1) with d implies (with X = dx, Y = dy and
D = dd

) the norm equation


(2) X
2
DY
2
= d , where d[ D and (X, Y ) = 1 .
Conversely, if d is squarefree, then (2) implies (1). The solubility of (2) can be
rephrased in the language of binary quadratic forms. Explicitly, this was done by
G. Pall in [15], where the following result was stated and essentially attributed to
C. F. Gauss (see the English Edition [2]). A special case was later rediscovered by
H.F. Trotter [17].
Theorem A. Let > 0 be a discriminant of binary quadratic forms. Then pre-
cisely two divisors of can be properly represented by the principal class of dis-
criminant .
The special case of (1) where D = dd

is squarefree was frequently investigated


in the literature, using dierent methods. In this case, the result reads as follows.
Theorem B. Let D N be a squarefree positive integer, and
D

=
_
2D if D 3 mod 4 ,
D if D , 3 mod 4 .
Then there is exactly one 1 < m[ D

such that the diophantine equation


x
2
Dy
2
= m x
2
Dy
2
= m x
2
Dy
2
= m x
2
Dy
2
= m x
2
Dy
2
= m x
2
Dy
2
= m
has a solution (x, y) Z
2
.
An elementary proof of Theorem B, only using the theory of Pells equation, was
given in [8], a proof within the theory of continued fractions is in [3], and a proof
using the theory of quadratic number elds can be found in [6].
Partial results in the general case (also addressing the connection with ideal
theory, continued fractions and Jacobi symbols) were obtained only recently by
various authors, see [12], [10], [14], [1], [18] [7].
1991 Mathematics Subject Classication. 11D09,11A55,11R11.
Key words and phrases. Diophantine equations, continued fractions, quadratic orders.
1
2 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
There is a signicant overlap with R.A. Mollins paper [13]. There he investigates
antipellian equations within the theory of continued fractions, however ignoring the
structural point of view taken in the main theorems 4.3 and 4.4 of the present
paper. Nevertheless, some of his explicit results there are more general than the
applications given in our section 5 below.
The basic tools for the present investigations are the theory of ambiguous ideals
in quadratic number elds as developed in [4] and their connection with continued
fractions. This interrelation is principally known and republished several times ( I
refer to R. Mollins book [11] and to the article [9] ). Unfortunately, the termi-
nology on these subjects is far from being standardized. Thus I decided to give
an overview of the necessary basic result, at least to x the notation. This will be
done in the sections 2 and 3.
Section 4 contains the main results concerning equation (1) and their connection
with ideal theory, continued fractions and Jacobi symbols. By the way, it turns out
that it is natural to consider the more general equations dx
2
d

y
2
= t, where
t 1, 2 if 12 mod 16, and t 1, 4 if 1 mod 4. Finally, section 5
contains several applications for small discriminants.
2. Quadratic orders
A non-square integer Z is called a discriminant if 0 or 1 mod 4, and
we set

=
_
0 if 0 mod 4 ,
1 if 1 mod 4 ,

2
and
O

= Z[

] =
_
a + b

a, b Z, a b mod 2
_
.
We call

the basis number and O

the order of discriminant . A quadratic


discriminant is called a fundamental discriminant if it admits no factorization
=
1
m
2
such that
1
is a discriminant and m N
2
. Every discriminant
has a unique factorization =
0
f
2
, where
0
is a fundamental discriminant and
f N. In this factorization,
0
=
K
is the eld discriminant of the quadratic
number eld K = Q(

), O

0
= O
K
is its maximal order, and f = (O
K
: O

).
We denote by (

) the non-trivial automorphism of K, and for a subset


X K, we set X

[ X. For K, we call

its conjugate and


^() =

Q its norm.
If is a quadratic discriminant, then the unit group O

of O

is given by
O

=
_
O

[^()[ = 1
_
=
_
a + b

a, b Z, [a
2
b
2
[ = 4
_
,
and O

= 1,

), where

= min(O

R
>1
) is the fundamental unit of
discriminant (see [5, 16.4]).
An algebraic number C of degree 2 is called a quadratic irrational . For an
integer D Z, we normalize its square root by

D 0 if D 0, and

D 0
if D < 0. Then every quadratic irrational C has a unique representation
=
b +

b
2
4ac
2a
, where a, b, c Z and (a, b, c) = 1 .
In this representation, the triple (a, b, c) Z
3
is called the type and = b
2
4ac
is called the discriminant of . If Z is any discriminant, then = 4D +

,
where D Z, and the basis number

is a quadratic irrational of type (1,

, D)
and discriminant .
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 3
Two irrational numbers ,
1
C Q are called equivalent if

1
=
+
+
for some
_


_
GL
2
(Z) .
It is easily checked that equivalent quadratic irrationals have the same discriminant.
Let K be a quadratic number eld. For n N and
1
, . . . ,
n
K, we denote by
[
1
, . . . ,
n
] = Z
1
+. . . +Z
n
K the Z-module generated by
1
, . . . ,
n
. A free
Z-submodule a K of rank 2 is called a lattice in K, and (a) = K [ a a
is called its ring of multipliers . If (
1
,
2
) is a basis of a, then a = [
1
,
2
]. In
particular, for every discriminant we have
O

= [1,

] =
_
a + b

a, b Z, a b mod 2
_
.
In a dierent terminology, the following Propositions 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 can be
found in [4, Propositions 1 and 3].
Proposition 2.1 (Structure of lattices). Let K be a quadratic number eld and
a K a lattice. Then a = m[1, ], where m = min(a Q
>0
) and K. If is
a quadratic irrational of type (a, b, c) and discriminant , then (a) = O

, and
aa

= m
2
a
1
O

. In particular, a is an invertible fractional ideal of O

.
Proof. Observe rst that aQ ,= 0. Indeed, a

and (a

) are lattices as well, and


it 0 ,= a, then there is some q N such that q (a

), which implies that


0 ,= q^() = q

a Q. Now a Q is a nitely generated non-zero subgroup of


Q, and therefore a Q = mZ, where m = min(a Q
>0
). Let (
1
,
2
) be a basis of
a and m = c
1

1
+ c
2

2
, where c
1
, c
2
Z. Then (c
1
, c
2
) = 1 by the minimal choice
of m, and there exist u
1
, u
2
Z such that c
1
u
2
c
2
u
1
= 1. If
1
= u
1

1
+ u
2

2
,
then
_
m

1
_
=
_
c
1
c
2
u
1
u
2
__

2
_
and
_
a: [m,
1
]
_
= [c
1
u
2
c
2
u
1
[ = 1 .
Hence a = [m,
1
] = m[1, ], where = m
1

1
.
Assume now that if of type (a, b, c) and discriminant = b
2
4ac. We shall
prove that O

a a and m
2
aaa

= O

. Then it follows that


O

(a) = (a)O

= m
2
aaa

(a) m
2
aaa

= O

,
and therefore equality holds. Since

b
2
+ a
b +

2a
[1, ] and

= c +

+ b
2
b +

2a
[1, ] ,
we obtain O

a = m[1,

] [1, ] = m[1, ,

] a. On the other hand, as


b

mod 2,
m
2
aaa

= [a, a] [1,

] =
_
a, b, c,
b +

2
_
=
_
1,
b +

2
_
= [1,

] = O

.
Proposition 2.2 (Equivalence of lattices). Let K be a quadratic number eld and
,
1
K Q.
1. Let K

be such that [1, ] = [1,


1
]. Then there exists some matrix
_


_
GL
2
(Z) such that
1
=
+
+
and = +
4 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
2. Suppose that
_


_
GL
2
(Z) and
1
=
+
+
. Then [1,
1
] =
1
+
[1, ] .
Proof. 1. If [1, ] = [,
1
], then
_

_
=
_


__

1
_
for some
_


_
GL
2
(Z) ,
and consequently
= + and
1
=

1

=
+
+
.
2. By assumption, we have
[1,
1
] =
1
+
[ + , + ] =
1
+
[1, ] .
Next we investigate ideals. Let be a discriminant and K = Q(

). Every
non-zero fractional ideal a of O

is a lattice in K, and by Proposition 2.1 it is


invertible if and only if (a) = O

. An ideal a O

is called O

-primitive if
e
1
a , O

for all e N
2
, and it is called O

-regular if it is O

-primitive and
(a) = O

. Consequently, every O

-regular ideal is invertible, and the product


of two O

-regular ideals is again O

-regular. A lattice c K is an invertible


fractional ideal of O

if and only if c = m
1
a for some O

-regular ideal a O

.
Two O

-regular ideals a, a
1
are called equivalent if a
1
= a for some K

.
For an O

regular ideal a O

, we denote by [a] its equivalence class and by


N

(a) = (O

: a) N its absolute norm. The set (

of all ideal classes [a]


built by O

-regular ideals a O

is a nite abelian group under the composition


[a] [a
1
] = [aa
1
]. Its unit element is the principal class [O

] which consists of all


primitive principal ideals of O

. Up to isomorphisms, (

= Pic(O

) is the factor
group of invertible fractional ideals modulo fractional principal ideals of O

.
Next we describe the fundamental connection between quadratic irrationals and
ideals. For a quadratic irrational C of type (a, b, c) and discriminant , we
dene the lattice
I() =
_
a,
b +

2
_
= [a[ [1, ] O

.
Clearly, I() = I(), I(

) = I()

, and O

= I(

). If ,
1
are quadratic
irrationals, then it is easily checked that I() = I(
1
) if and only if
1
= + n for
some 1 and n Z.
Proposition 2.3 (Structure of regular ideals). Let be a discriminant.
1. A subset a Q(

) is an O

-regular ideal if and only if a = I() for some


quadratic irrational of discriminant . Moreover, if is of type (a, b, c),
then N

(a) = [a[.
2. Let ,
1
be quadratic irrationals of discriminant . Then and
1
are
equivalent if and only if [I()] = [I(
1
)] (

.
Proof. 1. By denition, I() O

is a lattice, e
1
I() , O

for all e N
2
, and
(I()) = O

by Proposition2.1. Hence I() is an O

-regular ideal.
Let now a O

be an O

-regular ideal. By Proposition 2.1, a = m[1, ],


where m = min(a Q
>0
) and is a quadratic irrational, say of type (a, b, c) and
discriminant

= b
2
4ac. Since O

= (a) = O

, it follows that =

, and
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 5
as a Q
>0
N, we obtain m N. Now m a O

implies a [ m, say m = ae
for some e Z. Hence
a = m
_
1,
b +

2a
_
= e
_
a,
b +

2
_
= [e[
_
[a[,
b +

2
_
,
and [e[
1
a O

implies [e[ = 1 and a = I(). Since


_
[a[
b+

2
_
=
_
[a[ 0
b

2
1
__
1

_
,
it follows that N

(a) = [a[.
2. By Proposition 2.2.
From now on we consider positive discriminants and real quadratic irrationals.
Denition 2.4.
1. Let R be a quadratic irrational. Then the quadratic irrational

+
=
1
|
.
is called the successor of . is called
reduced if > 1 and 1 <

< 0 ;
ambiguous if +

Z.
2. Let > 0 be a discriminant. An O

-regular ideal a O

is called
reduced if a = I() for some reduced quadratic irrational ;
ambiguous if a

= a .
Proposition 2.5. Let R be a quadratic irrational of type (a, b, c) and discrim-
inant .
1. is reduced if and only if 0 <

b < 2a <

+ b. In particular, if
is reduced, then 0 < a <

, 0 < b <

, 0 < c <

, and
+
is also
reduced.
2. is ambiguous if and only if a[ b, and I() is ambiguous if and only if is
ambiguous.
3. If
+
=
1
, then is ambiguous, and if is reduced and ambiguous,
then
+
=
1
.
4. If and
1
R are reduced quadratic irrationals and I() = I(
1
), then
=
1
.
Proof. All assertions are easily checked (and in fact well known).
It is easily checked that is ambiguous if and only if I()

= I(), and in this case


the O

-regular ideal a = I() is also called ambigous.


If is reduced, then is ambiguous if and only if
+
=
1
. Indeed, if

+
=
1
, then

= | , and therefore +

Z. Conversely, if is
reduced and ambiguous, then 1 < +

< , hence | = +

and

+
= ( |)
1
=
1
.
If > 0 is a discriminant, then an O

-regular ideal a O

is called reduced
if a = I() for some reduced quadratic irrational R. If R is any quadratic
irrational, then I() is reduced if and only if +

| > 1 ( see [4, Lemma 2] ).


In particular, the unit ideal O

= I(

) is reduced.
6 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
3. Continued fractions and reduction
Our main reference for the classical theory of continued fractions is Perrons
book [16]. It is well known that every R Q has a unique (simple) continued
fraction
= [u
0
, u
1
, . . .] = lim
n
[u
0
, u
1
, . . . , u
n
] ,
where u
0
Z, u
i
N for all i 1, and
[u
0
, u
1
, . . . , u
n
] = u
0
+
1
u
1
+
1
u
2
+
1
.
.
.
+
1
u
n1
+
1
u
n
=
p
n
q
n
,
such that p
n
Z, q
n
N and (p
n
, q
n
) = 1. The sequences (p
n
)
n2
of partial
numerators of and (q
n
)
n2
of partial denominators of satisfy the recursion
p
2
= 0 , p
1
= 1 , and p
i
= u
i
p
i1
+ p
i2
for all i 0 ,
q
2
= 1 , q
1
= 0 , and q
i
= u
i
q
i1
+ q
i2
for all i 0 .
The numbers
n
= [u
n
, u
n+1
, . . .] are called the complete quotients of . They are
equivalent to and satisfy the recursion formulas
0
= and
n+1
=
+
n
for all
n 0.
A sequence (x
n
)
n0
is called ultimately periodic with period length l 1 and
pre-period length k 0 if x
n+l
= x
n
for all n k, and k and l are minimal with
this property. In this case, we write
(x
n
)
n0
= (x
0
, x
1
, . . .) = (x
0
, x
1
, . . . , x
k1
, x
k
, x
k+1
, . . . , x
k+l1
) .
If k = 0, then the sequence is called purely periodic .
Proposition 3.1 (Periodicity Theorem). Let R Q, = [u
0
, u
1
, . . .] its
continued fraction and (
n
)
n0
its sequence of complete quotients.
1. For k 0 and l 1 the following assertions are equivalent :
(a) The sequence (u
n
)
n0
is ultimately periodic with pre-period length k
and period length l.
(b) The sequence (
n
)
n0
is ultimately periodic with pre-period length k
and period length l.
(c) The numbers =
0
,
1
, . . . ,
k+l1
are distinct, and
k+l
=
k
.
2. The sequence (u
n
)
n0
is ultimately periodic if and only if is a quadratic
irrational, and it is purely periodic if and only if is a reduced quadratic
irrational.
3. Let be a quadratic irrational, and suppose that (
n
)
n0
has pre-period length
k and period length l. Then
k
,
k+1
, . . . ,
k+l1
is the set of all reduced
quadratic irrationals which are equivalent to .
We call l = l() the period length and (
k
,
k+1
, . . . ,
k+l1
) the period
of .
Proof. [16, 17 and Ch. III]
Corollary 3.2. Let > 0 be a discriminant, R a quadratic irrational of
discriminant , l = l() and (
1
, . . . ,
l
) the period of . Then I(
1
), . . . , I(
l
) are
distinct, and I(
1
), . . . , I(
l
) is the set of all reduced ideals in the ideal class
[I()] (

.
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 7
Proof. A subset a K is an O

-regular ideal lying in the ideal class [I()] if and


only if a = I() for some reduced quadratic irrational equivalent to . Hence the
assertion follows by the Propositions 3.1 and 2.5.
Theorem 3.3. Let = 4D +

> 0 be a discriminant,

= [u
0
, u
1
, . . .] the
continued fraction of its basis number and l = l(

). Then u
n
= u
n+l
for all
n 1, u
l
= 2u
0

, u
li
= u
i
for all i [1, l 1], and therefore

=
+

2
= [u
0
, u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
2
, u
1
, 2u
0

] .
Let (p
n
)
n2
be the sequence of partial numerators, (q
n
)
n2
the sequence of
partial denominators and (
n
)
n0
the sequence of complete quotients of

. For
n 0,
n
is of type (a
n
, b
n
, c
n
), where a
n
1 and b
n
= 2B
n

for some B
n
Z.
(
1
, . . . ,
l
) is the period of

, and I(
1
), . . . , I(
l
) is the set of all reduced
principal ideals of O

. In particular,

l
= [ 2u
0

, u
1
, u
2
, . . . , u
2
, u
1
] =

+ u
0
, and I(
l
) = I(

) = O

.
If

denotes the fundamental unit of discriminant , then ^(

) = (1)
l
, and

= (p
l1
q
l1

)
m
= p
ml1
q
ml1

for all m N
0
.
If has a prime divisor q 3 mod 4, then l is even and ^(

) = 1.
1. For all n 0, the following relations hold :
(a) B
n
+ B
n+1
= a
n
u
n
+

.
(b) p
n1
= B
n
q
n1
+ a
n
q
n2
.
(c) Dq
n1
= (B
n

)p
n1
+ a
n
p
n2
.
(d) 4(1)
n
a
n
= (2p
n1

q
n1
)
2
q
2
n1
= 4 ^(p
n1
q
n1

).
(e) (1)
n
a
n
= p
2
n1

p
n1
q
n1
Dq
2
n1
.
2. If i 1 and n 0, then p
i+nl
q
i+nl

= (p
i
q
i

)(p
l1
q
l1

)
n
.
3. If l is odd, then
l
is the only ambiguous number in the period of

, and
O

is the only reduced ambiguous principal ideal of O

.
4. Let l = 2k be even. Then
k
and
l
are the only ambiguous numbers in
the period of

, (p
k1
q
k1

)
2
= a
k

, 2B
k
= a
k
u
k
+

,
a
k
[ (2p
k1
q
k1
, ) if

= 1 , and a
k
[ 2(p
k1
, D) if

= 0 .
In particular, O

and I(
k
) are the only reduced ambiguous principal ideals
of O

.
Proof. We prove 3. and 4. The other assertions can be either found in [16, 20, 27
and 30] or easily derived from the investigations there. The assertion concerning
reduced principal ideals follows by Corollary 3.2.
If i [1, l], then

i
= [ u
i
, u
i+1
, . . . , u
l
, u
1
, . . . , u
i1
] = [ u
li+1
, . . . , u
l
, u
1
, . . . , u
li
] =
li+1
(see [16, 23]), and by Proposition 2.5.3 it follows that
i
is ambiguous if and only
if
i+1
=
+
i
=
1
i
=
li+1
. In particular,
l
is ambiguous. If i [1, l 1], then

i
is ambiguous if and only if i + 1 = l i + 1, that is, if and only if l = 2i. This
proves 3. and the rst assertion of 4.
Assume now that l = 2k. Then
k+1
=
1
i
, and therefore
1 =
k+1

k
=
b
k+1
+

a
k+1
b
k

a
k
=
b
k
b
k+1
+ (b
k
b
k+1
)

4a
k
a
k+1
,
8 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
which implies that b
k
= b
k+1
, hence B
k
= B
k+1
and 2B
k
= a
k
u
k
+

. By 1.(b) we
obtain 2p
k1

q
k1
= 2B
k
q
k1
+2a
k
q
k2

q
k1
= (2B
k

)q
k1
+2a
k
q
k2
,
and as a
k
[ 2B
k

, it follows that a
k
[ 2p
k1

q
k1
and therefore a
k
[ q
2
k1
by 1.(d). By 1.(e), (a
k
, q
k1
)[ p
k1
, hence (a
k
, q
k1
) = 1 and a
k
[ . Consequently,
a
k
[ (2p
k1
q
k1
, ) if

= 1. If

= 0, then a
k
[ 2p
k1
, hence a
k
[ 2D by 1.(e),
and therefore a
k
[ 2(p
k1
, D).
It remains to prove that (p
k1
q
k1

)
2
= a
k

= a
k
(p
l1
q
l1

). Since

= D +

and (1,

) is linearly independent, we must prove that


a
k
p
l1
= p
2
k1
+ Dq
2
k1
and a
k
q
l1
= q
k1
(2p
k1

q
k1
) .
From the matrix equation
_
p
l1
p
l2
q
ll
q
l2
_
=
l1

=0
_
u

1
1 0
_
=
_
p
k1
p
k2
q
k1
q
k2
_
l1

=k
_
u

1
1 0
_
=
_
p
k1
p
k2
q
k1
q
k2
_
l1

=k
_
u
l
1
1 0
_
=
_
p
k1
p
k2
q
k1
q
k2
__
k

=0
_
u

1
1 0
__
t
_
0 1
1 u
0
_
=
_
p
k1
p
k2
q
k1
q
k2
__
p
k
q
k
p
k1
q
k1
__
0 1
1 u
0
_
=
_
p
k1
p
k2
q
k1
q
k2
__
q
k
p
k
u
0
q
k
q
k1
p
k1
u
0
q
k1
_
it follows that p
l1
= p
k1
q
k
+ p
k2
q
k1
and q
l1
= q
k1
(q
k
+ q
k2
). By 1.(c),
a
k
p
l1
= a
k
p
k1
q
k
+ a
k
p
k2
q
k1
= a
k
p
k1
q
k
+ Dq
2
k1
(B
k

)p
k1
q
k1
= p
k1
[ a
k
u
k
q
k1
+ a
k
q
k2
(B
k

)q
k1
] + Dq
2
k1
= p
k1
(B
k
q
k1
+ a
k
q
k2
) + Dq
2
k1
= p
2
k1
+ Dq
2
k1
.
By 1.(b),
2p
k1

q
k1
= 2B
k
q
k1
+ 2a
k
q
k2

q
k1
= (B
k
+ B
k+1

)q
k1
+ 2a
k
q
k2
= a
k
(u
k
q
k1
+ 2q
k2
) = a
k
(q
k
+ q
k2
) ,
and therefore q
k1
(2p
k1

q
k1
) = a
k
q
k1
(a
k
+ q
k2
) = a
k
q
l1
.
4. Main Results
Theorem 4.1. Let N be a discriminant.
1. Suppose that = 4D,
c 1, 2 if 8[ D, and c = 1 if 8 D;
t 1, 2 if D 3 mod 4, and t = 1 if D , 3 mod 4;
D = c
2
dd

, where d, d

N and (d, d

) = 1,
and set
j =
_

_
[ d,

D] if ct = 1 ,
[ 2d, d +

D] if t = 2 ,
[ 4d, 2d +

D] if c = 2 .
(a) j is an O

-regular ambiguous ideal of O

satisfying N

(j) = c
2
dt,
and every O

-regular ambiguous ideal of O

is of this form.
j is reduced if and only if d < d

, and j is a principal ideal of O

if
and only if there exist x, y Z such that
[dx
2
d

y
2
[ = t and (c, xy) = 1 .
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 9
(b) Let x, y Z be such that [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = t and (c, xy) = 1. Then
j = (cdx + y

D) O

.
2. Suppose that 1 mod 4 and = dd

, where d, d

N and (d, d

) = 1,
and set
j =
_
d,
d +

2
_
.
(a) j is an O

-regular ambiguous ideal of O

satisfying N

(j) = d, and
every O

-regular ambiguous ideal of O

is of this form.
j is reduced if and only if d < d

, and j is a principal ideal of O

if
and only if there exist x, y Z such that [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 4.
(b) Let x, y Z such that [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 4. Then
j =
dx + y

2
O

.
Proof. 1.(a) By [4, Proposition 1] it follows that j O

is an O

-regular ambigu-
ous ideal, every O

-regular ambiguous ideal is of this form, and j is reduced if and


only if d < d

. By Proposition 2.3.1, N

(j) = c
2
dt.
Let now j be principal, say j = (u + y

D) O

, where u, y Z and (u, y) = 1.


If ct = 1, then D = dd

, and u + y

D [ d,

D] implies u = dx for some


x Z. Since d = N

(j) = [^(dx + y

D)[ = [d
2
x
2
dd

y
2
[, it follows that
[dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 1.
If t = 2, then u + y

D [ 2d, d +

D] implies u + y

D = 2dv + (d +

D)w
for some v, w Z, and if x = 2v + w, then u = dx and y = w. Since D = dd

,
it follows that 2d = N

(j) = [^(dx + y

D)[ = [d
2
x
2
dd

y
2
[, which implies
[dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 2.
If c = 2, then u + y

D [ 4d, 2d +

D] implies that there exist v, w Z such


that u+y

D = 4dv+(2d+

D)w. If x = 2v+w, then u = 2dx, y = w, and 2 xy.


Since D = 4dd

, it follows that 4d = N

(j) = [^(2dx+y

D)[ = [4d
2
x
2
4dd

y
2
[,
which implies [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 1.
The converse follows by (b).
(b) If ct = 1, then obviously dx + y

D j, hence (dx + y

D)O

j, and
equality holds, since
N

_
(dx + y

D)O

_
= [^(dx + y

D)[ = [d
2
x
2
dd

y
2
[ = d = N

(j) .
If t = 2, then D = dd

3 mod 4, hence 2 xy, and x y = 2u for some u Z.


Now we obtain dx + y

D = 2du + (d +

D)y j, hence (dx + y

D) O

j,
and equality holds, since
N

_
(dx + y

D)O

_
= [^(dx + y

D)[ = [d
2
x
2
dd

y
2
[ = 2d = N

(j) .
If c = 2 and 2 xy, then D = 4dd

and xy = 2u for some u Z, which implies


2dx + y

D = 4du + (2d +

D)y j. Hence we obtain (dx + y

D) O

j, and
equality holds, since
N

_
(2dx + y

D)O

_
= [^(2dx + y

D)[ = [4d
2
x
2
4dd

y
2
[ = 4d = N
4D
(j) .
2.(a) By [4, Proposition 1] it follows that j O

is an O

-regular ambiguous
ideal, every O

-regular ambiguous ideal is of this form, and j is reduced if and only


if d < d

. By Proposition 2.3.1, N

(j) = d.
Let now j be principal, say j =
u+y

2
O

, where u, y Z and u y mod 2.


Then
u+y

2
j implies
u+y

2
= dv+
d+

2
w for some v, w Z. Hence it follows
10 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
that u = dx, where x = 2v + w, w = y, j =
dx+y

2
, d = N

(j) =
|d
2
x
2
dd

y
2
|
4
,
and therefore [d
2
x
2
dd

y
2
[ = 4.
(b) If [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 4, then x y mod 2,
dx+y

2
= d
xy
2
+
d+

2
y j,
hence
dx+y

2
O

j, and equality holds, since


N

_
dx+y

2
O

_
=

^
_
dx+y

2
_

=
[d
2
x
2
dd

y
2
[
4
= d = N

(j) .
The following remark addresses the diophantine equation [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 1 if
c = 2 and 2[ xy.
Remark 4.2. Let D N be not a square, 8 [ D and D = 4dd

, where d, d

N
and (d, d

) = 1. Let x, y Z be such that [dx


2
d

y
2
[ = 1.
1. If 2[ x, then (2dx + y

D)O
4D
= [ 4d,

D].
Indeed, if x = 2x
1
, where x
1
Z, then [4dx
2
1
d

y
2
[ = 1 and D = (4d)d

.
Hence the assertion follows by Theorem 4.1.2(a).
2. If 2 [ y and y = 2y
1
, then (dx + y
1

D)O
4D
= [ d,

D]. Indeed, in this


case [dx
2
4d

y
2
1
[ = 1 and D = d(4d

). Hence again the assertion follows


by Theorem 4.1.2(a).
Theorem 4.3. Let D N be not a square and l = l(

D) the period length of

D. Let L(D) be the set of all quadruples (d, d

, t,

), where
d, d

N and (d, d

) = 1;
D = c
2
dd

, where c 1, 2 if 8[ D, and c = 1 if 8 D;
t 1, 2 if D 3 mod 4, and t = 1 if D , 3 mod 4;
1 ;
there exist x, y Z such that dx
2
d

y
2
= t and (c, xy) = 1.
Then [L(D)[ = 4, and the structure of L(D) is as follows.
1. If l is odd, then L(D) = (1, D, 1, 1), (D, 1, 1, 1) .
2. If l = 2k is even, then
L(D) = (1, D, 1, 1), (D, 1, 1, 1), (d, d

, t, ), (d

, d, t, ) ,
where 1 d < d

and cdt ,= 1.
3. Let l = 2k be even and (d, d

, t, ) L(D) such that 1 d < d

and
cdt ,= 1. Then = (1)
k
. If (p
n
)
n2
denotes the sequence of partial
numerators and (q
n
)
n2
the sequence of partial denominators of

D, then
p
2
k1
Dq
2
k1
= (1)
k
c
2
dt , c
2
dt
4D
= (p
k1
+ q
k1

D)
2
,
c
2
dt [ 2p
k1
and
4D
= (1)
k
+
2d

t
q
2
k1
+
2p
k1
q
k1
c
2
dt

D.
Proof. Note that (d, d

, t, ) L(D) holds if and only if (d

, d, t, ) L(D).
1. If l is odd, then Theorem 3.3 implies that ^(
4D
) = 1, and O
4D
is the
only reduced ambiguous principal ideal in O
4D
. Hence we obtain ^(O

4D
) = 1,
(1, D, 1, 1), (D, 1, 1, 1) L(D), D , 3 mod 4 and t = 1. Assume now that
there exists some (d, d

, 1, ) L(D) such that 1 d < d

and cd > 1. Then


Theorem 4.1.1 implies the existence of some reduced ambiguous principal ideal
j O
4D
such that N
4D
(j) = c
2
d > 1, a contradiction.
2. Let l = 2k be even. Then Theorem 3.3 implies ^(

) = 1 and therefore
^(O

4D
) = 1. We prove rst :
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 11
A. If (d, d

, t, ) L(D), then (d, d

, t, ) / L(D).
Proof of A. Assume to the contrary that there is some (d, d

, t, ) L(D) such
that (d, d

, t, ) L(D), and let x, y, x


1
, y
1
Z be such that dx
2
d

y
2
= t,
dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
= t and (c, xy) = (c, x
1
y
1
) = 1. By Theorem 4.1.1(b) it follows
that (cdx + y

D) O
4D
= (cdx
1
+ y
1

D) O
4D
, and therefore cdx
1
+ y
1

D =
(cdx + y

D) for some O

4D
. Taking norms, we obtain
c
2
dt = ^(cdx
1
+ y
1

D) = ^()^(cdx + y

D) = ^() c
2
dt ,
and therefore ^() = 1, a contradiction. [A]
By Theorem 3.3.4, O
4D
contains precisely one reduced ambiguous principal
ideal j distinct from the unit ideal, and by Theorem 4.1.1 this ideal gives rise to an
equation [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = t, where d, d

N and x, y Z are such that 1 d < d

,
(d, d

) = 1, D = c
2
dd

, cdt > 1 and (c, xy) = 1. Hence there exists some 1


such that (d, d

, t, ) L(D). To prove uniqueness, we must show:


B. If (d
1
, d

1
, t
1
,
1
), (d
2
, d

2
, t
2
,
2
) L(D), 1 d
1
< d

1
, c
1
t
1
d
1
> 1, and
1 d
2
< d

2
, c
2
t
2
d
2
> 1, then (d
1
, d

1
, t
1
,
1
) = (d
2
, d

2
, t
2
,
2
).
Proof of B. For i 1, 2, suppose that (d
i
, d

i
, t
i
,
i
) L(D), 1 d
i
< d

i
and
c
i
t
i
d
i
> 1, where c
i
1, 2 are such that D = c
2
i
d
i
d

i
. By Theorem 4.1 there
exist x
i
, y
i
Z such that (c
i
, x
i
y
i
) = 1, and
j
i
= (c
i
d
i
x
i
+ y
i

D) O
4D
=
_

_
[ d
i
,

D] if c
i
t
i
= 1 ,
[ 2d
i
, d
i
+

D] if t
i
= 2 ,
[ 4d
i
, 2d
i
+

D] if c
i
= 2
is a reduced ambiguous ideal distinct from the unit ideal in the principal class of
O
4D
. Hence it follows that j
1
= j
2
, and in particular N
4D
(j
1
) = N
4D
(j
2
), which
implies c
2
1
t
1
d
1
= c
2
2
t
2
d
2
.
If t
1
= 2, then D 3 mod 4, hence c
1
= c
2
= 1. Since 2d
1
= t
2
d
2
and d
2
is odd,
it follows that t
2
= 2, d
1
= d
2
, d

1
= d

2
, and A implies
1
=
2
. By symmetry,
we may now assume that t
1
= t
2
= 1.
Assume now that c
1
,= c
2
, say c
1
= 2 and c
2
= 1. Then we obtain 4d
1
= d
2
and
[ 4d
1
, 2d
1
+

D] = [ d
2
,

D] = [ 4d
1
,

D], a contradiction. Hence it follows that


c
1
= c
2
, d
1
= d
2
, d

1
= d

2
, and A implies
1
=
2
. [B].
3. Let again l = 2k be even and (d, d

, t, ) L(D), where 1 d < d

and
ctd > 1. Let x, y Z be such that dx
2
d

y
2
= t. Then j = (cdx +y

D)O
4D
is
a reduced principal ideal of O
4D
such that N
4D
(j) = c
2
dt by Theorem 4.1.1.
Let (
n
)
n0
be the sequence of complete quotients of

D =
4D
, and for n 0
let (a
n
, b
n
, c
n
) be the type of
n
. By Theorem 3.3, I(
l
) = O
4D
and I(
k
) are the
only reduced ambiguous principal ideals of O
4D
. Hence it follows that j = I(
k
),
and N
4D
(j) = [^(
k
)[ = c
2
dt = a
k
. By Theorem 3.3 we obtain
^(
k
) = p
2
k1
c
2
dd

q
2
k1
= (1)
k
c
2
dt , c
2
dt
4D
= (p
k1
+ q
k1

D)
2
and

4D
=
p
2
k1
+ q
2
k1
D + 2p
k1
q
k1

D
c
2
dt
= (1)
k
+
2d

t
q
2
k1
+
2p
k1
q
k1
c
2
dt

D
( note that c
2
dt [ 2p
k1
by Theorem 3.3 ). It remains to prove that = (1)
k
.
CASE 1 : c = 2. Then 8[ D, t = 1, a
k
= 4d[ 2p
k1
, and therefore p
k1
= 2dx
1
,
where x
1
Z. If y
1
= q
k1
, then (p
k1
, q
k1
) = 1 implies 2 y
1
, and it follows that
dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
= (1)
k
. If 2 x
1
, then (d, d

, 1, (1)
k
) L(D), hence = (1)
k
, and
we are done.
12 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
We assert that the case 2[ x
1
cannot occur. Indeed, if 2[ x
1
, then x
1
= 2x
2
, where
x
2
Z, and 4dx
2
2
d

y
2
1
= (1)
k
. But this implies that (4d, d

, 1, (1)
k
) L(D),
hence either (4d, d

, 1, (1)
k
) = (d, d

, 1, ) or (4d, d

, 1, (1)
k
) = (d

, 4d, 1, ),
and both relations are impossible.
CASE 2 : c = 1 and 2 d ( in particular, this occurs if D 3 mod 4 ). As
a
k
= td[ 2p
k1
, it follows that d[ p
k1
, say p
k1
= dx
1
, where x
1
Z. If y
1
= q
k1
,
then dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
= (1)
k
t, hence (d, d

, t, (1)
k
) L(D) and therefore = (1)
k
.
CASE 3 : ct = 1 and d = 2d
0
, where d
0
N and 2 d
0
. Since a
k
= 2d
0
[ 2p
k1
,
we obtain p
k1
= d
0
x
1
, where x
1
Z. If y
1
= q
k1
, then d
0
x
2
1
2d

y
2
1
= 2(1)
k
,
which implies that 2 [ x
1
. If x
1
= 2x
2
, where x
2
Z, then dx
2
2
d

y
2
1
= (1)
k
,
hence (d, d

, 1, (1)
k
) L(D) and therefore = (1)
k
.
CASE 4 : ct = 1 and d = 4
e
d
0
, where e, d
0
N and 4 d
0
. If D
0
= d
0
d

,
then = dx
2
d

y
2
= d
0
(2
e
x)
2
d

y
2
implies that (d
0
, d

, 1, ) L(D
0
). Since
a
k
= 4
e
d
0
[ 2p
k1
, it follows that 2
e
d
0
[ 2
2e1
d
0
[ p
k1
, and we set p
k1
= 2
e
d
0
x
1
,
where x
1
Z. If y
1
= q
k1
, then (p
k1
, q
k1
) = 1 implies 2 y
1
. It follows
that d
0
x
2
1
d

y
2
1
= (1)
k
, and therefore (d
0
, d

, 1, (1)
k
) L(D
0
). If d
0
> 1,
then l(

D
0
) is even, and B (applied with D
0
instead of D) yields = (1)
k
.
If d
0
= 1, then d

mod 4. Since 2 d

y
2
1
, it follows that 2 [ x
1
, hence
(1)
k
d

mod 4, and thus again = (1)


k
.
Theorem 4.4. Let N be not a square, 1 mod 4, l = l(

) the period
length of

and l

= l(

) the period length of



. Let L
0
() be the set of
all triples (d, d

, ) such that
d, d

N, (d, d

) = 1, = dd

, 1, and there exist x, y Z such


that dx
2
d

y
2
= 4.
Then [L
0
()[ = 4, and the structure of L
0
() is as follows.
1. If l is odd, then L
0
() = (1, , 1), (, 1, 1) .
2. If l = 2k is even, then
L
0
() = (1, , 1), (, 1, 1), (d, d

, ), (d

, d, ) ,
where (d, d

, ) / (1, , 1), (, 1, 1) .
3. Let l = 2k be even and (d, d

, ) L
0
() such that 1 < d < d

. Then
= (1)
k
. Let (p
n
)
n2
be the sequence of partial numerators and (q
n
)
n2
the sequence of partial denominators of

. Then d [ 2p
k1
q
k1
, and if
2p
k1
q
k1
= ds
k
, then
ds
2
k
d

q
2
k1
= 4(1)
k
, d

=
_
ds
k
+ q
k1

2
_
2
,
and

= (1)
k
+
d

q
2
k1
+ q
k1
s
k

2
.
Moreover,

has half-integral coordinates if and only if there exist x, y Z


such that [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 4 and (x, y) = 1.
4. If (d, d

, ) L
0
(), then there exist x
1
, y
1
Z such that dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
= .
In particular, if l is even, then l l

mod 4.
Proof. Note that (d, d

, ) L
0
() holds if and only if (d

, d, ) L
0
().
1. If l is odd, then Theorem 3.3 implies that ^(

) = 1, and O

is the only
reduced ambiguous principal ideal in O

. Hence ^(O

) = 1, and therefore
(1, , 1), (, 1, 1) L
0
(). Assume that there is some (d, d

, ) L
0
()
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 13
such that 1 < d < d

. Then Theorem 4.1.2 implies the existence of some reduced


ambiguous principal ideal j O
4D
such that N
4D
(j) = d > 1, a contradiction.
2. Let l = 2k be even. Then Theorem 3.3 implies ^(O

) = 1. We prove
rst :
A. If (d, d

, ) L
0
(), then (d, d

, ) / L
0
().
Proof of A. Assume to the contrary that there is some (d, d

, ) L
0
() such
that (d, d

, ) L
0
(), and let x, y, x
1
, y
1
Z be such that dx
2
d

y
2
= 4
and dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
= 4. By Theorem 4.1.2 it follows that
_
d,
d +

2
_
=
dx + y

2
O

=
dx
1
+ y
1

2
O

and therefore dx
1
+ y
1

= (dx + y

) for some O

. Taking norms, we
obtain 4d = ^(dx
1
+y
1

) = ^()^(dx +y

) = 4^() d and therefore


^() = 1, a contradiction. [A]
By Theorem 3.3.4, O
4D
contains precisely one reduced ambiguous principal
ideal j distinct from the unit ideal, and by Theorem 4.1.2 this ideal gives rise to
an equation [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 4, where d, d

N, 1 < d < d

, (d, d

) = 1, = dd

and x, y Z. Hence there exists some 1 such that (d, d

, ) L
0
(D). To
prove uniqueness, we must show:
B. If (d
1
, d

1
,
1
), (d
2
, d

2
,
2
) L
0
(), 1 < d
1
< d

1
and 1 < d
2
< d

2
, then
(d
1
, d

1
,
1
) = (d
2
, d

2
,
2
).
Proof of B. For i 1, 2, suppose that (d
i
, d

i
,
i
) L
0
(). By Theorem 4.1.2
there exist x
i
, y
i
Z such that
j
i
=
d
i
x
i
+ y
i

2
O

=
_
d
i
,
d
i
+

2
_
is a reduced ambiguous principal ideal distinct from the unit ideal of O

. Therefore
it follows that j
1
= j
2
, in particular d
1
= d
2
, hence d

1
= d

2
, and A implies

1
=
2
. [B].
3. Let again l = 2k be even and (d, d

, ) L
0
(), where 1 < d < d

. Let
x, y Z be such that dx
2
d

y
2
= 4. Then
j =
_
dx + y

2
_
O

=
_
d,
d +

2
_
is a reduced principal ideal of O

such that N(j) = d by Theorem 4.1.2.


Let (
n
)
n0
be the sequence of complete quotients of

, and for n 0 let


(a
n
, b
n
, c
n
) be the type of
n
. By Theorem 3.3, I(
l
) = O

and I(
k
) are the only
reduced ambiguous principal ideals of O
4D
. Hence it follows that j = I(
k
) and
N

(j) = [^(
k
)[ = d = a
k
. Since a
k
[ (2p
k1
q
k1
, ) by Theorem 3.3, there exists
some s
k
Z such that 2p
k1
q
k1
= ds
k
, and then 4(1)
k
d = d
2
s
2
k
dd

q
2
k1
,
which implies ds
2
k
d

q
2
k1
= 4(1)
k
. Moreover,
d

=
_
ds
k
+ q
k1

2
_
2
and

= (1)
k
+
d

q
2
k1
+ q
k1
s
k

2
.
In particular, (d, d

, (1)
k
) L
0
(), and by A it follows that (d, d

, ) L
0
()
if and only if = (1)
k
.
The above formulas show that

has half-integral coordinates if and only if


2 q
k1
, and in this case the diophantine equation [dx
2
d

y
2
[ = 4 has a solution
14 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
(x, y) Z
2
such that (x, y) = 1, namely (x, y) = (s
k
, q
k1
). Assume now that
there exist x, y Z such that (x, y) = 1 and dx
2
d

y
2
= 1. Then
=
2 + d

y
2
+ xy

2
O

is half-integral, and ^() = 1, which implies that O

4
. Since O

,= O

4
if and only if

has half-integral coordinates, it follows that

has half-integral
coordinates.
4. Suppose that (d, d

, ) L
0
(), and let x, y Z be such that dx
2
d

y
2
= 4.
If x y 0 mod 2, we set x = 2x
1
, y = 2y
1
, and we obtain dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
= . Thus
assume now that x y 1 mod 2. Then we set
x
1
=
(dx
2
3)x
2
and y
1
=
(dx
2
)y
2
,
and we assert that dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
= . For the proof, we start with the identity
64d
3
= (d
2
x
2
y
2
)
3
= [dx(d
2
x
2
+ 3y
2
)]
2
[y(3d
2
x
2
+ y
2
)]
2
.
Now we nd
dx(d
2
x
2
+ 3y
2
) = dx[4d
2
x
2
3(d
2
x
2
y
2
)] = dx(4d
2
x
2
12d)
= 4d
2
x(dx
2
3) = 8d
2
x
1
and
y(3d
2
x
2
+ y
2
) = y[4d
2
x
2
(d
2
x
2
y
2
)] = y(4d
2
x
2
4d)
= 4dy(dx
2
) = 8dy
1
.
Hence it follows that 64d
3
= 64d
4
x
2
1
64d
2
y
2
1
, and therefore = dx
2
1
d

y
2
1
.
Suppose now that l is even. Then there exists some (d, d

, ) L
0
() such that
1 < d < d

, and, as we have just proved, this implies that (d, d

, 1, ) L(). By
Theorem 4.3 it follows that l

is even, and if l

= 2k

, then = (1)
k
= (1)
k

,
which implies l l

mod 4.
Remark 4.5. The Theorems 4.3 and 4.4 are closely connected with the results
of R. A. Mollin in [13], in particular with his Theorems 3 and 9. There he derives
a close connection between the fundamental solutions of pellian and antipellian
equations in terms of continued fractions.
5. Applications
Theorem 5.1. ( compare [13, Theorem 5 and Corollaries] ) Let q 3 mod 4 be a
prime and = 4q
r
for some odd r N.
1. Then l(

q ) = 2k is even, l(

q
r
) l(

q ) mod 4, and there exists exactly


one 1 such that the diophantine equation
x
2
q
r
y
2
= 2 is solvable, namely = (1)
k
=
_
1 if q 7 mod 8 ,
1 if q 3 mod 8 .
2. If

= u + v

q
r
, where u, v N, then 2[ u and ^(

) = 1.
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 15
Proof. 1. By Theorem 3.3, ^(

) = 1 and l(

q
r
) = 2k is even. By Theorem 4.3,
applied with D = q
r
, there exists a unique 1 such that the diophantine
equation x
2
q
r
y
2
= 2 has a solution (x, y) Z
2
, namely = (1)
k
. Hence
1 =
_
2(1)
k
q
_
= (1)
k
_
2
q
_
, and = (1)
k
=
_
1 if q 7 mod 8 ,
1 if q 3 mod 8 .
Therefore the parity of k does not depend on r.
2. Let (p
n
)
n2
the sequence of partial numerators and (q
n
)
n2
the sequence
of partial denominators of

q
r
. Since (1, q
r
, 2, (1)
k
) L(q
r
), it follows that
p
2
k1
q
r
q
2
k1
= 2(1)
k
, hence 2 q
k1
, and

= (1)
k
+q
r
q
2
k1
+p
k1
q
k1

D,
which implies u = (1)
k
+ q
r
q
2
k1
0 mod 2.
Theorem 5.2. Let q 3 mod 4 be a prime and r N. Then l(

2q ) = 2k is
even, l(

2q
r
) l(

2q ) mod 4, and there exists exactly one 1 such that


the diophantine equation
2x
2
q
r
y
2
= is solvable, namely = (1)
k
=
_
1 if q 7 mod 8 ,
1 if q 3 mod 8 .
Proof. Note that l(

2q
r
) = 2k is even by Theorem 3.3. By Theorem 4.3, applied
with D = 2q
r
, there exists a unique 1 such that the diophantine equation
2x
2
q
r
y
2
= has a solution (x, y) Z
2
, namely = (1)
k
. Hence
1 =
_
2(1)
k
q
_
= (1)
k
_
2
q
_
, and = (1)
k
=
_
1 if q 7 mod 8 ,
1 if q 3 mod 8 .
In particular, the parity of k does not depend on r.
Theorem 5.3. ( compare [13, Theorem 10] ) Let q and q be odd primes and =
4p
r
q
s
for some odd r, s N such that p
r
< q
s
.
1. If ^(

) = 1, then the diophantine equation [p


r
x
2
q
s
y
2
[ = 1 is unsolv-
able.
2. Suppose that ^(

) = 1 and l(

p
r
q
s
) = 2k. Then there exists precisely
one 1 such that the diophantine equation p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= is
solvable, namely = (1)
k
. In particular,
_
(1)
k
p
q
_
=
_
(1)
k+1
q
p
_
= 1 .
Proof. By Theorem 4.3, applied with D = p
r
q
s
.
Theorem 5.4. Let p and q be primes and = 8p
r
q
s
for some odd r, s N. If
^(

) = 1, we set l(

2p
r
q
s
) = 2k.
1. Let p 1 mod 8 and q 5 mod 8.
(a) The diophantine equations [2x
2
p
r
q
s
y
2
[ = 1 and [2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
[ = 1
are unsolvable.
(b) If ^(

) = 1, then there exists precisely one 1 such that the


diophantine equation p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
= is solvable, namely
=
_
(1)
k
if p
r
< 2q
s
,
(1)
k+1
if p
r
> 2q
s
,
and
_
p
q
_
= 1 ,
16 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
(c) If ^(

) = 1, then the diophantine equation [p


r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
[ = 1 is
unsolvable.
2. Let p 3 mod 8 and q 5 mod 8 ( then ^(

) = 1 ).
(a) The diophantine equation [2x
2
p
r
q
s
y
2
[ = 1 is unsolvable.
(b) Exactly one of the two diophantine equations
2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
=
_
p
q
_
and p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
=
_
p
q
_
is solvable, while the two diophantine equations
2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
=
_
p
q
_
and p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
=
_
p
q
_
are both unsolvable.
3. Let p 3 mod 8 and q 7 mod 8 ( then ^(

) = 1 ).
(a) The diophantine equations [2x
2
p
r
q
s
y
2
[ = 1 and [p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
[ = 1
are both unsolvable.
(b) There exists precisely one 1 such that the diophantine equation
2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= is solvable, namely
=
_
(1)
k
if 2p
r
< q
s
,
(1)
k+1
if 2p
r
> q
s
,
and (1)
k
_
p
q
_
(q
s
2p
r
) > 0 .
(c) ( compare [13, Corollary 10] ) If

= u + v

2p
r
q
s
, then v is even,
and
_
p
q
_
= (1)
v/2
.
Proof. We apply Theorem 4.3 with D = 2p
r
q
s
. If ^(

) = 1, then exactly one of


the six diophantine equations
(I) 2x
2
p
r
q
s
y
2
= 1 , (II) 2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= 1 , (III) p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
= 1
is solvable. Otherwise, if ^(

) = 1, then p q 1 mod 4, and all these


diophantine equations are unsolvable.
1. (a) If x, y Z are such that 2x
2
p
r
q
s
y
2
= 1, then 2x
2
mod q,
and therefore
1 =
_

q
_
=
_
2
q
_
,
a contradiction.
If x, y Z are such that 2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= 1 , then the congruences
2p
r
x
2
mod q and q
s
y
2
mod p imply that
1 =
_

q
_
=
_
2p
q
_
=
_
p
q
_
and 1 =
_

p
_
=
_
q
p
_
,
which contradicts the quadratic reciprocity law.
(b) By (a) and Theorem 4.3, there exists exactly one 1 such that the
diophantine equation p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
= is solvable, and = (1)
k
if and only if
p
r
< 2q
s
. In particular, it follows that
1 =
_

q
_
=
_
p
q
_
.
(c) By the preliminary remark.
2. (a) As in 1.(a), since 2 is a quadratic non-residue modulo q.
DIOPHANTINE EQUATIONS OF PELLIAN TYPE 17
(b) By the preliminary remark, exactly one of the four diophantine equations
2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= 1 and p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
= 1 is solvable. Let x, y Z and 1.
If 2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= , then q
s
y
2
mod p and therefore
=
_

p
_
=
_
q
p
_
=
_
p
q
_
.
If p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
= , then 2q
s
y
2
mod p and therefore
=
_

p
_
=
_
2q
p
_
=
_
q
p
_
=
_
p
q
_
.
3. (a) If x, y Z are such that 2x
2
p
r
q
s
y
2
= 1, then 2x
2
mod p
and 2x
2
mod q, which implies
1 =
_
2
p
_
=
_

p
_
=
_

q
_
=
_
2
q
_
= 1 , a contradiction.
If x, y Z are such that p
r
x
2
2q
s
y
2
= 1, then p
r
x
2
mod q and
2q
s
y
2
mod p, which implies
=
_

p
_
=
_
2q
p
_
=
_
q
p
_
=
_
p
q
_
=
_

q
_
= , a contradiction.
(b) By (a) and the preliminary remark, there is exactly one 1 for which
the diophantine equation 2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= is solvable, and by Theorem 4.3 we
obtain = (1)
k
if and only if 2p
r
< q
s
. If x, y Z are such that 2p
r
x
2
q
s
y
2
= ,
then 2p
r
x
2
mod q, and therefore
=
_

q
_
=
_
2p
q
_
=
_
p
q
_
, which implies (1)
k
_
p
q
_
(q
s
2p
r
) > 0 .
(c) Let (p
n
)
n2
the sequence of partial numerators and (q
n
)
n2
the sequence
of partial denominators of

2p
r
q
s
. For g Z, we denote by v
2
(g) the 2-adic
exponent of g.
Assume rst that 2p
r
< q
s
. Then (2p
r
, q
s
, 1, (1)
k
) L(2p
r
q
s
), and it follows
that p
2
k1
2p
r
q
s
q
2
k1
= (1)
k
2p
r
, 2[ p
k1
, 2 q
k1
, and

= (1)
k
+ 2q
s
q
2
k1
+
p
k1
q
k1
p
r
_
2p
r
q
s
, which implies v =
p
k1
q
k1
p
r
and v
2
(v) = v
2
(p
k1
) 1. Since
p
2
k1
= 2p
r
[(1)
k
+ q
s
q
2
k1
] 2 [1 (1)
k
] mod 8 ,
it follows that 4[ p
k1
( and thus 4[ v ) if and only if 2[ k, and therefore
_
p
q
_
= (1)
k
= (1)
v/2
.
Assume now that q
s
< 2p
r
. Then (q
s
, 2p
r
, 1, (1)
k
) L(2p
r
q
s
), and it follows
that p
2
k1
2p
r
q
s
q
2
k1
= (1)
k
q
s
, hence 2 p
k1
, and

= (1)
k
+ 4p
r
q
2
k1
+
2p
k1
q
k1
q
s
_
2p
r
q
s
, which implies v =
2p
k1
q
k1
q
s
and v
2
(v) = v
2
(q
k1
) + 1 1. Since
p
2
k1
= q
s
[ 2p
r
q
2
k1
+ (1)
k
] 2q
2
k1
(1)
k
mod 8 ,
it follows that 2q
2
k1
1 + (1)
k
mod 8. Hence 2 [ q
k1
( and thus 4 [ v ) if and
only if 2 k, and therefore
_
p
q
_
= (1)
k1
= (1)
v/2
.
18 FRANZ HALTER-KOCH
References
[1] C. Friesen, Legendre symbols and coninued fractions, Acta Arith. 59 (1991), 365 379.
[2] C. F. Gauss, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, Springer, 1966.
[3] F. Halter-Koch,

Uber Pellsche Gleichungen und Kettenbr uche, Arch. Math. 49 (1987), 29
37.
[4] F. Halter-Koch, P. Kaplan, K. S. Williams, and Y. Yamamoto, Infrastructure des classes
ambiges dideaux des ordres des corps quadratiques reels, LEns. Math. 37 (1991), 263 292.
[5] H. Hasse, Vorlesungen uber Zahlentheorie, Springer, 1950.
[6] , Number Theory, Springer, 1980.
[7] B. Goddard K. Cheng and R. A. Mollin, The Diophantine equation ax
2
by
2
= c.
[8] P. Kaplan, A propos des equations antipelliennes, Enseign. Math. 29 (1983), 323 328.
[9] P. Kaplan and K. S. Williams, The distance between ideals in the orders of a real quadratic
eld, Enseign. Math. 36 (1990), no. 3, 321358.
[10] R. A. Mollin, All solutions of the Diophantine equation x
2
dy
2
= n, Far East J. Mth. Sci.,
Special Volume.
[11] , Quadratics, CRC Press, 1996.
[12] , Jacobi symbols, ambiguous ideals, and continued fractions, Acta Arith. 85 (1998),
331 349.
[13] , A continued fraction approach to the Diophantine equation ax
2
by
2
= 1, JP
Journal of Algebra, Number Theory and Apps. 4 (2004), 565 571.
[14] R. A. Mollin and A. J. van der Poorten, Continued fractions, Jacobi Symbols, and Quadratic
Diophantine Equations, Canadian Math. Bull. 43 (2000), 218 225.
[15] G. Pall, Discriminantal Divisors of Binary Quadratic Forms, J. Number Theory 1 (1969),
525 533.
[16] O. Perron, Die Lehre von den Kettenbr uchen, B. G. Teubner, 1989.
[17] H. F. Trotter, On the norms of units in quadratic elds, Proc. Amer. Mat. Soc. 22 (1969),
198 201.
[18] A. J. van der Poorten and P. G. Walsh, A Note on Jacobi Symbols and Continued Fractions,
Amer. Math. Monthly 106 (1999), 52 56.
Institut f ur Mathematik und Wissenschaftliches Rechnen
der Karl-Franzenzs-Universit at Graz, A-8010 Graz, Heinrichstrae 36
E-mail address: franz.halterkoch@aon.at