Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21


24 October 2013
[See Post Script dated 25 September 2014 at the end of letter)

Subject: Potholes, potholes and more potholes in India !!!

Dear Highway Colleague:
I do not know about you but every year during the monsoon I feel ashamed as an
Indian Highway Engineer when I see the coverage of potholes, potholes and more
potholes in newspapers and TV channels; traffic jams; people dying or getting injured
from potholes. It appears to me we highway engineers in India are downright
insensitive to do something about this yearly disgrace on our profession.

Just ask general public as to what they think about this. They will say we highway
engineers are not purposely filling the potholes before and during the monsoon so
that potholes grow in numbers, in size and in depth and we will get a fat budget
later for pothole patching with hot mix year after year. We have brainwashed the
public in believing potholes are a natural phenomenon during rains (as if water in the
Indian monsoon has some chemical to dissolve the bituminous road!). We also tell
them we are helpless to fix the potholes during the three months of monsoon because
the hot mix plants are shut down and/or potholes are damp or wet. This is the situation
after 65 years independence!

As a retired, volunteer highway engineer in India, I have offered a simple, economical
and effective method of repairing potholes not only during the monsoon but also
throughout the year. Please read the attached cover story which appeared in the
Construction Week magazine dated 13 July 2013. The story is about an idiot-
proof, unpatented, economical, and effective readymade pothole patching mix
(called Kandhal Mix by the Jaipur Development Authority in their contract
documents), which is the real answer to our pothole problem across India. [If you
have a better, generic, economical and widely field proven product, please let me
know, I will publicize it.]

I believe I have done whatever could be done to introduce this pothole technology in
India with no selfish motive whatsoever:

I published a paper titled, A Simple and Effective Method of Repairing
Potholes in India in the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) Journal Volume 69-3,
October 2008 and presented this paper at the Annual Session of the IRC held
in Kolkata in 2008 where thousands of highway engineers were present. You
can download this paper at the following link:

I have written to some 1500 highway engineers in India several times in the
past years informing about this readymade, generic mix along with
specifications and cost analyses.

I submitted draft on, Specification for Kandhal Readymade Bituminous
Pothole Patching Mix to the Flexible Pavement Committee of the Indian
Roads Congress but it is a hanging fire for the last 3 years.

I wrote to the Director of the Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) some
years ago to produce this simple, generic mix in CRRI laboratory and evaluate
it for use throughout India. Unfortunately no response, probably because it is
not a patented product and I was not willing to pay the fee for evaluation.

I prepared and applied this readymade pothole mix on Jaipur roads with the
voluntary assistance of the students and faculty of the Malviya National
Institute of Technology (MNIT); got it approved by the Jaipur Development
Authority (JDA) after field trials; and trained JDA engineers and contractors
in producing this mix using local materials. JDA has been using the Kandhal
mix worth about Rupees one crore each year since 2011 as a standard item. I
also trained engineers of the Rajasthan PWD in 2012 year to implement this
mix across Rajasthan.

I believe all of us have a responsibility to implement this proven technology of
repairing potholes rather than just complaining about the potholes we face every

If you are directly responsible for repairing potholes throughout the year,
just implement it NOW. Necessary tender documents such as G- Schedule,
specifications, and rate analyses for the supply and laying of Kandhal
Readymade Pothole Patching Mix are attached. You can issue the NIT
today if you really have the WILL to do something for our country.
If you are not directly responsible but your colleagues are, share this
information with them and seriously insist on them to use it.
If you are a faculty in Civil Engineering of IITs, universities and colleges,
produce this mix with the help of students and demonstrate its use to
engineers of local municipality and state PWD. In other words, help the
local and state governments. They would be really thankful. This would be
much better than conducting some exotic research in bituminous mixes.
If you are a retired engineer like me, write and speak forcefully to media,
engineers of local government and state government asking them to
implement this mix. Provide voluntary technical assistance to them. That is
a good community service in retirement.

I sincerely hope you will do your part in the interest of our country; I have done mine.
If you need any further technical assistance please contact me via email. As a
highway colleague I have high expectations from you; PLEASE do not just belong to
the silent or complaining majority only. I would like to hear from you.

By the way, the cover article mentions about smooth as a runway roads in Jaipur.
Such roads have also resulted from using the dense graded BC mix only by the Jaipur
Development Authority (JDA) since 2010; and banning altogether on any street the
use of water-trapping bituminous mixes such as premix carpet (PMC), bituminous
macadam (BM), and semi dense bituminous concrete (SDBC). All cities of India
should adopt this JDAs policy based on my recommendations to keep their roads and
streets largely free from potholes to begin with.

Best regards,

Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal
24 October 2013

Post Script (25 September 2014)

After persistent efforts by the write for the last 6 years, the Indian Roads Congress
(IRC) has finally adopted the so-called Kandhal Mix as a standard readymade
pothole patching mix with cutback bitumen. Hon. Nitin Gadkari, Minister for Road
Transport and Highways officially released the IRC:116-2014 Standard Specification
on 19 August 2014 in New Delhi.

It is hoped this idiot-proof unpatented mix would now be used across India
throughout the year to tackle the menace of potholes. Specifications, rate analyses and
G Schedule used by the Jaipur Development Authority (JDA) for the past 4 years
are attached for including this mix in the Basic Schedule of Rates (BSR) and for
calling tenders.

Rate analyses indicate patches made with the Kandhal Mix are more economical than
those made with hot mix asphalt because the latter is labor intensive (squaring the
pothole), material intensive (use of binder for tack coat), and equipment intensive (use
of roller). Patches made with this mix are also more economical and faster than those
made with the so-called automatic patching machines called by fancy names such as
road ambulance and road doctor. These machines require capital outlay and are
also difficult to maintain. Also, the cost of Kandhal Mix is about one-third the cost of
many patented readymade mixes such as Shelmac.

American roads are good not because America is rich, but America is rich
because American roads are good. - John F. Kennedy

Never doubt that a small group of citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is
the only thing that ever has. -Margaret Mead

About the writer

Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal is Associate Director Emeritus of the National Center for
Asphalt Technology (NCAT) based at Auburn University, Alabama, U.S.A. NCAT is
the largest asphalt (bitumen) road technology center in the world.

Prior to joining NCAT in 1988, Prof. Kandhal served as Chief Asphalt Road Engineer
of the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation for 17 years. He is the first person
born outside North America, who has held the following three national and
international very prestigious positions in the asphalt road technology area:

President, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists (with members from
all continents in the world)
Chairman, American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International
Committee on Road Paving Standards (responsible for over 200 standards
used worldwide)
Chairman, Transportation Research Board Committee on Asphalt Roads, U.S.
National Academy of Sciences

Prof. Kandhal has published over 120 technical papers and has co-authored the first
ever textbook on asphalt road technology, which is used by more than 25 universities
in the U.S. He has travelled to various countries in South America, Middle East,
China, Vietnam, Japan, Singapore, and Australia to provide training and consulting
services in asphalt (bitumen) technology. He has been to China three times to train
their highway engineers in building world-class roads.

Prof. Kandhal has been a practicing highway engineer in India for 20 years and in the
US for 30 years. Recently he has drafted many standards for the Indian Roads
Congress including specifications for dense graded bituminous mixes, stone matrix
asphalt and readymade pothole patching mix. He was also instrumental single-
handedly in introducing viscosity grading of bitumen in India in lieu of penetration
grading in 2005.

In August 2011, Prof. Kandhal was inducted on the Wall of Honour established at
the largest asphalt road research center in the United States. In April 2012, he
received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Asphalt Road Technology from the
International Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists during their annual
banquet held in Austin, Texas, USA.

Registered with Registrar of Newspapers under RNI No. MAHENG/2008/33387, Postal Registration No. MH/MR/N/146/MBI/13-15
Published on 30th of every previous month. Posted at Patrika Channel Sorting Ofce, Mumbai-400001, Posting date: 3rd & 4th of every month
Total number of pages 78
volume 4 issue 11
July 2013 mumbai `50
01_CW_jul13_cover1.indd 1 26-06-2013 20:00:31
hen the first spell of monsoon hit Mumbai this year,
I breathed a sigh of relief as it brought some respite
from the sweltering summer heat. But this joy was
short-lived. When I came across a report on the causes behind road
accidents in India by the MoRTH, I was shocked and disturbed to
learn the number of deaths on Indian roads.
Close to 1,50,000 people die on Indian roads every year in
accidents due to various reasons. To put things in perspective, one
person loses his life on Indian roads every three minutes. Roughly
1.5 per cent of these deaths are due to bad roads and potholes,
which translates to nearly 2,200 deaths annually.
While the official numbers might not look alarming for a country
with a population of more that 1.2 billion, it is estimated that the
actual number of fatalities might be nearly five times more.
Besides water, which is the biggest enemy of roads, it seems that
road repair contractors, who have been doing substandard work,
and civic officials, who continue to award projects to such errant
contractors, despite their poor track record, are the real culprits
behind the poor state of Indias roads and highways, and the loss of
thousands of lives.
But alls not lost. Amidst all this, a 72-year-old professor, Prithvi
Singh Kandhal from Jaipur, has been quietly pushing for a simple yet
effective cold-mix technology that can be used even during monsoon
to repair potholes. However, the veteran asphalt engineer expressed
his frustration over the lackadaisical attitude of civic offcials and
contractors towards matters of public interest. Especially, when
Kandhal is voluntarily offering his service. A service that could not only
better our road conditions but, more importantly, save precious lives.
Imran Mirza
Anuj Puri
Chairman & Country
Head, Jones Lang
Brotin Banerjee
Tata Housing
Sachin Sandhir
Managing Director,
RICS South Asia
Mangesh G Korgaonker
Director General,
Lalit Kumar Jain
Chairman, Kumar
Builders and
Chairman, CREDAI
WRITE TO THE EDITOR Please address your letters to: The Editor, Construction Week, Notan Plaza, 3rd foor, 898, Turner Road, Bandra (west), Mumbai - 400050
or email Please provide your full name and address, stating clearly if you do not wish us to print them. Alternatively log on to and air your views.
The opinions expressed in this section are of particular individuals and are in no way a refection of the publishers views.
Contract killers?
Published by and 2013 ITP Publishing India Private Limited
RNI Registration No. MAHENG/2008/33387
MIB no. 10/51/2008
898 Turner Road, Notan Plaza, 3rd floor,
Bandra (west), Mumbai - 400050
T +91 22 6154 6000

T +91 22 6154 6038
EXECUTIVE EDITOR Niranjan Mudholkar
EDITOR Imran Mirza
T +91 98206 22184
DEPUTY EDITOR Syed Ameen Kader
T +91 93223 84002
BUSINESS HEAD Indrajeet Saoji
T +91 93202 85997
BUSINESS HEAD Abhijeet Desai
T +91 90040 49744
T +91 98457 22377
T +91 22 6154 6032
The publishers regret that they cannot accept liability for error or omissions
contained in this publication, however caused. The opinions and views
contained in this publication are not necessarily those of the publishers.
Readers are advised to seek specialist advice before acting on information
contained in this publication, which is provided for general use and may not
be appropriate for the readers particular circumstances. The ownership of
trademarks is acknowledged. No part of this publication or any part of the
contents thereof may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form without the permission of the publishers in writing. An exemption is
hereby granted for extracts used for the purpose of fair review.
Printed and Published by Sai Kumar Shanmugam, Flat no 903, Building
47, NRI Colony, Phase 2, Part -1, Sector 54, 56, 58, Nerul, Navi Mumbai
400706, on behalf of ITP Publishing India Private Limited, printed at Repro
India Limited, Marathe Udyog Bhavan, 2nd Floor, Appasaheb Marathe Marg,
Prabhadevi, Mumbai 400 025, India and published at ITP Publishing India,
Notan Plaza, 3rd floor, 898, Turner Road
Bandra (west), Mumbai - 400050.
EDITOR Imran Mirza
vOLUME 4 iSSUE 11 JULy 2013
08_CW_July13_Ed letter and Flannel.indd 8 26-06-2013 20:11:46
A simple, cost-effective solution is available for repairing roads. Why are
contractors and government development agencies turning a blind eye?
f you visit Jaipur during mon-
soon, one thing that you would
unmistakably end up noticing
is the quality of roads. Unlike
Mumbai and most other metros
where the frst few showers turn the
roads into a sea of potholes of all shapes
and sizes the roads in Jaipur are
smooth as a runway.
So what has Jaipur done that other cities
have been unable to do? The Jaipur Devel-
opment Authority (JDA) has been using
a readymade, generic, cold bituminous
patching mix technology during monsoon,
since 2010. The agency has done patch re-
pairs worth more than Rs1 crore with great
success. The authority has to maintain
over 6,000-km lane of roads and streets
in and around Jaipur, which receives an
annual rainfall of around 650mm. Witness-
ing the success of this technology, even
the Rajasthan PWD has followed JDAs
lead and used the same cold mix all across
Rajasthan during 2012 monsoon.
There is no standard readymade cold
patching material available in India, which
can be used during the rainy season when
hot mix plants are usually shut down. It
is diffcult to design stockpile patching
Getting the right mix
mixtures because the properties required
in stockpiling and handling, and after
the material is placed in the pothole are
contradictory. Some of these contradictory
requirements pertain to aggregate grada-
tion, aggregate shape and binder viscosity.
So what is this generic, unpatented,
readymade cold bituminous mix technol-
ogy? While working in Pennsyl-
vania, USA, as chief asphalt
engineer, Professor Prithvi
Singh Kandhal, developed
a simple and effective
cold bituminous mix for
potholes during early
1980s. This cold patching
mix is manufactured in
a batch type hot mix plant
using local aggregates. The mix
can be placed without preparing
the pothole such as drying, squaring the
edges, cleaning, and tack coating.
This mix can be used to fll potholes
during the rainy season, even when they
are wet. The idiot proof mix, as Kandhal
calls it, requires no preparation of the
pothole. In a nationwide US Strategic
Highway Research Program (SHRP) feld
study, this mix was adjudged as number
one in terms of its durability in potholes.
About 78 per cent of the patches survived
for over four years. It has been used in
extreme cold and rainy weather in the
US for over 30 years. This readymade
cold mix can be made and stored for six
months and can be made by any bitumi-
nous mix plant (portable or stationary) in
India using local materials.
The mix has been successfully
tried on Jaipur streets and on the
Jaipur-Agra Road with the help
of the students and faculty of
Malviya National Institute
of Technology in Jaipur and
IJM. It also has been tried
successfully by the West Bengal
PWD and IIT Guwahati.
Kandhal argues that this cold
mix technology is as cost effective as hot
mix. Cost analyses have shown that the
cost of repairing potholes with ready-
made cold mix is about the same as cost of
repairing with hot mix because the latter
is more labour, material (tack coat), and
equipment (roller) intensive, he points
out. Contractors struggle with using hot
mix technology during rainy season as the
roads are wet, leaving the mix ineffective.
36-38 CW_July13_cover story_getting the.indd 36 26-06-2013 19:08:47
Potholes get larger and deeper during the
three months of monsoon and, therefore,
require much more hot mix, the cost of
prompt repair of potholes with cold mix
may be half of hot mix.
What is the cost of injuries and fatalities;
vehicle repair costs; and user delays result-
ing from unflled potholes? questions Kan-
dhal. It is very hard to estimate these costs.
If we are a civilised country, we simply can-
not wait and repair potholes after monsoon
ends as we have been doing for the last 65
years after independence, he stresses.
The mix is also handy for contractors
who are responsible for maintaining na-
tional highways, state highways or PMGSY
roads during the concession or warranty
period. If there are a few potholes, there is
no need to arrange hot mix. The contractor
can take some bags of this mix, a labourer
and a hand rammer, in a car or a pickup,
and get the potholes repaired, as and when
Long pothole on Raj Bhawan Road, Jaipur being cleaned
Kandhal mix being placed and compacted in the pothole, using a simple hand rammer
The patch is intact but the road around it has deteriorated
required. There is no need to wait for a
sizeable number of potholes to appear and
then fx them, as is in the case of hot mix.
Contractors and engineers often cite the
lack of Indian Roads Congress (IRC) or
MoRTH specifcations for readymade cold
patching mix for not using this technology.
This is again a lame excuse, says Kand-
hal. The specifcations prepared for this
mix have been adopted by the JDA and Ra-
jasthan PWD. Moreover, many contractors
are already using patented readymade cold
mix made with foreign technology, and are
paying a premium price for it.
Kandhal had submitted a draft of this
cold mix to the Flexible Pavement Com-
mittee of IRC for approval more than two
years ago, but there has been no progress
on this front. Construction Week received
no response from the IRC, despite
repeated emails asking for the status of
this paper. Kandhal's attempts to get the
Central Road Research Institute (CRRI)
to test the mix in its labs have received
no response, highlighting the callousness
of these institutions towards matters of
public interest.
JDAs engineer, Sapan Mishra, shared
his experience with the mix. We tried
it frst on a few patches. It has worked
really well for us. The road adjacent to the
potholes has come off but the potholes
havent appeared again. Mishra advises
that its important to get the recipe of the
mix right. The aggregates, gradation and
bitumen should be used based on the lo-
cal conditions, advises Mishra.
Jaipur has taken the lead and has
invited tenders to use repair roads using
this cold mix. The response has been
good. We are receiving lower-priced bids
than we did earlier, Mishra revealed,
indicating that contractors have realised
the benefts of economies of scale.
This proposed generic mix is less than
half the price of those patented mixes.
Why are they paying more when this
mix can be made by a local contractor,
asks Kandhal. The 72-year-old profes-
sor is willing to offer voluntary technical
assistance and knowhow to those who are
willing to try the technology.
With the availability of this mix, there
is no excuse to use 19th century tech-
nology for flling potholes. We have the
specifcations; cost analyses; success story
of this mix in Jaipur essentially, every-
thing you need for calling tenders. Do we
still have an excuse? scoffs Kandhal.
36-38 CW_July13_cover story_getting the.indd 38 26-06-2013 19:09:05

Name of Work: Production and Supply of Kandhal Readymade Bituminous
Pothole Patching Mix to Zone Area JDA at Location
(Godown) (Rate Contract)

S.N. Particulars Qty. Unit Rate to be

Producing and supply of Kandhal
readymade cold bituminous
patching mix in 50-kg plastic
lined, sturdy bags for repair of
potholes in adverse climatic
conditions including the
bituminous mix with a minimum
of 5.6% MC-800 cutback bitumen
(containing a suitable anti-
stripping agent) by weight of mix
and in strict conformance to
gradation and other requirements
such as 6-month storage life as
per the enclosed specification
dated 1 February 2013; transfer
with all leads and lift complete in
all respects as per direction of
of 50-

Special conditions:
1. Specification for Kandhal readymade bituminous mix dated 1 February 2013
is enclosed. Its strict compliance is required in production and supply. The
contractor shall be solely responsible if the mix is not workable and is not
usable for a period of 6 months for making durable patches.
2. All 50-kg bags shall be transported to a storage facility designated by the
Executive Engineer. Since the mix contains volatile kerosene, sealed bags
shall not be stored in a closed building or warehouse. Storage shall be made
under an open shed or in a well ventilated warehouse. No open flame or
smoking shall be allowed in the vicinity of the stored mix.

Executive Engineer
JDA, Jaipur

I/we agree to do the above work on rate as quoted above.

Indian Roads Congress Version as of
1 February 2013 for Rajasthan PWD and JDA

Specification for Kandhal Readymade Bituminous
Pothole Patching Mix

1. Scope

The material shall consist of plant mixed readymade pothole patching bituminous
mixture composed of mineral aggregate coated with bituminous material. The
material shall be capable of being stocked for at least six months without stripping
and shall be workable at all times. Unless specified otherwise, this mix shall be
supplied in 50-kg plastic lined, sturdy bags. This material is intended for patching
potholes up to 75 mm (3 inches) deep. For deeper potholes, patching mix shall be
placed and compacted in 75 mm thick layers.

2. Materials

2.1 Bitumen

Medium Curing Cutback Bitumen MC-800 conforming to Indian Standards
Specification IS: 217 Specification for Cutback Bitumen shall be used in preparing
the patching mix and shall be supplied by a certified manufacturer of this product. For
proper mixing, the bitumen shall be heated as specified in Section 3.

MC Cutback Bitumen shall be treated with a proper type and amount of an anti-
stripping agent by the approved bitumen supplier so that when combined with the
proposed job aggregate the resulting mix shall pass the Wet Coating Test, Static
Immersion Test and Stripping Test as given in Annexure I. The antistripping agent
shall conform to IS 14982. The contractor shall furnish the sample of the job
aggregate each year to the bitumen supplier for these coating and stripping tests and
obtain a certificate that the bitumen material has been treated to suit the job aggregate.
This yearly certificate must be on file and shall be available at the asphalt mix plant
when required by the Engineer. The contractor shall also forward a copy to the
Engineer. Under no circumstances, the contractor or the department shall be permitted
to manufacture the MC cutback by blending paving bitumen and kerosene.

2.2 Coarse Aggregate

2.2.1 The coarse aggregate shall consist of crushed rock, crushed gravel or other
hard material retained on 2.36 mm sieve. It shall be clean, hard, durable and cubical
shape, free from dust and soft organic and other deleterious substances. The aggregate
shall satisfy the physical requirements specified in Table 1.

2.2.2. Where crushed gravel is proposed for use as aggregate, not less than 90%
by weight of the crushed material retained on 4.75mm sieve shall have at least two
fractured faces resulting from crushing operation.

TABLE 1. Physical Properties of Coarse Aggregate

Property Test Requirement

Test method
Cleanliness Grain size analysis Max. 2% passing
0.075 micron
IS 2386 Part I
Particle shape Flakiness & Elongation
Index (combined)
Max. 35% IS 2386 Part I

Strength * Los Angeles Abrasion
Max. 40% IS 2386 Part IV
Aggregate Impact Value Max. 30% IS 2386 Part IV

Durability Soundness (Sodium or Magnesium), 5 cycles
Sodium Sulphate Max. 12% IS 2386 Part V

Magnesium Sulphate Max. 18% IS 2386 Part V

Water absorption Water absorption Max. 2% IS 2386 Part III

* The coarse aggregate may satisfy either of the two strength tests.

2.3 Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregate shall consist of crushed mineral material passing 2.36 mm sieve and
retained on 75-micron sieve. It shall be clean, hard, durable, and free from dust and
soft organic and other deleterious substances. No natural sand shall be permitted.

2.4. Composition of Mixtures

When tested in accordance with IS:2386 Part 1 (wet sieving method), the combined
aggregate grading shall fall within the limits shown in Table 2. As far as possible an
aggregate with water absorption of 1.0 or less shall be used. The amount of residual
bitumen binder (total cutback bitumen minus diluent such as kerosene) in the mix
shall be as shown in Table 3. The readymade patching mix shall be rejected if it does
not meet the grading (especially the 0.075 mm sieve) and the minimum residual
bitumen content. The produced mix shall be tested by an independent approved
testing laboratory before its acceptance by the Engineer.

Table 2. Gradation of Stockpile Patching Mix
Sieve size, mm Percent passing
9.5 100
4.75 40 100
2.36 10 40
1.18 0 - 10
0.075 0 2

Table 3. Minimum Residual Bitumen Content by Weight of Mix
Aggregate water absorption,
Minimum residual bitumen content,
Less than 1.0 4.5
1.1 to 1.5 5.0
1.6 to 2.0 5.5

Based on the characteristics of the aggregate and the performance of the mix, the
Engineer can specify amount of residual bitumen higher than that shown in Table 3.

The contractor shall ascertain from the supplier of MC-800 as to how much residual
bitumen it contains. For example, if the MC-800 contains 80% bitumen and 20%
kerosene and a total of 6.0% MC-800 is used by weight of the mix, the residual
bitumen content in the mix will be 4.8 percent.

3. Preparation and Storage of Mixture

The Kandhal readymade patching mix shall preferably be produced in a conventional
batch type hot mix plant. However, if a portable or stationary asphalt drum plant is
used, under no circumstances drying/heating of aggregates with a burner flame and
mixing with MC-800 shall be carried out simultaneously because MC-800 containing
volatile kerosene will catch fire and pose a safety hazard. The contractor and the
engineer shall ensure there is no open flame inside or outside the drum when
MC-800 is added for mixing.

The mix should be such that it can be stocked, handled, placed, and finished without
stripping of the bitumen from the aggregate. To help prevent stripping and avoid heat
buildup in a stockpile (which may burn the entire stockpile), the mixed material
should not be stockpiled no higher than 1.5 m for the first 48 hours. The stockpile
then can be raised in height and made conical in shape. Unless specified otherwise,
the readymade cold mix shall be placed and sealed in plastic lined, sturdy 50-kg bags
on cooling.

The mineral aggregate should be clean and surface dry before mixing. The
temperature of aggregate and bituminous material should comply with those shown in
Table 4.

Table 4. Temperature Ranges for Producing Stockpile Patching Mix
Bituminous material Aggregate temperature, C Bitumen temperature, C
MC-800 25 65 75 - 95

Since the range of aggregate temperature is rather low and the maximum aggregate
temperature is restricted to 65 C, it may not be possible to dry the aggregate within
this temperature range. Therefore, the aggregate can be processed in a dryer at high
temperatures and allowed to cool before the bituminous binder is added. Pre-drying
the aggregate at high temperatures will also help in reducing the fines (material
passing 0.075 mm sieve), which will go into the baghouse. The resulting mix then
would have fines less than 2 % as required in the stringent gradation specifications.

High aggregate temperature while mixing with the cutback bitumen will not only
cause excessive loss of kerosene from the cutback but will also pose a safety
hazard in the plant pug mill. Proper and adequate venting of the pug mill is
necessary. Under no circumstances there shall be any open flame in the vicinity
of MC-800 cutback because it contains volatile kerosene.

Since the mix contains volatile kerosene it is not safe to store the loose mix or
sealed bags in a closed building/warehouse. Store under an open shed or in a well
ventilated warehouse. No open flame or smoking shall be allowed in the vicinity
of the stored mix.

4. Quality Control and Acceptance of Mixture

The composition of the produced mix (gradation and bitumen content) shall be tested
by an independent, approved testing laboratory before acceptance by the Engineer.
Before conducting the bitumen extraction test to determine residual bitumen content
in the Kandhal patching mix, the sample shall be cured completely to remove all
kerosene. Curing shall be done as follows. Place the loose mix in an open metal
container and heat slowly on a hot plate with frequent stirring until a constant weight
is achieved.

The following two tests shall be performed by the contractor (in presence of a
Department representative) on the mixture, freshly prepared or taken from a stockpile
or sealed bag at any time during its storage life (usually 6 months).

Water Resistance Test (See Annexure I, Test C)
Workability Test (See Annexure I, Test D)

The water resistance test would indicate whether the patching mix has a potential for
stripping in the pothole in presence of water. If the mix fails this test, it means a
proper type and/or amount of an antistripping agent has not been used in the
bituminous binder.

If the mix fails in workability it could be due to improper bitumen type, low bitumen
content, excessive fines or improper gradation. Even one-half percent lower bitumen
content can make the patching mix unworkable and useless.

Stocked patching material may be rejected, at any time during the six month period if,
in the opinion of the Engineer, the patching material has stripped (more than 10%
uncoated particles) or otherwise become unfit or unworkable for use.

5. Measurement for Payment

The tonnage of the Kandhal readymade pothole patching mix shall be measured and
determined from the actual plant batch reports as recorded by a representative of the
Engineer assigned to the work. In case the Kandhal mix is supplied in plastic lined,
sturdy bags, each bag must weigh at least 50 kg and the number of bags shall be
counted for payment.

6. Rate

The Kandhal readymade bituminous patching material shall be paid for at the contract
unit price per ton or per 50-kg bag, FOB the asphalt mix plant, at the work site, or at
other destination as specified in the contract. A reasonable amount of earnest money
will be kept by the Department for 6 months or on depletion of the stockpile,
whichever is earlier, to ensure the product is satisfactory for use and meets all tests
specified earlier during the life of the product.


A. Wet Coating Test

Heat the unwashed job aggregate, cutback bitumen and distilled water to 40 C in a
suitable oven. Weigh 100 g of dry aggregate into a suitable mixing container (such as
seamless tin can, 16 oz capacity). Add 3 ml of distilled water. Mix thoroughly with a
spatula until the aggregate particles are uniformly wetted. Add cutback bitumen
equivalent to 5.0 +/ 0.2 g of bitumen residue. Mix rigorously with the spatula until all
aggregate is coated, but not more than 5 minutes. Transfer the contents into a 400 ml
beaker containing 150 ml of distilled water (22 32 C). Let stand for 15 minutes and
visually determine the percent of retained coating, which should be at least 98

B. Static-Immersion Test

The coated aggregate as prepared in the preceding wet coating test shall remain
immersed in the beaker of distilled water (22 32 C) for 24 hours. At the end of this
period, visually determine the percent of retained coating while the sample remains
immersed in water, which should be at least 95 percent.

C. Water Resistance Test

Fifty grams of patching mix, whether freshly prepared or taken from the stockpile or a
sealed bag, shall be heated at 120 C in a laboratory oven for 1 hour, cooled to 95 C in
laboratory air, and then placed in 400 ml of boiling water in a 600-ml glass beaker
and stirred with a glass rod at the rate of 1 revolution per second for 3 minutes. The
water shall be decanted and the mix shall be spread on an absorbent paper for visual
observation of the coating. The aggregate shall be at least 90 % coated with a
bituminous film.

D. Workability Test

Approximately 2.5 kg of the patching mix shall be cooled to 7 C in a freezer. After
cooling, the mixture shall be capable of being broken up readily with a spatula that
has a blade length of approximately 200 mm. This test shall be performed when the
mix is produced and thereafter anytime during storage. If the mix is not workable at
7 C, it shall be rejected and the composition of the mix shall be properly modified (for
example, by increasing the bitumen content and/or gradation changes). This test is
also applicable in areas with hot climate because it amplifies the workability
characteristics of the mix by using a lower test temperature.



Name of Work: Placing and Compacting Kandhal Readymade
Bituminous Patching Mix in potholes on various roads in Zone..
Area JDA, Jaipur (Rate Contract)


S.N. Particulars Qty. Unit Rate to be


Placing and compacting Kandhal
readymade cold bituminous
patching mix in potholes in
adverse weather as per enclosed
specifications including cleaning
of potholes; placing and
compacting the mix; sprinkling
sand to prevent pick up by traffic;
and documentation of patches,
with all leads and lifts complete in
all respects as per attached
specifications and direction of

of 50-


Special conditions:
3. Specification for placing and compacting the Kandhal readymade bituminous
mix dated 1 February 2013 is enclosed. Its strict compliance is required.

Executive Engineer
JDA, Jaipur

I/we hereby agree to do the above work on rates as quoted above.

Signature of the Contractor
With full postal address and Mobile Number

Indian Roads Congress Version as of 1 February 2013

Specifications for Placing and Compacting Kandhal Readymade
Cold Bituminous Mix in Potholes

1. Scope

These specifications cover placing and compacting the Kandhal readymade
patching mix in potholes including transportation of the mix from the designated
storage facility to road sites as directed by the engineer. The work involves
cleaning and preparation of potholes; placing and compacting the mix; applying
sand to prevent pick up by traffic; and documenting the number and sizes of the
patches. The Kandhal readymade cold patching mix is suitable for patching
potholes only and shall not be used for patching long stretches of deteriorated
road surface.

2. Preparation of Potholes

Pothole shall be cleaned with a stiff wire brush and all loose material including
dust shall be removed with a soft brush. Pothole need not be dry. However, excess
water shall be swept off the pothole.

If the pothole is deep and extends to WMM or granular base, it is recommended to
apply a prime coat consisting of MC-30 Cutback before placing the patching mix.
If angular aggregate (nominal size 25 mm) is used to partially fill deep potholes,
the aggregate should be compacted thoroughly and primed with MC-30 before
placing the patching mix. At least 50 mm thick pothole patching mix shall be
placed at the top.

3. Placing Kandhal mix in Potholes

The Kandhal mix is intended for patching potholes up to 75 mm (3 inches) deep.
For deeper potholes, patching mix shall be placed and compacted in 75 mm thick

Sufficient material shall be placed in the pothole so that after compaction the
patch is about 10 mm above the existing road surface.

4. Compacting the Kandhal mix

First the outside edge or periphery of the patch shall be compacted with a hand
rammer and then compaction shall proceed inwards. To prevent initial pick up of
the loose mix by the hand rammer either continue to wet the hand rammer with
water or place empty plastic lined bags on the loose mix.

For deep potholes, place the patching mix and compact in 75 mm thick layers.
After compaction, the compacted patch shall be about 10 mm higher than the
existing road surface to allow for further compaction by traffic.

If there are numerous closely spaced patches, it is preferred to use a small roller
rather than a hand rammer.

5. Applying Sand to Prevent Pick up by Traffic

Before opening the compacted patch to traffic, sufficient amount of clean sand
shall be sprinkled on the patch to prevent pick up by traffic.

6. Documenting the Number and Sizes of Patches

The contractor shall document and the engineer shall verify the following on a
daily basis: (a) Number of 50-kg bags used; (b) Name of road and chainages
where patches were made; and (c) Average sizes of potholes patched by
measuring their average length, average width and average depth.

7. Measurement for Payment

The total number of 50-kg bags of Kandhal mix placed and compacted by the
contractor shall be recorded by the engineer for payment. Payment shall be made
at the contract price per 50-kg bag.


Cost Analysis of Supplying Kandhal Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching
Mix to Department Godown
(Revised 16 March 2013)

Assume one ton (1000 kg) of the mix is to be made and filled in 20 bags of 50 kg
each, which will be supplied to Department Godown for use later.

A. Cost of Materials

1. Aggregate of specified gradation; rate of Rs. 300/ton;
Add extra cost 10% for special size; total rate is
Rs. 330/ton
Aggregate 940 kg @ Rs. 330 per ton.. 310.20

2. Bitumen MC-800 Cutback supplied in drums:
60 kg @ Rs. 60,000 per ton. 3600.00

3. Anti Stripping Agent @ 0.3 % by weight of MC-800
1.8 kg @ Rs. 165 per kg. 297.00

Total for A 4,207.20

B. Production Cost

1. Portable Mini Hot Mix Plant with capacity of 8 tons/day
Rent for one day = Rs. 1000. Rent to produce one ton will be
one-eighth of Rs. 1000, that is, Rs. 125 125.00

2. Fuel costs: 24 liters per day; 3 liters per hour
3 liters @ Rs. 50 per liter 150.00

3. Labour: 8 labourers needed per day to produce 8 tons
1 labourer needed per ton @ Rs. 300 per day. 300.00

Total for B 575.00

C. Packing, Handling and Transport to Department Godown

1. Cost of 50-kg empty bags
20 bags @ Rs. 12 per bag.. 240.00

2. Labour for filling, weighing and sealing bags;
3 labourers can fill 160 bags in one day (20 bags in one hour)
Cost of labourers for one day = 3 times Rs. 300 = Rs. 900
Cost of filling 20 bags in one hour = 900/8.. 112.50

3. Transport of bags from plant to department godown
(average 10 km lead) 1 ton@ Rs. 200 per ton . 200.00

Total for C 552.50

D. Total of A + B + C. 5,334.70

Contractors overhead @ 10% of D........................................................... 533.47

Royalties, sales tax, income tax etc. @ 4.5% of D....................................... 240.06

Total 6,108.23

Add 10% contractors margin 610.82

Total Cost per ton (20 bags of 50 kg each)..Rs. 6,719.05

Cost per kg..Rs. 6.72

Cost per 50-kg bag..Rs. 335.95

Revised 16 March 2013

Cost Analysis of Laying Kandhal Readymade Bituminous Pothole Patching Mix
(As of 16 March 2013)

Assume Eight (8) tons of the Kandhal mix will be laid
in potholes in one day. Costs for one day operation are as follows:

1. 4 Labourers @ Rs. 300 each 1,200.00

2. Transportation of bags from Department Godown to
laying site (average one-way lead of 20 km)
(a) Rent of tractor = Rs. 600
(b) Cost of diesel = Rs. 400 (tractor will consume one liter
per 5 km; 8 liters for 40 km @ Rs. 50 per liter = Rs. 400
Total transportation cost = 600 + 400 = 1000 1,000.00

3. Sand bags for sprinkling sand on patches to avoid pickup:

2 sand bags @ Rs. 10 per bag20.00

Total 2,220.00

Add 10% contractor overhead... 222.00

Add 4.5% for royalty, sales tax, income tax, etc.. 99.90

Total 2,541.90

Add 10% contractor margin.. 254.19

Total 2,796.09

This is the cost for 8 tons.

Cost per ton = Rs. 349.51
Cost per kg = Rs. 0.35
Cost per 50-kg bag = Rs. 17.48

(As of 16 March 2013)