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# Dayang Nur Salmi Dharmiza

## To cause changes in current, VBE is changed.

Base or emitter terminals can be used as input terminal Collector is not used as an input terminal because collector voltage has negligible effect on terminal currents

Large changes in Ic or Ie create large voltage drops across collector and emitter resistors
Collector or emitter can be used as ouput terminal Base is not used as output terminal due to small Ib

Constraints for signal injection and extraction yield three families of amplifiers
Type of amplifier Input Output

## Steps for using small-signal models:

Determine DC operating point of BJT
Decide the collector current

Calculate small-signal model parameters for this DC operating point Eliminate DC sources
Replace DC voltage sources with short circuits Replace DC current sources with open circuits

## Replace BJT with an equivalent small-signal model

Choose most convenient one depending on surrounding circuitry

Analyze
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Redraw network by replacing capacitors with short circuit and dc voltage to ground.

## Substitute with re model

Zi: the figure clearly reveals that = ohms usually RB is greater than re. So, R >10 ohms
B

Zo: output impedance is determined when Vi=0. = ohms usually ro is greater than RC. So, r >10 ohms
o

## Av: resistors ro and RC are in parallel, and since = = =-

substitute into =

Thus, =

If 10 , =

Ai: apply current divider rule to the input and output circuits

Therefore,

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Since = , and = so =
+

and = -

( + )

## Replace in Ai above, then

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Negative sign in the resulting equation for Av reveals that a 180o phase shift occurs between input and output signals

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Find: (a) re, with ro=, determine (b)Zi, (c)Zo, (d)Av, (e)Ai, Repeat parts (c)-(e) including ro=50 in all calculations and compare results

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Which is only slightly different due to the accuracy carried through the calculations

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Biased using four-resister network (voltage divider) AC input is injected to base through a coupling capacitor AC output is taken from collector Emitter is grounded

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All capacitors open circuits, disconnecting Vi, R1 and R3 from circuit Q-point can be found from dc equivalent circuit by using DC model for BJT

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Replace all capacitors by short circuits, inductors by open circuits Set all independent DC sources to 0. Replace transistor by smallsignal model

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If

ro>10 ,

ro>10

ohms

## Av: Since RC and ro are in parallel,

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If

ro>10 ,

Since the network is so similar with fixed bias CE except for the fact that R=R1||R2=RB, the equation will have the same format

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Since = , and = so =
+

and = -

( + )

## Replace in Ai above, then

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Find: (a) re, (b)Zi with ro=, determine (c)Zo, (d)Av, (e)Ai, Repeat parts (b)-(e) if ro=1/hoe=50k and compare results

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## Apply Kirchhoffs law:

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Magnitude of BR is often too close to Zb to permit the approximation Ib=Ic. Applying current divider rule to the input will result in

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## The output is taken from emitter terminal

Output voltage is always slightly less than the input signal due to the drop from base to emitter
Voltage is in phase with input signal follower

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## Zi: Zo: Av:

= =

Ai: assuming
= = 1
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Employs feedback path from collector to base to increase stability Quite difficult to analyze network

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Determine re, Zi, Zo, Av, Ai Determine again with ro=20k and compare results.

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DC feedback resistor for increased stability Capacitor C3 shifts portions of the feedback resistance to the input and output

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Determine:

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