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1 Motion Describing motion

ms-1 A distance-time graph can make it easier to represent motion A velocity (speed in a given direction) time graph can show the instantaneous speed DISTANCE-TIME: Shows distance from start Curved line is acceleration Straight line means its stopped moving Gradient represents the speed at that point VELOCITY-TIME: Gradient shows acceleration Straight line is constant speed Velocity means its stopped Area under the graph is the distance travelled

Gradient = change in Y Change in X

Distance and displacement

DISTANCE the length of the path you have taken DISPLACEMENT the straight line distance between two places To describe displacement, you need to say how far you are away from the start and Scalar only size or magnitude Vector quantity size and direction


Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity with time, so it is also a vector. Acceleration happens when there is: A change in SPEED, or A change in DIRECTION, or A change in speed AND direction If an objects speed is constant but its velocity is changing, we say it is also accelerating

ms-2 With a train travelling at a constant speed in a circle, it is considered to be accelerating but its average velocity as it goes round the track back to its starting point is zero, as its DISPLACEMENT is ZERO SI units (Systme Internationale): Metre (m) Kilogram (kg) Seconds (s) Ampere (A)] Kelvin (K) Candela (cd) Mole (mol)

Graphs of motion
When something decelerates, it is negative acceleration, so -1 ms-2 A straight line on a velocity time graph is UNIFORM acceleration ACCELERATION the rate of change of velocity with time

The graph shows the motion of a ball being thrown up in the air, falling, and then being caught. A The ball is at rest A to D the ball is thrown up with a uniform upward acceleration D to B it has a negative acceleration as the ball accelerates downwards until resting at B B to E the same velocity as D to B but it is negative as it accelerates down E The ball is caught and brought to rest by C

Non-linear graphs (curved graphs) make strips/rectangles under the graph, calculate the area and add it up this is less accurate than a linear graph

Equations of motion

s = displacement (m) u = initial velocity (ms-1) v = final velocity (ms-1) a = acceleration (ms-2) t = time (s)

Using vectors
Vectors the length of the arrow represents MAGNITUDE and the direction of the arrow represents the DIRECTION of the vector You can either MEASURE the displacement (labelled the resultant) or use trigonometry or Pythagorass theorem to calculate it The sum of two or more vectors quantities is called their RESULTANT

THE PARALLELOGRAM RULE: This rule can be applied whenever vectors act at the same time or from the same point. Relative motion when an object is moving, it is important to give some sort of information about what its motion is relative to.

Eg. If someone is running along a moving walkway with a velocity of 2 ms -1 relative to the walkway, but if the walkway has a velocity of -2 ms-1, the person will remain in the same positive relative to the ground.

1.2 Forces Causes of motion


Galileo did the pendulum experiment and found that it rose nearly the same height each time. He reasoned that if a ball rolls down a slope onto an infinitely long flat surface, it will continue moving until something else causes it to stop. GALILEO realised the importance of distinguishing between motions horizontally and vertically in a gravitational field

Newtons first law of motion

Motion on earth is opposed by frictional forces Newton formed three laws of motion (which sometimes break down under certain conditions) which are very nearly correct under all circumstances

The first law:

Every object continues in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless made to change by the total force acting on it
So, an object has a constant velocity until a force acts on it. This law defines what a force IS and DOES a force is something which can cause acceleration The sum of ALL THE forces acting on the body (sigma F) If a body has a number of forces, F1, F2 Fn acting on it, it will remain in a state of constant motion only if: . (That is the sum on all the forces from F1 to Fn) is equal to zero This can be calculated separately for HORIZONTAL and VERTICAL FORCES Because a force can cause acceleration, it is a vector quantity, with both magnitude and direction. It therefore requires a way of representing both direction and magnitude on a

diagram. A diagram which shows all the forces acting on a body in a certain situation is called a FREE BODY DIAGRAM . This doesnt show forces acting on objects other than the one being considered. CENTRE OF GRAVITY the weight of an object acting through a single point (the centre) The centre is the point at which gravity appears to act, similar to an objects centre of mass For uniform objects, the centre of the mass will be at the intersection of all lines of symmetry, especially in the middle of the object

Drag forces
Drag forces are made up of two types of forces FRICTION and AIR RESISTANCE a result of matter in contact with matter

FRICTION always occurs when two surfaces rub on each other. Although appearing
smooth, they are slightly rough, causing friction. Friction OPPOSES any motion, but cannot actually CAUSE motion. When an object stops, so does friction Friction can be measured using a force meter and moving something across a surface at a constant velocity For an object which is not accelerating, meaning that the frictional force resisting motion must be exactly balanced by the pulling force of the hand AIR RESISTANCE (or aerodynamic drag) caused when a body moves through air. Caused by an object having to push air out of the way in order to move through it. Air resistance depends on speed, the faster the object moves, the greater the aerodynamic drag (think of a car) As aerodynamic drag increases, objects with a constant driving force tend to reach a max. velocity when they accelerate Free fall and terminal velocity if someone jumps from a height, they will accelerate due to their own weight (N) and air resistance will affect them Acceleration of free fall or acceleration due to gravity (9.81 ms-2)

Newtons second law of motion

In an experiment, the acceleration can be measured for various values of the resultant force acting on the trolley while its mass is kept constant. On a graph of acceleration against resultant force, a straight line will show that ACCELERATION IS PROPORTIONAL TO THE RESULTANT FORCE. There is a DIRECT RELATIONSHIP between F and a (a is proportional to F) i.e. F a a and m are INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL (a 1/m)

Fa a 1/m

a F/m


F ma

of F=kma

Force = kg ms-2 or N




Inertia, mass and weight

INERTIA the tendency of an object to stay in its state of rest or uniform motion - A car is harder to move than a smaller (in comparison) bike - Without a seatbelt, it can be hard to stop yourself moving in a car when the brakes are applied

An objects INERTIA depends on its MASS. Mass has only size, with no direction (scalar) WEIGHT the force acting on an object due to gravitation All masses have a gravitational field around them. A mass is said to have a Gravitational field around it which causes the mass to attract another mass which is close to it. The size of the field depends on the size of the mass and whereabouts in the field you are. If another mass is put in this field, a force will pull it towards the first mass. Weight caused by gravitation. The size of the force varies with the strength of the gravitational field.


WEIGHT - force with both magnitude and direction (vector)

g= F/m W = mg

g is Nkg-1

Electrical scale a piece of conducting metal is compressed or deformed by an objects weight, changing its electrical resistance. It measures WEIGHT A beam balance measures MASS as the FORCES have to be balanced

Newtons third law of motion

Forces come in pairs

The third law:

If body A exerts a force on body B, then body B exerts a force of the same size on body A but in the opposite direction
These forces act on different bodies (i.e. a trolley and the person) The missing force is the force of the ground on the person (which would be shown on a free-body diagram) The push of the ground upwards o our feet is not a member of three thirds law pair, involving the pull of the earth downwards on us. The two third law pairs in this case are different types of force pairs. One is a gravitational pair, the other is caused by contact between two surface (so if you jump, the contact pair doesnt exist but the gravitational pair does). Third law pairs of forces are always of the same type gravitational, electrostatic, contact etc.

When two forces are equal, they cancel each other out and the object theyre acting on is stationary or in EQUILIBRIUM

VELOCITY diagrams are used to add forces, and to get them into or out of a triangle, then use Pythagoras theorem. Principles for adding forces: Draw the forces acting at the same point Construct the parallelogram Draw in the diagonal from the point at which the forces act to the opposite corner of the parallelogram Measure or calculate the size and direction of the resultant


The bunting and rope pull on the pole as a result of being pulled tight. The bunting pulls horizontally to the left while the bracing rope pulls down and to the right. When you resolve the forces and work out what components are acting vertically and what are acting horizontally, you can see the effects of the bunting. It pulls the pole sideways and downwards. This is a STATIC EQUILIBRIUM As the pole is at REST it fulfils Newtons first law. If something changes, then the pole will fall over as the forces arent balanced Equilibrium: when an object has balanced forces acting on it and is in a state of rest

ACCELERATION IN THE EARTHS GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Projectile a force acts on an object which starts it moving then it is subject to a constant force while it moves. In most cases this means the object is in free fall in the earth gravitational field An object dropped accelerates vertically downward due to its weight.

2.1 Fluid flow

Fluid a substance that can flow normally a gas or liquid, but some solids can sometimes behave like this


Fluid density is also mass per unit volume

When an object is SUBMERGED in fluid, it feels an upward force caused by the fluid pressure UPTHRUST The size of the force is equal to the weight of the fluid that has been displaced by the object. ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE The mass of the fluid displaced is equal to the volume of the object x the density of the fluid

UPTHRUST is then:

Why does a brick sink?

Density of water: 1000 kg m-3 If the volume of the brick is: 1.61 x 10-3 Weight of brick: 3.38kg

How to answer: (see page 53) Mass of water displaced is:

This has a weight of:

So the upward force on the brick is:

If we compare the weight of the brick with the upthrust when it is submerged, the resultant force will be downwards. Weight = 3.38 x 9.81 = 33.2N downwards Upthrust = 15.8N upwards Resultant = 33.2 15.8 = 17.6 N downwards The brick will accelerate downwards until it is at rest and balanced at the bottom

An object floats when it DISPLACES its own weight in fluid. When an object is at the surface of a fluid, there is NO UPTHRUST as no fluid has been displaced. As the object SINKS DEEPER in the fluid, it displaces a greater volume of fluid, thus INCREASING THE UPTHRUST acting upon it. When the upthrust and weight are BALANCED equally, the object will FLOAT. So if it wants to float, it has to sink and displace enough fluid to match its weight.

Used to determine the density of a fluid. The device has a constant weight, so it will sink lower in fluids of lesser density because a greater volume of less dense fluid must be displaced to balance the counterweight of the hydrometer. Scale markings indicate the density. If used with alcoholic drinks, it shows how much alcohol there is in it. The lower the density, the greater the alcohol content, as alcohol has a lower density than the water it is mixed with.

Fluid movement
LAMINAR (streamline) occurs a lower speeds, and changes to TURBULENT as the fluid velocity increases past a certain value This changeover velocity will vary depending on the fluid in question and the shape of the area through which it is flowing If water is flowing through a pipe slowly, it is LAMINAR flow. Look at the laminar diagram, the arrows closest to the edge of the pipe are shorter than the rest due to friction, meaning this layer moves slower than the other layers. The next layer will experience friction from the outermost one, and so on until we get to the middle layer. Each layer closest to the centre will experience less friction, thus allowing it to move faster. The inner-most layer moves the fastest, as

THE VELOCITY INCREASES THE NEARER YOU GET TO THE CENTRE If a liquid follows Newtons formulae for the frictional force between the layers in streamline flow, then is known as a NEWTONIAN LIQUID The laminar flow of water in a pipe continuous UNIFORMLY over time Laminar flow in the same place within the fluid, the velocity of the flow is CONSTANT over time. The lines of laminar flow are called STREAMLINES, at any point on any of these streamlines; the velocity of the flow will be constant over time. In turbulent flow, the fluid velocity in any given place CHANGES over time. The flow becomes chaotic and eddies form, causing unpredictable higher and lower pressure areas. Turbulent flow increases the drag on a vehicle and so increases fuel consumption Streamline flow produces much less air resistance than turbulent. Thus by altering the aerodynamics of their suits, skiers can raise the velocity at which the air movement past their body will change from laminar flow to turbulent flow. This is the principle behind all streamline designs, such as sports cars and boats

Drag act
VISCOUS DRAG (the friction against you) is greater in water than in air. The frictional force is due to the fluids viscosity. Low viscosity = low frictional force (e.g. air) High viscosity = high frictional force (e.g. treacle) Newton developed a formula for the friction in liquids which includes several factors, one of which is THE LIQUID. The FLUID-DEPENDENT factor is called the COEFFICIENT OF VISCOSITY, () The rate of flow of a fluid flowing through a pipe is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the fluid. In industry, the rate of flow of liquid chocolate through pipes in the manufacture of sweets will vary with the chocolates viscosity. TEMPERATURE also affects viscosity. In general, liquids have a lower coefficient of viscosity at higher temperature. For gases, viscosity increases with temperature.

Terminal velocity
In order to calculate an objects actual acceleration when falling, we refer to Newtons second law.

From this, we can calculate the resulting acceleration for falling objects; we need to include WEIGHT, UPTHRUST caused by the object being fluid in air and the VISCOUS DRAG force caused by the movement. The changing velocity makes the viscous drag difficult to calculate, so we consider the equilibrium situation, in which the weight exactly balances the sum of upthrust and drag, meaning that the falling velocity remains CONSTANT, thus it is the TERMINAL VELOCITY.

Viscous drag
Viscous drag is the friction force between a solid and a fluid. Calculating this can be simple, so long as it is a SMALL REGULARLY SHAPED OBJECT (otherwise it is difficult as the turbulent flow creates and unpredictable situation)

Stokes Law
Viscous drag (F) on a small sphere at low speeds:

r Radius of the sphere (m) v Velocity of the sphere (ms-1) - coefficient of viscosity of the fluid (Pa s) In such a situation, the drag force is directly proportional to the radius of the sphere and directly proportional to the velocity, neither of which is necessarily an obvious outcome.

Consider this: a ball bearing is dropped through a column of oil Terminal velocity: weight = upthrust + stokes law

Ms is the mass of the sphere and vterm is the terminal velocity Mass of the sphere, ms: Weight of the sphere, Ws: For the sphere, the upthrust = weight of fluid displaced Mass of fluid, mf: Weight of fluid, Wf:


vterm =

Terminal velocity is proportional to the square of the radius. Therefore, a larger sphere falls faster. More complex situations have more complex equations. This isnt however a common situation, however the principle that larger objects generally fall faster holds true for most objects without a parachute.

2.2 Strength of materials Hookes Law

There is a direct relationship between stretching a spring and the force it exerts The law states that the force F exerted by a spring is proportional to its extension, x K is negative as the force exerted by the spring is in the OPPOSITE DIRECTION to the extension This law only applies up to a certain point, when this limit is reached, the extension increases more rapidly and the spring remains more permanently deformed when the load is removed. This is called the ELASTIC LIMIT The spring constant, k, is different for different springs. The larger the value of k, the stiffer the spring. Hookes law isnt usually used when considering the stiffness of a particular material; solids do show very similar behaviour to springs. This provides evidence for a model of solids in which the attractive and repulsive forces behave a little like springs. Beyond the elastic limit, materials no longer obey the law and the permanent deformation is called plastic deformation. Some materials have a VERY low elastic limit and do not obey the law at all. Plasticine for example.

Elastic strain energy

The average force used to stretch the spring is: F So work done: (-kx)x = kx2 Elastic energy: Eela = Fx = kx2

This is the same thing as working out the area under the force-extension graph

Stress, strain and the Young modulus

TENSILE FORCE puts something in tension, i.e. tends to pull it apart If we consider tensile force per unit area, this takes into account the samples area of cross-section If we consider extension per unit length, this takes into account the length of the sample

Tensile force per unit area = tensile stress (Nm-2 or Pa) = Tensile strength = the tensile stress at which the material breaks Extension per unit length = tensile strain = Many materials, mainly metals, are found to obey Hookes law for small tensile strains. Under these circumstances, the quantity: This quantity is the YOUNG MODULUS (Nm-2 or Pa) The STIFFER a material, the GREATER its Young modulus

Characteristics of solids

As the stress increases, the sample begins NECKING narrowing at one point Elastic limit at this point the material stops behaving elastically and begins to behave plastically. When the stress is removed, the material does not return to its original length Yield point the material shows a large increase in strain for a small increase in stress Plastic zone the extension increases rapidly for small increase in force in this region. Solids which behave in this way are DUCTILE Fracture or breaking strength If the average strength along the material is plotted, the graph slopes down and breaks at E

Deforming solids
Stiffness the ability for a material to resist a tensile force Tensile strength the tensile stress at which a material fails In many situations, the force on a material will be tending to reduce the volume, to squash the material. This is known as a COMPRESSIVE force and puts the material under COMPRESSION Compressive force per unit area =compressive stress (Nm-2 or Pa) =
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH = the compressive strength at which the MATERIAL BREAKS

Extension per unit length = compressive strain =

Some materials have a very low tensile strength, but are strong when they are subjected to compressive strength such as brick and concrete. The strength of a material under sheer strength is related to some extent its tensile strength. STRENGTH a materials ability to withstand stress, whether is it tensile, compressive or shear DUCTILE show plastic deformation BRITTLE materials that crack or break with little deformation TOUGH materials able to withstand impact forces without breaking and require a large force to produce a small plastic deformation COMBINATION more than one material, often gain the best properties of both. Carbon fibre and living wood are good examples HARD materials which resist plastic deformation, usually by denting, scratching or cutting MALLEABLE materials which show large plastic deformation before cracking or breaking. The most malleable material is Gold You can measure hardness by measuring the size of a dent produced by pushing a diamond into the surface with a certain force.

A mineral scale by FRIEDRICH MOHS was used to compare hardness, based on the principle that a material which could scratch another material should be higher (or at least the same) on the scale of hardness . This doesnt provide accurate values so isnt often used in engineering

Materials in the real world

For climbing ropes, the material must be a compromise between stiffness, breaking stress, cost and density. Climbing helmets have also been developed. Traditional, uncomfortable helmets were made from HDPE (high density polyethene) but newer ones are made from CFRP (carbon-fibre reinforced polymer. These materials are HARD, STRONG and not too BRITTLE The helmets are tested thoroughly, investigating temperature, dropping it from a height with a weight inside it. The compressive stress produced MUST NOT be more than the breaking stress of the material or it will fail. ALSO, by law there must be no more than 8kN of peak force transmitted to the head. The design is also important, the shell will transfer force out evenly over the skull due to the internal webbing straps. The material it is made out of must also have enough strength in itself. The toughness shows its ability to absorb energy during fracture. The higher, the more energy it can absorb.