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J 20419F

A PUBLICATION FOR THE RADIO AMATEUR


ESPECIALLY COVERING VHF. UHF AND MICROWAVES
VOLUME No.9

t
WINTER
4/1977
DM 4.50
ULM 70
. .
communIcatIons
A Pubhcal lQn lor lhe RadiO Amal eu r
E&p9Clallv Covenng VHF, UHF, and MlcfOW60ves
EdllOlI '
...d....rU. lng
"..n.g.r;
VHFCOMMU
NteATIONS
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UKWIIERICHTE
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V..llU UI<W8ERtCHTE
T.." 6,I"n
",hnll_ ,.
0-8523 BAIERSOORF
FI<I Rip o' a.'m,ny
10111331 855, 856
T' rry 0 B,ll'''.G J NO I OJ 0 eo
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Robet'1 E L,n" DLJ WR.
rnpont.b!t ' 0 ' 1"- IhnlUl
eontenl.
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O" ....n P\lbllcahon UKW.
BERtCHTE. II a qlUlrt..ty .mal"",
"d,O m'gu,ne .tPM:,.lly cat,,,ng
'or ,'" VHFtUHFtSHF ' K hnOlogy
11 11 publolnotd In SPflng, S mmer,
Autumn , .nd Win' " T". bK fl p
lion prlCil 11 0M 2000 0' nll ional
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A PUBLICATION FORTHE RADIO AMATEUR
ESPECI ALLY COVERING VHF. UHF AND MICROWAVES
VOLUME No.9 WINTER EDITION 4/ 1977
I , 5angmeil ler , OJ 7 OH The 70 em FM Transcei ver . ULM 70_ 194 203
H. Benli vogtio, OJ 0 fW Part 3: The Transmitt er
H.J. Franke, OK 1 PN
Gunter Hoch Mor. Gain With Vagi Anlennaa 204 -211
DL6 WU
U. Beckmann A Linear Transverter l or 28 MHz 1296 MHz 212220
OF eOK With Push Pull MIke,
J. Dahms Three-Sl ag8-P, n mpl llle r 221 228
DCODA
IOf Ihe 23 em Band
E. Berberic h A New Concept lor 2 m 10 70 em 229232
Ol8ZX Tranl verter.
G, setner A Modul ar ATV Tf,nsmiller wUh Video
233 2"6
DJ 4 l B and AudiO Modulalion at IF l evel
S, Heubusch , DC 5 ex A TranK _lver lor 10 GHl 247 255
OrJng. A. Hock . DC0 M1 Part 3
H, Knauf , DC5CY
SU BS CRI PT I O N R EN EWA L U71
Another year draws 10 cion, and al so another volume 01 VHF COMMUNICATIONS. We
hope. that you have enjoyed reading the magllline, and have foun d It Informalive.
FOr1unately , we have been able 10 keep the aubacripli on pri ce al OM 16,- l or 1978, We
alway' att empl 10 keep our pricel l i able i n api l a 01 r iling COils , Plea.. r ~ u ..1 Ihe sub-
ecnpticn price l rom your nat lon af reprnenlltl.....
The publi shers OJ 3 OC and G 3 JVQ I OJ 0 eo and their rep' eaenlat ...... would like 10 tlke
Ihis oppor1unl ly of Wishing you a very pr oaperoul . Happy ~ V.lr 1978.
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
- 193 -
THE 70 em FM TRANSCEIVER ..ULM 70..
Pari 3: The Transmitter
by I. Sengmel.ter , OJ 7 OH H. Benl lvogll o, OJ 0 FW H.J. Franke, OK 1 PH
e. THE TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT
Figure 17 shows a photograph 01 the co mpleled transmi t board Si nce the tr ansmitter
possesses it s own osc i llator chai n, It can else be used on 115 own 85 in the case 01 the
receiver. The modul ator is incl uded on the board. The ci rcui t details are now to 00 discussed
in conj unction wi th the ove rall ci rcul i diagram 01 the l r ansmllt er giv en in Flgur. 18. This is
f oll owed by constructi on detai ls and the alignment 01 the I ra"smi ller mod ul e. The co n-
struction of the complete transceiver is to foll ow In part 4
&.1. Oscmator and Multiplier
The swi lc hable VXO and the th ree subsequent frequency multi plier slages are burn up i n a
si mi lar manner 10 me cscmetce of the receiver. The crrcun 15 deSCribed In detai l In section
2. 1. in edmon 3/77 01VHF COMMUNICAliONS.
In the case 01 the tran srmuer. it i s not only necessary lor the crystal Irequency to be pulled
over four channels. but also to be frequency-mod ulated. This 15 do ne by teedln g the modu-
laflng volt age via the adjustment po tentiometer R 11 to verectc r enoces 0 5 to 0 e,
The ga in of tne last thr ee stages 01 the tr ansmi tt er (stra.gh l-lhrough ampli fier) is adjust ed so
Ihat the last tripler transist or T 4 should provide apprOllimately 5 mW. For this reason. some
resist or and capaci tance values are somewhat di lleren i than in the receiver. and a mor e ettr-
cient transist or has been used for T 4 (8FV 90)
6.2. Driver and Power AmpUli er SI.ge.
The power ampli fier (T 7) is designed 10 crevice an RF output power 01 approximately 1 W.
Si nce the output h om the Irequency multiplier chain is apprOllima tety 5 mW and si nce
approx . e dB gain can be obtained per ampli fier stage. this means thai two dnver stages Will
be req ui red , The UHF sl ripline transisl or Iype 4t OO8 is used in autnree stages. The I ltsl dr iver
I ransi sl or T 5 will operate Wllh a QUIescent current 01 apprc x. 30 mA In cl ass A; the second
d ri ver Iransisl or T 6 is aligned l or class 8 , Bnd the power emputrer operales in class C. In
c roer 10 align T 6 exac tly l or class 8 ope ration. t is necessary l or the val ue of resis tor R 27 to
be teund ellperimenl ally,
The type 01 mal chi ng bel ween the hrst and second driver slage sho uld also be ment ioned : a
multiple tranerormeuon is made using also a parallel resonant circuit comprisi ng l 7 and
C 37. Unwanted I req uencies generated in the OSCillator cham are suppressed well at thi s
pcsmon. The tun ing is reall y sharp and musl be made carefully
194 ~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 1977
). VHF COMMUNICATIONS 411971
195
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.. VHF COMMuNtCATIONS 4' 19n
6.3. Uni ver sal AF Ampli fi er
The AF ampli lle r IS the only module 01 the transceiver that IS used both lor trer ermuer and
receiver. Since this amphher is to be tc und on the transmit board. It is necessary lor the
receiver t o be con nected t o a small AF ampntrer II the reeewer is to be used on Its own,
Alt houg h the AF amplifier only consists 01 an integrated crrcou. two small transistors and a
few cheap components. II is able 10 ful fill all audio tasks required in a treneceiver. It can be
used as mod ulat or With clipper and calling tone, or as receive auc-c-emphtier. by simply
switchi ng the operating voltage, Bejcre describing the operation 01 the stages 01
the amputre r. the spec ial teatures 01 the in tegrated crrcurt used should be mentioned
The i nteg rated ci rcu it CA 340 1 (or LM 3900) con tains f our curren t-ted operational amphliers,
The 01 this integrated ci rCUi t over conventional operational ampli liers using a
dillerentlal amphller i n the input is the low number of extemat connections requt red since the
vcneqe dividers have been replaced by simple resi stors. Drtterenttal ampli fiers process the
dilference between the non-inverted (+) and the (-) input. In contrast to this.
the input ci rcui ts of the operational amplilters i n the CA 3401 amplify me current di llerence,
The curr ent in the nco-mverteo (+) mput causes approximalely the same value of collector
curr ent in the ur st tr ansistor. The unterence bet ween this cu rrent and the current at the
(-) input is fed to the second transist or and to the subsequent amph lier.
When no current is l ed to the i nverted (-) i nput, the ampli lier will be sWitched ott . This allows
severe r parts 01 the ci rcui t to be swi tched, although all lour ampliliers are connected to a
common operati ng volt age, In ou r apphc1' tion, the Inverted input is connected via a l eedback
resistor t o the output so that an additional current the ampli lier into sat ura tion. This is
sutncrent to bl ock the ampli fie r at low AC-voll ages, but not at the higher volt ages Ihat are
present in the AF ampli l ler, In or der to block the ampli fi er. the non-inverted 1+) input is over-
driven which br ings the I ,rst tr ansistor into saturation, and shorts out the mver tee (-) input
The individual stages operate as l oll ows:
The lirst amplll ier stage is designed l or direct con nection 01 a dynamic mic rophone. A
tr immer potentiometer is provided to match the i nput to various micr ophones and vcrce
levels, The second amplifier is i n the for m 01a limiter in order to avoid cve rmccureucn. The
li miter diodes are to be l ound in the l eedback l inks since the ope rational ampli ller 01 the
CA 3401 should not be driven in to limit ing, This would cause unwanted effec ts in the internal
current di str ibution and cause i nst ability_ Wi thout li mit i ng (when the wiper 01 R 30 is
groun ded), the ga," 01 this stage wi ll be approlli mately ten ti mes, II, on the other /'land, the
wiper is at the other stop, the modulat ing voltage will be limited to a p.p value of 1.2 V,
The thi rd st age is in tile form 01 an ecuve low- pass Wter With a gai n 01 1. This stage is also
i n oper ation in the receive mode where it is used for altenuahng high-Irequency noise com-
ponents, This is foll owed in the tr ansmit mode by the trimmer potennometar l or adjusting rne
frequency devialion (R 11). This tr i mmer is to be tccno i n me DC-ci rCUit 01the tuning diodes.
so thai any of the mod ulating vol tage has a di rect effect on these.
In the receive mode. the fcurtn integrated amplifier driVM a complementary output stage
equipped with Iwo TO la-audio-transistors. For an ou tput power 01 300 mW, no heat sinks
will be requi red, Howe ver, Ihe power out put stage is designed l or a loudspeaker haVing an
impedance of 32 0, Speci al attention must be paid when using lower impedance rove-
speakers (less Ihan 22 U).
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
197
In order to generate a calling lone, me tust two Inlegrated amphllers are fed back via rne
calli ng t one sWitch and a ' requency-deler mlni ng RC-link The frequency can be adj usted With
the aid of trimmer resistor R 35
Finally i t should be mennoneo that me AF voltage 01 the receiver IS connected via connection
Pt 122 to the second amplilier. Since this vOltage .5 sulliciently low. the amp li ller wi ll not
have the ettect 01 a l imiter.
6.4. Power Supply
The tr ansceiver is operated tram a nommal voneqe 01 12 V DC. The authors pr ot olype is
suppl ied from a buut-m NI-Cd accumutato- having a capllCl ty 01 1 Ah. whIch II usuall y euttr-
cient t o cove r a complete contest With the usual trenemn-to-receive rauo . ccnnecncn pomt
PI 103. Pt 118 and Pt 127 01 the transmit board are dlrecUy cconecrec 10 Ihe accumula tor , A
stabi lizer cncurt comprising tranS.Slors T 12 and T 13 is connflC lltd to Pt 103. This cncun
generales a stabilized vottaqe 01 10.5 V 'or the OSCillator crrcuue and l or tur unq A nansrmt or
rec eive OSCillator IS SWitched on anematety via lhe microphone PTT-bullon and transistors
T 10 and T 11, The antenna relay is also switched Irom thiS position (Pt 105)
- 198 - A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
7. CONSTRUCTION
The transmillef ceccu. univenul AF amplllier. and the po_r supply etrecu are all accommo-
dated on a 125 mm 90 mm double-eoaled PC-board With through-contacls, The componenl
toceuone and conductor side 0 1 PC-board OJ 0 FW002 are given in Figur. ' 1; FIgUf. 20
shows the component Side, Wl lh the excep llon 01 Ihe small Insulated ,slands, I he ground eur-
l ace on I his side remains mtect . All connection points are 10 be l ou nd on the outer edg e .
The th ree power IfanSlstors T 5 to T 7 are placed into holes on the PC-boa rd In order to
ensure that thelf connections can be dlrectty soldered to lhe associaled cond uctor lanes at
low feliechon, The twc 18st Iranslstorl T 6 and T 7 are provided With amall heal Sink. that are
screwed 10 the case alter inslatiahon. The IranSIslOfS only possess one mounting PO'n! , it il
necessary lor the conlactsurface 10 the case to be provided wll h heal -conductive paste ,
Further delall. regarding Ihls are given In parf 4 Ollhis eescncnce.
The two Chip eececucrs C 33 are soldefed to the iett and nght I rom each emiller con nection
t o ground as shown as a dashed line in Figure 19.
01course, all component leads should be kepi as short as poSSible as ISgood UHF-pr aellee;
however, special care should be teken With the black. llat capacitor, 10 Ihat they do nol louch
the ground surface.
fig. 20: Component ... of PC-Do.rd OJ 0 FW002
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 1977 - 199 -
T 1 - T 3:
T 4:
T 5 - T 7;
18,113 ;
19:
T l0,Tl 1:
T 12:
01-01 3,0 15:
01 4:
016:
017:
11:
SF 224 or BF 199
BFY or simi lar hi gh-gain UHF transistor
41008 (RCA)
2 N 2222 or BC 108 or BC 413 (NPN)
2 N 2907 or BC 213 or Be 415 (PNP)
2 N 2907 or BC 213 or BC 415 (PNP)
BFW 72 or 2 N 2905 A (PNP In TO 5)
BAY 94 or 1 N 4148 or similar sil icon planar diode
AAZ 10 or AA 119 or simila r germanium e.cce or 56 U resrstcr
C 6 V 2 small zener diode
C 4 V 7 small zener diode
CA 3401 (RCA) or LM 3900 N (National $emi conducl or )
Induct ances L I to L 4 are accommodaled i n special coil sets ayailable from the publi shers
L 1;
L 2:
L 3:
L4
10 turns 010.3 mm dia . (29 AWO) enamell ed copper Wire With core
11 turn s, otherwis e as L 1
3.25 tur ns of 0,45 mm dia (25 AWOl enamelled copper wi re With core
3.2 turns, otherwi se as l 3
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.L1:10 turns L2. :11 tums
O.3mmdin.en O.3mm cc.en
U :3t t urns U :3i rurns
O,45mm diu.en. O,45mmdIUen,
Inductances l5 to l 11 are air -spaced mooctencee made Irom si lyer-plal ed copper wir e.
L 5:
L 6:
l 7:
L8:
L 9:
l 10:
Ll 1:
200
!WO tu rns of 0.8 mm dia , (20 AWO), diameter 3.3 mm
two turns as L 5, with centar tap
two turns as L 5, but diamel er 4 mm
as l 7 ,
0.5 turns, 18 mm long . wire t mm di a" (18 AWOl . bent to 5 mm diameter
5 turns 010.5 mm dia (24 AWO). dremeter 3,5 mm
2 tur ns 01 1.5 mm dia. (15 AWO). diameter 5 mm
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/19n
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OJ 0 FW002
appro), 0 22IlH 191urnl 010.3 mm dla 129 AWOl enamelled co pper Wi re,
2S mm di e close wound, sell -support i ng lWlr . length app ro), 187 mml
6-hol e cor. lemte choke (Phi lips) or
31 l urnl 010 8 mm d,. (AWO 20) Wllh cere
Ch .
Ch l - Ch3
C 18, C 24, C 30. C 38 twilled enamell ed co pper wire
C 18: 10 turnsl1 _ 11 mm
C24' 7 turns/ l _ 9mm
C30 S turnl/ l - 6 mm
C 38 S turns/l _ 6 mm
C 28, C 31. C 37, C 39 appr o.., Spf en-apeced tri mmer Wi th two connections
C 42,C 4S'
C33
appro), 9 pF lm-Ipaced trimmer al above
2 chi p capac i torl 01appr o)" I nF l or Ih e enutter co nnecllonl
All cepecnors WIth a value given In pF or nF In tha cucuu diagram are ceramic dISC mom-
layer or flat capaCllors, CapaCitors with Il F val ues are l antalum or al uminium electrolyt'CI .
The tnree Irl mmer poteohomelerl ara del i gned l or honzontal mounhng, I paClng 10/5 mm
R 11 10 kQ,linear R 30 1 kU, Imear R 36: 100 kU,linear
All orner resisl ors are carbon resi sl of llor a spac ing 01 10 mm
7.2. Cr Yltel Speclllcetloni
Smce no frequency converllon i l made In Ihe Ir ansmlller, Ihe crystal I requency IS one
Iweolyseventh 01 the OUl pul frequency Thi s means it is only necessary lor me center tre-
queocy ol l he reqUired band 10 be divided by 21 (appro)" 16 MHz). When orderi ng crystals, it
il necessary 10 give !he l ollowing additional mlo rmatlon: Parallel resonance. load t6 pF,
holde r HC- 181U.
As was also l he case In Ihe receiver, Ihe crysl al Irequ ancy vanes due 10 tolerances 01 I he
cncurt which II very noticeable due 10 the high frequency muil lphcal ion teeter. ThIS means
thaI I he crystal lrequeocy I houtd be I8lec ted 10 that the mosl Import anI channels are not 10
be l ound on lhe edge of Ihe pul li ng range.
8, ALIGNMENT OF THE TAANSMITIEA
8, 1, Betore alignment , chec k atl the components on tbe PC-board and enlUf. that no , esi
dual solder is present.
8, 2. A resislo, 01 6.8 kQ should be SOldered Int o place lemporarily 10' R 21, and PI 127
connected 10 -+ 12 V (PT 123 to grou nd), A ' esi stance value II now to be lound thaI
results in a curren t drem of between 2 and 5 mA
). VHF COMMUNICATIONS . / 1977 - 20 1 -
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111 Tl2 III nb 10'
OJ 0 FW 002
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101 121 118 115 123 108 lO4 109 lOb "9

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8. 3. II is now possib le l or the l ransmit board to be connectee as shown in Figure 21. This is
rcucwec by making Ihe l oll owing measurements:
Measured at S 1 open S 1 closed
Ptl 06
PI 107
PI 105
+ 10.5 v x 5 %
+ 10.2 V 5 %
OV
+ 10.5V :l: 5 %
OV
+ 10.2V :!: 5 %
8. 4. Swi tchonS 1: S2to Ptll Q
The vcnece dr op across A 18 should amounllO QV. Al ter inserting cryslal 0 1, a von-
age dr op shoul d be present. No variation 01 this voltage drop should be seen on rcte t -
lng P 1.
Swilch S 2 is now swi tched 10 PI 111 and crys lal a 2 Inser ted. A voltage drop should
also be present across A 18. which should not vary on rotatmg P 1.
The same procedu re should be made l or crysl als 03 and 04 by placing S 2 to Pt 112
and PI 113 respect ively.
8. 5. Switch S I on; insert 0 1: S 2 to Pt 110: measure the voltage dr op across A 18.
Ali gn L 1 l or di p.
Measure voltage drop across R 20. Align L 2 lor maxirnum readmg . L 3 l or dip .
Measure the vol tage dr op acroas R 23. Align L 4 l or maKimum reading, C 28 l or dIp .
Measure voltage drop across R 26. Align C 31 lor m8Jlimum reading
Repeat the alig nment in the same order, however, onry measure the voltage drop across
R 26.
8. 6. Swi tch posi tions as described lo r 8.5. Connect ammeter in the connection 10 Pt 127.
. Co nnect a power meIer and lerminall ng resistor . Align capacitor C 37 and C 39 alter-
nal ely l or maKimum curren t reading.
202 t\. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1 977
correc t C 28 and C 31.
Ali gn C 42 l or maltlmum cunent.
Alt gn C 45 l or maltlmum outpul power
Co rrecl alignmenl 01 C 42 and C 45 lor ma.,mum output
8, 7. The ou tput power should remBln conslani within 1. 5 "11> on SWitching cryst a!. II Ih" IS
net the case, align C 37 l or a constlnl cutout power .
8, 8 SWitch S 1 oIl . The output power should drop to 0
8, 9 S 1 011. Touch Pl 122 wit h l he hnger . A hum should be audible ,n the loudspeaker
810. SWitch on S 2. Connecl mic rophone
All er monl lOrlng the I ransmission In a receiver . ahgn me limiting with R 30 and l hl'
frequency deviation wilh R 11.
NOTES WI TH RESPECT TO PART 2
On construc llng the receiver OJ0 FIN 001 In lhe labo ratory 01 tne publishers. Ihe lollowlng
notes were made which should be ot interesllo our reader. '
II the osci ll ator power Is net sul hcient lor frequency ccnvere-cn, II is poUlble lo r l he muW-
pher transi stors T 8 and T 7 10 be biased l or apprOltlma tely class B opera tion by soldermg a
resistor 01 10 kU each between the base end the plus-pole 01 the operahng voUa\l8 (on the
conduc to r lane side 01 the board), In tee llon 3. T 6 should read BC 307, BC 308, Be 213 or
BC"' 5 (PNPl The li ne cucurte L 1 10 L6 Should have spacings 01 35 10 4 mm I rom the
board; Illhis is not the case. they cannol be rnonated With l he I rl mmer,
The coil sets l or L 7 10 L 9 and L 12to L 15 seem to be sllghlly dillereni lhan l hal used by the
aUlhor s, Thi Smeans l hal ll may be necessary 10 vary the number 01l urns Durmg const ructrcn
in lhe l aboral ory. II was l ound I hat one turn more was advisable when wmdmg the above
ment ioned COils,
NEW 23 em CONVERTER SC 1296/144
Noise hgur. typo3,9 dB
Gai n: typo22 dB
Operatmg vollage 12 V
Contained in aluminium case
With BNC-connectors.
Pri ce:
OM 250.-
~ . f ; technik Terry O. Brrtan Jahnstr, 14 . Posllach 80 0-8523 Balersdorf
). VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4t 19n
Tel . 09133/855 (Tag und Nachl )
203 -
MORE GAIN WITH YAGI ANTENNAS
by Gun'e, Hoeh. Ol f WU
In en earlter article (1) the author discussed basIc Vagi anlenna principles. The pr esent art icl e
mai nly coneeotretee lisell 10 I he quest ion : What gam can be obt ained Irom a smgle VaOl
ant enna and steckeo arrays , and how can II be achieved In practice?
1. MAXIMUM OBTAINABLE GAIN
Much 01 the conlusion about the ga,n obtainable I rom Yag' 8nl 8nnas hall been caused by
exaggerated claims 01some Bnl enna manulactu rer. Th" has gone so l ar that the ARAL hal
banned adve rtise men t. contai ni ng 8nlltflna gain l,gurel Irom III publications
The d,lIl cu ll les encoun tered In lhe measurements 01 absol ute gBln ! ' gur " have led to consi
derabl e dllCrep.ancies between Ih8 curv81l pubhahed ,n dillerant amateur radiO handbOOkS,
and 'he values me8aured In practice
In (1) Ih e Buthoi' based hi s I lndlngs 00 the only ~ n e r . l l y accepted gai n data Ihen available,
They are resu lts 01meawrements by Ehrenspeck and Poeh ler (2) ca rned oul on umlorm Yagl
arrays (constanl direclor length and spaCing) ,
n has already been poi nted out in (I) Ihat an Incr ear.e i n gam can be obtained by individually
optimizing both element spaci ngs and len gths, Aecently publi cati ons substanllale I hlS
Incr ease In gai n (3, 41, The result s 01 thi s are shown In Flgur. I , 11 shoutd be noted that bo th
gain and array length are in log arllhmic scale which means a proporlional i ncrease in gain
with length would result i n a st rai ght line sloped 45", or 3 dB per doubling 01 antenna boom
length (dashed l ine), Curve A shows results fr om unt lorm arrays according to Ehr enspeck and
Poehl er (2), and the US Nat ional Bur eau 01 Standards (4), They clearly show a lendency t o-
wards 8 levelling all 01the gai n beyond about 4 " lenglh
Curve B shows gai ns 01 arrays having constanl spacings and Ind iVidually opti mi zed el ament
lengths These were ailO l aken Irom (4), belated publi cat ion 01 measuremenls made In the
lat e 1950A (A study 01 thi s report is highly recommended 10 anyone Interested in the con -
sl ructlOn and ophml zallon 01 Vagi antennas), The 4 2). long NBS array has been made
popular by W 0 EVE.
A computer-ai ded approach at the DanISh In"tllute 01 Technol ooy at Lyngby (3) has shown
that a lurther small Improvement can be made by sui tably tapering the spacing The resul t s
have been verl l ied by enechctc-ctiamber measurementa They afe shown as curve C in Fig , I .
The ext rapolation 01 thlll curve contc rrna well With the values l ound by other design&ra using
two-wa y optimizati on , The . WCVHFC- val ues represent Ihe mean olaeveral measurement s at
the annual Wesl Con t VHF ccntereoce 8S Ci ted by Overbeck (5), The _DL 6 WU- data has
been obtai ned by anechoi c-chamber measur ements 01enays ellpe rlmentally opl lmlzed by the
author.
There i ll not one IerlOUS report regarding prachcal or even theor eti cal gain of a rod-type Vagt
anlenna that woul d surpass the gai n 01curve C, ThiS means that It can quite sal ely be taken
as t.... upper IJ8ln li mi t Structures With mulllple elemenl s, loops, quads etc. may have higher
gains II they have conSIderable ell tension perpendicular 10 the longitudinal IllIS,
. ,.,. .
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4 / 1977
I-
f-- f--
I I I
j
J .
I
/ ' 1
.

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.
.... - ..if
t J
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-

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,--
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Ol 6 WU
Dl 6 WU
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I -' I I I I I I
02 es
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,
'.
I
0,
'Ig. 1: a,ln of IU',." fu"C:tlon olllo",lh
A unlfoml , ngttl-opllml,ecI. C
All cl ai ms 0' higher gains gIVen tor Vagi anlenna, mUl l be laken wll h ell lHlme caullon One
ax.ample is 10 be given 10 illustr at e ItIl S: The gain 01a very popular 2-m-Vagi 01305 i, leng lh
is cal alog- rated at 16 dBd while curve C woul d limi t tIl gain 10 13 6 dBd The E and H pl ane
- 3dB - angles 01 32" and 34" (Ihe ter mer being coneclly slaled in the catalog ') indIcate a
maximum of 136 dBd when ent ered mto the Kraus formula (6). Companso n measurement!!
yield 13 10 13.5 dBd which confi r m the validi ty 01Ihe above considerations
No reliable cer e II available on Vagi antennas longer tnen about 7 ), 10 The quesuon 01 Ulti -
mate gain limitation cannot be answered yet. Thll li mi t, ., aTall , seems 10 be higher
than I'I8ve assumed to dal e, On Ihe other hand Ihe slope 01 all curves In Flgur. 1 is
2 2 dB per length doubling or less which '1 nollceably lower Ihan l he 3 dB commonly
peeled. Thi l !eIa- thanproporhonal gain IncreaM Quickl y leacls 10 very unhandy arrly lenglhs
l or higher gaIn values al tower I req uencles
Two l urt her l act of'l lhou ld not be overlooked Which hmlt prlctlCI' Inl8nna length Band WIdth
and prec isi on . BandWidTh tend s 10 decreaH With IncreaSing array lenglh wll h valu81 around
1 '" to be eepecred at t o ).. The pr ecil ion requIred l or opti mum resulls II staled," (.) 10 be
0003 ).. At 1296 MHz thll woul d call l or an element length toler ance 01lell Ihan t mm
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4 /1977 205 .
2. WHICH TYPE OF ANTENNA ?
Wtlh the previously menhoned limits In mind, a graph was drawn to compare I he uertormance
01 d illerent antenna types and to determine Ihe bands maS! l ayor able tor the use 01 Yagl
antennas in hi gh-gain arrays ,
In order 10 make 81 least 8 rou gh companeon poSSIble, Figur. 2 anume, a m a ~ l m u m
antenna helghl or widt h 01 ebcut 8 m whiCh seems 10 be somewhat 01 a conltructional
bar r ier, Yag ls ar e ConSidered on ly up 10 10 i, leng th l or bandwidt h reasons Curt ain arrays are
considered in 16 elemenl i ncrements as Ihis IS a stand ard bUild ing bl ock It IS QUi te eYlden t
thai Yag i ant ennas can be use<! 10 grealesl adyanlage on 70 cm (The same IS yalld l or the
220 MHZ-band in the USA). On 2 m Ihere IS a challenge Irom phased arrays. These, however ,
have a dlsadyanlage 01 the large number 01 teed connecti ons which become the li mit ing
teeter et higher trequer unes
On 23 em parabo lic antennas can pr OYlde more gain (they are stili rather clumsy on 70 cm)
wher eas Ihe precISion li mi t l ogel her Wi th l eed complications makes Yogi antennassomewhal
Quesl lonable 8t leasl tOt high-gain arrays on thiSband ,
The use 01aperture antennas IS a must on all higher GHz bands
II is the author "s opi nion that work on Yll gi anl ennas should be done especiall y wl l h I he
70 cm band in mind; they can then be eaSi ly -ecerccretee to the 2 m ilnd 23 em bandS due 10
the harmoni c relati onship

Ol 6 WU
,.,


'"
,.
206
fig, 2: 0.1" of dm..-ent typea 01 eflte"". e.....,a
U"," " by rna_I",,,,,,, ."., dllfte" alona 01 I ' I a III
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 1977
3. PRACTICAL DESIGN
The queslion i. flOW how the gain. given in the curve. can be obtained ,n prac tice ?
Excell enl de.ign criteria I' given In (4). and the mlnule dillerence to the g,un mec-
-euceuv possIble i. insigmficant in pr act ice. The _Ouagi .. antennas descr ibe<! in IS) also work
very well allhoYgh t hey ere d,. llked by some because 01 the type of leed used Still . It was
found complicated t hat a complelely d, llerenl plan had t o be touowec lor each desi red array
length. In order 10 lind a mor e general app roach. the aut hor has ccnectee data on two-way
opti mi zed long Yagl' tr om nu mer ous sources. togeth er wllh data Irom hiS own
and has standardi zed them With respec t 10 ' reQuency and el emen t diamet er ThiS was do ne
With th e aid cr me equal -reac tance graph given In ( 1) It turned out that the opti mum element
lengths ag ree so _II that an average curve can be drawn Wit h less than 001 j, departure
Irom any indIVidual value (Figur. 3)
This is no t Hue to t he same Wit h Ihe SpaCIng values found to be ophmum by d, lIeren '
designers . However. the lendency IS clearly tha i 01 an asymplollcal approach up 10 about
0.4 ). with the imtial value st ro ngly infl uenced by Ihe t ype 0 1 leed
'00'
'00'
'00 '
'00'
."
dl-' . 0002
Dl 6 WU
1
1+
,1 ' 9 10 " 12 ' 14
flM,l,onol d.... cl or ---
,

'<A
FIg. :I: La"gtf! 01 dlrKto.. aa a function 01 director pw.IIton
,,, long '1''91 a"aya (para....t.r: ........"1 dl.....I.t)
A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
207
As many espenmente heve shown, a non -reac tlye reec uSing a sell -resonant dipole element
calls lor a closely spaced ueet director - ollen called a launcher element. II takM about the
position the radiator wou ld t ake in designs with an adjustable impedance teed such as a
delta or gamma metcn . For the sake 01 mechanical and elec trical Slabllity It was decided to
co ncentrate on Ihe equa l-diameter torcec dipole with hallwaye (4'1) balun as driven element,
Test s have shown Ihal It can al ways be replaced Wit h unaltered results by an open dipole
wit h 1 1 balun tr ansl ormer or , 01 course, any ether deSired matching device Similar 10 those
descr ibed i n (7).
Measur emenls made wi th designs using both average element lengths and spacings showed
suc h good result s that It seems permissi ble to risk a _unl yersal recipe- l or long Yagl design
II tne values given in Figu re 3 and Table t ar e touow ec closely, a Yagl Will result that has
near -opt imum gai n l or the length, and can be cut 011 anywhere beyond about 21, tength WIt h
an SWR of less than 1 ; 1,2. Data lor short antennas touow a slightly e.nerent pattern and
should be taken Irom (41,
Antennas co nstruc ted uorn the datil presented here will perform markedly better than Opti -
mum umfcrm ante nnas 01 the same length, Radiation pallerns Will be slightly Wider and a lo t
cleaner, Ihe addi tional gain bei ng taken Ir om the sidelobfis II is not claimed. however, thaI
there is no room l or furt her rmptovemen t. Namely the bac kward wave reflected Irom the open
end of the antenna causes a mo re or less pronounced crstcmcn of the amphtude and phase
creme dependIng on the poi nt of cut-o il. This means that the ski lled axpenmenter Wi th me
necessary measur ing equ ipment cescnbed i n (8) may be able t o squeeze out a few mo re
tenths 01 a dB (thi s is about the mUlmum) by lurther slight modrtrcatron 01 element lengths
and posit ions. Thi s can be a very ti me-consuming and frustr at ing process governed by the
law 01 dimini shing retu rns. Onl y a l ew hints can be given here . The director l ar est Irom the
radi at or has a great i nfl uence on the reflect ed wave, Optlmiling Its lengt h and pcemcn seems
the most rewarding adjust ment with a slight vanalion of direct or poSi tions near I he center 01
the arr ay being the ne_t best bet Alter any adjustment . the match must be checked and
rest ored beca use even a slig ht mismatch migh t mask the minut e gai n Incr ease that has been
obtained. Never attempt to cptrmtze WIthout a relerence antenna 01 known perlormance, and
without equipment which meets the hi gh reprodUCibi lit y standards requi red
The ' oll owi ng procedure is given f or the average ham who does not possess these means. All
he needs is a slable power source l or Ihe design Ireqeuncy and an accurate (1) SWR meter.
a) Determine the desi red antenna lengths in wavel engths and the correspondi ng number of
elements, Take element posi tions Irom Tabl a 1.
b) Det erm ine elemen t diamet er In wavelengths and read ott or interpolate dir ector lengths
hem Flgu,. 3 respectively. Read olt the lengths of rad iator and reuect or Irom Table 1 or
from Figure 3 in (1) ,
e) II the elements are to be mounted through a metallic boom. take the correction fact or
I rom Figure 4 in (1) into consi deration or use T. bl. 2.
d) Cut and mount elements leaving the driven el ement variable, II possible. Mount anten na
lacin g towards the sky and chec k SWR. II it exceeds the exoectec value and all measur es
have been det ermined correctl y (!I , the f aull will most certai nly l ie in the driven element.
Adjust its position and length not l or getllflg the balun whI ch might be t oo long or too
sho rt, 00 not change other elements' length or position at thi s poi nt I
208
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
Elemen t SpaCing /). Specing / mm Lenglh/mm
432 MHz 432 MHz. 4 mm die
Refl ect or 0,240 160 338
Dipole
322
Director 1 0075 55 302
Director
,
o.reo 125 m
Di rector 3 0.215 ISO ese
Director

0250
17'
203
Director 5 0.280 195 290
Director

0300 210
,.,
Director r 0.3t5 220
,..
Director

0330 230 m
Director

0345
,..
280
Director to 0.360 250 278
Director 11 0.375 260 m
Director t2 0.365 265 278
Director 13
0390
,,.
275
Director 14 0.395 275
'" Director 15 0 ... 280 273
DIrector 16 0 ... 280 2n
DIrector 17
0 ... 280
'"
DIrector 18 0 ... 280
,,.
DIrector 19
0 ... 280 269
Di rector 20 0.... 280
,..
T. .... ' :
.... of. MOdel .nt_lor W MH.I wtth 1ft...1. 1.., 4 Iftm ... et._nts)
Boo m dle.1).
6.1n. Boom dla.Jmm 6.I Jmm
432 MHz 432 MHz
0,01
0003
, ,
0.Ot5 0.005
10
3'
O.OC' 0.eoe
"

0.03 0,016
21 11.5
0." 0 026
,.
I.
0.05
0 038 55 2.
Tabl4i 2; conMtloll to I 10 be Hded 10 Iotngth of ... ment. P' ''''''' throull" -Wille boom.
llln_ of ......1-101.., . 1-10......1. ,.11. q..lckly _ "" r1S-1ng dl.lanc all(l call 1M "lI1ec:1...t 'I
about 1 booIII reell... IfOIlI , .."' _
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 19n
209
4. STACKI NG
In general . directional antennas should be stacked at the dIStance wher e their ellechve aper -
l ures jusl toucn (9). Untortunatety Ihere is no eenmte border 01ui e ettecuve aperture so Ihi s
di slance is nOI weu-ceunec. When two equal array s are Slacked . the stacki ng gain will rise
with increasi ng distance reaching a Ilrst peak of abo ul 2,5 dB and then Ilu ctuate arou nd ttn s
vafue (4. 10). These uuctuetrcna can be explained either as varying mutual coupli ng or by
ece.ncn and cancellation of minor lobes, A good rule 01 thumb i s t o use the cretence at
which I he Ilrst null 01 the group patt ern lall s on the - 3 dB poi nt 01 the indiv idual pattern in
this plane - approximately halving the beamwidth. By si mple geomel ry thi s distance is l ound
to be 0 - "iJ2 sin ("In) where "I is me - 3 dB apert ure ang le 01 lhe arrays to be stac ked
Not e that distances diller in E and H planes II Ihe palterns are not rot ationall y symmetri cal.
Greater spacings may result in slightly higher gain, 2.95 dB are staled in (10). but at tne
penalty 01 a sharper mai n beam and mor e and stro nger sidelobes Stacking crstencee bel ow
Ihe above-mentioned val ue will qu ickly reduce the i ncrease in gai n obtai ned by slacking
Use 0 1 the compromise l ormuta will result in lirsl etceicbes 10 12 dB below Ihe main lobe.
and an increase m gain of around 2.5 dB l or a bayed array. as lesl s have shown in practice,
5. i.XAMPLE
A 21 erement Vagi antenna for 432 MHz was derived from me design dat a thai has been
given. Aluminium rod 01 4 mm di ameter (welding electrodes) was chosen because 01 It s avai -
labi li ty. The boom is 15 by 20 mm dry wood available in do- it -yourself shops (l he central part
must be remtcrcec by a support ). A double reuectcr spaced 0.3), vert icall y was used inst ead
0 1 one. because on long arrays the gain increase 01 abou t 0,3 dB i s higher than obtainable by
a corresponding length increase 01 the boom.
Gain was measured to be about 15.5 dBd in substituti on measurement s, A separate measure-
ment usi ng the rear sect ion t ermi nati ng at di rector no , 8 showed 12.5 dBd . hbl. 1 gives the
dimensions 01 the antenna
Correct stacking distance lor the long Vagi antenna would be 1,6 m in both planes. wherea s
the 11 element array wou ld need a stacking distance of 1.2 m in the E plane and 1. t m In the
H plane,
fl. CONCLUDING REMARKS
Ther e are a multitude of good VHF and UHF anl ennas avail able on the market . The author
does not mean to preach an all -out dc-tt-voursett phil osophy. There are, howev er, many
occasions where a mass-prod uced antenna would not eerve the purpose or woutd just be too
expensive - e,g. lor receiving weather satellite signa ls, testing a temporary location, moni -
tori ng a dx tv channel. to name just a lew, A cheap and qu ickly-made Vagi array can l i ll the
gap. Besi des. in ou r time of highly complicated f act ory -made ham equipment a good sen-
made antenna can Impart to the bui lder a feeling 01 achievement that is hard t o reach other-
wise.
Acknowledgement :
The aUl ho r wishes 10 Ihank Dick Knadle, l( 2 RIW. for the fruitf ul di scussion.
- 210 ~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/t977
7. REFERENCES
Hoch. G.: Antennol l
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 9. Edlt l()l'l 3/1977. Pages t S7 . 168
2. Eh,enspeck. H,W and Poet\.... . H A Method 10'
Ma. ,mum a.ln 'rom Vag' Anlenna
IRE T'.......AnlP'op. Oct 1m . p...... 379 386
3. Boisen, J.H et at: Ma.,mum Gam 01 Yag, -Uda A"ays
Elect,omcs Leite,.. Sept 1971, PAQeS S31 - S32
4 V'ezbicke. PP.. Vag, Anlenna OntQn
NBS lechnlCal nole no 688. o.c 1976
(Iummanzed in Ham Rad'o. AIIg 1977. Pages 22 - 31)
5 Overbeck, W : The VHF Ouagl
OST, Apri l 1977, Pages II - U
6 T'I , Cheri To, Perel,a. C.S An Appro. ,maled Fo,mula to' Calcu laltng
lhe Di ,ectlVity 01an Anlenna
IEEE TransAnlProp" March 1976. Pagel 235 - 236
7. ReIsert , J.H.: Feed Ing and Mal chl ng Techniques l or VHFIUHf Antenn
Ham RadIO. July 1976. Paoe 50
8, Knad le, R.T.: UHF Antenna Rahomet ry
OST, February 1976, Peo.. 22 2S
9, e" e, . HS., Or , . WI : VHf HandbOok tor Rad' o Amat eurs
Rad io publicahon . wnt on, CT., 1974
10, Greenblurn. C,: NOles on Iha Developmenl 01Vao' Arrays. Part 11 - StackIng Vagl l
OST. SecltemtMlr 1956. Pagn 23 - 26. 122
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A LINEAR TRANSVERTER FOR 28 MHz 1296 MHz
WITH PUSH-PULL MIXER
Up to now, lmear lor the 23 em band mainly used power mbe,. eQuIpped with
tubes ( 1). (2) . or veractc r diodes (3). 11'11 8 was mainly due 10 the tact l hat low-Ievtti mi ller.
usmg diOdes or ' ,ani lluora were only able to provide. very low output. and becauM Iha tra n-
Slslors required lor linear ampllcal ' oo were dlll,cull 10 obt ain and wer a ellpenli". Thl' .rhele
etc describe. transmit converter eq",upped Wit h a Ir!lnSUl tor pu,h-pull m...er and thr ee-sl age
hnear ampli fier. whose tranSIstor complement 01 li ve I ra""alors costs approxi mately 100 OM
at Iha present lime. The tr ansmit converter ia built up on 8 double-coaled epa. y pcboard
Bnd pr ovi de!! an output power 01 300 mW at an operatmg vollaga 01 12 V. Thl' output power
i s usually sufficient lor portable operation Irom good siles
A special l eature 01 I hl s CirCUlI IS the pUSh-pull mlaer whi ch IS able to suppress the local
OSCillator IreqU8flcy by al leaSI 40 dB when correcUy balanced ThiS means l hat only one
bandpass ' dlur Simi lar 10 that desc r ibed In (41 or (5) IS required In order t o SUPPUISS l he
image /(equency In the most unlavorable case when uSI"'O l he 10 m band al Intermediate
f requency. It will be 56 MHz below the required Irequency and will be attenuated by epproxi-
mal ely 20 dB even when uSing a Ilmple IIll er as oeecooeo In (4) . In ccruuncnc n With the
selectiVity Ollhe linear ampll'ler 0' appro xi malely 15 dB. the l olal attenuation Will be in the
order 0' 35 dB II a power amplilier eqUiPped With a 2 C 39 tube in a cavIty resonator II dflven
( in 'he case 0 1 ' IXed I latlon oper ation). l he Image frequency Ililer Will not be required Since
such power amplilter s pr ovide sull icleni M leClIv lty
1. BLOCK DIAGRAM
The basic prt ncipl e 0 1 lhe Iransverter and Ihe IranSI510rl Ihal ar e used m It are glvun In me
block diagram given In Figure 1 A drive power 01apprOklmalely 5 mW at 28 MHz IS reqUired
lor driVing l he module A local OSCill ator 'requency 0' 1268 MHz al a power of 5 mW IS also
required Thi Scan be pr OVided uSing IUltable crystals In module OJ 4 LB 003 (6) followed by a
frequency Irlpler Thl l II not 10 be dl lCuued in delall . I mce other SUitable OICIUalora ar e
ei ther available or can be slightly modl 'led (see DC 0 Oil. 005 In thiS .dlllon)
1296HHz
oloY.'
t>
BF R94
----- - ,
w
-
I
___-l
OF 8 QK 001
,-
I
.l.28MHZ
1296
t> t>
MHz ..3an.......
",,01
P-
1
0lTW BFR14A BFR96
L _
--- - - ----
1268MHl, ,,, SmW
-3 BFR 34A
- - 1268MHz to conver-ter
ffuI:'LB 003
cscutc t or
Ag, 1: , n
212
.. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1917
2. CIRCUIT DETAILS
Figur. 2 shows the ci rcuit dillgram 01l he l ransmlt converter. It will be seen that the push-pull
mi xer with i ts extensive ci rcuits repr esents the heart 01 the module, The modulated. 28 MHz
signal i s fed in push-pu ll , whereas the local OSCillator Signal IS In push -push, In order to
ensur e that me 28 MHz induct ance L 1 IS balanced. It is wound in a bilitar manner , Since
usually mor e than enough dri ve powe r is available. ccrenncmerer P 1 has been provided 10
selec t the most tavor ebre drive level. The OSCillator SIgnal ISled in apprOXimately 8 mm I rom
the co ld end of the sho rtened )./4 ci rcuit comprising L 2 1C 6, whiCh is then tuned to
1268 MHz. The DC-VOltage operating points 01 the two transistors can be adlusted to the
same values using the trimmer resisl ors P 2 and P 3. The rructo-strrplme L 3 is prOVided l or
the output frequency 01 1296 MHz and is tuned with the aid 01 tnmmer cececuors C 12 and
C 13, This fine POSseSS65 an elect rical lengt h 01 /../2, the lrimmers are to be tcund at the hot
ends (max. voltage). and the vcneqee al lhe ends are In antiphase to another. The cold
posi tio n (wit hou t RF vol tage) is 10 be found at the center to whIch the collector voltage IS fed.
Any c nuerence in the ou tput capacitance of lhe two tranSistors IScompensated lor by SUitable
adjust ment 01 the tr i mmers This means that an exac t balancing 01 lhe output ci rcuit can be
made so lhat the maximum suppression ollhe local oscillator Irequency is obtillned
The loadino 01 the output eucuu 01the mi xer is also balanced uSing a Similar outpul coupling
ci rcui t. The nrst linear empntter traneetc r (T 3) Is co upled in In the vicinity 01 cold posurcn
(cenle r 01 L 41. Ind uctances L 3 and L 4 lorm a bandpass hlter :
The co ll ector of translator T 3 is coupled via a Short matching inductance to a capac lhvely
s hort ened )./ 4 ci rcui t whose Cold end is bypassed 10 ground with the aid 01a disk capecrtor.
The base 01 the subsequent transistor T 4 is coupled via a matChing network compriSing
C 20. C 21 and a pri nted Induct ance, The collector ot T 4 also works Into a capacitively
shortened )./ 4 ci rcui t (L 6).
The output transist or T 5 is also matched In a simila r manner. The output Is trans formed to
50 U using inductance L 7 and tri mmer capacitors C 35 and C 36. All toocctancea With the
except ion 01L 1 are pri nt ed striplines to ensure a high degree 01reproducibi lity.
All base voltages are l ed in via pri nted /.. /4 chokes which are bypassed at tne ends using
printed capacitances, The low capacitance values reoui red at 1300MHz allow this stmpre
co nstruct ion.
Special attention has been pai d 10 l he base voltage dividers and the cweecem current adjust
ment. The l ollowing demands should be l ul/ i lled '
Mi nimum variation ctme quiescent current on allermg the operatmg voltage
Good atabi tJtyWit h respect t o ambIent temper atur e Iluctuahons
No i nc rease 01 the qu iescent currents du ri ng continuous operation
(endangering the expensi ve tr ansistors)
Unc rit ical alig nment 01 the quiescent cu rrent
Point 3 above was the most crtncun to achieve in practice, and il was necessary for diodes
D 4 and D 5 to be mounled In thermal ccntec t 10 the associated treneretor Iheee diodes are
t o be f ou nd on the lower side 01 the board D 4 is placed onto the prasuc case 01 transi stor
T 4 wit h heat -conductive paste; diode D 5 is glued to the threaded bolt ot T 5 also using heat -
co nducti ve paste.
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977 - 213 -
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A VHF COMMUNICATIONS -4 /1977
II is also necessary lor T 5 to be provided wilh a heal sink . A 2 mm Ihick aluminium striP,
apprcximatety 50 mm i n lenglh and 10 mm wide. was l ou nd 10 be eutteore. 11 was benl up
apprOlO:imalely 15 mm I rom bolh ends and screwed to tne l a p ~ d bolt 01T 5.
The operating vollage ccnnectton 01 me output slage is provided separately so tnat it may, II
required, be connected to 24 V. In lhis case, Ihe output power will then amount to epprcxt-
malely 400 mW,
3. CONSTRUCTION
The ecnstrucnon 01 the transmit converter should nOI cause any dillicul ty Since there is only
a minimum 01 mechanical work 10 be done. The 170 mm x 75 mm double-coated apo lO:y
PC-bo ard OF 8 OK 001 is shown in Figure 3
Alter drilling the holes lor the components. it is necessary lo r slots 10 be sawn in the
PC-board wilh the aid 01a teet saw l or capacitors C 18 and C 26. A l urt her slol is necessary al
the ground end 01 the oscillator circuit comprising L 2 in order to be able 10 pr OVide a
through-contact to ground With the aid 01 a copper ten Sl rip . Two l urther slols 01 approx t-
mately 5 mm in lenglh are also required l or Ihe emi ller connections 01 transiSlor T 5. Alt er
this, n i s possibl e lor the components to be mounted on the boar d. TranSistors T 1 10 T 4 are
mounted mt c 5 mm holes. The ermne econnection is bent down by 90" (bent up in the case 01
T 1) and is placed into the hole l or the transistor. This means thallhe hole mus t be slighlty
widened at one side l or this. A hole 01 7 mm dis is requ ired lor transis tor T 5,
One 01 I he rOlary plate cc enecttoue 01C 29 is pushed through 10 I he ground side : the seco nd
and the stationary plate connections are ben t down by 90" and carelully soldered to the base
and emi tter connecuona 01T 5.
Resistors R 7, R 11, R 15, R 16, R 19, as welt as disk capaci tors C 10, C 17, C 23, C 25, C 31,
C 32, C 38 wh ich are used as support , are to be l ound on the lower side 01the board .
The toea! oscillator signal and Ihe output coup ling I rom the Ir ansmi t converter can be
connected by sol dering the connection cable directly to I he boa rd Irom the lower side . The
required hole is made by removing apprOlO:imately 1 mm around the hole on the lower, grou nd
surface 01 the sc-eeere The inner conductor is placed through the hole. SOldered 10 the
appropriate conductor lane and the outer conductor soldered to the ground surface, 0 1
course, it would also be poSSible l or a SNC socket l or single-hole mounllng to be used and
then modi lled by removing the protruding i nsulation so that it dlreclly tc ucnes the ground
and conductor surfaces.
The module can be enclosed in a case constructed Ir om single-coaled PC-board material.
The height 01the side panels should amount to app roximalely 40 mm and Ihe spaci ng 01 l he
board t o I he base plate should be 15 mm.
Figure 4 shows a photograph 01 an authors prototype Without case and using trimmers
ins tead 01resistors R 10 and R 14
'" VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1 977
215 -

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216 A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
a.t . Special Component.
Tl .T 2,T3
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L 1
Ch3
Ch 7-
BFR 34 A(S.emen., 0' BFR 91 (PtullPSI Wllh some II mltahon.
BFR 96 (Phil Ips) . or BFT 12 lor lowe' output powe,r le...el.
BFR94 (Philips). 0' BFR64 lor lower powe' level.
1 N 41"8
2 J; 9 lurn. blld.r wound on 6 mm d,a ecu lo,mer WIl hout co re
co upling I 10 2 lurn. at the cente'
1,5 turn. 01enamelled copper wire wound Ihrough 1.",1. bead
2 turn. ol . ...... rpl .led coppe, Wire wound on a 3 mm lormer . sel l-suppo,h ng
All trlmm. ,.. IIlI plashc 10 11 types 01 7 mm dlamet.r
C I: 22 pF {greenI
C6. C 12 C 15, C 19 C21. C27 . C 29, C35, C 36 6 pF (grey)
C 2, C 3: 56 pF cerami Cdl.k capacll o,
C 7, C 8: approa . 10 pF ceramiC dllk capacitor 011818 Ihan 3 mm d,am.I.,
C 9, C 11, C 24, C 33, C 34, C 37: I nF leed lhrough capac itor, 3 mm d,a
C 10. C 17, C23, C25. C31, C 32 ;
between 220 p and 1 n. disk capaCIlor wlthoul connec t,onl
C 18, C 26: 1 nF disk capaCitor without connec tion. , 8 m," dla
C 4. C 5. C 16. C 22, C JO ptlnled capacitances
All Inmm., polenhometers I,e tor hontonlal mount ing with 10/ 5 mm lIpK,ng
Pl P3 loo U
P4 1 kU
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 1977
217
4. ALIGNMENT
The ali gnment can be made with the ' oll owing measuring equi pment :
- Multi meter
_ Absorption wavemeter lor up 10 1.3 GHz (as described In VHF COMMUNICATIONS)
- 50 0 load and pO_r meter (need not be calibrated)
The quleKent currents 01 the transi stor s should be fi rstly ali gned to the l oll owlno values
T 3: 2mA Q O,20V acrouR 11
T4: 2 mA Q O.11V acronR 15
T 5: 60 mA Q 0,60 V acron R 19
Set p 1 fully anticl ockwilM. P 2 arid P 3 to a central position 0,52 V base
\loltage) ; adjust C 1 and C 20 ' or hall capacitance. C 29 and C 36 l or
mately a qua rter, and all other trimmers to minimum capaci tance,
The local oKiliator signal should now be l ed to the mod ul e and adjusted so that epprc xt-
mal ely 7 V can be measured ac ron R 7. SWitch 011 the oscillator again and feed in the IF
sig nal to be conve rted. Alion I he IF cirCUit w,th the aid 01C 1. Adj ust the leyel With Pl IO that
approxi mately 0,1 V can be melSured acr oss R 7. SWitch on the oscil lator again
Observing the voltage drop acr on R 11, ali gn C 6 and C 12 - C 15 'or maximum reading
Switch olf the IF signal after each adlustment 0' the trImmer s to check that the voltage l aUs.
ot herwise the alignment will have to be made to 1268 MHz.
Measure the voltage drop acr oss R 15 and align capac,t ors C 19 - C 21 l or maximum. The
1296 MHz signal at the output should now be clearl y seen, Ali gn capaCI tors C 27 - C29, C 35
and C 36 l or ma.lumum output pO_r. Th,s means that the coarse ali gnment has been com-
pleted.
This is followed by reallgnlng all tr immers carefully for maximum cetput power, Aher thIS has
been co mpleted. it should be checked once agam that this maxImum is at 1296 MHz and nOI
at 1268 MHz.
This is followed by balancing I he mi.er:
Swi tch 011 the IF . ignal, place an absorption wavemeter i n the vicinity 0' the output clrcuil
and aUgn It to 1268 MHz. At this poin t, the oscillator signal will no doubt produce a clear
indicatio n.
Al ign P 2 and P 3, foll ow8d by C 12 or C 13 respectively l or minimum output (Ihe trimmers are
vi rtu ally" minimum capacitance) , SWitch on the IF signat once more and align C 13, or C 12.
as _II as C 1. and C 15 ' or mSllimum ou tput power at 1296 MHz,
These two alignment proceues should be repeated several limes. at the u me ltme Increasing
the coupli ng of the absOrption waverneter unt il no improvement i . possible
The foll owing vollages should be present acron the given res'stotl aer complellng the
alignments at an operating vol tage 01Us 13 V :
28 MHz 1268 MHz 1296 MHz U (R 1) U (R 11) U (R 15) U (R 19)
-
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-
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0.2V 0,1 V 0,6V
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- 6 .5V - 3V - 2.1V - 0.6 V
- 218 - A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1911
FIg.S : Demodulllted lrl.ngul.r ....
I"n.' durtng ATV!e8t
P o u t : ~ . 110 mW
....,
Fig.': Output por: 3OO".W
.....
Fig. 7; , . 0 ". Wcompollt . wldeo 110n.l lrom. d.n' .""V.n. rl lor.
Th. tl.nd.rd','d I rn<: hronl, ' n" 1..,.1 0125 '!II. ' I m.'nliln. d.
Fig, , : 250 mW compoil l. wld,a 110n.101. p.n.rn ",n,r. lor, . nd. den. . ....,. waneo, 101eomper' l an .
Th. ' r nchlOfll,lng l'On.1' e ,Ir"dr Ilmll'd,
5. USING TME TRANSMITCONVERTER FOR OTMERINTERMEDIATE FREQUENCIES
An intermedi ate frequency 01 144 MHz c.n al so be used. II il only neceslary l or inductance
L 1 10 be changed : 4 turnl of I mm dla, (18 AWOl Iliver-plated copper wire wound on 5 mm
forme r, wil h center tap . nd 1 turn coupli ng.
The l ranl mit conve rter has . 110been used lucceaalully l or ATV on 1252.5 MHz when l ed Wit h
an input lrlllQuttnCy Of 62 MHz, An inpul woltage 01 02 V (A 1 mWj il lulllc'eni drive. In thil
ceee. i nd uctance L 1 II reduced to 2 II 5 turna. and the reqUired oscltlalor IrlllQuency ' I
1190 MHz .
The tr . nlmll converter operates li nearly up to an output powar 01 200 mW co mposite wldeo
signal . t 1252 MHz. This can be Hen i n Flgur 5 and 6 where th" wideo canier il modulat ed
with a lri.ngular w..... lignal and the demodulated output sign.1 l ed to . n osc illoscope.
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 411977 219
When us.ng a pattern (lenerator. no hml tatlon 01the aynchrOOll l ng p.... lses was eeee.....ed The
UHF d. mod.... lator mod .... le OJ 4 lB 005 has been to.... nd sultabl. lor d.mod.... lallon wh. n
co.... pted 10 the out p.... t via 1 10 2 pF, The resonant cue..... t Ind.... ct ence on the demodulat or
board comprises a small benl Wire.
The base chokes and the base voltaga di Viders are 01such tow-impedance l or th. modulallng
I reQuenci es that no addl honal electroly11CcapaCitors ar. req..... red lor blocking
8. PRACTI CAL EXPERIENCE - MEASURING RESULTS
II was l ound thai l he ad.....stment 0 1 th. mu.er level was not very cri tical Th. transmit con-
verter operates satlslactOrlly wllh O&Clltalof power lev.11 01between 1 and 10 mW The ad)ult -
ment 0 1 the ope rallng points can also be vaneo WllhJO Wide ranges as long al atlent,on wal
paid to balanced cond, t,onl It was only In the Atv-mcce thaI a vanatlon could be obse..... ed
wl lh the aid 01 the triangular wave Signal , uns was not audi ble In the SSB mode
No tendency to OIClli ahon or l eedba ck could be observed during any 01 Ihe alignment pro-
cesses, On- l he-al r reports 0 1 the modu l at ion show that It is jult as good as me available
linear convert.r descri bed In (2) . even 10the case 01 local . Iat,ons
Unfortunatel y. II was not poSSible 10 measure the JOlermodulal,on rallO However . l he eec u-
tator Iteqoency I' suppreue<l by mor. Ihan 40 dB and the Imao. In lhe order 0 1 15 dB Any
spu r,ou' onal, are et leasl 40 dB bel ow th. reqUired SIgnal
1. REFERENCES
(1) A. JUIO: and H, Drttbemer : A Transmit M,.ef and linear Ampll lier l or 23 cm
USing Four 2 C 39 Tubes
VHF COMMUNICATIONS (7) . Edit ion 3/ 1975. Pagel 146 - 160
(2) W Rahe: A Relat ively Simple lJOear reenemn Converter from 144 MHl to 1296 MHl
VHF COMMUNICATIONS (8). Ed,llon 2/ 1976. Pagel 66 19
(3) H, Fleckner : SHF Up-Conv ert er
10 be descrtbed In VHF COMMUNICATIONS
(4) J, Dahms: A Three- Itaoe Preamphller lor 23 cm
In thi S edition 01VHF COMMUNICATIONS
(5) O. VoUhardt : Narrowband FUte,.lor 23 ern. 13 cm and 9 cm
to be descrtbed in VHF COMMUNI CATIONS
(6) G Sall ler : A Modular ATV-Transmill.r
VHF COMMUNICATIONS (5). Edillons 1 and 2/ 1973
- 220 -
110 COl:<'K ..._10
...... __"'_suc"" ____
llIIIC... __ . ,IIl oc_ M"'IJII "" ,-_uP'"
10 Gt<, __._"'- 8I'C !lu<1_ "" _'.........
_.,"'" .. 3 W Ino._
1MC-t111 ''''''9'>1 pIwg "" Ot.l IlOJ 10 tor
_"" ' ..
.....,. _ P'UII __... Ot.l T _
LArOO ... Ot.l 13 W
W_ tor __ ...-- _ v 1m CoftII ...... _ .... .
___ _
__W"..". 111_. __' 1111 , ....., ._
'" VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4119n
THREE-STAGE PREAMPLIFIER FOR THE 23 em BAND
Hybrid flng mixers In pr int ed technology with two Schetlky diodes afe ellen used on lhe
23 em amateur band due 10 the si mplici ty 01 the CirCUli and high reprodUCibIli ty Sampl.s 01
this are to be l ound in ( 11 and (2)_These converter I yslem. af. nOI able 10 prOVide a "ngle
si deband nOise I lgu re 01 less than 10 dB under the mosl l avorable condi t ions emce the
imaglJ-lrequency noise is l ull y euecuve In Ihe l olal norse IIgure. Th,s pr oblem was discussed
in det ai l In (3). Also. nOI every amat eur has tne POSSibility 01usi ng a row-rose cable bet ween
the enterme and lhe converter. When using a cable length 01 20 m of RG213. the losses
between t he receive anlenna and the co nverter will amounl lo III least 6 dB, whi Ch means thaI
me rece ive teflS,I, ...,ly 01 the system will not be better th an 16 dB A three -stage preampli fier
USirlQ the economical stnptme tranSistor BFR 34 A (Siemens) IS to be deSCribed thai can
reduce t he overall noise figure to the orde r 0 1 4 dB Howeyer , It IS necessary l or the pre-
ampllher 10 be placed In the d,recl YIClnlly 0 1 the antenna, as was recommended In (4 )
Fig. 1: Photograptl oltha author'a pr ototypa
Flogure 1 shows a photograph 0 1 the author' s prototype ThI S preamplif ier tull ili s the followlno
conditions :
opti mu m noise rnatchirlQ ot the Inpul st age 10 the antenna
sulficlenl overall gain to compensate l or cable losses and ccnversrcn l oss 01 Ihe diode
mber
low-los. conneclton to the feeder cable USlnO Nconnect or . and Install al lon In a readIly
aYail able case.
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 411977
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Practi ca l experimentation showed thaI a bandpass I ilt er for 1296 MHz should be pr ovided
between the preampliller and a wideban d receive mixer in order t o redu ce any cross
modulation ellects in the mixer. and t o ensure a euttrclent image rej ecti on and selecti Yil y. A
suitable l iller for this is to be described in secncn 4 ,
1. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The three preampl if ier transistors are operated wi lh di rectly grounded emill ers, The mat ch ing
between the antenna and the I lrst transisl or. bet ween the transistors. and tram the last
tr ansi st or to the output is made wilh the aid of Piflilers with greatly short ened ';./ 2 st nprmes.
In orde r t o obtain a sullicienlly high a. these are not prinled onto the board. but are made
I rom bent metal plale. Plasti c foil trimmer s of 6 pF are used t o provide the required Pi capaci -
tance. and are olten used In this frequ ency range. Thi s type of mat ching is very SUitable f or
alignment usi ng amateur means . The ci rcuit diagram 01 the preamplifier is sho wn in Flgur. 2,
Now to the alignment Of the operating point of the indiYidual tranSi stor sl ages, Accordmg t o
the manufacturer' s data the foll owing vetoes are most taveeebre l or the tranerstcr type
BFR 34 A at a frequ ency of 1300 MHz:
Minimum noise:
Maximum gai n:
UCE -8 V; IC - 3mA
UCE - 10 V; Ie " 16 rnA
Anenllon should be paid that the collector cvnent is not more Ihan 8 10 10 mAoolhe rwise a
conside r able deterioration 01 the noise figure will occu r, The fi rst stage is aligned l or mini
mum noi se, and the Iwo subsequant stagas ara ali gned for maximum gain.
So that it is only necessary f or one trimmer potenliomeler to be used f or the st age, the
ccnectcr-ermtter Yoltage is stabi li zed to approxi mately 9 V with the aid of aener diodes. ThiS
amounts to the mean vol tage . This circ uit was designed according 10 (5) and medified as
required. By use of suitable dropper resist ors in series wit h the tnmmee potentiometers. it is
possibl e for the cu rrent varia tion to be made in a limi ted range . This ensures thai the
tr ansisto rs are not damaged by too high a co llect or curr ent.
The indiYidual variati on ranges are given in the following lable. They can di ller according to
the spread of the transistors and components, II other tranSistors are to be used on the board
suc h as MRF 901. BFR 91. or BFR 90. it i s necessary fo r the reSistance yal ues to be modified
as req uired.
T 1: Rdr - 3900
T 2: Rdr - 2000
T 3: Rdr - 2000
2. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
'c - 2,8 - 6.4 mA
Ie - 4 - 13 mA
Ie - 4 - 13 mA
The three-stage preamplifier is buill up on a 1,5 mm thi ck , double-coated PC-board as shOwn
in Flgur. 3 This boa rd is designated DC 0 OA 004 and its dimen si ons are 129 mm x 66 mrn.
The co mplete preampli fier cen be mounted in a TEKO box 4 B.
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1 977 - 223
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The chokes and bypass capacitor. are prOVided on the upper side 01 the board In printed
tec hnology. This considerably simplt lles the construction, The completely coated lowe' 'Ida
or the board is used 8S ground surface . The )J2 PI-C,'CUlts comprise two plasti C lad trimmer
capac i tors and aemi-eircula, stnp made I rom thi n copper plate (see Fl9ur. 4 ). Tile ground
pins 01 the tri mmer capaci tors are placed through 1 mm hoi" In l he board and soldered to
the ground surfacil on l he lower side 01 the board The Ilalor pms are bent at light angles
and sol dered 10 the requi red conductor lane.
Holp\ f or
1- r
l
"' ''' w .. ~
22S "
LL--+t---J-.l
fig. 4:
Mount'n" tH' Ktiet for the
N_nectol1l -" ..
the lou' Induct8_
The three transist ors are placed 1010 hOi In the PC-board so thai base and ccuectcr
connec tions are di rectl y SOldered to the conductor Ian" The emlller connection is bent
down by 90" and placed through the hole In the PC-board togelher WITh l he IranSlllor and
soldered into place on The lower side 01the board. The eeneere- and base 01the subsequent
Iransl sl or s are gal vanically isolated uli ng chi p capacilors between IwOperte 01 the conductor
lanes, The Input and ou tput connections are also made via isola Ting capecrtcr .
224 . A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
The nelworks for the l uppfy ...oltages 01 the thr ee transi stors are to be found below the PC
board wh ere they are wired t ogether . The author used bypass ceoec.tcrs. which were
soldered to Ihe gr oun d surface 01 the board, for mou nhng these components Thi S also
ensured that the power supply voll age was bypaSS&(l The VOl tage of the Indl"'ldual networ ks
is led to the transistor connecllons on the upper Side 01 the board ...Ia l liItIdthrough CapaCIlo rs
01appr Oll imatety 1 nF and tllt er reSlllor s 0156 t o 62 U (wllhoul caps) .
Spec ial care must be taken when mounti ng and connecting the Input and output SOCkets
N--connect ors type UG-58/ U are used
Two brackels shoul d be cui fr om Ihln co pper pl al e and drilled and I lni shed as shown In
Flgur. 4. When mou nt ing tne boa rd Inl o Ihe case. the lwo N-conn.ecl ors . re mounted I rom
Ihe i nside of l he side panels and are screwecl Into place wllh the pre"'lou sly mentioned
brack ell and the case A spacing ot app rOllmately 1.5 mm shoul d resull bet ween the ptate
and the connection pi n II IS now poSSIble l or me boar d 10 be placed thr ough Ihl s spacing
Ir om tne side and screwed t o the br acket wllh me aid of two 3 mm dill screwl The
co nnecti on pin otthe N-connect or I hould now be directly touching the cond uctor lane 01I he
board Thi s somewhat complicated mounting allows the board to be eaSily Inslalled and re-
moved . and l or the input and outpul connectors to be co nnecled to the board In a low-rell ec-
tive manner.
Aller co mplehng the alignment. It IS poSSible l or I he co...er to be mounted Inlo place The
result is a compeer UHF pr eamplil ier wh ich is SUit able l or both po rtable. mobile and h ~ e d
Sialion operahon,
2.1. Componenl s
T I - T 3: BFA 34 A (Siemens) ; MFA 901 (Motorol a); BFA 91, BFA 90 (Phi lipS)
L 1 - L 4: 4 mm Wide co pper Slrtp, m a ~ 0.3 mm thick bent and cui al shown In Fig 4
C 1 - C 8: Plashc 1011 trimmer , 7 mm dla, (ptuli ps)
2 N lI ange ccorectcrs UG-58/U
1 TEKO boll 4 B
4 chip cepacrtors of 10 to 20 pF
7 feedthrough capa cit ors 01 100 to 1000 pF: ...alue uncriti cal ;
as smatl as possible l or solde r lilting
I leedthrough capac it or 01app rOll , 5 10 10 nF; value uncriti cal ; l or screw mounllng
6 carbon resistors of 56 to 82 U wlthoul capl; mall . 10 mm long
6 bypass capacitors 01 100 10 1000 pF, .... Iue uncritical ;
(lOr the resistors on the ground Side 01the board)
1 resislor olapprOll 10 U and 1/810 1/. W rating (lo r po la!l ty prot ecl lon )
4 tantalum electrolytiC capaCllor. of 4 7 10 10 " F lor al leall 12 V
3 resistors of 1 kU
3 resistors 01200 U
3 zener diodes 0191 V; miniature verercn
I Sili co n rectlher di ode 1 N 4007 or Ilml lar
3 trimmer potent iometer 01470 to 500 U, verti cal mounting. spaci ng unCritical
2 dropper resistors 200 U Adr l or T 2 and T 3
1 dropper resi stor 390 U Adr l or T 1
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS . /19 77 - 225
3. ALIGNMENT OF THE PREAMPLIFIER
The lirsl preamplifier stage is aligned tor a current 01 approxi mat ely 3 mA, The subsequent
stages are aligned to a current 01 approx imately 8 mA, The alignment 01 the line ci rcUils on
the PC-board can only be made with lhe aid Of an exlernal signal. The amplilier Is aligned l or
the best signaH o- noise rati o and nol tor maximum gain, The vari ous stages should be
aligned alternately unli llhe mosl favorable alignmen t has been f ound ,
4. BANDPASS FILTER FOR 1296 MHl
A small bandpass filler compr ising ,,/4 coa xi al li nes was developed by the autho r. The tuter is
constructed from single or doublecoaled PC-board material (Flgur. 5) The length 01
the chambers is dependent on the length 01 me ali gnment capacitors used and their
commencement capacit ance. If poSSible, this should be less than 0.5 pF. The co nstruction 01
the l ill er can be seen in Figure. 5 and IS and need not be descr ibed In mored detai l here .
Fig. IS:
a.ndp... lin. , 10' 12M MHl
Fig. :
Un. c:ln:: unnd coupli ng link.
.,.c.d . pproxlm.l./y . "' ....bo
lh. b pl .' .
Height of 11'1. ch b.': 20 "'''';
'Ill.nn.dlel. p ",.d. from
doubl.-cO. I. d PCbo.rd ",.'.rl.1
Jj.-03- Spf -j
l- I-
oDA ,. 2",,,,e
19 V
UG2901U
~
UG 290lU
1
0
~
" j'[
01
J
~ e
4D
DC
226 - ~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/19n
Several hlters have been consl ructed, The insertion lollS at a Irequency 01 1296 MHz was
always in the order 01 0.$ and 1.5 dB whi ch i. netjlllgible.
The suppression 01 unwanted I requencies can be seen on the seiectivlty curve given In
Figure 7.
-

----,
l-

--
l-r-
-
l-
e
--
f-
-
l-

-
..
.-
./

- - -
, ~
.. ..
o
I
Fig. 1: Se lec1h.tty cun e of lhe " Iter
The described filler should be connecl ed betwMn the outpul 01 the preamphfler and I he
Inpyl 01 the converter. Thi s I I1Ier wi ll improve the signal to noiM rahO 01 converters With
wideband hybrid ri ng millers { f l , (21. even Without preampllher . Furt hermore. all other I re-
quencies ou tside 01the 23 cm amateu r band Will be suppressed,
5. RESULTS
The described preamplil let has been constructed numerous 11m.., All versions coul d be
aligned wit hout di fficulty , No tendency to oaclHallon was observed. The choke Circui ts l or the
base and collector were designed by DL 3 NO: the author used wound chok.. and chip capa-
ci t ors In the original prot otypes, The foll OWing measured values were obl ained on an auto-
mati c noi se measuri ng s ~ l e m man ulac tured by Hewlell -Packard :
Single-sideband no iae ' igure: 2.5 dB
Overall gam : 21.0 dB
1m&Qlt rejection at 28 MHz IF: 7.0 ee
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977 - 227
The excellent noIse figure seems 10 come from a very good transistor, Imce the manufacturer
guarantees. maximum of 35 dB The pasaband curve 01 the filter was mealured uSing a net -
INOrk analyzer (100 MHz to 12 GHzl
e. REFERENCES
( 1) B. Lubbe: A Recel .... Conyerter wIth Diode Mixer for 24 cm
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 8, Edlhon 2/ 1976, Pages 80 - 89
(2) 1296 MHz converter MMC 1296 /28 Manuf acl ured by Microwave Modules
(3) 0 Vollhardl . Mill er and Preamphfler NOise at SHF
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 8, Edlti01'l 4/ 1976, Pages 234 242
(4) R. L8I'Ill. NOise In aecewe Systems
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 7, Edition 4/1975. Pages 217 - 235
(5) HP. Shuch A tow-cost 1296 MHz Preamphller
Ham RadIO Magallr18, October 1975. Pages 42 - 46
NEWl NEW I
POLARISATIONS SWITCHING UNIT lor 2m CROSSED VAGIS
Ready- lo-operaTe as described rn VHF COMMUNICATIONS CompleTe In cabinet With three
BNC connectors desigl'led lor use With cro&Sed mounted as an and led
wllh equal length feeders. FollOWing ..x polaml.aloonl can be selected ; vemcer. honzonlal ,
clockWIse Circular, anhclockwlS8 CIrcular Iant 45 and .'anl 135
VSWR . max 12
Power . 100 W earner
Drmenetcna: 216 by 132 by 80 mm
tneerucn 1011 0 1 TO 0 3 dB
Phase error : approx 1
- 228
U K W - T E C H N I K Hans Dohlus oHG
0-8523 BAIERSDORF JahnslraOe 14
Telephone (09133) - 855. 856. Telex: 629887
BlInk Iccounll POSIlCheck 3ll.SS - Il!l8
Commerlbank Emno-n 820-11!lA
A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
A NEW CONCEPT FOR 2 m 10 70 em TRANSVERTERS
by E. Berberich, OL 8 IX
The si mplesl method 0' converting 112 m t ransceiver to th e 70 em band is to use II uenevener
in whi ch the transmit or receive frequency is mill ed wI th II local OSCillator frequency 01
288 MHz, The required transmit signal is then obtai ned 'r om the sum of the 144 MHz and
288 MHz sig nals which amounts to 432 MHz. In the receive mode, the enuereece 01 the
432 MHz li nd the 288 MHz local oscillator f requency IS used which amounts t o 144 MHz, The
difficulty when using this cnect meth od is th ai the transmit rr,ixer does not onl y mix but also
tr iples. wh ich means that t he tfl pled f requency 01 144 MHz is also present as an unreadable
(SSB) signal. Since t his unwanted third harmonic cannot be fi ltered out because it t aus tote
the requir ed signal bandWidth, early 70 cm transverters used a local oscillator f requency not
di rectl y coin ciding with 288 MHz _ eg 287.5 MHz In the case of {ll. This meant that the
mixed and tri pled frequency were no longer present at the same frequency 10 t he 70 cm band
and th at th e tr ansmission was no longer interfered With , However , the transvert er co ntinued
to rad iat e two fr equencies, and interlerence to other stations was the refore 10 be expec ted
For th is reason, this method can no longer be recommended
For this reason , more modern equipment used a double co nversion system usin g a fr equency
pl an 01, f or inst ance, 144 MHz - 336 MHz - 432 MHz (2), or 144 MHz - 28 MHz - 432 MHz (3).
This allowed the unwanted harmon ics to be I llter ed ou t in the transven er during the tr e-
quency pr ocessing so t hat they were suppressed by mor e than JOdB However , t he Circui try
required l or this is rather excessi ve and addi tional spur ious sig nals can result in the case 01
non -ideal const ruction due 10 t he add iti on al conve rsion process, For this reason, a new,
simple conc ept is to be discussed t hat is especially aurecuve when a 2 m tr enavert er is to be
co nst r uc ted , As far as t he author knows, this concept has not been published pr8\liously
I
' r ! ' Q ~ r t . r
I ~
"
'!'OIl Drl
,.
f-
l D,7MHz
"
I ~ 5
I
'1
'"
I ~
TranS',,'
Dl8/X
....r r
lJ U Db"
'--
...
l15JDMHz
<f il te r
I
sse -
a...... osc
htli,r
ID.7 IlHz '--
lD7MHz
"" VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
'"
/.
229
1. " DI FFERENT FREOUENCY PLAN
The new co ncept II to be discu ssed wllh the aid 01 the block diagram 01 a 2 m Iranscelver
given i n Flgu ... l . Two dl llerent i requencies are generaled In the tr ansmit mixer : me reqcneo
frequency of 133,3 MHz ... 10,7 MHz . 144 MHz, as well as the Image Irequency 01 133,3 MHZ
- 10, 7 MHz . 122.6 MHz, This freq uency range 01 122.6 - 124 6 MHz in lhe case of a 10,7 MHz
IF ce n be hltered cut. ampli fied to approxi mately 5 mW and led to a ml x. r where ,1 IS
mixed with a local osc i llalor freq uency 01 309 4 MHz. ThIS resuUs in a sum Irequency 01
432 MHz - 434 MHz on the 70 cm band . When using other frequencies. the ..me princi ple
can be used for other tntermedrate frequencies, e.g l or 9 MHz, The Irequency range 01 122 6
to 124,6 MHz can also be used lor l he 23 em band .
mszX
I I
'00
I I
'"
I I I
100
145 \ 1564
""
HDabov, ' ",
However. si nce thiS frequency range faUs inlo the aaronautlca' communicalions band . spec ial
attenl lon must be paid to the co nstruc tion and liI terlng 10 that no SPUriOUS radiations are
made i n this ba nd. U il possIble 10 avoid thi , by placi ng the freQuency 01 Ihe local oscilial or
eecve the reqUired 2 m frequ ency inllead ot below, ThIS means lhal Ihe local oscillator
I houl d operate al 155.7 MHz al Ihe cenl re 01 the 2 m band (145 MHzl . The im. 1)8' Irequency
used to obtain lhe 70 cm l ignal i l now loce led al 166.4 MHz, The requtr ed local cecutercr
frequency shou ld then correspond to 2666 MHZ, The pr evi ously ment ioned IreQuency plan Is
I hown more clearly in lhe l orm of a seala i n Flgur. 2 The first co ncepl is shown above tne
une and the second concept bel Ow.
YJ Otlfto. ' ",
00 (rrsl'lll 7O e. 9_
J1rI"'"' I J-'
""
(r, I I1I I
In ordar to ensure that ellact tr anseelYe co ndl hons ellist. the receive slgnal should be con-
verted using the same osc illa tors as lhe Iransmll si gnal. Thtl means thai l he Intermed.a te
frequency of 122.6 - 1246, or approximately 1664 MHz rMpectively. are silO used l or
reeept ion. The greal advanlage 01 Ihi s frequ ency plan i s tnet the 2 m band I' completely
avoided and that no strong 2 m Slali ons can break through.
2. RECOMMEHOEO CONSTRUCTIONS
The tnock diagram given in Flgur. 3 I hows how the lugQ86led frequency concept can be
realized in practice. The mixers are equipped With SChott ky nng ml xerl of SO Q
impedance whICh are . witChed with cheap minialure rel aya (e,g RH-12) to the various ampti-
lIer. and tilters. The trequencies resulting when the VFO is operati ve above the 2 m band are
given In braCkets. Th' s recommendati on can be realiz ed relatively Simpl y duri ng Ihe con -
.Iruction Of a 2 m / 70 cm transceiver, and the del ails given are no doubt sulli clen l lor tnoee
ameteur. inl endl ng to cerry oul such a pr o/eel .
-230 - A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 411977
...
12) It HI Ml
ll664
(on v" l"
70c"ll111
Ih T.
Dl 8 I X
l'a"' ''''1 0""",, ,1...
and ' or 110
I.
113.6! , MNl
11&6 J
f ol t, QlOp!, I ...
lh'/l'
If 5CO
,..
T, a" , .. ,1 lIll1plll ". ,
lind " ll" hlr 1Oc. I-- - - - --;-:;-- ----J r,
It il not si mple 10 give detai ls l or modIfying exi llmg 2 m trenscelve,. l ince l he frequ ency
plan ditl ers gr eatl y. However, It seeml poul ble Ihalthe receiver Inputltag.. and the tr ansmll
mixer l or 10 em 10 be retuned 10 123 6 MHZ wllh Ihe aid 01varaClor di odes . However , l utl,
clent room should be avail able In lhe transceiver l or the requIred liI terlng. and measunng
instrumenll are required that are not usually avaltebl e 10 l he radIO amateur, It II probably
more l avoreble to leave the 2 m input stege In III ori ginal condil ion and 10 pr ovide the
123.6 MHz preampll l ler stage in the 70 cm converter. Flgur. 4 I hOWI a typical CirCUIt 01 a
preampli l ier and mi.er crrc uu 01 .112 m tr ansceiver . Figure 5 showi hOw thi l cncurt can be
modil ied and e. tended to accommodate the described double luncUon .
The mi.er ci rculI II pr ovided with a varactor di ode (e.g B8 l OS): the origInal par allel capa -
citance may have to be decr eased The cathode 01 the varact or dIode " not completely by-
passed but via appro . 33 pf . This ensu res that a lOW-Impedance RF outpul Is provided .Ill
Ihis posit ion . The t OO kQ r" "lor lor l he op8ratlflQ vol tage II I herelore eflee tl ve al a choke
and should possess lhort co nnec l,ons,
2 m operaUon: In Ih ls mode, the varactor dI ode II prOVIded ""'Ith the lull ope rati ng volt age 10
that it obtaii'll the lowest capaCl lance 01appro., mately 3 pF. The mi xer Circuli II nov. br ought
10 resonance at loiSMHz by tunlOg the Inductance. Thi l means Ihat the original condllloni
ex ist l or 2 m oPer ation , since the capacitive l ap 01 Ihe ci rCUit 'I at very 10"'" impedance, In
addition t o thi l , the preamphl ler Iranl istor l or the Inlermed,ate Irequency 01 123 MHz II not
provided With any operahng voltage '1'1 the 70 cm convert er. Thl l meal'll Ihat ItI drain citcUlI
ia aho rt -cl rcUited .II I lOw impeda nce and has no eflee l.
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/19n 231
...
"
10 1.",

T
"..-
.. 0 s,
Dl 8 II
Fig. 4:
Cony_nll_al and
mb., 01 2 ... NC<Iho..
Dl 811 ... ] "r. '
... T 'u, ,
, .. ... !. "'-... 1lI1 ... ,
. n j' lh:; 1.
I, HH ' HI III I ,
I. 1 ' ' l
L
\1.
h,.'OS -'; :
1' 1 -=-:1; IlIo'"r 1'1'" i
'
".
r Oo
AI
liM DI'.-,.. ..,..
Iv .... '_"' ,_.
70 em operation: In this mode. tile operallng yol ta,,_ ollhe 14SMHz prumplilter ,s swi tched
011 and l ed to the 123 6 MHz preamphlter In Ihe 70 em converter . The dram CirCUli 01the 2 m
preampli fIer is now dampened at low Impedance by ,he If.nalslor 10 Ihal the coupli ng
capacitance 01 approxImately 0.5 pF II elle<:I'Ye 81 addlhona' paraUel capacitance lor Ihe
mi ll er circuit. In addi tion 10 t his. ,he v.,actor eeoe is led with .. lower voltage Irom the
trimmer pOlenhometer &0 Ihal III cepecneree .ncreas.ed and the c,rcult brought to
resonance at 123.6 MHz. This means thaI lhe 70 cm conver1er is ecnve via me 1236 MHz
preamplifIer and is l ed to the origi nal 2 m ml_er, whIch ISnow tuned 10 1236 MHz.
In order 10 ensure that the lull 2 MHz wldeband il covered, Ihe alignment should be made. II
possi ble, wil h the ai d 01 a sweep generator , The 1236 MHz bandpass uuer between the pre-
amphlier and ml_e r stage possesses a eececmve bau coupling: the degree 01 coupli ng and
Ihus the bandwidth are adjusted by varying the capacitance 01 the two eececnc-s (33 pF In
the ci rc uil).
The tr ansmit circUi t can be modified In a similar manner 01 cou rM , II would be possible l or
switching dIodes 10 be used Inslead 01 relays, 8S IS ollen the eeee In TV tuners, II II .Iso
possible l or ee scale 01the 2 m tr ansceiver to be u88<l as bercee.
3. REFERENCES
(1) K. Eichel: A Slnpll08 Transver1er l or 70 cm
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 2. Edi tIOn 4/1970, Pages 225 239
(2) W, Rahe: A Linear Transver1er l or 2 m 1 70 em WIt h Doubllt-ConverslOn
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 6, EdItIon 2/ 1974, Pages 89 106
(3) Tr anl ver1er MMT 432/144 manu l aclured by Microw ave Modules
232 A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/19n
A MODULAR ATV TRANSMITTER WITH VIDEO
AND AUDIO MODULATION AT IF LEVEL
08acrtpllon 01 complete ATV Iransmln. r h om pr eviously publi shed .
Imp roved modul nd on e new modul .
by G. S,tt l,r, OJ 4 LB
The l oll owing arti cle is l a summari ze previ ously published modules l or ATV and desc ribes the
ietercconecnco 01 these modules 10 form an ATV tranermrter with an output power of appro-
~ i m a l e l y 1.5 W on the 70 em band Two modi lled modul es. e.g. OJ 4 LB 00 1. and OJ 4 LB
0028. as well as the new module OJ 4 LB 007 are to be i ntroduced , The mere important
measured values tor these thr ee modules are 10 be given.
1. PREVI OUSLY DESCRIBED MODULES
The ba si c modules 01 an ATV transmitter With video and eucre modulation at IF level were
c escnbee in (1): video and sound IF module. local osc i llator module, and 70 em mille r, Other
modules were described later such as the video/sound coupler, and an AFC cirCUit l or me
sound IF in (2), a vestigal sideband tuter in (3), as well as a l inear amptdrer l or 435 MHz i n (4).
Fo r creruv. these ref erences and the modules descri bed therein are as tcucws:
(1) DJ 4 LBOO1 Q05
(2) OJ 6 PI 002 and 003
1.1. Modlfl ea Module.
(3) OJ6 PI 004
(4) OJ 4 LB 006
The possi bili ty 01 using the smaller co il sets 0 412165 insl ead 01 the previously used larger
l ypes 021-1634 was the reason l or mod i fyi ng PC-boa rds OJ4 LB 001 and 002. Thi s allowed
the height of the components on the boards 10 be reduced from approxi malel y 25 mm to
15 mm, which meant that the smaller TEKO box 4 A would be used instead 01 the higher
TEKO box 4 B. Since some ci rc ui t mod il icat ions were al so carri ed out to improve tha el ec-
trica l characteristics, the modrtted mod ules are 10 be described complel ely,
Fig . 1: Photograph Dlltla author' , pr DIDtypa OJ 4 L8 001.
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/19n
233
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1.1.1. Th e VkSeo IF Modul e OJ " LB 001e
MOdule OJ 4 LBOO1. is a modilled version 01 the video IF module OJ4 LB OOl and i s lully
compati ble with It. FIgure 1 shows a photograph 01 the author' s pr ot otype, whi ch mainly only
di llers fr om its predecessor in I he height 01 the coil s.
The collector resist or R 118 is prOVided in the new ci rcuit (see Flgur. 2). This resistor Im-
prov es t he l inear ity of the vi deo mocutetrcn In the vicinity 01 zero carrie r whi ch has a tavcr -
able euect on the reprodu ct ion 01 the while values 01 Ihe TV-image, This meana that a
st ronger RF drive 01 the modulation transistor T 103 i a reqUired, whi ch re obtained uSing
di llerent resistance val ues in lhe crystal -controlled oscillator
1.1. 1. 1. Ali gnment o el ell ,
The modi fied moouie is stmpter to align than the ori ginal module Since lhe RF ampli tude 01
the crystal osci llator need no longer be l aken into consideral lon during the ali gnment
process. The required AF ampli tude lor the most tavcrebie modu lall on cnarectensuce can ba
recrce cc ee WIth eutnctent accuracy during constructio n. mainly due to the DC-operati ng
point ct tne crysla l osclllalor and the use 01 a styroll ell type capaci tor C 106.
The core 01 induct ance L 101 i s aligned l or mallimum RF amplilude in the mccmeo module,
This has the advantage that a slight detuning 01 the cecmetcr resonant cucurt has lar less
euect on the AF ampli tude than would be the case when luning 10 the slope. For lurlher
al ignment, potenncmeter P t02 is lurned back Irom li S lully right slop until tne modulati on
peeks (sync hronizing pulses and bla ck values) are no longer l imil ed II the white val ues are
li mited , I his will mean I hat tne tnput potentiometer P l Ot is turned up t oo high,
Aft er aligning the core 01 i nductance L 102 lor maximum RF output. the core IS rot ated
further inlo the coi l until the AF vol lage is redu ced by apprOlltmal ely 10 'Yo , Thi s means I hal
the resonance 01 the cncurt is shl lted in the direction 01 Ihe lower Sideband 01 the modu-
lation spect rum used i n the signal gene ration process
1.1.1.2. Cher.cler l ,tICI 01 Modu le OJ 4 LB 001.
The given values represent mean values 01 measurements made on several prot otypes
Overall current drain 18 mA at 12 0 - 125 V
AF output vol tage al PI 103: 400 mV peek-t o-peek - 140 mV AMS inlO60 U
Harmcr nc componenl 01the output vol tage ' seco nd harmoni c : - 15 dB
third neemcmc: - 35 dB
Requ ired ccmccsue Video signal at PI 101. 0 7 - 1.0 V peak -Io-peak
Freq uency range of me mooutattcn lor a Virtually ec nstent degree 01 modu l ati on :
eopeox. 20 Hz - 4,5 MHz
1.1.2 Th e Sound IF Module OJ " LB 002e
The oscillator ci rc ui t of module OJ 4 LB 002a has been modified from thai 01 the Original
module OJ 4 LB 002. With the exceptlcn 01 the AFC coneecnon. Ihe new module ia dlrecl lv
compali ble, figure 3 shows a phot og raph 01 the aulhor's prototype wilh the new coi l selS
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
- 235 -
Fig . 3 : Phologr. ph ollh, .ulho,', p r o t o t y ~ OJ 4 LB 002,
As can be seen in the ci rcui l diagr am c r tne new module OJ4lB oo2a given in Figurl 4. tne
mi crophone preampli fier has not bee mod if ied
The double verectc r di od e type BB 104 (0 203) used in the cecmetoe l or frequency modu
lalion and AFC bri ngs a number 01 advantages over the previ ously used smgle diode BA 124
The co mmon cathod e of the double diod e is connected via the AF-docouphng r&Sistor A 218
10 a point in the ctrcuu where it recervee a stabili zed DCvol tage 01 approximately 6 V via
A 220. the audi o signal via C214 A217. and the AFC vol tage via A 219. The slandardized
preemphasis 01 me AF signal is mainly made in the CA lin k comprising C 214 1 A 219 In
orde r t o ensure thaI it is abl e 10 l ull ill ne functi on, the ol her side 01 resistor A 219 is bridged
vi a C 216 to the etecuuee ope rating voltage and is thus short-ci rcuited lo r audio Irequenci es
The AFC inp!Jt Pi 206 recei ves a DC-voltage 01approxi matel y 6 V via the series ci rcui t com-
pr ising reerstcrs A 220 and A 219 Thi S means Ihal it i s suitable l or direct con nection to the
AFC output 01 an integrated FM circui t. Normally. app roximately hall the ope rati ng voltage is
present at such an output when Ihe frequency coi ncides. e.g, 6 V for IC type CA 3089 E i n
module OJ 6 PI 003, When the frequency does not coinci de. AFC voltages of between 3 to 9 V
(CA 3089 E) are obtained. whi ch Will be superi mposed on the DCvoltage of 6 V at the AFC
Inpul of Ihe audio-IF module OJ 4 LB 002a Due 10 the volt age division across resi stors A 219
and A 220. approx imately 90 % 01 the ectuer AFC voltage will be ettecuve at the veractor
diodes.
1. 1.2.1. Ali gnment or Modul i DJ 4 LB002,
II Is very hel pl ul il a frequ ency counter is available during the alignment 01 the sound IF
OSCillat or si nce the co re 01 induct ance L 203 can cause a I requency variation 01 Virtuall y 1 : 2.
In contr ast 10 Ihe original version. the AFC input should not be grounded during alignment
and operati on. Its i nput should remain Ir ee. or connect ed to the AFC ci rCUit i n the AFC mode..
The given values repr esent mean
Current drain at 12.0 - 12.5 V
- 236
values from measur ement3 made on several pro totypes,
Microphone ampli fier : 16 rnA
Sound IF osc illator: 9 mA
A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
.
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MIcr ophone Input PI 201:
l or dynamic miCrophonM wIth 200 - 500 U Impedance, nOIse-mat ched
RF outpul vollage at PI 202. adjustable Wl l h the Iud 01potenncmeter P 202.
120 - 380 mV peak -to-peak - 40 135 mV RMS 11'11060 U
Frequency anlMwIt h above level adlusl menl: appro. 20 kHz
Frequency variation on adjustIng the OC-vol tage (6 VI al D 203 app rOll, 270 kHzlV
Harmo ni c compOnen t 01the outp ut voltage: MCond harmonic : - 32 dB
third harmOniC: - 47 dB
2. THE NEW IF DEMODULATOR WITH VIDEO/ SOUND COUPLl NQ OJ 4 LB 007
ThIS module IS abl e 10 take over Important tuncucns In a modular ATV transmlt1er and II
therel or e 10 be DeSCribed In deta .1.
As can be seen In l he block diagram gIven In Figur. 5. module OJ 4 LB 007 has three. equal
priOrity IF inpulS: PI 701. PI 702 and PI 703. each haVing apprOll lmately 60 U Impedance. In
the transmIt mode. the video and sound IF slguals l or modUles OJ 4 LB 001 (81and 002 (al ar.
connec t ed to two 01 the inputs. The third IF input can be used l or ATV reception. The Inpu t
signals are coupl ed in via a resI stor net work l or decoupllng and l ead two independent ampll -
Ilers.
The ampil l ier WIth Iransisl ors T 1 and T 3 i s In the signal path 01 the transrmttee. The IF level
al the output (PI 7051 can be adjusted 10 the most lavorable value lo r the subsequent UHF
rruxer or linear amplifIer wtlh the aid 01 a DC-voltage, so thai II can be remot e cont rolled
"
to
l
IF1I111p1" ... 11
"Iput ll ligl
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!Ill'" .1I'1lIt111 Ihl lIod
-
01 II DC I'Ol10gr, Tl
_II' 1lII 1I)orr n
Vodro lind sound
10 to1! n" " ,1 ""or
((I1""P'" urculI 01

-=-
OJ 4 LB 001
dO" bll ..,tlrr
followrr T6, n
CO<IIP , 'dIO ClYIII"
10 TVl!IOf\Itor'
\.
'f oll\Pl ,I,....--...
"

Oulp,, 1 111191
.....


TI
is!'9t1 10
] ll'1HI
""I II' fIII lc.rr
.VC IIIOduII
PI'I<ll

Q
PI 'I<l1

SOltld IF
238 A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
In the second en pntrer, the Input tran si st or T 4 drives an amphtrer stage eqUipped with tran-
sis tor T 5 wh ich roughly corresponds t o the last IF stage ot a televISion recei ver , A compos i te
vi deo signal as well as t he mtercamee I requency (di llerence trequency) between the video
and sound IF 01 5.5 MHl are generated In the IF demodul ator di ode 0 2 The frequency
mod ul at ed 55 MHl sound carri er IS l ilt ered out Irom the composi te Video signal In a
bandpass tuter . For AFC and sound demodulation, the signal IS l ed via the ermtter touowe-
compnsing T 8 to P1 709
The co mposne vid eo signal Wit h suppressed 5.5 MHl component is ted via a two- sl age
emntee fo llower (T 6, T 7) with clamper Ci rCUi t (0 3) and IS available at low Impedance at
Pt 707, II a momtcr IS connected to thi s compos ite vid eo output. It will be pOSSibl e to monucr
the t ransmitted signal Wit hout i nt erl erence,
II the Output signal I rom a t uner and IF amplilier ot t he receiver IS connec ted to the other IF
mput, t he video signal o. the received signal Will also be led to the mona oe.
2.2. Ci rc uit
The circui t diagram 01the IF demodulator with Video/ sound coupling (OJ 4lB 007) IS given in
Flgur. 6 The amphtrer sl age equipped With T 1 compensates lor t he level loss 01 the inter -
connection 01 th(l inputs via t ne resist or s. The 680 U emitter resistor 01 Iransistor T 1 is
connected in parallel to the ccuect cr ermtter path ot t ransist or T 2 WIt h respect 10 high tr e-
quencle s. This means that the gain 01 T 1 can be adjusted by placi ng a DC.vollage at t he
base ot T 2, The germanium diode 0 1 In senes With po tentiometer P 1 ensures. together wit h
a dropper resist or , a virt ually li near relationshIp between the position on I he potentiometer
and the RF voltage. Flgur. 7 schows I he video and sound tF signals at the ampli lier i nputs in
a ratio 013: 1, as well as the combined video/sound IF signal at t he ou tput (below),
The amphller chain compnsmg t rerers tore T 4 and T 5 workS Into an undercrltlcally coupled
bandpass ' Iller comp risi ng l 4 and l 5, whose passband curve is given in Flgur. 8. The
sou nd earner is app rO_lmately 20 % and tne video comer appro_imately 50 % 01 I he voltage
that it present at the hfter at its cen ter Irequency 0131 MHz,
The high -frequency slope 01 th e nner corresponds to the NyqUIst slope i n a TV receiver . The
simple passband curve means that practi cally no pul se dist ortion 01 the composit e vrooc
si gnal l akes place, as can be seen In Ffgu r. " i n the care ot the shape ot a demOdulated
250 kHz squaeeweve signal.
Together wllh the resistor II Ihe center tap, Which is al so used as load resi stor 01 the dernc-
du lator diode 02, Ihe resonant cucurt comp risi ng L 7 for ms a bridge filter t hat completely
suppresses the 5,5 MHz components of me composite video signal. The resonant circurt com-
priSing l 10 is coupled In via L a and L 9 and eatends the bri dge l ill er to l orm a bandpass
Inter for 5.5 MHl wit h a 3 dB bandWidth 01approximately 500 kHz, The passband curve ol l his
fill er as measured al the ou tput 01 t he emuter l oll ower comprising T a (PI 709) is given in
Flgur. 10.
The two-stage emntee l oll ower wi th clamper cncun for the composit e vi deo signal allows a
60 U or 75 U termtnauce al t he co mposi te Video ou tpu t pt 707, a decouphng capaci tor IS not
required ,
A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 1977 239 -
, N ~
..

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..

1:
. ~
~ i
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0

1

i
240
A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 411 9n
Fig. 1:
VIMo IF .nd _nd IF
lndh, ldu. Uy .nd
FIg.':
Below: VId_ IF eer,'-, with
250 kHr modulltlon
Abo"e :
Igul . 1eompo.lte "ldeo oulp ul
2.3. Construction I nd Alignment Oet.lI.
Fig. :
IF-b.ndfI... eUfYe. M.tIl....:
Sound <:e rrie, Ilett.,
"Id_ e. rrie, (rlghl)
Fig. 10:
p. ..b.nd eUfYeol th.
$.$ MHr""e,
The PC board 01mod ule OJ4 LB 007 also has Ihe dimensions 135 mm x 50 mm and Is slOgle
coal ed (see Flgu,e 11). ThiS module can also be mount ed in a TEKO bo_ .. A. A photog raph
01the Butho" s prototype is given in Figure 12.
Any spread 01 t, ansisto, T 1 can be compensated l or With the capa citor CeB and will . if
necessary. suppress any tendency to osci ll ation, A value bet w&en 0 and 3.3 pF is suita ble
acco,ding to the IF level and the requ i, ed degree 01l eedback .
II P 1 Is moun ted vertically. it will be necessary l or the wipe' 10 be connected USing a Wir e
bridge (two solder co nnections are pr ovided on the PC-board). These wir e bridges can be
connected via the break cont act of a swi tching soc ket. This type 01wi, i ng allows lhe IF level
to be ei the, adjusted internally or wi th the aid 01an e_temal DC-voltage l ed t o the SWitchi ng
soc ket.
The bandpass mter comprisi ng L 4 and L 5 can be aligned even Without s.....eep generato r by
leeding in a 37 MHz signal and aligni ng bot h ci, cuits l or maximum (negall ve) oc-vcnece al
A. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/19 77 - 24 1 -
the anod e 010 2. The video and SO\.lnd I'; I lgnals t rom the IF mod ules are SUl l able l or ahgn -
mg the 55 MHzl l ller. Indu ctance L7 II adjusted l or mini mum 5 5 MHz vollage at the eempo-
aIl e Video oUl put. nd with L 10 l or maJ.lmum AF voltage et l he sound ou tput Potenl lomeler
P 2 ia ad justed so thai sulliClent compoal te ... l6eO SIgnal is . ... all abl e 10 pr ovIde an .mage
on Ihe TV monll or WIIh good co nt rast. I hal does not o v e r d r l ~ Ihe IF demodulaTor
FIi .lt: PCtHJ.rdDJ4LBOO7
T I , T3, T5:
T 2, T 4. T 8
TO
T7.
11
L 2, L 3
L 4, L 5
SF 223, BF 311
BF 224, BF 199
BC 109, BC 413 or IImll,. . AF tr anSist or s
2 N 1613, 2 N 22 1!i l A) or !llmllar TO 5 RFl l8nalator s
FerTIte bead With 3 S l uma
l S turns through a fertiTe bead
9 turns each 010 ~ . 0 3 mm f32 29 AWG) DnAlTIttlied copper Wire
in speci al COil _ I
.. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4{1977
LS
l 6:
L 7:
L'
L to:
AF-choke, a p p r o ~ . 22IIH
2 ~ 26 turnl bl lllar wound , 0 2 mm (32 AWO) enamelled copper wi re
In l pecial ccn set as l or L 4. L 5, center tap
Coupli ng winding on L 1; 1 turn 01 0.2 mm (32 AWO) enamelled copper wir e
wound between L 1 and the connecnooe 01the coil l or mer Leave ottt he
l err il e cap 01the core, otherwise coupli ng wil l be too hght
Coupli ng wind ing l or L 10; 1 turn wound on L 10 Use l ernl e cap-
52 turns 010.2 mm (32 AWOl enamelled copper wire
In lpeclal cod set as l or l 4. L 5, II
Aesonent ci rcuit cepacttors parallel 10 L 4 and L 5: 33 pF. alyrol le..
Aesonant Circuit capaci tor) par all el 10 L 7 and L 10. 41 pF, styrolle..
The given values are mean val ues tr om measuremenl a made on several prot otypes
Current draIn at 12.0 - 12.5 V without signal : 45 mA
wIth compoSIte video Ilgnal : 65 mA when termlOated with 60 U al PI 707.
AF output voltage at PI 705 when module OJ 4 LB OOta and 002a I re connected 10 Ihe inputs'
eporo x. 60 500 mV peak -to-peak _ 20 - 80 mV AM$ i nl o 60 U. adjustable with P I
Spec trum 01 the AF output lignal (Inl ermodulatlon) rel err ed to Ihe video IF camer al
389 MHz:
5,5 MHz: - 36 dB
27 9 MHz ( - 33 4 - 55 MHz): - 48 dB
44.4 MHz t- 389 + 5.5 MHz): - 40 dB
Output voltage (composi te video at PI 701l :
0,3 - 1.5 V peak-to -peak inlo 60 U. adJual able wIlh P 2
Output vollage 01lhe sound IF (Pt 709):
approx. 10 mV peak -t o-peak value . 3 mV AMS inl o 60 U.
3. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A COMPLETE ATV TRAN$MlnER
The extended bl ock diagram given i n Flgur. 13 I hows how the previ ously mentioned
modules can be combmee 10 l orm a complete ATV tr ansml"er .
Flgur. 14 I hows Ihe tr ont view 01 a ATV Iranamiller . The case dimenSion s are 305 .. t 05 ..
260 mm. Flgu,. 15 shows lhe arrangement ot the TEKO bo .. modul es i n the case, The
numbera on the narrow edges 01 the bo..es correspond 10 Ihe lall numeral 01 the module
3.1. Vid eo /Sound Coupling
The video and sound IF coupli ng can be made ei ther in lhe video /sound coupli ng al age
OJ6 PI 002 or i n the IF demodulator wllh video/sound coupli ng OJ 4 LB 007. Module OJ4 LB
007 generales the 5,5 MHz sound carrier internally. e,g, at IF level. II module OJ 6 PI 002 II
used l or video /sound CO!.lpli ng. lhe IOtercamer Ir equency 01 5 5 MHz can be obtai ned uSlOg
the UHF demodulalo r OJ 4 LB 005
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4119n - 243 -

.,
0
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~
~
.~
:J1

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0

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244. A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/19 77


'J
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ATV
-
DJ 4 LB

3.2. AFC; Modifi ed AFC Mod ule OJ I PI 003


The AFC module OJ6 PI 003 wa. desIgned a. accessory l or the sound IF module OJ-4 LB 002
II can also be used l or coni roi ll ng lhe Irequency 01 the n_ sound IF OKl nal or In module
OJ -4 LB OO2a. bul only al1er mod, ll cai lon u will be seen m the 101l OWlng contlideraii on.
II the sound IF oscillator II operating lower Ihan 33 -4 MHz. l or mslance due 10 some tempe-
rature ettec ts. Ihls means, tnet the DC-voltage at the varaclof diode musl become mor a
pcemve in order 10 comrcr the Irequency error. In tha or igi nal verercn 01 tne AFC module
OJ 6 PI OOJ. a lower DC-volt..ga would be generaled lhan when l he signal il at tha nominal
frequen cy. The integ rated ci rcuit CA 3089 E does not possess an Inverted AFC output, but It
IS $1111 pOSSible 10 Invert the AFC vol lage in a limple manner: It ia only necessary lor the RF
choke L -4 in module OJ6 PI 003 10 be replaced by a capacitor 01 2.2 - 33 pF. This causea a
phase shl lt 01 1110' at the rel erence ci rcUit 01 the coi ncidence demodulator and caU"1 a
r8V9n.81 01 lhe AFC vollage cUrol e. The damping reeretcr R2 .hould not be uaed in thll modi -
flcal lon since Ihil would cause Ihe AFC von lr O! vol tage 10 be 100 low
3.3. Le.el Adjustment
The power reto between VIdeo and sound caUier 01a TV transmItter il Itandardlzed al 10 : 1.
ThiS can be aChieY9d by aligning the sound IF vollage at PI 202 10 one Ihlrd 01 lhe yi deo IF
yoltage at PI 103. The potentlomelerl i n the vroeo/sounc coupling al agel OJ 6 PI 002 and
OJ -4 LB 001 elleet the Ievel of I he coupled video /sound l ignal and allow Ihe drive to the
l ollowing Itages I UCh as mi lle r and li near empntrer 10 be varied without changi ng the power
relationship belween Ihe video and sound earner.
The Yilsligial sideband neer OJ 6 PI 004 can eali ly be placed between the . ideo/sound co upl -
ing I lage and the UHf mixer. No level vltiationl result lince the insert IOn IoU tor the pa..-
band is very small. TM " ll er does 1"101 only suppress l he \l'8Sligi.I SIdeband but alao harmo-
ni ca and inlal1TlOdulalion prodUcl1 01the IF-algnall.
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4' 1911
- 24S -

DJ4LB
3.5. Imp'o.... ltm.nt. to Un , Amplifi er OJ .. LB 006
An i nduct ance with three 10 l our turns 01 0.4 mm diameter (26 AWGj enamelled copper wire.
coil diameter 3 mrn. Hi l-supporting. IS sullleie"l l or choke L 5 i n {he ccuec tc r ci rCUit 01 T 1
(origina lly a )jechoke), II 100 U II selec ted lor P 2 Instead 01 220 U, translslor T2 can only
be slightty shilled towards class B operation under high RF dri ve leyels.
4. REFERENCES
(1) G SaUle, : A Mod ular "TV TrBnSfnlUe,
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 5. Editions 1 and 2/1973
(2) J, Grimm: "TV Inl ormatlon
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 8. Edi tion 2/1976, Pagel 90 95
(3) J, Grimm: A Veatigel Sideband Fill er tor ATV
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 9. Edit ion 111977, Pagel 14 18
(4) G Settler: A Two-Slage ATV Linear Amphher
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 9. Edlhon 1/ 1977, Pagea l0 .13
246 A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 411977
A TRANSCEIVER FOR 10 GHz
Pari 3
by B. H8Ubusc h, DC 5 e x Dr.lng. A. Hock, DC 0 MT H. Knauf, DC 5 CV
7. CONSTRUCTION OF A TRANSCEIVER
There are various concepts l or 10 GHz !ranKfl' vere. one versiOn 15 10 be deSCribed nere that
.....as recommended by G 3 RPE, and thai has proved useu 10f such comml,ln,cat ,ons The prin-
ciple is as l ollows A mic rowave osc,Ualor prO'tl'OeI the tr ansmll energy whlCtl IS then radIated
by the antenna On the way 10 the antenna , a Imsll porhon 01 the osc,lIat or pOi/lt8r " tapped
ofl via a d,r ecllona l coupler and l ed Simultaneously IOQelher Wll h l he receive " gnal Irom a
seccee antenna 10 a miller The receive I'gnal and OSCIUator frequency are mi lled and the
'8sutl mg intermediate frequency I. l, llauKI OUI. amphhed and l ed to a VHFfM br oad cast
recever _Figur. 23 shows lhe basic cl rcurl
DDOMI
1: Power l upptylmodulal or
2: Gunn oscillator
3' Cron-coupler
<4 : Frequency meter
5: Demodulalor
6: IF preampnher
7: Broadcasl "'lCer....r
8 + 9: Horn antennas
Si nce It i s someltm.s dllli cu lt 10 altgn the two anlennas. a diller.nt version has been
designed by lhe aulhors usi ng onl y one antenna and a wavegUide sw, lch ThiS conSiderably
Simpli fies the alignment 0 1 the antenna . especiall y when a hlgh-garn par.balt c 18 used
Howe...er, an expenSIVe or drll 'CUlllo oblam changeo...er sWIlch IS ' eqUlred In addrtron to lIS
function as change-o...er swrtch. It must also pro... ,de l he lowesl poSSible eeuecucn ' 0' l he
Gunn oscili alor signal In the recewe mode. srnce large Irequency shrlls would otherwise be
present .
7.1. Th. Dlrecl lon. l W....etl uld. Coupl . r
It is adveeore to UMt di recti onal coupler in order 10 oblam me requr red OSCi llator power or
between 0,1 and 5 mW (1 N 23) or 025 and 10 mW (Schollky drode) Drlle'enl method s 01
coupling oul part 01 l he eecutetc r power ara pos$l bla. bYt the drreclional co upler pr O... ldes
the cleanesl con l lgurallon. At transmrt power levels tn the o' der 0 1 15 mW. a couphng loss 0 1
approximately 10 dB is feqUlfed; thiS cor rHponds 10 appro llimalely 1/10 0 1 the OSCi ll ator
power l ed to Ihe transmit antenna
). VHF COMMUNICATIONS . /1 917
247
I
_.
I
1--.
_._.
I
f'-
.-

_.
..
_._.
-.
{ , '1'::'
. 0-

-
..""'
.
'-.
I
f- '
...-._.
I
.
.-
,
..
,.,
"',II
' a Q Iot latha' ]'j.""
and ""Ill a"d
,old.. ,f to Plirl (
I"IlT BrI1Sli 6J
c
Ma l 8rQu 6l
X . 15. 1111..
A COlIpter using crossed alot s as shown in Figur. 24 is ea,y 10 construct. ThIS results in a
return loss 01 apprOKlmately 25 dB 81 a $l8n(ltng wall e eeuc 01 1811 Ihan 1.2. Which can be
easity maintained in pra cti ce. Thi . means lha' the frequency ,hilt 01 Itle Gunn OSCIllator
remains within narrow limits. Figure 2" ShoWI the mechanical co nstruction, and Figur. 25
the construction 01 thll coupler. In order 10 avoid a large mismat ch , II ia important l hal the
brass piaisl with the Creased . Iols are placed Into Ihe waveguide &0 thaI no sleps are present
in t he w8vefOl ulde pal h.
7.2. Th. Receive MI ,
Wh",n no Qf.-at dpmands are to be placed on l he ml.er. Ihe diode probe descnbed i" 1MtCllon '"
of pa rt 2 CB" be uMd. The " Oile IIgure thaI CII" be oblalr1ed Wllfl an average ml .er diode
(1 N 23 01 il lIPPr01Clmaiely 8 d B: Ihl s value ca" be Improved 10 apprO.lmalely 6 dB when
usi flg high-quali ly dIodes ( 1 N 23 HI . However . practlCIII operallo" has shown I hal tne nOlle
Ii gure is rel al lll8ly uncr lllCIIJ. Co"siderable Imp rovemenls can only be made Wll h dIode pro bes
Ihat ca" be ahgFled e..clt y l or ml"imum star'!dmg wave rallO 81 l he operall ng Ireque"cy
248 A VHF COMMUNICATIONS "'"977
- -
Fig. 25: Indl...ldu.' patt, ol lha eompltt.,;t e,o...dalot coupl"
These component, are all l,ernely dll1lcul l l or Ihe re-ne amateur 10 const ruct and usuall y very
dillicull t o align due 10 Ihe noo-eoeteoce of Ihe required measuring equipment. ThiS means
Ihat Ihe oescreec diode pr obe repr esent s an acceptable compromise, In the case 01a , N 23
diode, 8 diode current 01 apprOlCimalely 600 ,LA shoul d li ow during opera tion. AI this poi nt .
the osci ll ator power WIll be mOSI favorable t o obtam the lowest nctse IIgura. However , this ,s
not very cri tical as long as the current .s between apprO)(lmalel y 0 2 and 3 rnA
7.3. The IFPrll8mplil ler
For various reasons, II urmportant tha t Ihe mutar diode is as well power -mat ched as possible
on Ihe IF side , ThiS is a prerequ.srte l or obtaining the mos t favorable noi se hgure and miller
slope (fe west conversion loss) , MI ll er croces 01 type 1N 23 require a load impedance of
apprOllimate ly 300 U which must be Offered by Ihe li nn IF ampli f ier stage, This i s not the case
With VHF -FM broadcast receivers Ihat are very et ten used as If ampli f iers, wh ich means tnat
an impedance converter stage will be requrrec. Radar equip ment operat mg i n the 10 6Hz
range olten use me f ield et tec t transrstc r Iype E 300 (Si llconi ll), which was spec iall y deve-
loped l or ttu s purpose. II this FET IS ope rated In a common gate encon. II wi ll otter the eaec t
load resistance requned l or Ihe mill er di ode al Its source Input. According to the data sheets,
th e noi se l igure 01 Ihis tr ansist or at 100 MHz is rer lower than thai 01 Ihe miller diode whi ch
means th at It will no t detenorete the overall noise l igure. II a resonant ci rCUlI is pr ovided al
th e input. it will be possible to attenuate some 01 Ihe image noise, The overall gain of tha
impedance converter i s not Critical ; apprOll imatel y 10 dB can be obtained whi ch has been
l ound to be mor e Ihan eetncrem The ci rcuit is given in flgur. 26. and Flgur. 27 shows the
PC-board ol l he pr eamplil ler Wit h me dimensions 80 mm Il 48 mm.
The out put co il l ap is selec led so t hat t he output is mat ched to a ccnveoncner car radiO (lin
150 U), II a dilf erent type of br oadcast receiver is used as IF ampliller, It may be necessary
lor tha coi l tap to be adjusted f or mall imum noise. Flgur. 28 shows the aut ho(s prototype 01
the preampntree . Si nc e an int ermediate frequency 01 104 MHz (center I requency) has been
selected , it is ell t ramely necessary l or the empntrer t o be screened, which is also valid l or t he
interconnect ion between the diode probe and me ampl ili er, in order to avoid cr058 modu-
lati on t-orn br oadcast tr ansmitt er s i n Ihe VHF FM range.
A VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 1977 - 249 -
- - 4
- -I
,
1
Wl d. band
VHF choke
---"J
....-
1
I
I
I
I
,
"
- II
11
CI
r JOO
C1
11
- II ,
410p
ll,l2
Hums . Bmm dlQ
sp copper .... Ir.
08 mm cc
( 1,0
A'I" spaced
capacitors
6.21p
Fig. 21: P C ~ r d DC 0 lofT00) fOf the 100 MH. p",",pllll,
,

fig. 21:
Author', pttl!Ofype
01 tIte pr mplm.<
250 ~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 1977
./
"
/ I........
1/
"\
I
A 1-
o
- 10
- 10
90 100 110 110MHI
Fig. 29: S.leoc'....lIr eu..... ol lhe p. ..mpllfl
The preamplifier board al so has a co nnection l or meeeuremem 01 the diode current Since
the directi onal coupler possesses 8 conslant di rectivi ty ever the whole band 01 10 to
10.5 GHz , th is meier can also be used as resenve ou tput meter. Conventional moving coil
meter' having a tcu-scere deflect ion 01 1 rnA can be used.
The selectivity curve al tha pr eamplif ier Is given i n Figure 29
7.4. Fr equen<:y Met er
Prac tical operati on has shown thai It is vory advisable when the ope rating frequency can be
measured accur ately _ThIS can be made by pl aCing a CIVlty frequency metor bet ween euect -
ional coupler aod di ode pr obe. This consists 01 a hall -wIvo resonat or Wit h venecie short -
ci rcuit pis ton wh ich is loosely co upl ed to the wavegui de
FIgure 30 shows co nstr uctional details , The ecnetrvcucn is basEKl on normal waveg Uide
pieces. The coupli ng between the two waveguides is made with the aid 01a 6 mm hole, If the
short clr cull piston Is ahgnEKl so that a cavi ty wavelength 01 I.H/2 result s In the frequency
meter (o r also 3 )..H/2 etc.). the cavity Will be in resonance and wi ll accept energy trcm the
waveguide. This is visible as a noticeable dip on the diode-curr ent meter. II a standard wave-
gu ide Is used l or the frequency meter, the calibration curve given tn Flgur. 31 Wi ll resun.
The accuracy Ihat can be obtamed ISmai nly dependent on the sharpness 01 the dip. whi ch IS
i n lurn dependent on the magnitude 01 the coupling hole. t t.e smaller the couplmg hole. the
sha rpe r and more del lnite witt be the dip, but it Will also be shallower , The given coupling
hole represent s 8 good compromise. and accuracies 01 0,001 % can be obtained which
amounls 10 an absolute I requency acc uracy 01approximately 10 MHz, PrerequiSites are, how-
ever, I hat mi crome ter screws havi ng a hi gh resolution are used Due to the Inavoldable play
between the snort-ctrcun piston and the mic rometer spindle (see Figure 30), it is to be reo
commended thai the freq uency measureme nt is only made in one di rection in order to avoro
errors i n the frequency indication , 0 1course, more expensive solu tions to avoid thi s problem
are possible. Figur. 32 shows the com ple ted I requency meter.
~ VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977 - 251 -
t'hero". ,t... "rt..
,.,

1'101 Brau6J
Shorl.,01'[ 'p.\Ion
brou6l1}.1) 10
I DI' 0 lJIIlICICI \0:1"'9 ',l
u
'I' ,
" ,
1 '1 I
'I' ,
I I I
r-> ---I
,
,
,
,
,
: " ,
,
,
,
~ ~ ~
..a ~ and 1111 " llo/Mn\OOft\
iSH porI 1
..,.f...,,..-.......,... ......lIr- - -1"'i
-
.
. . .
-
,
- --
_.-- - -
-
0
I
(j)
I I
,
--
-.
---
,
, ~
- -
. I I
. .
.
(j)
.
.
L- "...i
- ~ - -
~
..
C
66Hl
/
Gn"b ur .. "1 .ft
,
1
~

:

252 .. VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/1977
l
II I I I I I
DCI/> MI -
5
4
,
I
0
9
8
1
OlmtnSlon XIn f igur e 30-
I I I I I I I I I I I I I
6
.J
.2
10
10
GH
6
49 48 41 46 45
4) mm
fig. U : C. llbfetlofl eu.... of ,.... I . ~ t t e , "'.,.,
A complete 1 llIoCfli ....r as sho wn i n Figu re 23 can now be conltructed I rom the desc ribed
part s. The connection 01the wav8QUlde components 10 the IndlYldual boar ds should be mild.
according to Flgu,. 33 The , e' av boB, d shown In Figure 33 ., uMd 10. ',anemil ,ec.,....
, wItc hi ng and can be drlllen Itom 8 PTI I Wllc h In principle, Ih'l I WltCh lng " nOI neceuary
bYt allows bl nery current 10 be uvoed dUring pol1able operettan In ,"- rec:eive mode. the
modulator ' I ""'ltChed 0 " . as .r. ,,.,. IF p'Hmphlle r a nd bro-clc&ll reeetYef uMd at IF CIrCUlI.
in the , ra nl ,ml mode.
-' VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4/ 19n 253
60-- _ _Mike
Modulator 002
Fig. 33:
Interconnection of the
Indlvldul l mod uIM
l
J


'-0- -
1-
Rel ay board 004
,
t
.12V


-

003
c--e
RF In -
t-'1J(er
RF out _
IF receiver-
I,
Power supply
001
l' I'
I I
. 12V Gunn eteeen
I'
Fig_34:
The completed
wn eguide
component.

34 shows me conetrucucn 01 the waveguide components with out Irequency meter,


Principally speaking, as soon as the Gunn oscillat or deSCribed In sectrcn .. is ready lo r
operation, the whole tran sceiver Will be compl eted. The If pr eamplllier i s aligned l or
maxtrrturn noise on the subsequent broad<:ast raceiver whi ch is eligned l or a frequency 01
apprOlili matel y 104 MHz. II a conventional car radiO ill used. the matching Wi lt be correct as
cescnoeo: however, when using portabl e radIOS or other types 01 receiver, it may be neces-
sary to shIll the tap on the output call of the preampli fier unlll maximum norse is Obtained.
- 254 - '" VHF COMMUNICATIONS 4 /19n
II the di ode curr ent is l ar too hIgh ( > 2 mA), lh is will mean Ihat el l her the Gunn element III
t oo powerf ul , or the dlrecll onal coupler has 100 tow a coupling eueeuancn In bolh cesee. II
Wi ll be necessary l or the crossed ercte to be replaced by smililer ones II the diode current IS
too sma ll , this will show that t he di ode is Inl eflor . I he diode should be 5f:Iletted to obt ern tne
minimum value ollhe rmxer slope 01 10 > 200 rIA The t ransceiver IS ready l or ccereucn aller
the preampli ller has been ali gned and a diode cur rent 01 200 10 600 I,A 15 pr esent
a, PRA CTI CAL OPERATION
It is importan t Ihat the preliminary experi ments on I he 10 GHz band be made over snorter
distances in order to obtain I he necessary experience with lhe system. Since even mediu m-
sized antennas pr oduce very sharp beams al mese hig h trec oenctes. it is recommended lhat
small horn antennas should be used al tnst . G 3 RPE once said lh al more commumcancn
links were unsuccesslul due t o 100 high an emenne gain t han wllh 100 hille, II i s Imperative
for a 2 m or 70 cm li nk 10 be used when ali gni ng Ihe antennas The IreQuency oevrencn
Should be adjusted al short distances according t o Ihe repor t 01 I he par tner staucn. All er
havi ng gained some experience. experi men ts can be made over gr eater distances. however ,
exact maps should be used 10 I md paths haVing Irue lin e-ol-slgh l For i nst ance. l or cemmum-
cation over a distance 0150 km. Ihe hi ghest obst ruct ion i ncludi ng t rees. building erc ., should
not be near er Ihan 20 m 10 Ihe signal beam i n order 10 ensure reuebre commumcenc ns The
path lo ss i n Iree space can be calc ulated as tall ows'
a(dB) - 92.4 t 20 l og d(km) t 20 log
IIGHl )
For example. a valu e 01 146 dB resull s l or a eret anee d _ 50 km. II anle nna gai ns 0130 dB are
availabl e at bot h ends (e.g par abol ic antennas wil h a dlamel er ot approximately 40 crm. and
approx imately 5 mW are available I rom the t ransmi tler, a receive po wer 01anprox 10 pW Will
resu lt . Th is is more t han sotncrent lor conventional receivers; this cor responds to a voll age or
2214V at an impedance ot 50 U. In pr acti ce, the atmospher e can prOVide higher at tenuatmn
values due to rain. l og or snow. However . 50 km can always be br idged as long as nna -ot -
sig ht condit ions exist. The antennas can be aligned easil y With lhe aid 01 op hcal sighls and
according to landmarks l aken Irom the map 0 1co urse. this gel s more and mor e dl l hcutl the
higher Ih e anteona gai n,
II bot h slations have selected the same in termedrate Irequency on the receiver . II Wilt be
possi ble to operate duplex as deacnbed In sect ion 5 One IS always surp rised at t he sou nd
qu ality t hat can be ach ieved once communtc anon has been made,
REFERENCES
(1) Or. O. Evans: Gelling sl art ed on the t o GHl Band
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 9. Edihon 1/ 71 , Pages 19 - 29
(2) O. Voll hardl: Mixer and Peeempntrer Noise at SHF
VHF COMMUNICATIONS 8. Edlllon 4/76. Pages 234 242
" VHF COMMUNI CATIONS 4/t 977
- 255
MA T ER IA L PRICE LI S T O F E Q U I P M E N T
described i n Edition 4/1977 o' VHF COMMUNICATIONS
OCODAO(I4

Sen1,conductors
'Jhruk 'l
THRU :-STAGIE AMPLIFIER
DC 0 DA004 no th ,u-cantUls ,
DC 0 DA004 (3 1'.'1.,'10", d,odft)
oeD 0AOO4 (19 '"mme', . c;h'p and d' K capt
1 1EKO 00_ . 2 ... con" )
DC 0 DA 004 with abo". part,
Ed. 4/18n
OM Hi ,_
OM 33,-
OM 40.-
OM 11.-
BANDPASS FILTER FOR 12" "'HI
IF PREAMPLIf iER
LINEAR TAAHSVERH:A fOA 12M MHI
10 cm TRAN SMI TTER
T,an. mll Ctyitli. He 18/U
ATV TRANSMITTER f If DEMODULATOR
WITH YIDIEO SOUND COUPLI NG
De 0 D...
M,nlkl'
OCO MTOO3

M,n,k,l
"n
OF' OK001
PC-tJo,aro
Sem,conductors
M,mk ,l
"n
OJ 0 FW002
PC-board
Senllcondutlors
M,n,k ,l I
M,n,k'l
Set 01ctylt.1I
"n
DJ 4 LB 001
PC-bo.'d
Sen1lconduclor.
Mlnl"' ll l
"n
DeCOA
DCOMTOO3
DCOMTOO3
DC 0 loll 003
OF8 01<.001
OF8 01( 001
OF8 0 KOOl
Of lOK OOI
OJ 0 FWOO2
OJ 0 fW OO2
OJ 0 FWOO2
OJ 0 FWOO2
OJ 0 FWOO2
OJ 0 FM 002
OJ4LB OO1
OJ 4 LBOO1
OJ4LB OO1
OJ 4LB 001
OJ 4LB 001
a.ndp,... 1,1181 (3 ce,amlc Iubul
up'Cltor. 2 BNC connectors l
(w'In printed ptan)
(1 Ir.nIolIlOI , 1 c ho ke 2 '-!Ih,u'upe,
d'K CIIPt 1 . mTlme, po' enl,ometllf)
.-llh above
(double-ca.tO!d With p""ted plan)
"''1.,''0,.. 5d,od..)
(14 pla$l,c-Io,l lrommelt . 2 t hlp 8 d, lIC,
6 llltJd, hru caPt . 1 cou-torerer. 1 Illmle
bead, 4 lr1mme r polentlomeler . )
with .bo.... p. ,,'
Ihru eonlKI.1
( 13 I IC. 19 ,!ladet )
(4 eOII$eIl. 1 ere.... 6 "tmmer.j
(40 e81.m,e byput. , 1. eer.m,e. 8 eleclr o -
lyToc ClIp' 3 IrlmlT\ll'l poll . 54 re",I0..)
A....llab.. A69 72, A 72 - 1S, R 1S 18.
A 18 81. R 81 Il4 R Il4 81 H en
.n)' 4 01.boYe eoyt llli.
comp!el. wilh .bon p.'"
(Inc" ..101 cry. '.le'
(wl lh prlnled pl.n)
(8 Ir. n' IIlO" , 3 dlodo.)
(4 eOII..II. 1 ' 8t11l e ehol< . 3 lem " bola<ll ,
I hnpl.'ed 00 _ I lOlfIdlhru ClIp. e llo r)
(2S UpaCI IOl . 35 r""IOI'. 2 Ilt mmer pol .
5 m 8n.em.Ued copper ....,.. 0 2 mm di ll
6 l...ct hlOUQh. ,
wit h .bO.... p.'"
Ed. 4111117
OM 11.-
Ed. 411117
OM , -
OM 22 SO
OM J1 .-
Ed. 4/1117
OM 18 -
0M 98 -
Ed. 411117
OM 30 -
0M 108 -
OM ,, -
OM 41 -
OM ,, -
OM 80-
0M 215.-
Ed. 4/1811
OM ,, -
OM
,. -
OM ,, -
OM ,, -
OM
u ._
Compl.t...1of I<.II .lOl' ATV TRANSMITTER OJ 4 L8
OJ 4 LB 001. 002. 003.(101. OJ 6 PI OOJ ON (I. ne' , <I y-Io oOPel. , e )
KII . ""llh .11 PI'" lill. d In prlCel"t
S.I 01PCbo. , d. OJ 4 LB 00 1. 001. OJ. PI ooJ . OJ. PI 004
OM 110.-
OM 15._
ANTENNA ROTATING SYSTEMS

KR'"
KROOD

KR 2000

SPECIFICATIONS
01 Roe- lor .. .. ....
.. -
ART 1000
e_
'"
.. ..
"""
.,
....
"'" "'"
,..
,,,,,
1\1"1' 1
e ' lk al o.qUl!
""
..
"'"
..00 fII", ' I
Roll" On IOIQUe
'" '" ""
,..
film 'j
"'.., (j, .....r.t
,.." ,.." .,."
48 78
--
Speed 11 '''I
'"
'" '"
'"

FIotahOll angle
"'"
,,.,. ,,.,. ,,.,.
Conlrol eatllll


..-
0.",.".._
270 . 11110 "
270 1llO '"
)015 . m e .eo 300
--
W....'
.. ..
'"
'"
.,
Motor won.
" " "
., ,
L,,,..oU. :no V, 50 Hz mV /5O Hz noV /IIO MI nov /SOH.!'
.. ee
'00
""
"
'I 1 io. pm A tl SI Nm
Controllers for above rotators
Ter ry Bill an Jahnsl r.14 Pcstrecn 80 0 -8523 Bai et scor!
Tel . 09 133/855
Our well knQINn rolators KRolOO I(RllOO IIR2000
KR 400. KR 600 and
KR 2000 are now ava il
able with large 360
compass indicator' 01
105 mm d iameter
These models are
designale<l by the
sult) _ MRC ,
k UKWlechnlk
..

" 11; 1 1000

CRYSTAL FILTERS OSCILLATOR CRYSTALS


SYNONYMOUS FOR QUALITY
AND ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
NEW STANDARD FILTERS
CW-FILTER XE9NB see table
SWITCHABLE SSB FILTERS
for a ftxed carrier frequency of 9.000 MHz
XF-9B 01 XF9B 02
8998.5 kHz for LSB 9001.5 kHz for USB
See XF 9B for all other speci fications
The carrier crystal XF 900 is provided
Fltler Type
I
xF-9A
" ...
" -9C "-90
I
"-lIE
XF-9NB
Appllcal lon SSO 550 AM AM
'M
CW
T,.nlffl,l
Number 0 1 Crylll ll 5 0 0 0 0 8
3 dB bandWidth :2 " kHz 23 kHZ 3 6 kHZ .. 8kHz 0 .. kHz
8 dB bIIndwldth 2.5 kHz 2 4 kHz 3 75kHz 5.0 kHz 12.0kHz 0.5 kHz
Ripple c 1 dB < 2dB < 2 dB < 2 dB < aee < O.SclB
In8M!,on lou < 3 dB < 3 5 dB <35dB < 3 SdB < 3 SdB < 8SdB
Z SOlI D SOlI D SOlI D SOlI D 1200 D SOlI D
Termonatlon
C
3D" 3D" 3D" 3D" 3D" 3D"
16 50dB} 1.7 (8 80dBJ 18 16 eodB) 18 te6OdOl 18 (8 &lelB) 18 (8 eo dB) 2 :2
Shape fac lOt
1880dB122 1680dB)22 (tiElOdB)22 IS80dB)2 2 (880dB)40
Ultimate rll,l'Cl,on > 4!5 dB > 100 dB > IOOdB > 100 dB > 90 dB I > 90 dB
XF9A. and XF 9B complete wi th XF 901, XF 902
XF9NB comple' e WIlh x F 903
KRISTALLVERARBEITUNG NECKARBISCHOFSHEIM GMBH
*
o 61124 N.do..rb. Kt!o l.h.,," PcntfKh 7