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DEATH AS AN ENEMY ACCORDING TO ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CONCEPTIONS BY J. ZANDEE, THEOL. D. ¥15607 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS With the completion of this book I wish to state my sincere thanks to all those who have in any way contributed to it. Foremost among these was my former teacher, the late Prof. Dr A. de Buck, under whose guidance the present book was prepared as a doctoral thesis for the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy of Leiden University. He spent many hours reading through and dis cussing the manuscript and I have profited aot a little from his good advise. ‘The years during which T had the privilege of being his pupil will always be amohg my best remembrances. Prof. Dr H. P. Blok very kindly stood ready to take the place of Prof. de Buck after the Iatter’s decease Prof. Dr J. Vandier, Cirator in Chief of the Egyptian Department of the Louvre Museum, granted me access to unpublished papyri and permitted me to have a Ipok at the Papyrus Jumilhac which he will publish in the course of 1960. Dr P. Barguet, a scient}ic official of the Louvre Museum, placed his bureau at my disposal and gavein every respect indispensable assistance. Daring a stay at Paris the help of Prof. Dr G. Posener was very valuable and the contact, with Professors Clére and Malinine was important. ‘The Executive Committee of the International Association for the History of Religions fostéred the publication of the present book in the series “Supplements|to NVMEN.” Especially helpful in this matter were the formet ¢hairman, the late Prof. De R. Pettazzoni, and the secretary, Prof. Dr C. J. Bleeker. Mrs. W. P. Klasens-var| det Loo made the translation into English in a most accurate mannéf. She was assisted by her husband Dr A. Klasens, Director of the| Museum of Antiquities at Leiden. Last, but not least, I desire to record the support of the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Pure Research (Z.W.O.) which enabled me to wotk for two months in the Louvre Museum in 1953 and subsidised tHe translation and the publication. Without the most appreciated aid of the above mentioned persons and organizations it would have been impossible to finish the book. ‘Therefore, the author withes to express his deep gratitude to all of them, CONTENTS Acknowledgements List Par. Pas. Par. Par. Par. of abbreviations and literature CHAPTER I, GENERAL OUTLINE 1. The monistic and the dualistic conception of death 2. The texts 3, The way ia which the dualistic conception of death occur in the texts, see 4, Traces of Sheol representations in Egypt... 5. Views based on direct observation of death as a phys phenomenon . : 1, The decay ofthe body 10. — b. Being motionless 11. —e. Nom. functioning of the senses and limbs 12. — d. Passing away and being carried off 13. . 6. Death as absolute destruction a Death as auch is peihing 14 —b. Being bure (3) 14. — ©. Cutting and slaughtering 16, — d. Other actions directed fgainst the dead 17. — c. Total destructipa as (a consequence of) punishment in the realm of the dead 18, 7. Dangers, which ‘impend over essential parts of the personality (B.8) 8. Torment and torture . 9. Dangerous places A. 10. The journey of the dead. 1. Jadgment and sentence 12. ‘Terms for sin 4, Words, which mean bad in a nonsmonl sense 41. — b, Words for disaster and misery 42. — e. Words for being bent 42. — &. Words for tab00 43, —e. Toi = ed (C60) 8. — 6. Wn guilt (C64) 43. — g, Kw = damage (C63) 43. — hh, Sin ag bein aginst deicy 43. — i. Sin ab tansgrestion 43, case HB TGs, CHAPTER II. TERMS Death in contrast with life 1, Total destruction