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Diplomacy Old and New by George Young Review by: A. C. Flick The Journal of International Relations, Vol.

12, No. 4 (Apr., 1922), pp. 570-572 Published by: Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/29738519 . Accessed: 04/10/2013 01:30
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BOOK REVIEWS
Diplomacy more Young. Swarth Old and New. London, By George Brace and New Harcourt 1921, York, Howe, Press; 105 pp. on international This brochure is one of the series of handbooks Their is to edited by G. Lowes Dickinson. relations purpose mind" facts. Their the "international by disseminating develop at a time when the world's nerves is most opportune appearance and when there is are distraught from overdoses of propagandism a widespread for relief from the "fact famine." The demand come cannot from world the the of governing improvement classes alone but must grow out of an informed, forward-looking

public opinion. He has well qualified for his task. is exceptionally Mr. Young of service in the old type of diplo? had twenty years (1895-1915) backstairs Its secrecy, macy. methods, vinegar oily tongues, to and devious paths are all known faces, Janus psychology, him. At the same time he sees clearly that the new diplomacy and its reflection of the will of the its short cuts, its honesty, in saying that the in. He has no hesitancy is coming people of a indicate the appearance in Russia and Germany revolutions new spirit of open diplomacy. in a sense, is an "exposure." The author This little volume, of British "in was by the failures" diplomacy "exasperated of peace and war owing to the repeated breach of first principles to Hence he attempts procedure." foreign policy and diplomatic in Great Britain and to point out the evils of the old system to be The he believes realizable. the reforms which indicate treatise is divided into three chapters each of which opens with an for of the evils and ends with practical examination suggestions with
improvement.

In and Personnel." chapter deals with "Diplomacy no in confidence the have writer the says, diplo? people England, matic efficiency; and diplomats have no confidence in the people's The solution of this unfortunate situation power to aid them. the nation in foreign would be to get the right men to represent At present there is little connec? relations at home and abroad. The first tion between public opinion and public 570 policy in foreign affairs.

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BOOK REVIEWS

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is democratic Great Britain at home but aristocratic in dealing with The diplomatic is a bureaucracy. other peoples. service the people would rather be led in its foreign dealings Apparently than by a genius from the ranks. The un? by a "gentleman" British Office has control over Foreign complete the diplomatic to run to service tends foreign affairs, hence "seed and suckers." The Foreign is the "president Secretary of sort of a private cabinet." His power is patronage. Appoint? ments to diplomatic service are largely at his pleasure, and his are mere mouthpieces. nominees dis? independence means Any democratic are in high favor. missal. Men with "neat boots" Since 1907 about 90 per cent of the appointees were graduates of aristocratic schools?76 alone. Roman per cent came from Eton private Catholics with foreign family connections were given a preference. in the diplomatic service have almost a feudal relation? Youngsters as their staffs very much ship to their chiefs, who recruited colonial governors did. British successes Notable of our clay have been diplomatic won by men who came in at the top like Lord Bryce, Lord Cromer, and Lord Dufferin. to reform the system of appoint? Efforts ments in the report of the Royal Commission, culminated pub? lished shortly after the outbreak of the World War, which recom? mended: (1) the union of the Foreign Office and the Diplomatic of the basis of the selection of candi? Service; (2) the widening the in increase and (4) dates; (3) pay and assurance of promotion, increase in efficiency. In part these reforms have been put into The private income of $2000 required of candidates operation. has been abolished. A new scale of salaries has been adopted. In addition to the other recommendations, Mr. Young urges the creation of schools where men may be educated by special training for service in the Orient, the Levant, the Slavic states, Teuto and the Romance Scandinavia, regions. The second the control of foreign policy. chapter discusses British is and not democratic. autocratic The foreign policy attitude of Parliament towards foreign affairs is likened unto that of the Roman Senate towards an augur, who argued peace or war from the color of a chicken's liver. The Japanese Alliance, the Entente with France and Russia, and the peace treaties out of were the World War all facts before growing accomplished knew anything about them. Parliament Hence in foreign affairs Parliament The author urges the "reigns but does not govern." of the constitution amendment to reserve to Parliament the

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572

BOOK REVIEWS

right to revise old treaties and to ratify new ones through a com? on foreign affairs, as in France and the United States. mittee Indeed he urges that the self-governing colonies should either be or have similar committees of with associated this committee, on This would operate to establish "open diplomacy" their own. a democratic basis. and Peace." The The last chapter deals with "Diplomacy to describe take a Rabelais "the author thinks that it would to flea-like of Lloyd George; the efforts of Wilson skippings" make the dagger thrusts of "great things out of empty words;" in the Paris Peace and the opportunism of Orlando, Clemenceau; sees British in that at its worst He Conference. diplomacy and a Metter "groan" treaty, which would make a Machiavelli are attributed of to the methods All the blunders "grin." Had the mis? carried on the negotiations diplomacy. peoples The League of Nations "with a takes might have been avoided. a foundation and democratic diplomatic fa?ade" would have been a different alone can exploit Democratic diplomacy product. new is neither bribery, forces of the the moral age. Diplomacy nor even "bamboozling," nor bullying, but simple, up-to-date to politics. It is "the art of peace? business methods applied Hence and the science of peaceful relations." the author making to of universities it is the British believes that the duty produce service. trained men for diplomatic adequately This little book does three things: (1) it gives a clear picture of the methods and defects of British diplomacy; (2) it sets forth new that and outlines the it diplomacy reforms, (3) practical and the dis? come in. The style is keen and interesting, must nich cussion is illuminating and informing. A. C. Flick, Syracuse University. to the Problem of Government. By W. W. Wil? and Lindsay Rogers. Garden loughby, City, Doubleday, 1921, x, 545 pp. Page and Company, to in their purpose, These authors have succeeded admirably Govern? furnish an adequate outline for a course in Constitutional references to the best and ment, and have given, in the abundant newest literature on the various topics, ample aid to the student in The footnotes give many filling out this skeleton or framework. An Introduction well selected the Overman Act and valuable quotations of 1918 authorizing and the appendices include to reorganize the President

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