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Discuss the Principle of operation of hysteresis motor (8) (or) Explain the construction and operation of hysteresis motor (8) (or) Write short notes on operation of hysteresis motor (8) Construction: Hysteresis motor is a single phase synchronous motor without any projected poles and without d.c excitation. These motors start by virtue of the hysteresis losses induced in the hardened steel rotor by the rotating magnetic field produced by the stator windings. Hysteresis rotor laminations are made of hardened, high retentivity steel. No winding is provided on this rotor. The stator construction is either split-phase or shaded pole type.

Fig (1). Construction of Hysteresis Motor A Hysteresis motor has neither a salient pole rotor nor direct excitation, but nevertheless it rotates at synchronous speed. This type of motor runs into synchronism and runs on hysteresis torque. Working: When stator is energized, a rotating magnetic field produced by phase splitting and eddy currents is induced in the steel of rotor which travels across the rotor. The field induces pole in the rotor. The hysteresis phenomenon is dominant for the rotor material chosen and due to which rotor pole axis lag behind the axis of rotating magnetic field. Due to this, rotor poles get attracted towards the moving stator field poles. Thus the rotor gets subjected to torque called hysteresis torque. This torque is constant at all speeds. When the stator field axis moves forwards, due to high retentivity the rotor pole strength remains maintained. So higher the retentivity, higher the hysteresis torque.

Initially the rotor starts rotating due to combination of hysteresis torque and torque due to eddy current in the rotor. Once the rotor gains the speed near about the synchronous speed, the stator pulls rotor into synchronism.

Fig 2(a). Stator Poles induce poles on the rotor Fig 2(b).Torque developed on the rotor due to residual magnetism of the rotor Fig 2(c). Hysteresis loop of the rotor material In such cases, torque due to eddy current vanishes and hysteresis torque will only present and keep running at synchronous speed. High retentivity ensures the continuous magnetic locking of stator and rotor. Torque Speed Characteristics of Hysteresis Motor: The starting torque and running torque is almost equal in this motor. As the stator carries mainly the two windings, its direction can be reversed by interchanging the terminals of either main winding or auxiliary winding.

Fig (3). Torque Speed Characteristics of Hysteresis Motor The torque is given by, Th where, Ph Hysteresis Loss s Slip s Angular Speed Advantages: The rotor has no teeth, no winding and therefore no mechanical vibration and ensures smooth operation. It is suitable to accelerate high inertia loads. Possible for multispeed operation by employing gear train. Applications: Recording instruments Electric clocks Printers 2. Describe the construction and working of reluctance motor(8) (or) Explain the construction and operation of reluctance motor(8) Construction: This is a synchronous motor which does not require any d.c excitation to the rotor. The stator has a laminated core, slotted on its periphery to carry stator winding. The lamination reduces eddy current loss. The lamination is made up of silicon steel which minimizes hysteresis loss. The stator of reluctance has windings similar to induction motor winding but the magnetic reluctance along the air-gap will be made variable.
Ph s s K (Constant )

Fig(a). Construction of Reluctance Motor

Due to variable air gap between stator and rotor, the reluctance between the stator and rotor also changes during rotation of rotor. Single phase induction motors built with a variable air-gap reluctance and with having no dc supply on the rotor are called reluctance motors. Principle of Operation: The stator windings (Main and Auxiliary windings) are energized to set up rotating magnetic field by split phase technique. The speed of rotating magnetic field is synchronous speed which is decided by the number of poles for which stator winding is wound. The short circuited rotor acts as squirrel cage induction motor. So, the rotor starts to rotate like squirrel cage induction motor. When the rotor speed is about synchronous, stator magnetic field pulls rotor into synchronism, i.e, minimum reluctance position and keeps it magnetically locked. Then the rotor continues to rotate with a speed equal to synchronous speed. Such a torque exerted on the rotor is called the reluctance torque. Torque Speed Characteristics: The motor starts as a single phase induction motor. The starting winding gets disconnected at a speed about 75% of the synchronous speed. The motor continues to develop torque through it main winding. As the rotor speed approaches synchronous speed, the reluctance torque developed is sufficient to pull the rotor to synchronous speed. The motor works as a non-excited synchronous motor up to about 200% of the full load torque. At a load beyond 200% of the full load, the motor will continue to work as a single phase induction motor.

1 2 I m L' sin 2 4 where, Im Maximum current flowing through the stator L Inductance of stator winding Load Angle
The average torque is, Tav Advantages: Runs at constant speed Ruggedness in construction Does not require DC Excitation Disadvantages: Larger and heavier than an ordinary induction motor of the same rating Poor efficiency and power factor Applications: Control apparatus Automatic regulation controls Recording instruments Timing devices

3. Explain the construction and working principle of hybrid stepper motor. (8) Construction: This is infact a permanent magnet stepper motor with constructional features of toothed and stacked rotor adopted from the variable reluctance stepper motor. The stator has only one set of winding excited poles which interact with the two rotor stacks. The permanent magnet is placed axially along the rotor in the form of an annular cylinder over the motor shaft.

The stacks at each end of the rotor are toothed. So all the teeth on the stack at one end of the rotor acquire same polarity while the teeth of the stack at the other end of the rotor acquire opposite polarity. The two sets of the teeth are displaced by one half of the tooth pitch. The primary advantage of the hybrid motor is that if stator excitation is removed, the rotor continues to remain locked into the same position, as before removal of excitation. This is due to the reason that the rotor is prevented to move in either direction by torque because of the permanent excitation. Principle of Operation: When phase A is excited as shown, such that the top stator pole is S pole so that it attracts the top N pole of the rotor and brings it in line with the A-A axis. To turn the rotor, phase A is de-energized and phase B is excited positively. The rotor will turn in the counter clockwise direction by a full step of 18o. Then, phases A and B are energized negatively one after the other to produce further rotations of 18o each in the same direction. In practical hybrid stepper motors are built with more rotor poles in order to give higher angular resolution. Hence, the stator poles are often slotted to increase the number of stator teeth. Step angle can also be decreased by having more than two stacks on the rotor. Advantage: This motor develops good detent torque provided by the permanent magnet flux. This torque holds the rotor stationary while the power is switched off.

4. Explain the construction and principle operation of 3 phase alternator. (8) (Or) Explain the construction and working of synchronous generator. (16) (Or) Explain the construction of salient pole alternator. (8) Construction: Stator: It is the stationary part of the machine and is built up of sheet-steel laminations having slots on its inner periphery. A 3-phase winding is placed in these slots and serves as the armature winding of the alternator. The armature winding is always connected in star and the neutral is connected to ground. Rotor: The rotor carries a field winding which is supplied with direct current through two slip rings by a separate d.c. source. Rotor construction is of two types, namely; i. Salient (or projecting) pole type ii. Non-salient (or cylindrical) pole type Salient Pole or Projected Pole rotor:


Fig (a) Salient pole rotor In this type, salient or projecting poles are mounted on a large circular steel frame which is fixed to the shaft of the alternator as shown in above figure (a). The individual field pole windings are connected in series in such a way that when the field winding is energized by the d.c. exciter, adjacent poles have opposite polarities. Low and medium-speed alternators (120-400 r.p.m.) such as those driven by diesel engines or water turbines have salient pole type rotors due to the following reasons:

a. The salient field poles would cause an excessive windage loss if driven at high speed and would tend to produce noise. b. Salient-pole construction cannot be made strong enough to withstand the mechanical stresses to which they may be subjected at higher speeds. a. Since the alternator is opted for slow speed operation, the number of poles needs to be increased to get 50Hz output. The diameter of the machine gets increased because of increased number of poles. ii. Non-salient of Cylindrical Rotor: b. In this type, the rotor is made of smooth solid forged-steel radial cylinder having a number of slots along the outer periphery. c. The field windings are embedded in these slots and are connected in series to the slip rings through which they are energized by the d.c. exciter.

Fig (b) Cylindrical pole rotor d. The regions forming the poles are usually left unslotted as shown in the fig. It is clear that the poles formed are non-salient i.e., they do not project out from the rotor surface. e. High-speed alternators (1500 or 3000 r.p.m.) are driven by steam turbines and use nonsalient type rotors due to the following reasons: a. This type of construction has mechanical robustness and gives noiseless operation at high speeds. b. The flux distribution around the periphery is nearly a sine wave and hence a better e.m.f. waveform is obtained than in the case of salient-pole type. Since steam turbines run at high speed and a frequency of 50 Hz is required, the machine requires small number of poles (usually 2 poles for 3000 RPM and 4 for 1500RPM) on the rotor of high-speed alternators (also called turboalternators).

Principle of Operation: The rotor winding is energized from the d.c. exciter and alternate N and S poles are developed on the rotor. When the rotor is rotated in anti-clockwise direction by a prime mover, the stator or armature conductors are cut by the magnetic flux of rotor poles. Consequently, e.m.f. is induced in the armature conductors due to electromagnetic induction. The induced e.m.f. is alternating since N and S poles of rotor alternately pass the armature conductors. The direction of induced e.m.f. can be found by Flemings right hand rule and frequency is given by: NP f Hz 120 where N = speed of rotor in r.p.m. P = number of rotor poles The magnitude of the voltage induced in each phase depends upon the rotor flux, the number and position of the conductors in the phase and the speed of the rotor. 5. Compare the synchronous motor and induction motor. (8) S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Particular Speed Power factor Excitation Economy Self starting Synchronous Motor 3 Induction Motor

Remains constant (i.e.,Ns) from no- Decreases with load load to full load. Can be made to operate from Operates only at lagging power lagging to leading power factor factor Requires DC excitation at the rotor No excitation for the rotor

Economical for speeds below 300 Economical for speeds above r.p.m 600 r.p.m No self starting torque. Auxiliary Self starting means have to be provided for starting Complicated More Simple Less

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Construction Starting torque

6. Discuss the procedure for starting a synchronous motor. (8) The synchronous motor must be brought to a speed sufficiently close to synchronous speed in order to lock in to synchronism with rotating field. By the following means it is brought up to speed: a. A DC motor coupled to the synchronous motor shaft:

Generally, the synchronous motor is intended as the constant speed prime mover for the DC generator. But in order to bring the motor upto synchronism, the DC generator is operated as motor, and the AC synchronous machine is synchronized to AC supply as an alternator. Once in parallel with the supply, the synchronous machine is operated as a motor. The DC motor will now act as a generator if its field current is increased so that its generated e.m.f exceeds the DC bus. b. Using the field excited generator as a DC motor: This method is same as the first, except that the exciter is operated as a motor, and the AC synchronous dynamo is synchronized to the A.C Supply. c. Using pony motor: This method uses a small induction motor to bring the rotor to synchronous speed. Once the rotor reaches the synchronous speed, the d.c excitation to the rotor is switched on. After synchronizing, the pony motor is decoupled. The synchronous motor continues to rotate. d. Using damper windings as a squirrel cage induction motor: In synchronous motor, an additional rotor bars are placed at the pole faces. These bars are short circuited with end rings. This additional arrangement is called damper winding. Due to this winding the rotor acts like squirrel cage rotor. When the stator is energized by three phase supply, the motor starts to rotate at sub synchronous speed. Then D.C supply is given to the main field winding at the rotor. At a particular instant, rotor gets pulled into synchronous speed. 7. Explain the method of finding voltage regulation by EMF method. (8) In this method of finding the voltage regulation of an alternator, we find the synchronous impedance Zs (and hence synchronous reactance Xs) of the alternator from the O.C.C. and S.S.C. For this reason, it is called synchronous impedance method. The method involves the following steps: o Plot the O.C.C. and S.S.C. on the same field current base as shown in Fig(a).

Fig (a). Open circuit characteristics and Short Circuit Characteristics o Consider a field current If. The open-circuit voltage corresponding to this field current is E1. The short-circuit armature current corresponding to field current I f is I1. On short-circuit p.d. = 0 and voltage E1 is being used to circulate the snort-

circuit armature current I1 against the synchronous impedance Zs. This is illustrated in Fig(b).

Fig (b) E1 (Open Circuit) E 1 I 1 Z S or Z S I 1 (Short Circuit) The armature resistance can be found as explained earlier. Synchronous reactance, X S
2 ZS 2 Ra

With the values of Ra and XS, the phasor diagram can be drawn for any load and any power factor. The following fig shows the phasor diagram for the inductive load; the load p.f being cos lagging. Note that in drawing the phasor diagram, current Ia has been taken as the reference phasor. The IaRa drop in phase with Ia while IaXS drop leads Ia by 90o.

The phasor sum of V, IaRa drop and IaXS drop gives no-load e.m.f, E0.


Now, OB V cos I a Ra and BC V sin I a X S


V cos I a Ra

V sin I a X S

% Voltage regulation =

E0 V 100 V

Disadvantage: This method gives only approximate result. This method gives a value higher than the value obtained from an actual load test. For this reason, it is called pessimistic method. 8. Explain the method of finding voltage regulation by MMF method. (8) This method is based on the MMF calculation or no. of ampere turns required to produce flux which gives Rated Voltage at Open Circuit and Rated Current at Short Circuit. From open circuit characteristic field current If1 gives rated voltage V and If2 to cause the short circuit current which is equal to Full Load Current. For Unity Power Factor If2 balanced impedance drop in addition to armature reaction. But Ra is very small when compared to XL, so If2 has an angle with If1 approximate 90. We can find If which gives related voltage at full load by adding If2 and If1 at 90 as shown in Figure (a).

Fig (a)

Fig (b)

Fig (c) If load power factor is cos lagging or leading, then If1 gives voltage V + IRa cos in place of V. So we add If2 at an angle 90o (+ ve sign for lagging load and ve sign for leading load) as shown in Figures (b) & (c). The value of internal voltage E0 at this resultant If, required for rated terminal voltage and rated current, can be found from the OCC. The percentage voltage regulation then, can be obtained from the following relation: E0 - V % Regulation 100 V Regulation given by this method is much lower than that given by the EMF method, but it is nearer to the correct value. This method is called Optimistic method.