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1. Meaning.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world,

448 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 97 amendments. Besides the English version, there is an official
containing Hindi translation. The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them. The words "socialist" and "secular" were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment. India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day .

Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is hailed as the prime architect of Indian Constitution The first temporary 2-day president of the Constituent Assembly was Dr Sachidanand Sinha. Later, Rajendra Prasad was elected president of the Constituent Assembly.[8] The members of the Constituent Assembly met for the first time on 9 December 1946. [8] ===Drafting=== On the 14 August 1947 meeting of the Assembly, a proposal for forming various committees was presented. Such committees included a Committee on Fundamental Rights, the Union Powers Committee and Union Constitution Committee. On 29 August 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed, with Dr B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members assisted by a constitutional advisor. These members were Kanaiyalal Maneklal Munshi (K M Munshi, Ex- Home Minister, Bombay), Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer (Ex- Advocate General, Madras State), N Gopalaswami Ayengar (Ex-Prime Minister, J&K and later member of Nehru Cabinet), B L Mitter (Ex-Advocate General, India), Md. Saadullah (Ex- Chief Minister of Assam, Muslim League member)

and D P Khaitan (Scion of Khaitan Business family and a renowned lawyer). The constitutional advisor was Sir Benegal Narsing Rau (who became First Indian Judge in International Court of Justice, 195054). Later B L Mitter resigned and was replaced by Madhav Rao (Legal Advisor of Maharaja of Vadodara). Owing to death of D P Khaitan, T T Krishnamachari was chosen to be included in the drafting committee. A Draft Constitution was prepared by the committee and submitted to the Assembly on 4 November 1947. Draft constitution was debated and over 2000 amendments were moved over a period of two years. Finally on 26 Nov. 1949, the process was completed and Constituent assembly adopted the constitution. 284 members signed the document and the process of constitution making was complete. The architects of Indian constitution were most heavily influenced by the British model of parliamentary democracy. In addition, a number of principles were adopted from the Constitution of the United States of America, including the separation of powers among the major branches of government, the establishment of a supreme court. The principles adopted from Canada were Unitary government with strong center and also distribution of powers between central government and provinces along with placing residuary powers with central government. From Ireland, directive principle of state policy was adopted. From Germany the principle of suspension of fundamental rights during emergency was adopted. From Australia the principle of Concurrent list and Language of preamble was adopted. The Assembly met in sessions open to the public, for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on 24 January 1950. The original Constitution of India is hand-written with beautiful calligraphy, each page beautified and decorated by artists from Shantiniketan including Beohar Rammanohar Sinha and Nandalal Bose. Two days later, on 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India became the law of all the States and territories of India. Rs. 1,00,00,000 was official estimate of expenditure on constituent assembly. The Constitution has undergone many amendments since its enactment.

Features of Indian Constitution


Features of Indian Constitution includes most of the aspects of the Western legal systems and runs on the system of the liberal democracy. The most important aspect of the features of Indian Constitution is the tendency to eradicate inequality that the traditional social relations have given birth to. The prime feature of the Indian Constitution is to look after the social welfare of the people of the nation. There are elaborate explanations that are given to enhance the social relationships and this is one of the prime reasons that many famous scholars have regarded the features of Indian Constitution as the motivating factors behind the ever changing and rebuilding society of India. One of the special features of the Indian Constitution is the steady concentration of power in the hands of the Prime Minister and his office. Although there is a wide range of ethnic groups and caste races that are distributed all over the land, the ultimate power resides in the hands of the Prime Minister. Unique Features of the Indian Constitution There are some unique features of the Indian Constitution. These features are mentioned below: The Indian Constitution is said to be framed by the People of India. The Constituent Assembly formed for drafting the constitution of assembly was framed by the people belonging to all parts of the society. This Constituent Assembly is considered to be a representative body of people living in the country. The draft of the Indian Constitution has been derived from constitutions of other countries. The constitution has also taken many parts from the Government of India Act, 1935. The different parts of

Indian Constitution adopted from other countries constitution are mentioned below: 1. British Constitution: Parliamentary form of government, introduction of Speaker and his role, the concept of single citizenship, the Rule of law, procedure of lawmaking, procedure established by Law u/a 13. 2. Irish Constitution: Directive principles of state policy. 3. United States Constitution: Federal structure of government, due process of law u/a 13, power of Judicial Review and independence of the judiciary, documentation of Fundamental Rights (similar to the United States Bill of Rights), President as supreme commander of armed forces u/a 52, 4. Canadian Constitution: A quasi-federal form of government, where the central government plays prime role in governing the country, the idea of Residual Powers 5. Australian Constitution: Freedom of trade and commerce between different states of the country, Power of the national legislature to make laws for implementing treaties 6. French Constitution: Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity 7. Japan Constitution: Fundamental Duties u/a 51-A 8. Weimar Constitution: Emergency Provision u/a 356 9. Malaysian Constitution: The concept of the Concurrent list Sovereignty of the people is another unique feature of the Indian Constitution. According to the Constitution, people of the country are the supreme authority. Earlier, the supreme power was in the hand of the British Parliament. The term Sovereignty connotes that the people of India are not subordinate to any other external authority. The Constitution of India renders the republican form of polity in the country. During British era, the king was the Head of the State. The Indian Constitution also provides for a secular polity in India. The term Secular implies that in the country, there would be no discrimination on grounds of religion. There should be equal respect for all religions. Fundamentals Rights and Duties of the citizens of India is another unique feature of the Indian Constitution, which was absent in the previous constitutions. Fundamental Rights were mentioned in the

constitution at the time of its adoption in 1949. The provision for Fundamental Duties was included through the Constitution (Forty Second Amendment) Act, 1976.

The Indian Constitution has provision for the Directive Principles of State Policy. These principles and policies are included in the Chapter IV of the constitution. These rights cannot be enforced by the courts of law, but these are fundamental principles, awareness of which should be there among people and the government. The Indian Constitution has provision for judicial review of the Acts of both the State Legislatures and the Union Legislature and the activities of the Union and State executives, so that authority of the legislative and executive branches is not misused. Provision for the universal adult franchise is another unique feature of Indian Constitution. In this provision, all adult citizens of the country has right to vote. The Indian Constitution has given recognition of Hindi as the official language of the country. Earlier, English was the only official language of India. Apart from Hindi, the Constitution has also recognized 17 other Indian languages as regional languages. Unique Blend of Rigidity and Flexibility is another feature of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution can be amended for revising the laws mentioned in it. Amendments to Constitution can be made through various procedures. Other Features of the Indian Constitution The other features of the Indian Constitution are mentioned below: 1. Indian Constitution is a comprehensive document including 395 Articles and twelve Schedules. 2. The Indian Constitution has a provision of a full-fledged Parliamentary Democracy. 3. There is the provision for federal form of polity in India in the Constitution of India.

4. The Constitution of India encourages affirmative action to be taken by the State to improve the conditions of the weaker sections of society. 5. There are emergency provisions made in the Indian Constitution. There are provisions for national emergency, financial emergency and failure of constitutional machinery. 6. The constitution has also made provision for some Independent Agencies to perform various functions assigned to them. The Election Commission, the Comptroller and Auditor General and the Union and State Public Service Commissions are three such agencies.

Structure
The Constitution, in its current form (March 2011), consists of a preamble, 22 parts containing 450 [Note 1] articles, 12 schedules, 2 appendices[9] and 97 amendments to date (latest being related to cooperative societies in 2012). [10] Although it is federal in nature it also has a strong unitary bias.

PREAMBLE WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC

and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

Articles
In this section of India Facts we discuss about Constitution of India Articles. You get all the articles i.e. Part I to Part XXII, in details. In these Part I to Part XXII you will learn about 395 articles. Article 123 explains about the legislative powers of the President and article 213 is for the legislative powers of the Governor. Article 300A is important for everyone because it explains about Right to Property. Part I - consists of Articles 1 - 4 on the Union and its Territory Part II - consists of Articles 5 - 11 on Citizenship. Part III - consists of Articles 12 - 35 on Fundamental Rights. Articles 14 - 18 on Right to Equality, Articles 19 - 22 on Right to Freedom, Articles 23 - 24 on Right against Exploitation, Articles 25 - 28 on Right to Freedom of Religion, Articles 29 - 31 on Cultural and Educational Rights, Articles 32 - 35 on Right to Constitutional Remedies. Part IV - consists of Articles 36 - 51 on Directive Principles of State Policy. Part IV (A) consists of Article 51A - Fundamental Duties of each citizen of India.

Part V consists of Articles on the Union. Chapter I - Articles 52 to 78 on The Executive. Articles 52 - 73 on the President and Vice-President, Articles 74 - 75 on Council of Ministers, Articles 76 - Attorney General of India, Articles 77 - 78 on the Conduct of Government Business Chapter II - Articles 79 - 122 on Parliament. Articles 79 - 88 on Constitution of Parliament, Articles 89 - 98 on Officers of Parliament, Articles 99 - 100 on Conduct of Business, Articles 101 - 104 on Disqualification of members, Articles 105 - 106 on Powers, privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members, Articles 107 - 111 on Legislative Procedure, Articles 112 - 117 on Procedure in Financial Matters, Articles 118 - 122 on Procedure Generally. Chapter III - Article 123 on the Legislative Powers of the President. Article 123 on Power of president to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament Chapter IV - Articles 124 - 147 on The Union Judiciary. Articles 124 - 147 Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court Chapter V - Articles 148 - 151 on the Controller and Auditor-General of India. Articles 148 - 151 on Duties and powers of Comptroller and Auditor-General. Part VI Articles on the States.

Chapter I - Article 152 on the General definition of a State of the Union of India Article 152 - Exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir from the general definition of a state of the Union of India. Chapter II - Articles 153 - 167 on The Executive Articles 153 - 162 on The Governor, Articles 163 - 164 on The Council of Ministers,

Article 165 on the Advocate-General for the State. Articles 166 - 167 on the Conduct of Government Business. Chapter III - Articles 168 - 212 on The State Legislature. Articles 168 - 177 General Articles 178 - 187 on the Officers of the State Legislature, Articles 188 - 189 on Conduct of Business, Articles 190 - 193 on Disqualification of members, Articles 194 - 195 on Powers, Privileges and Immunities Parliament and its Members, Articles 196 - 201 on Legislative Procedure, Articles 202 - 207 on Procedure in Financial Matters, Articles 208 - 212 on Procedure Generally. Chapter IV - Article 213 on the Legislative Powers of the Governor Article 213 - Power of president to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament Chapter V - Articles 214 - 231 on The High Courts in the States. Articles 214 - 231 on High Courts in the States, Chapter VI - Articles 233 - 237 on the Subordinate Courts Articles 232 - 237 on Subordinate Courts Part VII - consists of Articles on States in the B part of the First schedule. Article 238 Repealed, Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch. Part VIII - consists of Articles on The Union Territories Articles 239 - 242 Administration, creation of Council of Ministers and High Courts Part IX - consists of Articles on the Panchayat system. Articles 243 - 243O on the Gram Sabha and Panchayat system Part IXA - consists of Articles on Municipalities. Articles 243P - 243ZG on Municipalities Part X - consists of Articles on the scheduled and Tribal Areas

Articles 244 - 244A on Administration, creation of Council of Ministers, and legislatures. Part XI - consists of Articles on Relations between the Union and the States. Chapter I - Articles 245 - 255 on the Distribution of Legislative Powers Articles 245 - 255 on Distribution of Legislative Relations Chapter II - Articles 256 - 263 on Administrative Relations Articles 256 - 261 - General Article 262 - on Disputes relating to waters. Article 263 - on Co-ordination between States Part XII - consists of Articles on Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits Chapter I - Articles 264 - 291 on Finance Articles 264 - 267 General Articles 268 - 281 on Distribution Revenues between the Union and the States Articles 282 - 291 on Miscellaneous Financial Provisions Chapter II - Articles 292 - 293 on Borrowing Articles 292 - 293 on Borrowing by States Chapter III - Articles 294 - 300 on Property, Contracts, Right, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits Articles 294 - 300 on Succession to property assets, liabilities, and obligations. Chapter IV - Article 300A on the Right to Property Article 300A - on Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law

Part XIII - consists of Articles on Trade and Commerce within the territory of India

Articles 301 - 305 on Freedom of Trade and Commerce, and the power of Parliament and States to impose restrictions on the same Article 306 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch. Article 307 - Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304. Part XIV - consists of Articles on Services Under the Union and the States Chapter I - Articles 308 - 314 on Services Articles 308 - 313 on Services Article 314 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Twentyeighth Amendment) Act, 1972, s. 3 (w.e.f. 29-8-1972). Chapter II - Articles 315 - 323 on the Public Service Commissions Articles 315 - 323 on Public Service Commissions Part XIVA - consists of Articles on Tribunals Articles 323 A - 323 B Part XV - consists of Articles on Elections Articles 324 - 329 on Elections Article 329A - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Fortyfourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 36 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979). Part XVI - consists of Articles on Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes. Articles 330 - 342 on Reservations Part XVII - consists of Articles on Official Chapter I - Articles 343 - 344 on Language of the Union Articles 343 - 344 Official Language of the Union Chapter II - Articles 345 - 347 on Regional Languages Articles 345 - 347 on Language of the State Chapter III - Articles 348 - 349 on Language of the Supreme Court, High courts, Etc Language

Articles 348 - 349 on Language used in Supreme Court, High courts Etc Chapter IV - Articles 350 - 351 on Special Directives Article 350 - on Language to be used in representations forredress of grievances. Article 350A - on Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage. Article 350B - on provision for Special Officer for linguistic minorities. Article 351 - on Directive for development of the Hindi language. Part XVIII - consists of Articles on Emergency Provisions Articles 352 - 359 on Emergency Provisions Article 359A - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Sixtythird Amendment) Act, 1989, s. 3 (w.e.f. 6-1-1990) Article 360 - on Provisions as to financial emergency. Part XIX - Miscellaneous Articles 361 - 361A - Miscellaneous Article 362 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Twentysixth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2. Articles 363 - 367 - Miscellaneous . Part XX - consists of Articles on Amendment of the Constitution Articles 368 on the Power of parliament to amend the constitution and procedure therefor Part XXI - consists of Articles on Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions Articles 369 - 378A on Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions Article 379 - 391 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956,s. 29 and Sch. Article 392 - on the Power of the President to remove difficulties. Part XXII consists of Articles on short title, date commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals. of

Articles 393 - 395 Commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals.

List of amendments of the Constitution of India


As of January 2012, there have been 97 amendments to the Constitution of India since it was first enacted in 1950. No. Amendments Enforced since Objectives

Amend articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376. 18 June Insert articles 31A and 1951 31B. Insert schedule 9.[2]

To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law

Amend article 81.[3]

A technical amendment to fix the size of each parliamentary 1 May 1953 constituency between 650,000 and 850,000 voters.

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives

Amend schedule 7.[4]

Limits maximum no of seats in lok sabha up to 500.States would be divided into 22 February constituencies such that one 1955 member of a constituency will represent not less than every 750000 people but not more than every 500000 people. Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution Provide for a consultation mechanism with concerned states in matters relating to the amendments to the territorial matters and in the renaming of the state Amend the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes

Amend articles 31, 35 band 27 April 305. 1955 Amend schedule 9.[5]

Amend article 3.

[6]

24 December 1955

Amend articles 269 and 286. Amend schedule 7.[7]

11 September 1956

Amend articles 1, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 1 November 222, 224, 230, 231 and 1956 232. Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371,

Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union Territories

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives

372A and 378A. Amend part 8. Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.[8] Clarify state's power of compulsory acquisition and requisitioning of private property and include Zamindari abolishion laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc. Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President

Amend article 334.[9]

5 January 1960

Amend schedule 1.

[10]

28 December 1960

10

Amend article 240. Amend schedule 1.[11]

11 August 1961

11

Amend articles 66 and 71.


[12]

19 December 1961

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives

Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal

12

Amend article 240. Amend schedule 1.[13]

20 December 1961

13

Amend part 21.

[14]

Formation of State of 1 December Nagaland, with special 1963 protection under Article 371A Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa Raise retirement age of judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc. Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the

14

Amend articles 81 and 240. 28 Insert article 239A. December Amend schedules 1 and 4. 1962 [15]

15

Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316. Insert article 224A. Amend schedule 7.[16]

5 October 1963

16

Amend articles 19, 84 and 5 October 173. 1963 Amend schedule 3.[17]

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives

various obligtory templates To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh

17

Amend article 31A. Amend schedule 9.[18]

20 June 1964

18

Amend article 3.[19]

27 August 1966

19

Amend article 324.

[20]

11 December 1966

20

Insert article 233A.

[21]

22 December 1966

No.

Amendments

Enforced since 10 April 1967 25 September 1969

Objectives

21

Amend schedule 8.[22]

Include Sindhi as an Official Language Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1980

22

Amend article 275. Insert articles 244A and 371B.[23]

23

Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334.[24]

23 January 1970

24

Enable parliament to dilute Amend articles 13 and 368. 5 November fundamental rights through [25] 1971 amendments to the constitution Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic

25

Amend article 31. Insert article 31C.[26]

20 April 1972

26

Amend article 366. Insert article 363A. Remove articles 291 and 362.[27] Amend articles 239A and 240. Insert articles 239B and

28 December 1971

27

15 February Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a 1972 legislature and council of

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives

371C.[28]

ministers Rationalize Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence

28

Insert article 312A. Remove article 314.[29]

29 August 1972

29

Amend schedule 9.

[30]

Place land reform acts and 9 June 1972 amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case 27 February of Civil Suits from value 1973 criteria to one involving substantial question of law

30

Amend article 133.[31]

31

Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the Amend articles 81, 330 and 17 October new states formed in North 332.[32] 1973 East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise Amend article 371. Insert articles 371D and 371E. Amend schedule 7.[33]

32

Protection of regional rights in 1 July 1974 Telengana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives

33

Amend articles 101 and 190.[34]

19 May 1974

Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker

34

Amend schedule 9.

[35]

Place land reform acts and 7 September amendments to these act under 1974 Schedule 9 of the constitution Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India

35

Amend articles 80 and 81. 1 March Insert article 2A. 1975 Insert schedule 10.[36] Amend articles 80 and 81. Insert article 371F. 26 April Remove article 2A. 1975 Amend schedules 1 and 4. Remove schedule 10.[37] Amend articles 239A and 240.[38] Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360.[39]

36

Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union

37

3 May 1975

Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad

38

1 August 1975

39

Amend articles 71 and 329. 10 August Insert article 329A.

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives

Amend schedule 9.[40]

1975

High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of India Place land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution

40

Amend article 297. Amend schedule 9.[41]

27 May 1976

41

Amend article 316.[42]

Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of 7 September Union and State Public 1976 Commissions from sixty to sixty two. Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental 1 April 1977 rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a "Socialist Secular" Republic

42

Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F. Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A,

No.

Amendments 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A. Insert parts 4A and 14A. Amend schedule 7.[43]

Enforced since

Objectives

43

Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366. 13 April Remove articles 31D, 32A, 1978 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A.[44] Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 6 September and 371F. 1979 Insert articles 134A and 361A. Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A. Amend part 12. Amend schedule 9.[45]

Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more 'Anti-Freedom' amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42

44

Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42

45

Amend article 334.[46]

25 January 1980

Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990 Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax

46

Amend articles 269, 286 and 366. Amend schedule 7.[47]

2 February 1983

No.

Amendments

Enforced since 26 August 1984

Objectives Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution

47

Amend schedule 9.

[48]

48

Amend article 356.

[49]

Article 356 amended to permit 1 April 1985 President's rule up to two years in the state of Punjab Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies Anti Defection Law - Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other

49

Amend article 244. 11 Amend schedules 5 and 6. September [50] 1984

50

Amend article 33.

[51]

11 September 1984

51

Amend articles 330 and 332.[52]

16 June 1986

52

Amend articles 101, 102, 190 and 191. Insert schedule 10.[53] Insert article 371G.[54] Amend articles 125 and 221. Amend schedule 2.[55]

1 March 1985

53

20 February Special provision with respect 1987 to the State of Mizoram. Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges 1 April 1986 and to provide for determining future increases without the

54

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives need for constitutional amendment

55 56

Insert article 371H.

[56]

Special powers to Governor 20 February consequent to formation of 1987 state of Arunachal Pradesh 30 May 1987 21 September 1987 Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies

Insert article 371I.[57]

57

Amend article 332.

[58]

58

Insert article 394A. Amend part 22.[59]

Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of 9 December constitution as on date and 1987 provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab Profession Tax increased from a maximum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18 Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo

59

Amend article 356. Insert article 359A.[60]

30 March 1988

60 61 62

Amend article 276.

[61]

20 December 1988 28 March 1989 20 December

Amend article 326.[62] Amend article 334.[63]

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000 Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its stututory powers specifed in The Constitution.

1989

63

Amend article 356. Remove article 359A.[64]

6 January 1990

64

Amend article 356.[65]

16 April 1990

65

Amend article 338.[66]

12 March 1990

66

Amend schedule 9.

[67]

Place land reform acts and 7 June 1990 amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution 4 October 1990 12 March 1991 Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to four years in the state of Punjab Article 356 amended to permit President's rule up to five years in the state of Punjab To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory Include National Capital of

67

Amend article 356.

[68]

68

Amend article 356.

[69]

69

Insert articles 239AA and 1 February 239AB.[70] 1992

70

Amend articles 54 and

21

No.

Amendments

Enforced since December 1991 31 August 1992

Objectives Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as Official Languages

239AA.[71]

71 72

Amend schedule 8.[72] Amend article 332.


[73]

Provide reservation to 5 December Scheduled Tribes in Tripura 1992 State Legislative Assembly 24 April 1993 Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages

73

Insert part 9.

[74]

74

Insert part 9A.[75]

Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third 1 June 1993 level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities 15 May 1994 31 August 1994 Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament

75

Amend article 323B.[76]

76

Amend schedule 9.[77]

77

Amend article 16.

[78]

17 June 1995 30 August 1995 25 January 2000

78

Amend schedule 9.

[79]

79

Amend article 334.

[80]

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010

80

Amend articles 269 and 270. Remove article 272.[81]

Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures 9 June 2000 by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre 9 June 2000 Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies

81

Amend article 16.[82]

82

Amend article 335.[83]

Permit relaxation of qualifying 8 September marks and other criteria in 2000 reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates Exempt Arunachal Pradesh 8 September from reservation for Scheduled 2000 Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions

83

Amend article 243M.[84]

84

Extend the usage of 1991 national census population Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 21 February figures for statewise 170, 330 and 332.[85] 2002 distribution of parliamentary seats Amend article 16.[86] 4 January 2002 12 December 2002 A technical amendment to protect seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six Extend the usage of 2001

85

86 87

Amend articles 45 and 51A. Insert article 21A.[87]

Amend articles 81, 82, 170 22 June

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws Enable Levy of Service Tax & Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali as Official Languages To enable provision of reservation for other backward classes (O.B.C.) in government as well as private educational institutions To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly

and 330.[88] Amend article 270. Insert article 268A. Amend schedule 7.[89]

2003

88

15 January 2004

89

Amend article 338. Insert article 338A.[90]

28 September 2003

90

Amend article 332.

[91]

28 September 2003

91

Amend articles 75 and 164. 1 January Insert article 361B. 2004 Amend schedule 10.[92] Amend article 270. Insert article 268A. 7 January Amend schedules 7 and 8. 2004
[93]

92

93

Amend article 15.[94]

20 January 2006 12 June 2006

94

Amend article 164.[95]

No.

Amendments

Enforced since

Objectives created Jharkand and Chattisgarh States

95

Amend article 334.[96]

25 January 2010 23 September 2011

To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years Substituted "Odia" for "Oriya" Added the words "or cooperative societies" after the word "or unions" in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Cooperative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., THE COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

96

Amend schedule 8.

[97]

97

Amend Art 19 and added Part IXB.[98]

12 January 2012

The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.

Parts
The individual Articles of the Constitution are grouped together into the following Parts:

Preamble Part I[11] Union and its Territory Part II[12] Citizenship. Part III Fundamental Rights. Part IV[13] Directive Principles of State Policy. Part IVA Fundamental Duties. Part V[14] The Union. Part VI[15] The States. Part VII[16] States in the B part of the First schedule(Repealed). Part VIII[17] The Union Territories Part IX[18] The Panchayats. Part IXA The Municipalities. Part IXB The Cooperative Societies Part X The scheduled and Tribal Areas Part XI Relations between the Union and the States.

Part XII Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits Part XIII Trade and Commerce within the territory of India Part XIV Services Under the Union, the States. Part XIVA Tribunals. Part XV Elections Part XVI Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes. Part XVII Languages Part XVIII Emergency Provisions Part XIX Miscellaneous Part XX Amendment of the Constitution Part XXI Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions Part XXII Short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals

Schedules
Schedules are lists in the Constitution that categorize and tabulate bureaucratic activity and policy of the Government.

First Schedule (Articles 1 and 4)- This lists the states and territories of India, lists any changes to their borders and the laws used to make that change. Second Schedule (Articles 59, 65, 75, 97, 125, 148, 158, 164, 186 and 221)- This lists the salaries of officials holding public office, judges, and Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. Third Schedule (Articles 75, 99, 124, 148, 164, 188 and 219) Forms of Oaths This lists the oaths of offices for elected officials and judges. Fourth Schedule (Articles 4 and 80) This details the allocation of seats in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house of Parliament) per State or Union Territory. Fifth Schedule (Article 244) This provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas[Note 2] and Scheduled Tribes[Note 3] (areas and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions). Sixth Schedule (Articles 244 and 275) Provisions for the administration of tribal areas in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Mizoram. Seventh Schedule (Article 246)The union (central government), state, and concurrent lists of responsibilities. Eighth Schedule (Articles 344 and 351)The official languages. Ninth Schedule (Article 31-B) Originally Articles mentioned here were immune from judicial review on the ground that they violated fundamental rights. but in a landmark judgment in 2007, the Supreme Court of India held in I.R. Coelho v. State of Tamil Nadu and others that laws included in the 9th schedule can be subject to judicial review

if they violated the fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14, 15, 19, 21 or the basic structure of the Constitution. Tenth Schedule (Articles 102 and 191)"Anti-defection" provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures. Eleventh Schedule (Article 243-G)Panchayat Raj (rural local government). Twelfth Schedule (Article 243-W)Municipalities (urban local government).

APPENDICES
Appendix 1 order 1954. The Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir)

Appendix 2 Re-statement with reference to the present text of the constitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to which the constitution applies to the Jammu and Kashmir. Appendix 3 Extracts for the constitution (Forty-fourth amendment) act 1978. Appendix 4 The constitution (Eighty-sixth amendment) act 2002