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ROOSEVELT PLATFORM MOUND STUDY: A LABORATORY PLAN FOR SALADO RESEARCH

CHAPTER NINE
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY ANALYSIS
Contributions by Christy.G. Turner II, Marcia Regan, and Joel Irish GENERAL COMMENTS
The burial assemblages recovered from the excavations for the Roosevelt Platform Mound Study will be handled in the field and laboratory as features. In effect, the processing of each burial feature represents a microcosm of the preceding laboratory procedures. The human remains recovered will be assigned separate burial numbers within the feature number. Each associated class of materials recovered (such as, ceramics, lithics, etc.) will be assigned specimen numbers. Individual items within each specimen number (i.e., artifact material class) will be assigned artifact numbers in the laboratory processing. This numbering system will facilitate the cross-referencing of the burial features within the database. The relations between files will include the contextual information, provenance identifiers, feature numbers, as well as individual artifact categories (specimen numbers and artifact numbers). The inventories of artifactual categories from burials will be included in the composite inventories of the site assemblages while retaining their unique proveniences. The burial assemblages will be stored together in a separate area of the curation space. Storage locations of the various boxes will also be noted in the database so that these may be quickly identified. The database can be indexed by any category (i.e., feature number, all ceramic types, ornaments, etc.). This approach is possible because of the relational database that will be maintained at the field laboratory. This will facilitate the contextual study of the burials. It will also facilitate the entire burial assemblage being stored with respect separate from the bulk collections. The analysis of the burial assemblages includes a subset of all the previously discussed artifactual and special sample categories. The emphasis of this chapter is on the Stage 1 Burial Analysis and the Stage 2 Osteological Analysis. The Stage I Burial Analysis will consist of an inventory of all artifacts and special samples collected with the burial features. These will be processed as discussed in preceding chapters. The contextual data will be included in this part of the analysis so that a summary of each feature is compiled. The osteological information will include the sex, age, and general condition of the individuals. Artifacts will be analyzed by procedures appropriate to the material types (i.e., lithics, ceramics, etc.). The Stage 2 Osteological Analysis of the burials will be conducted by specialists. The human remains will be analyzed by the Physical Anthropology specialists. These studies will include detailed descriptions of the skeletal remains, pathologies, and population identification. There are three sorts of situations where special studies would be called for. These are:

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1. Unusual burial recovery situations. 2. Unusual skeletal features. 3. Opportunities for special tests. In these cases, there is a low but real probability that in an extraordinary burial situation some human soft tissue (or hair, etc.) will be found, as might some rare anomaly beyond our experience. Such material would be processed in the least destructive manner to extract the maximal amount of information it could provide. Specialists and a conservator would also be consulted to assist with appropriate field, laboratory, and curation procedures. The database for the Stage 2 Osteological Analysis will be generated and maintained by the Physical Anthropology team. Appropriate statistical analyses will be conducted. The data may be handled on the ASU mainframe or PCs, but results will be integrated into the primary RPMS database as the project progresses. The data will be submitted in electronic form and hard copy with documentation of the variables. The remainder of this chapter will present some brief field and laboratory procedures for the bone chemistry studies and detailed field and laboratory procedures for the burial excavations and osteological analysis. A partial list of references for the osteology analysis follows the appendices. All of the references with corresponding illustrations and examples are available to analysts in the ASU osteology laboratory under Dr. Turner's direction. These will be listed in full in the reporting phase of the analysis.

BONE CHEMISTRY STUDY


with contributions by Katherine A. Spielmann The following guidelines are for the Bone Chemistry study that will be conducted as part of RPMS. These are in agreement with the procedures outlined above, but are presented below to clarify the preparation steps for this special analysis. However, the section below is specific to the human bone study. 1) FIELD PROCEDURE: a) Bone to be used for chemical analyses SHOULD NOT BE TREATED WITH ANY CHEMICAL in the field. When possible, both a rib and a long bone, preferably a femur, should be set aside for chemical analysis. Recent research on digenesis appears to indicate that long bones are less subject to postdepositional alteration than are ribs. Label the bones that are saved for chemical analysis on the drawing of the burial. b) TAKE SOIL SAMPLES for each bone that is saved for chemical analysis and SHOW EXACTLY WHERE THESE HAVE BEEN TAKEN on the drawing of the burial. These soil samples will be analyzed to determine if post-depositional chemical leaching or enrichment of bone mineral has taken place. One (approximately cup) soil sample is to be taken adjacent (within 10 cm) to each bone saved for chemical analysis. An additional soil sample (of 1 liter) is to be taken from a point 20 cm

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horizontal from the sample bones. This 1liter soil sample can be the same one taken by the physical anthropology excavation team. Note: Appropriate permissions of the sponsoring agency are necessary prior to the submission of bone samples for bone chemistry testing. 2) LABORATORY: DO NOT WASH THE BONE. Bone will be cleaned in the bone chemistry laboratory. Just lightly brush adhering soil from the bone.

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR SKELETAL EXCAVATION AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS
prepared by C.G. Turner II, M. Regan, and J. Irish POLICY FOR SKELETAL EXCAVATIONS The goal of human skeletal recovery from the Roosevelt Platform Mound Study is to obtain as much relevant quantitative and qualitative information as is reasonably possible about the biology, taphonomy, and burial practices of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Tonto Basin. This means that the human remains will be analyzed for both physical anthropological and archaeological research objectives. To achieve these goals, their excavation and stabilization shall follow the policies and employ the procedural guidelines of this brief field and lab manual. The following are the policies to be followed in skeletal excavation and analysis: 1. Human skeletal remains are to be treated in a respectful manner. The remains should be regarded with the same respect that one would want afforded to one's own relatives. The skeletal remains shall not be displayed in situ or in the field lab during public tours, nor shall they be publicly discussed outside of scientific gatherings unless approved by the Project Directors. 2. Human skeletal remains shall be excavated only by personnel with appropriate training in human osteology. At a minimum this means having successfully completed a one semester course in osteology in a recognized university-level anthropology program and relevant field excavation experience and training. 3. A person designated by the physical anthropology field supervisor for burial recovery shall also record the necessary field notes on all aspects of the burial excavation. 4. Provenance information shall be included on all forms associated with a burial. In addition, a rough field estimate of antiquity and cultural affiliation of the burial will be made in consultation with the supervisory archaeologist. 5. When a skeleton is so poorly preserved that its removal from the ground will severely limit the amount of information that can be gathered in the laboratory, the physical anthropologist in charge of field work will make as many quantitative and qualitative observations as possible in situ before taking the remains out of the ground (see procedures section). 6. Skeletal remains will be stabilized in the laboratory according to procedures used by the ASU physical anthropology technical service (see procedures section). SKELETAL EXCAVATION AND STABILIZATION PROCEDURES The Roosevelt Platform Mound Study burial team will generally follow the excavation suggestions outlined in Appendix 2 of W. Bass's (1987) human osteology manual. Field crew are provided with copies of this Appendix.
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All procedures outlined below must be followed and all required forms filled out. Because a primary objective of the physical anthropology section is to generate an archival database that will be useful to future researchers, it is important to note carefully what was and was not done. Therefore, if a procedure or form is not applicable to a particular situation, it shall be so noted on the "continuation form," which is sheet 5 of the skeletal excavation packet. The burial team is encouraged to add any thoughts that come to mind while excavating each burial. On discovery of archaeological indications of a possible burial or unintentional deposition of human remains, such as a burial-pit outline or a human bone projecting out of a test pit wall, a map reference pin or stake will be set up. If physical signs indicate that a burial is near the working surface, then the burial team will proceed to excavate with trowels and shovels when there is no danger of contacting any skeletal elements. If the burial is suspected of being deeper, excavation should proceed in approved arbitrary or natural (if evident) levels, taking note of what was encountered (soil texture, color, content, etc.). Some situations may require that an identified skeleton be excavated after overlying architectural features are mapped and removed. In these cases the burial removal will follow the necessary archaeological work when the supervisory field archaeologist gives permission to do so. Soil from near the bones will be removed with brushes, bulb blowers, small dental tools, or bamboo sticks. A gas-powered dust blower can be used when there is no chance of damaging the skeleton. One should try not to scratch the bone or brush so hard as to cause any damage, because each bone will be microscopically examined later in the lab for taphonomic alterations. Every bone and artifact, including any animal or plant material, will be left in situ until the entire skeleton(s) is exposed. This will necessitate pedestaling of some elements. Some conservation problems may arise due to rapid breakdown of newly exposed bone or organic materials. Where decomposition seems imminent, packaging or preserving of the object may be necessary. In this case, a conservator will be consulted and appropriate measures taken. Consult with the field supervisor. In the event that a burial is under a room wall, that portion exposed may have to be excavated using the procedures outlined below, so that the heavier archaeological work can proceed. On occasion it may be possible to cover the exposed bone with plastic tarp and earth for later recovery. A marker will be placed at the unexcavated portion of the burial containing the field number assigned to the excavated part. Burial recovery will then be completed when it is possible to do so. In the rare event that a burial is wrapped in or covered with perishable material such as matting or wooden grave-roofing, the burial team will consult with the supervisory field archaeologist about how best to proceed. Skeletons need to be protected from direct sunlight so as to prevent overly rapid drying that causes exfoliation and cracking. A portable shade will be available and must be used to shield the skeleton during excavation and removal. To prevent destructive rapid drying, it may be necessary to dampen the skeleton with water during excavation and removal. This can be done with a spray bottle for the bone and a sprinkling can for the adjacent soil. Do not spray or sprinkle water on any suspected hemoglobin-stained bone or any associated stone artifacts as they may be later analyzed for crystallized blood residue (human and non-human). Teeth are extremely fragile when dry. An atomizer can be used to spray water on them until they can be stabilized in the laboratory. Soil samples will be taken from inside the abdominal cavity just above the sacrum. Collect about a liter of soil. Label a clean paper bag with the burial number, and indicate "body cavity sample." Collect another liter of soil outside the body, but within the grave proper. This soil sample will also be used for the bone chemistry analysis (see page 8-2). Label by burial number and indicate "grave soil sample." Two additional soil samples of about 1/2 cup each will also be collected for the bone chemistry analysis (see page 8-2). Indicate on the excavation form the collection location of the four soil samples.
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At the time of sampling the body content, the burial team should look carefully for any signs of bladder or other organic stones. Fine-mesh 1/8" screening of the body content is recommended. Illustrations of such stones are given at the end of this chapter. After any skeleton or isolated human bone is exposed, the following information shall be collected before removal from the soil matrix: Photography. Photographs shall be taken of the entire burial in both color and black-and -white. This will be the primary record of the many details a burial can possess. Ideally, the photography will be done by a team member familiar with cameras and films. Use a strobe flash for all photographs so that lighting and color rendition will be standardized. A flexible or hinged plastic model skeleton may be used to replicate the position of the actual skeleton (which may not show up well in a photograph). The plastic model will be placed beside the skeleton for the vertical photographic record. From the photographed skeleton and adjacent model, body positioning can be analyzed later in the laboratory. This method is a way to reduce time in burial excavation recording, without meaningful loss of information. Take a minimum of 12 photographs (six in color, six in b/w): (a) A centered direct overhead with mapping reference pin(s) in place. This view should include the complete grave outline, all accompanying grave goods, a photo ID card, and a scaled north arrow. (b) A similar centered overhead view that also includes a flexion model adjacent to actual skeleton. (c) A view from head to feet. (d) A view from feet to head. (e) A view from right side (extended) /front side (flexed). (f) A view from left side (extended)/back side (flexed). Finish 24 exposure film rolls with duplicate shots and views of anything out of the ordinary (pathologies, skeletal breakage patterns, unusual coloration, stratigraphy, etc.). Never unload or load the cameras in direct sunlight, keep the film refrigerated (but not frozen) prior to and after exposure. Do not leave a loaded camera in the sun or in a closed vehicle. Develop film as soon as possible. These points are mentioned because the official field photographer may not be available when the burial team is ready to remove the burial. Someone on the burial team may have to do the photography. Sketch map. Use the graph paper accompanying each burial-form packet to make three drawings. The first will be a scale-drawing stick-figure plan view sketch of the burial, skeleton, grave goods, grave outline, and location of reference pin(s). Give each identified item its appropriate field ID number. Then, make two scaled cross-section drawings, one from head-to-foot, the other side-to-side at or near the grave midpoint. Begin each cross section from the present ground surface, noting the location of the probable surface in use at time of burial. More details are covered in the following section titled "forms for burial removal." Skeletal element inventory and stature. Use the accompanying skeleton outline picture on the "Skeletal Element Present Form" to indicate which bones are present, that is, fill in the outline of each bone actually present. Use a two meter flexible measuring tape to estimate stature. If the body is not laid out flat or extended, follow the spinal curve and leg flexure. Skeletal removal. If preservation is good, no special treatment is necessary. Refer to Bass for procedures. If preservation is poor, each accessible body segment should be removed with its surrounding soil and wrapped in aluminum foil for transport to the lab. Avoid applying preservatives in the field. This will be done only in extremely poor cases of preservation and in consultation with a conservator. Under no circumstances should ribs or long bones selected for chemical analyses to be

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treated with preservative (see page 8-2). These elements will be archived for future chemical analyses. At removal, each skeleton will be bagged by anatomical unit (i.e. left arm, right arm, left leg...etc). Hands and feet will be bagged separately by left and right sides. Bones are to be placed in pre-printed field sacks and all called-for information supplied. Skeletons are to be boxed individually in specially padded boxes. Do not put skeletons from different graves in the same box for transport to the lab/cleaning site. Use enough packing material to keep the bones from bouncing or moving in the field transport box. Special care will be taken to pad the cranial portion separately from the post-cranial portion within the same box. Post-removal considerations. After all the bones of a grave are bagged and artifacts removed, the dirt from the grave will be screened through 1/8" hardware cloth to recover any small bones, organic stones, small artifacts, or associated plant or animal matter that might have been missed up to this point in the skeletal recovery operation. Look carefully for any loose teeth. If the burial is that of a child, look for small pea-shaped bones that might be epiphyses. Burial team tools and supplies. Each member of the burial team will have in their own dig kits the following items: a trowel, a rubber bulb blower, bamboo sticks (various sizes) or small dental tools, a two-meter measuring tape, a one-inch and a three-inch brush, pencils, and any other items that a member has found useful from previous experience. The Project will supply round- and square-pointed shovels, small manila envelopes, labeled paper bone bags, Ziploc bags for items that should not dry out, small plastic vials, aluminum foil, cardboard boxes, labels and tags, packing material, permanent marking pens, line levels, atomizers, overlay for flexion photos, scaled north arrow, compass, meter bar, portable shade, string, nails, cameras, film, burial forms, preservative, and any other supplies that are needed in the course of the excavation. Forms necessary for burial excavation. The burial-form packet consists of five sheets (sample forms can be found following this chapter). (1) The first form ("Human Burial Recovery Form ") lists provenance, orientation, condition, and other types of information that need to be recorded. Some items are qualitative, such as the degree of preservation. Check with the field supervisor when in doubt as to what any "condition" is. (2) The second sheet ("Skeletal Elements Present Form ") is an outline sketch of a human skeleton. Fill in the outline for the skeletal elements present. If a bone is incomplete, fill in the outline only for the part remaining. (3) The third sheet ("Taphonomy Form ") is a duplicate of number two. Record here any obvious taphonomic information or unusual features such as perimortem fractures, cut marks, gross pathologies, embedded projectile points, commingled or duplicate skeletal elements, separations or dislocations, unusual artifact or geofact associations, and so forth, that might not show up clearly in the burial photographs. (4) The fourth sheet is a blank piece of graph paper (Burial Form #4). This is provided for the stick-figure sketch and cross-sections of the burial and associated artifacts. The sketch is insurance for the possibility that the photographs may not turn out, and the cross-sections are a normal part of archaeological recording. (5) The last sheet is called the "Continuation Form ." It is for observations that may be possible but are not required on the other sheets. Because taphonomic and associational information might be lost should it be impossible to get the entire skeleton out of the ground due to very poor preservation, over-recording is better than under-recording. Remember, the burial excavation team will have the greatest familiarity with the burial or skeletal elements before removal. It is the team's responsibility to notice and record every condition and association possible.

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FIELD LABORATORY CLEANING AND STABILIZATION PROCEDURES


Preliminary Cleaning. Most adhering dirt will have been removed during burial excavation when bone and soil are still damp. In the lab remove most of the remaining loose dirt from around and in the skeleton with dental picks and natural bristle brushes. Dry brushing only will be used to clean the bone. NEVER use water washing or an acid wash on human remains. If the cranium is unbroken, clean out orbits and interior of vault, being careful not to penetrate the fragile orbital bones. If the vault is broken, carefully remove fragments from the soil block within the brain case and then brush away the remaining dirt adhering to the bones. The process for removing dirt from the medullary cavity will be developed in consultation with a conservator. Save the tiny ear bones in two small bags, labeled by burial number and left and right sides. Separate out any floral or faunal material and artifacts, which will be processed with the artifacts. Make a plastic ID card, which is to stay with the skeleton. Never lift a skull by its eye holes; instead cradle the base of the skull with the palm of one's hand. Never place a skull with its teeth resting on a hard surface. Teeth break extremely easily. If cremations are recovered, these remains will be separated from the soil and cleaned by dry brushing. The remains will be padded with acid free tissue and packed in labeled Ziploc bags. Final Cleaning. Dry clean with soft brush, bamboo sticks, and dental tools to remove stubborn dirt. Use a water spray bottle to moisten really stubborn dirt. Bones are to be cleaned well enough to allow unimpeded view of all surfaces and not interfere with X-ray analysis. If there is adhering caliche, it can sometimes be flaked off with a dental tool. Do not try to rub off or wipe away discoloration. There is almost no literature on bone discoloration, and special chemical analyses may be tried to identify the causes of discoloration. Similarly, chemical analysis may be possible for hemoglobin stains. Do not remove these red-brown to black-brown discolorations, especially any that may be on the interior of the vault. If by chance dried brain or other soft tissue is preserved, transfer the remains to plastic vials or bags and label content and source. Notify the physical anthropology field supervisor of this material. It is very i mportant as it has potential for DNA extraction. Keep the vial or bag with the skeleton. Preservative. Well preserved skeletons will not require any stabilizing chemical preservative. Poorly preserved, fragmented skeletons and individual elements may need strengthening. Dip these in the appropriate chemical solution recommended by a conservator, and drain on a drying rack in a well-ventilated work area. Skulls needing preservative should be soaked and allowed to drain with the teeth positioned downward on the draining screen so as to limit the amount of preservative in the tooth sockets. Do not replace teeth before preserving. Soak them separately. Never put ribs or patellae in preservative. These bones are to be bagged separately, labeled as untreated, and reserved for future chemical analyses. Do not glue bones together in the lab. Fitting, reconstruction, and conjoining should be left to the relevant analysts. Labeling. Label all bones and fragments. These should be labeled using a fine pen and India ink. Coat inked numbers with dilute acryloid B-72. Numbers will not be applied to articular surfaces. Storage. Each skeleton is to be curated in an individual cardboard box, lined with sheet plastic foam (polyethylene). Any paper used with the packaging will be acid-free. Fragments will be kept in a labeled ziploc bag with the remains. The box is to be labeled with a typed burial number, site name and number, feature number and estimated age and sex.

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TASKS, PRIORITY INFORMATION, AND RESPONSIBLE PARTIES


The following list of specialist data-collecting tasks will be conducted for each whole or partial skeleton after it has been cleaned, stabilized, labeled, and placed in a permanent storage container. These data will be gathered at Arizona State University: Management & overall PA responsibility Age and sex determinations Stature reconstruction M Pathology, skeletal M Bone sample transfer to Spielmann Cranial & dental deformation M Skeletal records & running inventory Skeletal measurements Skeletal non-metrics Life histories (enthesopathies) Dental metrics X-raying Pathology, dental Photography Cremations Dental non-metrics Taphonomy Special studies (as arise) Study of non-Project dentition Report writing and analysis Turner Irish Regan Regan Regan Turner Regan Regan Regan Regan, Irish, and Turner Irish Irish Irish Irish Irish Turner Turner To be determined Turner (non-Project funding) Turner, Regan, and Irish

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PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY LAB Equipment. The following items will be kept in the physical anthropology lab at the ASU Community Services Building. If they are removed sign out on the check sheet posted by the door. Indicate where the item has been temporarily moved to: Sliding and spreading calipers, dial caliper, sex dimorphism charts, France casts, calculator, Stewart-McKern and Suchey-Brooks pubic symphyses, auricular surface aging standards, sternal rib end standards, dental maturation charts (Ubelaker, Moorrees, Fanning and Hunt), long bone length standards (Ubelaker, Regan), epiphyseal appearance and union standards (Gray's, Bennett), nonmetric traits (code books), pathology descriptions, mounted skeleton, ASU dental plaques, enthesopathies (Hawkey), dental trays and casting materials, macrophotography stand, data-collecting forms, miscellaneous office supplies, work benches, lamps, dissecting microscope, computer terminal, shelving. X-ray equipment is located elsewhere in the CSB and in the Anthropology Department x-ray lab. FORMS NEEDED FOR LABORATORY ANALYSIS Checklist of jobs to be done (check off when finished, date, by whom) Skeletal inventory forms Cranial metrics Post-cranial metrics Cranial non-metrics Post-cranial non-metrics Sex determination Age determination Pathologies Dental forms Index of gracility Stature Note: These forms are not provided in this manual. SCHEDULING The physical anthropologist in charge of burial recovery will supervise and be responsible for all excavation, field record keeping, and laboratory stabilization. This person will see to the transport of the stabilized skeletons to ASU. The physical anthropologist at ASU will be responsible for the collecting and rapid transfer of certain information to the Archaeology Section. Lower priority information will be collected as time permits by the responsible person for each skeleton. That information will be given to the data processor for entry into the Project database and whatever other databases may be set up for basic physical anthropology needs. Report generation will follow the scheduling called for by the Research Director. Some aspects of the physical anthropology analysis will exceed the requirements of the Project research design, and these analyses will be presented at professional meetings when time and funding permit. Such professional presentations are to be cleared first with the Research Director. The final synthesis report is due Spring, 1997.

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SKELETAL METRIC MEASUREMENTS AND NONMETRIC TRAITS Prehistoric human skeletons are the direct remains of past peoples. As such, they constitute the only source of biological information available to paleohistorians. In addition to their usefulness in studies of prehistoric nutrition, health, and demography, skeletons are also useful in elucidating prehistoric biological relationships among and between various groups. Data used in biodistance studies includes metric and nonmetric (discrete) traits of the cranium and post-cranium. Multivariate statistical procedures have proven to be the most powerful analytical tools for the analysis of trait frequencies. The goals of biodistance studies include testing for gene influx into a stable population, testing archaeological hypotheses regarding prehistoric population movements, or determining the residence patterns of prehistoric societies. In addition to their use in studies of biological distance, skeletal nonmetric traits are used to generate a physical description of the study population. Male and female adult stature, degree of sexual dimorphism, and degree of skeletal robusticity are all computed from skeletal metric measurement. Subadult long bone growth estimates are generated from long bone lengths and are used as a measure of the nutritional adequacy of the prehistoric diet. These descriptions are also useful in interpopulation comparisons. Data collection on the RPMS skeletons will include both metric and discrete (nonmetric) traits. As many measurements as are reasonably possible will be taken. Listed below are the measurements that will be taken and the discrete traits that will be observed. The goal is to collect data that will be useful not only in generating physical descriptions of the skeletal population but that will also be useful in numerous other types of studies. An important goal of the RPMS data collection will be to generate a data base that can be used in a study of biological distance. The question of who the Salado were is one that remains to be answered. Biodistance studies based on skeletal metric and nonmetric traits are widely accepted as a means for estimating the biological closeness of various populations. Used correctly on the Salado skeletons, a biodistance study will allow us to tease out the relationships between the Salado and the Hohokam, the Anasazi, the Mogollon, and other Southwestern prehistoric populations. Previous Biodistance Studies In the American Southwest, biological studies based on skeletal traits have a long history. Early studies were based on cranial metric measurements and used low-power univariate statistical analyses. Hooton (1930) analyzed the skeletons from Pecos Pueblo. Using cranial metrics, he was able to discern population changes over time in the Pecos series (Seltzer 1944). Likewise, Hrdlicka (1931) used cranial metrics to characterize crania from the site of Old Hawikuh. Seltzer (1944) restudied the Hawikuh crania and compared them to crania from various other New Mexico sites. On the basis of means, standard deviations, coefficients of variation, and probable error, he judged the Southwest skeletons to represent one homogeneous population with no biological break between the Basketmakers and the Pueblo peoples. More recently, other researchers attempted to corroborate Seltzer's findings. Corruccini (1972) used various skeletal metric and nonmetric traits to compare three Pueblo groups to each other and to non-Southwestern skeletal samples. He found that the three Pueblo groups formed a distinct population when compared the non-Southwestern skeletons, but that when compared to each other there were significant differences. Corruccini concluded that there is not a unified Pueblo Indian gene pool. Bennett (1973) used 9 discrete and 26 metric cranial traits and 50 post-cranial metric traits to characterize the skeletons from Point of Pines in east central Arizona. He found no evidence at Point of Pines for the
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archaeologically-hypothesized Kayenta migration. Interpopulation comparisons resulted in some traits showing significant differences between the Point of Pines skeletons and skeletons from Mesa Verde, Casas Grandes, and Pecos Pueblo, but due to Bennett's choice of statistics (chi-square and t-tests), no biological distance measure was obtained. Other researchers have also detected differences between separate skeletal populations in the Southwest. McWilliams (1974) used cranial nonmetrics to discover evidence for a hypothesized gene flow into the Gran Quiviran population at the time of Spanish contact. He also compared his data to data from 11 other Southwest sites in order to determine the general pattern of Southwestern biological relationships. He found no evidence of Spanish admixture into the Gran Quivira gene pool. He did find, however, significant differences between some of the other 11 populations that he tested. Miller (1981) used both cranial metrics and nonmetrics to place Chavez Pass skeletons into the greater Southwest picture. He compared the Chavez pass data to data from 5 other sites. His results indicate a pattern of morphological homogeneity in the series that were tested, although there were sites that tended to cluster closer to one another than to others of the 6 samples. Birkby (1973), using 54 cranial nonmetric traits, was able to distinguish between four populations from east central Arizona. In contrast to the above results, evidence has been found to support Seltzer's (1944) conclusion of a unified Southwestern Pueblo type. El-Najjar (1974) used a suite of features including cranial metrics and nonmetrics to determine the biological relationships of skeletons from Canyon de Chelly compared to the rest of the Southwest. He found that there was a pattern at Canyon de Chelly of increasing homogeneity over time and that cranial metric traits produced results that were more concordant with the archaeology than did nonmetric traits. Shipman (1982), who restudied the same skeletons used by Birkby (1973), found that an expanded list of both metric and nonmetric traits indicated a pattern of morphological and biological similarity among the four east central Arizona populations studied. Skeletal metric and nonmetric studies are not limited solely to the American Southwest. Studies in the rest of the US (Suchey 1975; Lane and Sublett 1972; Jantz 1970), Canada (Cybulski 1975; Molto 1983; Saunders 1978; Ossenberg 1987), and elsewhere (Berry and Berry 1967; AC Berry 1974; Sokal et al. 1987; Keita 1988; Sawyer and Kiely 1987; Ossenberg 1986; Kaul and Pathak 1984), in addition to studies on non-human skeletons (Berry and Berry 1971; RJ Berry 1963, 1965) all indicate the usefulness of the skeleton in determining biological distance. Analytical Tools A wide array of statistical analyses have been employed in the analysis of metric and nonmetric skeletal traits. In addition to univariate descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, high-power multivariate statistics have been used with great success. Among the more commonly used are: mean measure of divergence (MMD) (McWilliams 1974; Lane and Sublett 1972; Saunders 1978; Molto 1983); Mahalanobis' D-; coefficient of divergence (El-Najjar 1974); taximetric cluster statistic (McWilliams 1974); multidimensional scaling (Molto 1983); canonical discriminant function (Keita 1988); and F statistics (Mackey 1977). Data Gathering An important debate continues over the choice of sampling universe for nonmetric traits. Nonmetric traits can be scored using either the individual or the sides of the individual as the unit of analysis. Ossenberg (1981) argues for the use of sides as the unit of analysis because she feels that bilateral occurrence of traits indicates greater genetic liability. On the opposite side, Korey (1980) argues for the use of the individual as the unit of analysis. Korey feels that to use both sides of one individual
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in an analysis introduces redundant information, since one individual is counted as two units of analysis. McGrath et al. (1984) have sided with Korey (1980) in this argument. They found significant genetic correlation between sides, thus supporting Korey's feeling that use of sides introduces redundancy into the analysis. The argument over the appropriate unit of analysis for bilateral traits is far from settled. In the data gathering on the RPMS skeletons, both sides will be scored for bilateral nonmetric traits. This will insure that in the future researchers will be able to use either the individual or the sides of the individual as the unit of analysis. To collect information at this time from only one side of the skeleton would risk prejudicing the resultant database and possibly making it unusable in future studies.

Observer Error The issue of inter- and intra-observer error is an important one and will be dealt with continually during data gathering. Previous researchers have published on this issue, and their recommendations will be taken into consideration (Jamison and Zegura 1974; Molto 1979; Finnegan and Rubison 1980). All measurements on a sample of skeletons will be rechecked at appropriate intervals. Notice will be made of measurements that differ significantly between measurement times and all efforts will be made to make the most troublesome measurements easier to take with replicable results. It is important that the data entered into this database be as clean as possible, for the opportunity for re-measurement may not always exist.

METRIC MEASUREMENTS
Standard measurements will be taken on all individual skeletons recovered. Such data constitutes an archival database from which data can be drawn for future studies. Listed below are measurements compiled primarily from one standard reference manual (Bass 1987) except for a few cases, in which the reference is listed next to the measurement. Both left and right bones will be measured. The compilation of these measurements is necessary not only for a physical description of the RPMS skeletons but also for estimation of sexual dimorphism and comparisons between different populations. In addition, long bone lengths of sub-adult skeletons are used to estimate rates of growth and nutritional quality of the diet. CRANIUM 1. Maximum length. From glabella to opisthocranion. Glabella is the most forward projecting point in the midline of the forehead at the level of the supraorbital ridges and above the nasofrontal suture. Opisthocranion is the most posterior point on the skull that is not on the external occipital protuberance. It is not a fixed point but is determined with the calipers. Measurement is taken with a spreading caliper. 2. Maximum breadth. From euryon to euryon. Euryon is a bilaterally paired point that forms the terminus of the line of greatest breadth of the skull. Not a fixed point but determined with the calipers. Measurement is taken with a spreading caliper. 3. Maximum height (basion-bregma height). From basion to bregma. Basion is the midpoint of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum that is most distant from bregma. Bregma is located at the intersection of the sagittal and coronal sutures on the midline. Measurement is taken with a spreading caliper.

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4. Porion-bregma height. From porion to bregma. Porion is the uppermost lateral point in the margin of the external auditory meatus. Bregma is described in no. 3. Measurement taken with a headspanner. 5. Basion-porion height. From basion to porion. Both points described above. Measurement is taken with a coordinate caliper. 6. Auricular height. From porion to the apex. The apex is the point where a line perpendicular to the Frankfurt Horizontal intersects the midsagittal contour. Porion is described in no. 4. Measurement taken with a headspanner. 7. Minimum frontal breadth. From fronto-temporale to fronto-temporale. Fronto-temporale is the most medial point on the incurve of the temporal ridge, on the frontal bones just above the zygornaticofrontal suture. Measurement is taken with a spreading or sliding caliper. 8. Total facial height. From nasion to gnathion. Nasion is located where the nasofrontal suture intersects the midsagittal plane. Gnathion is the lowest median point on the lower border of the mandible. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. Teeth must be occluded. 9. Upper facial height. From nasion to alveolare. Nasion is described in no. 8. Alveolare is the apex of the septum between the upper central incisors. Also called infradentale superius. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 10. Facial width (bizygomatic breadth). From zygion to zygion. Zygion is the most lateral point of the zygomatic arch. Not a fixed point but determined with the calipers. Measured with spreading or sliding calipers. 11. Nasal height. From nasion to nasospinale. Nasion is described in no. 8. Nasospinale is the point at which a line drawn between the lower margins of the right and left nasal apertures intersects the midsagittal plane. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 12. Nasal breadth. From alare to alare. Alare is the most lateral point on the nasal aperture. Not a fixed point but determined with the calipers. Taken at right angles to the line of nasal height. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 13. Orbital height. This is defined as the maximum height from the upper to the lower orbital borders. It is perpendicular to the horizontal axis. The middle of the inferior orbital border is used as a fixed point, and the superior point is defined with the calipers. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 14. Orbital breadth. From maxillofrontale to ectoconchion. Maxillofrontale is defined as the intersection between the frontomaxillary suture and the anterior lacrimal crest (or crest extended). Ectoconchion is the point of maximum breadth on the lateral wall of the orbit. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 15. Maxilloalveolar length (external length). From prosthion to alveolon. Prosthion is the most anterior point in the midline on the upper alveolar process. Do not confuse this with alveolare (see no. 9 above). Alveolon is the intersection of the palatal midline with a line drawn through the termini of the alveolar ridges. Measurement is taken with a sliding or hinge caliper.

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16. Maxilloalveolar breadth (external breadth). From ectomolare to ectomolare. Ectomolare is the most lateral point on the outer surface of the alveolar margins, usually around the second permanent molar. Measurement is taken with a sliding or hinge caliper. 17. Palatal length. From orale to staphylion. Orale is the intersection of the midsagittal plane with a line drawn tangent to the curves in the alveolar margin immediately behind the central incisors. Staphylion is the intersection of the midsagittal plane with a line drawn tangent to the curves of the posterior palatal margin. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 18. Palatal breadth (biendomolare). From endomolare to endomolare. Endomolare is the most medial point on the lingual surface of the alveolar ridge at the middle of the upper second molar. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 19. Bicondylar breadth. From condylion to condylion. Condylion is the most lateral point on the mandibular condyle. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 20. Bigonial breadth. From gonion to gonion. Gonion is defined as the midpoint of the mandibular angle between the ramus and the body. Bass offers a helpful hint for determining its location: draw one line that is tangent to the posterior border of the ramus; draw a second line that is tangent to the inferior edge of the body. A line bisecting the angle created by the two tangents will determine the location of gonion. The bigonial breadth measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. 21. Height of ascending ramus. From gonion to the uppermost part of the condyle. Gonion is defined in no. 20, above. Measurement is taken using sliding caliper. 22. Minimum breadth of ascending ramus. This is the minimum distance between the anterior and posterior borders of the ascending ramus. Left side is considered the standard for comparison, but either side can be measured. 23. Height of mandibular symphysis. From gnathion to infradentale. Gnathion is described in no. 8, above. Infradentale is the apex of the septum between the lower central incisors. Measurement is taken with a sliding caliper. POST-CRANIAL SKELETON SACRUM 24. Maximum anterior height. From the sacral promontory to the middle of the anteroinferior border of the last sacral vertebra. Use only sacra with 5 segments for comparative purposes. 25. Maximum anterior breadth. Taken on the first sacral vertebrae. Defined as the greatest distance between the wings (lateral masses). STERNUM (From Jit et al. 1980) 26. Length of the manubrium. 27. Length of the mesosternum (gladiolus). 28. Width of first and third sternebrae.

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SCAPULA 29. Maximum length (total height). Defined as the maximum distance from the superior to the inferior borders. Taken with a sliding caliper or on an osteometric board. 30. Maximum breadth. From the middle of the dorsal border of the glenoid fossa to the end of the spinal axis on the vertebral border. Taken with a sliding caliper. 31. Length of spine. The distance from the most lateral point on the acromial process to the medial end of the spinal axis along the vertebral border of the scapula. Taken with a sliding caliper. 32. Length of supraspinous line. From the top of the anterior angle (same point as in no. 29) to the end of the spinal axis on the vertebral border (same point as in nos. 30, 31). Taken with a sliding caliper. 33. Length of infraspinous line. From the end of the spinal axis on the vertebral border (same point as in 30-32) to the tip of the posterior angle (same point as in no. 29). Taken with a sliding caliper. 34. Length of glenoid cavity (After Stewart 1979). From the inferior border of the glenoid cavity to the most elevated point on the supra-glenoid tubercle. Taken with a sliding caliper. CLAVICLE 35. Maximum length. From the sternal to the scapular ends. Taken either with a sliding caliper or on an osteometric board. 36. Circumference at middle of bone. Taken at the middle of the shaft using a metal tape or strip of graph paper. HUMERUS 37. Maximum length. From the most proximal surface of the head to the most distal point on the trochlea. Taken on an osteometric board. Bass recommends moving the bone up and down and side to side in order to obtain the maximum length. 38. Maximum diameter of the midshaft. Midpoint of shaft is determined on the osteometric board. A sliding caliper is used to determine the direction of greatest diameter. It is generally in an anteromedial direction. 39. Minimum diameter of the midshaft. Taken with a sliding caliper at a right angle to the maximum diameter. 40 . Maximum diameter of the head. Taken from a point on the edge of the articular surface of the bone across to the opposite side. A sliding caliper is used for this and the bone is rotated until the maximum distance is obtained. 41. Least circumference of the shaft. Taken distal to the deltoid tuberosity at about the second one-third of the shaft. Taken using a steel tape.

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RADIUS 42. Maximum length. Measured from the head to the most distal point of the styloid process. Taken on an osteometric board. ULNA 43. Maximum length. Measured from the tip of the olecranon process to the tip of the styloid process. Taken on an osteometric board. 44. Physiological length. Taken from the deepest point on the longitudinal ridge on the floor of the semilunar notch to the deepest point on the distal surface of the head excluding the groove between the styloid process and the head. Taken using a hinge caliper. 45. Least circumference of the shaft. Taken at a point located slightly proximal to the distal epiphysis where the shaft is nearly cylindrical. Taken using a metal tape. INNOMINATE 46. Maximum height. From the ischial tuberosity to the iliac crest. Bass recommends placing the ischial tuberosity against the fixed upright of the osteometric board and the iliac crest against the movable upright. To obtain the maximum length, move the bone up and down and side to side until a maximum is reached. Taken on an osteometric board. 47. Maximum breadth. Defined as the distance between the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines. Taken on an osteometric board or with a sliding caliper. FEMUR 48. Maximum length. Bass recommends placing the distal condyles against the fixed vertical of an osteometric board and the head against the movable upright. Raise the bone up and down and side to side until the maximum length is obtained. Taken on an osteometric board. 49. Bicondylar length (oblique or physiological length). With the bone lying flat on the osteometric board, place both of the distal condyles against the fixed upright and use the movable upright to measure the length. 50. Anterior-posterior diameter of the midshaft. Locate midshaft using an osteometric board. Determine maximum A-P diameter using a sliding caliper. 51. Mediolateral diameter of the midshaft. Taken perpendicular to the previous measurement. 52. Maximum diameter of the head. Taken on the periphery of the femoral head. Bass recommends rotating the bone until the maximum distance is obtained. Taken with a sliding caliper. 53. Circumference of the midshaft. Taken with a cloth tape wrapped around the middle of the femoral shaft. Bone contours are followed even if the linea aspera is prominent. 54. Subtrochanteric anterior-posterior diameter. Taken on the shaft just distal to the lesser trochanter. Avoid the gluteal tuberosity. Taken with sliding caliper.
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55. Subtrochanteric mediolateral diameter. Taken at the same level as the A-P diameter but at a right angle to it. Also taken with a sliding caliper.

TIBIA 56. Maximum length. From the distal end of the medial malleolus to the lateral half of the lateral condyle, not including the intercondyloid eminences. Bass recommends placing the malleolus against the fixed upright of an osteometric board with the bone resting on its posterior surface and use the movable block against the lateral condyle. 57. Anterior-posterior diameter at the nutrient foramen. Taken with a sliding caliper. 58. Mediolateral diameter at the nutrient foramen. Taken with a sliding caliper at right angles to previous measurement. 59. Circumference at the nutrient foramen. Taken with a cloth tape or dental floss. Follow the contours of the bone. FIBULA 60. Maximum length. Maximum distance between the proximal and distal ends. Taken on an osteometric board. STATURE ESTIMATES Adult male and female stature for the RPMS skeletons will be determined using the formulas of Genoves (1967). Various formulas for estimating stature exist (e.g.,Trotter and Gleser 1952, 1958) but the formulas derived by Genoves (1967) are considered more accurate when dealing with prehistoric Amerindians. Genoves derived his formulas from measurements of "pure" Mexican Indians, thus reducing the effect of genetic admixture from European and African populations. Genoves' (1967) formulas for male and female stature are (measurements taken in centimeters): Males All bones: Stature = 2.52Rad - 0.07UIna + 0.44Hum + 2.98Fib- 0.49Tib + 0.68Fem + 95.113 o2.614. Femur: Stature = 2.26Fem + 66.379 0 3.417 Tibia: Stature = 1.96Tib + 93.752 6 2.812 Females All bones: Stature = 8.66Rad - 7.37UIna + 1.25Tib - 0.93Fem+ 96.674 6 2.812 Femur: Stature = 2.59Fem + 49.742 6 3.816 Tibia: Stature = 2.72Tib + 63.7810 3.513 Genoves notes that 2.5 cm must be subtracted from the result in order to obtain the stature while alive.

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NONMETRIC TRAIT DESCRIPTIONS


Listed below are many of the cranial and postcranial discrete traits that are scored in biological distance studies. Unless otherwise noted, descriptions for the cranial discrete traits are taken from Berry and Berry (1967), which is a standard reference for these traits. Trait descriptions for the postcrania are taken from Finnegan (1978) or Saunders (1978); the appropriate reference is noted in the trait description. CRANIUM (Berry and Berry 1967) 1. Highest nuchal line present. Defined as a third line above the superior nuchal line, arising commonly with the superior nuchal line at the external occipital protuberance and arching anteriorly and laterally. More easily felt than seen. 2. Ossicle at lambda. A bone occurring at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. 3. Lambdoid ossicle present. Ossicle(s) occurring in the lambdoid suture. 4. Parietal foramen present. Pierces the parietal bone near the sagittal suture a few centimeters in front of lambda. 5. Bregmatic bone present. Sutural bone occurring at the junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures. 6. Metopism. Persistence of the metopic suture beyond the first two years of life. 7. Coronal ossicle present. Ossicle(s) in the coronal suture. 8. Epipteric bone present. Sutural bone inserted between the anterior inferior angle of the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid. 9. Fronto-temporal articulation. Articulation between the frontal and temporal bones at pterion. Also called "K"-shaped pterion. 10. Parietal notch bone present. Ossicle at the parietal notch, near the squamous and mastoid parts of the temporal bone. 11. Ossicle at asterion. Ossicle at the junction of the parietal bone with the occipital bone and the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. 12. Auditory torus present - Defined as a bony ridge on the floor of the external auditory meatus. 13. Foramen of Huschke present. Foramen in the floor of the external auditory meatus persisting beyond the fifth year of life. Also called tympanic dehiscence. 14. Mastoid foramen exsutural. Mastoid foramen located not in its usual sutural position but piercing the mastoid process or the occipital bone. 15. Mastoid foramen absent.
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16. Posterior condylar canal patent. Canal piercing the condylar fossa and passing through the bone. Scored as not present if the canal does not pass completely through the bone. 17. Condylar facet double. The articular surface of the occipital condyle divided into two distinct facts. 18. Precondylar tubercle present. A bony tubercle immediately anterior and medial to the occipital condyle. 19. Anterior condylar canal double. Canal divided into two for most or all of its length. Most easily scored by looking inside the foramen magnum. 20. Foramen ovale incomplete. The postero-lateral wall of the foramen ovale is incomplete so that it is continuous with the foramen spinosum. 21. Foramen spinosum open. The posterior wall of the foramen is deficient. 22. Accessory lesser palatine foramen present. When more than one lesser palatine foramen is present. 23. Palatine torus present. Bony ridge running longitudinally in the midline of the hard palate. 24. Maxillary torus present. A bony ridge running along the lingual aspect of the maxilla near the molar teeth. 25. Zygomatico-facial foramen absent. Foramen located at the junction of the infraorbital and lateral margins of the orbit. 26. Supraorbital foramen complete. Complete closure of the supraorbital notch. 27. Frontal notch or foramen present. Secondary foramen in the vicinity of (lateral to) the supraorbital foramen. 28. Anterior ethmoid foramen exsutural. Normally pierces the suture between the orbital plates of the frontal and ethmoid bones, but occasionally is located above the suture. 29. Posterior ethmoid foramen absent. Located behind the anterior ethmoid foramen. 30. Accessory infraorbital foramen present. POSTCRANIAL DISCRETE TRAITS VERTEBRAE 31. Transverse foramen bipartite. Found in C3-C7 (Finnegan 1978:30). 32. Lateral bridge. Found on C1. A bridge of bone extending from the superior articular process laterally to the transverse process. The bridge creates a tunnel for the vertebral artery (Finnegan 1978:30).

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33. Posterior bridge. Found on C1. A bridge of bone extending from the superior articular process posteriorly to the posterior arch. A common variant of the atlas (Finnegan 1978:27). 34. Atlas facet form. On the superior articular facet; it may take many forms. May be long and oval or two distinct facets. Scored as single or double. 35. Missing transverse process of U. (Saunders 1978:76) 36. Mammillary foramen. Results form "an ossification of the ligaments between the mammillary process and the accessory process of the lumbar vertebrae." (Saunders 1978:77). Most common on L4 and L5. 37. Retroarticular bridge. "A bony bridge extended posteriorly from the posterior border of the transverse process to the border of the posterior arch." (Saunders 1978:75). Found on C1.

FEMUR 38. Allen's fossa. Located near the superior anterior margin of the femoral neck close to the border of the head. Can vary in size up to 1 cm. Finnegan 0 978:24) states that to be scored as present, the underlying trabeculae must be visible. 39. Poirier's facet. Located on the proximal articular surface. A "noticeable, however slight, bulging of the articular surface... toward the anterior portion of the femoral neck." (Finnegan 1978:24). Poirier's facet is smooth and should not be confused with Allen's fossa, which is rough. Shipman (1982) says that in practice it is often difficult to distinguish between none and slight bulging. 40. Plaque. Located in the same area as nos. 38 and 39. It is defined as an overgrowth or bony scar extending from the region of Poirier's facet. May often involve Allen's fossa as well (Finnegan 1978:24). 41. Hypotrochanteric fossa. Found on the posterior proximal portion of the shaft between the gluteal ridge and the lateral margin. Finnegan (1978:24) states that it is often in close association with the third trochanter and the gluteal ridge. 42. Exostosis in trochanteric fossa. The fossa is usually smooth but may have bony spicules present (Finnegan 1978:25). Shipman (1982:88) states that scoring small exostoses is difficult. 43. Third trochanter. Defined as a rounded tubercle at the superior end of the gluteal crest. Differs from a gluteal ridge in resembling the lesser trochanter, "an oblong, rounded, or conical bony turberosity" (Finnegan 1978:25). A "roughened appearance should indicate that it is not a third trochanter" (Shipman 1982:88). TIBIA 44. Medial tibial squatting facet. Defined as an extension of the inferior articular surface into the medial surface of the fossa for attachment of the joint capsule (Finnegan 1978:25). 45. Lateral tibial squatting facet. Similar to the above, but the inferior articular surface extends onto the lateral surface of the fossa for attachment of the articular capsule (Finnegan 1978:25).

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HUMERUS 46. Supracondyloid process. Defined as a "small bony process arising from the medial supracondylar ridge 5-7 cm above the medial epicondyle" (Finnegan 1978:25). Length can vary, from 2-20 cm. Finnegan states that the process is usually pointed and oriented distally, anteriorly, and medially. 47. Septal aperture. An opening between the coronoid and olecranon fossae. Both Finnegan (1978) and Shipman (1982) urge caution in identifying this trait, as damage to archaeological specimens may often mimic its appearance. ULNA 48. Trochlear notch form. The articular surface may exist as two discrete facets. It is usually continuous or may have some degree of notching but still be one surface (Saunders 1978:67). INNOMINATE 49. Acetabular crease. Defined as a fold, pleat, crease (Finnegan 1978:25), pit, or notch (Shipman 1982:87) on the -articular surface. 50. Accessory sacral facets. Located posterior to the auricular surface. May also be on the sacrum. "On the ilium, it is located on the iliac tuberosity ... while on the sacrum it is observed on the sacral tuberosity" (Finnegan 1978:26). SCAPULA 51. Acromial articular facet. Located on the inferior acromial surface below the attachment for the coracoacromial ligament (Finnegan 1978:26). 52. Suprascapular foramen. A foramen is present instead of a suprascapular notch. Finnegan (1978:26) says to score as present only if a complete foramen is present. 53. Circumflex sulcus. Located on the posterolateral border bisecting the area for the origin of teres minor (Finnegan 1978:26). Shipman (1982:87) states that it may be broad and shallow. PATELLA 54. Vastus notch. Located on the superior lateral patellar angle. The notch is a concavity and the borders must be smooth (Finnegan 1978:26). 55. Vastus fossa. A "small depression located just anterior to the vastus notch" (Finnegan 1978:26). The notch need not be present for the definition of the fossa. 56. Emarginate patella. Also called bipartite patella. Similar to the vastus notch, only the notch is larger and very rough. Does not occur with either vastus fossa or notch (Finnegan 1978:26). TALUS 57. Os trigonum. According to Finnegan (1978:26) "[t]he posterior border of the talus shows a groove for the tendon of flexor hallucis longus. Immediately lateral to this groove there may be a small
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process known as Steida's process. When this process is not fused, or is only partially fused, with the posterior border of the talus, it is known as the os trigonum." May be detected archaeologically by incomplete fusion of the process or the presence of an articular face for the os trigonum. 58. Medial talar facet. A facet which does not follow the contours of the trochlear surface may be present on the upper medial surface of the talar neck (Finnegan 1978:27). 59. Lateral talar facet. Defined as "an extension of the lateral third of the anterior trochlear margin on to the neck of the talus" (Finnegan 1978:27). 60. Inferior talar articular surface. 'The inferior surface of the head of the talus may present only large articular surface, or may be divided into two surfaces which are either two discrete facets, or are continuous, but are on different planes. This variant is scored as single or double" (Finnegan 1978:27). CALCANEUS 61. Anterior calcaneal facet double. Trait is present when two discrete anterior and middle articular facets are present (Finnegan 1978:27). 62. Anterior calcaneal facet absent. Defined as a missing anterior part of a double anterior calcaneal facet (Finnegan 1978:27). 63. Peroneal tubercle. Located on the anterior lateral surface. Scored as present when it is not conjoined with the attachment area for the calcaneo-fibular ligament (Finnegan 1978:27). CUBOID 64. Navicular and calcaneal facets contiguous. (Shipman 1982:89). FIRST CUNEIFORM 65. Discrete facet for second metatarsal or second cuneiform. The facets for W2, the second cuneiform, and the navicular are usually contiguous. Scored as present if the facets for MT2 and the second cuneiform are discrete from that for the navicular or from each other (Shipman 1982:90). FIRST METATARSAL 66. Facet for second metatarsal. A facet located on the lateral side of the proximal end for articulation with the corresponding surface to the second metatarsal (Shipman 1982:89).

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SCORING DENTAL TRAITS


METHODS
ASU DENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY SYSTEM. SCORING PROCEDURES FOR KEY MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF THE PERMANENT DENTITION. The procedures used here are based on well-established criteria for scoring intra-trait variation, or on a relatively new series of reference plaques developed in the Dental Anthropology Laboratory of Arizona State University. The criteria used for partitioning the variation of a given trait in the ASU system are: (1) Establish a threshold or very weak expression, (2) partition the variation into grades that have an equal class interval, and (3) try to establish more than five but less than ten grades of occurrence. Fewer than five and more than ten grades have been found to cause considerable intra- and inter-observer error in scoring. The ASU methodology was initially aided by a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation. Several students have contributed directly to the system. These are identified for each of the studied traits. 1. Winging. Upper central incisors. Procedure first developed by Enoki and Dahlberg (1958), and modified by Turner in 1970. No reference plaque. Scoring: 1. Bilateral winging. Central incisors are rotated mesiolingualward, giving a V-shaped appearance when viewed from the occlusal surface. When the angle formed is greater than 20 degrees, it is classed as 1A; when less than 20 degrees, 1B. Unilateral winging. Only one of the incisors is rotated. The other is straight. No subclasses are recognized. Straight. Both teeth form a straight labial surface, or follow the curvature of the dental arcade. Counter-winging. One or both teeth are rotated distolingualward.

2 3. 4.

Comment: Judgment is required if winging is present and there is crowding of adjacent teeth. 2. Shoveling. Upper central incisors. The scaling of this feature was first proposed by Hrdlicka (1920), a plaque developed by Dahlberg (1956), and an expanded classification developed by Scott (1973). Reference plaque: ASU UIl shovel. Scoring: 0. 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. None. Lingual surface is essentially flat. Faint. Very slight elevations of mesial and distal aspects of lingual surface can be seen and palpated. Trace. Elevations are easily seen. This grade probably considered minimal expression by most observers. Semi-shovel. Stronger ridging is present and there is a tendency for ridge convergence at the cingulum. Semi-shovel. Convergence and ridging are stronger than in grade 3. Shovel. Strong development of ridges, which almost contact at cingulum. Marked shovel. Strongest development. Mesial and distal lingual ridges are sometimes in contact at the cingulum.

Comment: This scaling approximates that of Hrdlicka as: ASU 0 = Hrdlicka none; 1-2 = trace; 3-4 = semi-shovel; 5-6 = shovel. Shoveling (Scott, 1973) differs on the lateral incisor, mainly
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by the rare occurrence of a barrel-shaped form (grade 7) that exceeds grade 6 of the central incisors. To be considered barrel-shaped, the form should not result from a hypertrophied tuberculum dentale. Lower incisor shoveling correlates with that of the upper teeth. ASU U12 and Ll shovel plaques (Scott, 1973). Because shoveling correlates on all incisors and upper canine only one tooth should be used in characterizing populations, preferably the upper central incisor. Canine shoveling can be scored using the U12 plaque. The three plaques can be employed for studying general shoveling field effect. 3. Curvature of labial surface. Upper central incisors. Procedure developed by Nichol, Turner, and Dahlberg (1984). Reference plaque: ASU UI1 labial curvature. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. Labial surface is flat. There is no convexity at location approximately 1/3 from unworn occlusal surface, or 2/3 distance from crown-root junction. Labial surface exhibits trace curvature. Labial surface exhibits weak curvature. Labial surface exhibits moderate curvature. Labial surface exhibits strong curvature.

Comment: Labial curvature is inversely correlated with double-shoveling. The two traits should not be used together when a study assumes independent traits. 4. Double-shoveling. Upper central incisors. A standard reference as developed by Dahlberg in 1956. An older ASU standard was followed until 1979 when the present procedure as developed (Turner and Dawda Laidler, n.d.). Reference plaque: ASU UI1 double-shovel. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Labial surface is smooth. Faint mesial and distal ridging can be seen in strong contrasting light. Distal ridge may be absent in this and stronger grades. Trace ridging. Semi-double-shovel. Ridging can be readily palpated. Double-shovel. Ridging is pronounced on at least 1/2 of total crown length. Pronounced double-shovel. Ridging is very prominent and may occur from the occlusal surface to the crown-root junction.

Comment: Judgment about double-shoveling presence if not grade can be safely made on heavily worn teeth when grade 6 occurs. The correspondence between the older ASU scale and the present one is: Old 0 = new 0-1; old 1-3 = new 26. Double-shoveling also occurs on the upper lateral incisors, canines, first premolars and lower incisors. In practice I have used the ASU UIl double-shovel plaque to grade these additional teeth. Although the correspondence in form is not especially good, the strength of the ridging can usually be assessed without difficulty. 5. Interruption groove. Upper lateral incisor. Feature first systematically studied by Turner (1967). No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. M. None. Mesial, distal, and medial areas of incisor lingual surface are smooth, continuous, and not disrupted by any vertical to near-horizontal groove. An interruption groove occurs on the mesiolingual border.

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D. MD. Med.

An interruption groove occurs on the distolingual border. Grooves occur on both the mesio- and distolingual borders. A groove occurs in the medial area of the cingulum.

Comment: The morphogenesis of these grooves is not understood, but they seem related to tuberculum dentale]. Because the location of most interruption grooves is near the crown base, they can be usually be scored on heavily worn teeth. However, they are probably often obscured by gingival tissue in the living, so considerable judgment should be exercised in their use for characterizing living populations, especially if children are included. Interruption grooves also occur on the upper central incisor but less frequently than on the lateral.

6. Tuberculum dentale. Upper lateral incisor. Several attempts have been made to classify tuberculum dentale variation. None has been fully satisfactory and much within and between-observer error has been found (Nichol and Turner, in press). Reference plaque: Combination of ASU UI1 tuberculum dentale, ASU UC distal accessory ridge plaques (Scott, 1973, and verbal descriptions. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5-. 5. No expression. Cingular region of lingual surface is smooth. Ignore any shoveling presence. Faint ridging. Matches grade 1 of ASU U11 t.d. plaque. Trace ridging. Matches grade 2 of ASU U11 t.d. plaque. Strong ridging. Matches grade 3 of ASU U11 t.d. plaque. Pronounced ridging. Matches grade 4 of ASU U11 t.d. plaque. A weakly developed cuspule is attached to either the mesio- or distolingual ridge. Cuspule apex is not free. Weakly developed cuspule with a free apex. Size corresponds approximately with ASU UC DAR plaque grade 4 tuberculum dentale. Strong cusp with free apex. Size is equal to or greater then the ASU UC DAR plaque grade 5 tuberculum dentale.

6.

Comment: Tuberculum dentale (referred to as mediolingual ridging) is also scored on the upper central incisor using the U11 t.d. plaque. Ridge strength, not number of ridges is assessed. Similarly tuberculum dentale expression on the upper canine can be evaluated, using the above procedure. Only one of the three teeth should be used for population characterization. The center of the tuberculum dentale morphogenetic field and most variation seems to be at the lateral incisor, this tooth is preferred for population descriptive purposes. 7. Canine mesial ridge. Upper canine. Trait first studied by Morris (1978) who termed it "Bushman canine." In keeping with all other trait names, which do not have ethnic labels, an anatomical name is used here. Trait variation scale developed by Turner and Dale Klausner in 1979. Reference plaque: ASU UC mesial ridge. Scoring: 0. 1. 2 3. Mesial and distal lingual ridges are the same size. Neither is attached to tuberculum dentale if it is present. Neither is attached to tuberculum dentale if it is present. Mesiolingual ridge is larger than the distolingual ridge, and moderately attached to tuberculum dentale. Mesiolingual ridge is much more pronounced in size than the distolingual ridge and fully incorporated into tuberculum dentale.
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Comment: The canine lingual surface morphology of grade 3 appears strongly asymmetrical when viewed from the lingual aspect. Grade 3 is Morris's type form. This trait is seldom bilaterally symmetrical. 8. Canine distal accessory ridge. Upper and lower canine. Observation standards first developed by Scott (1973). Reference plaque ASU UC and LC DAR. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Distal accessory ridge is absent. Distal accessory ridge is very faint. No example is provided on plaque. Distal accessory ridge is weakly developed. Distal accessory ridge is moderately developed. Distal accessory ridge is strongly developed. Distal accessory ridge is very pronounced.

Comment: There is no dentine involvement in this trait. It can be worn off without any trace of having been present. For population studies use DAR scores of children and young adults. The same scaling applies to the lower canine DAR. 9. Premolar mesial and distal accessory cusps. Upper premolars. Procedure proposed by Turner (1967). No plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. No accessory cusps occur. Mesial and/or distal accessory cusps are present.

Comment: Cusps are defined by strong separation from both the lingual and buccal cusps. What may appear as a very small accessory cusp, but is still attached to either the lingual or buccal cusps, is scored as absent. No apparent dentine involvement occurs, so observations should be limited to younger individuals. 10. Tri-cusped premolars. Upper premolars. Observed in southwestern U. S. Indians but almost nowhere else in the world. No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. Extra distal cusp ("hypocone") is absent. Hypocone is present. Its size equals that of the normal lingual cusp.

Comment: This is a very rare premolar variant (>1/8000 teeth). One specimen (UARK Upper Nodena 256) has the hypocone and a crown configuration like the following trait. 11. Distosagittal ridge. Upper first premolar. Trait first defined and termed "Uto-Aztecan premolar" by Morris (Morris, Glasstone Hughes, and Dahlberg, 1978). No plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. Normal premolar form occurs. Distosagittal ridge is present.

Comment: This variant occurs when a pronounced ridge from the apex of the buccal cusp extends to the distal occlusal border at or near the sagittal sulcus. The buccal surface of the premolar is also rotated mesialwards. The lingual cusp retains its normal position. It is possible that the distosagittal ridge is an intermediate or weak expression of the very rare tri-cusped first premolar defined above.

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12. Metacone. Upper molars. Plaque developed by Turner and Diane Kaschner in 1978. Reference plaque: ASU UM metacone. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 3.5. 4. 5. Metacone (cusp 3) is absent. An attached ridge is present at the metacone site, but there is no free cusp apex. A faint cuspule with a free apex is present. Weak cusp is present. An intermediate-sized cusp is present (not shown on plaque). Metacone is large. Metacone is very large (equal to a large M1 hypocone).

Comment: The present plaque was developed specifically for the third molar, but works reasonably well for the other molars if form is ignored. The grade 3.5 was inserted (but not on plaque) after field testing revealed the need for another full interval grade. The designation 3.5 does not mean the interval is less than the other grades; it has been added so as not to have to change computer files of hundreds of earlier observations. 13. Hypocone. Upper molars. Plaque developed by Meredith Larson (1978) and modified by Turner and Scott in 1975. Reference plaque: ASU UM hypocone. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 3.5. 4. 5. No hypocone (cusp 4). Site is smooth. Faint ridging present. Faint cuspule present Small cusp present. Moderate-sized cusp present. Large cusp present. Very large cusp present.

Comment: As with the metacone a full interval grade had to be added to the plaque after development. This is designated 3.5. The plaque works well with the first two molars, but judgment is required for the third molar as many distal accessory cuspules can be present, and cusp 5 can be larger than the hypocone. Identifying homologous distal cusps on the third molar can be difficult. 14.Cusp 5 (metaconule). Upper molars. Plaque developed by Turner and Richard Warner in 1977. A similar scale but no plaque was developed by Harris (1977). Plaque reference: ASU UM cusp 5. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Site of cusp 5 is smooth, there being only a single distal groove present separating cusps 3 and 4. Faint cuspule present. Trace cuspule present. Small cuspule present. Small cusp present. Medium-sized cusp present.

Comment: When present cusp 5 usually has two adjacent distal grooves. On a worn tooth, double-grooving can be used to identify that cusp 5 had been present. However, this means of identification should not be used for the third molar where multiple distal grooves are common, even in the absence of any cusps.

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15. Carabelli's trait. Upper molars. Plaque developed by A. A. Dahlberg (1956). Plaque reference: Zoller Laboratory UM Carabelli cusp. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The mesiolingual aspect (site of Carabelli's trait) of cusp 1 (protocone) is smooth. A groove is present. A pit is present. A small Y-shaped depression is present. A large Y-shaped depression is present. A small cusp occurs but it lacks a free apex and its distal border does not contact the lingual groove separating cusps 1 and 4. A medium-sized attached-apex cusp is present that makes contact with the medial lingual groove. A large free cusp is present.

Comment: This classification was developed by Dahlberg and lettered instead of being numbered for the eight grades. The plaque works ell for all three molars. A pit can occur in the medial lingual groove, which is suspected of being related to Carabelli's trait. 16. Parastyle. Upper third molar. The parastyle is one of the paramolar cusps of Bolk (1916). Plaque developed by Joseph F. Katich and Turner in 1974. Plaque reference: ASU UM parastyle. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The buccal surfaces of cusps 2 and 3 (paracone and metacone) are smooth. A pit is present in or near the buccal groove between cusps 2 and 3. Small cusp present with attached apex, usually on cusp 2. Medium-sized cusp present with free apex anywhere on the buccal surface. Large cusp present with free apex anywhere on the buccal surface. Very large cusp present with free apex anywhere on the buccal surface. An effectively free peg-shaped crown is present, attached to the third molar root (not given on plaque). This condition is extremely rare.

Comment: The site of the parastyle variation is most often on the third molar buccal surface of cusp 2. However, its position is either not morphogenetically fixed, since a structure can occur on the buccal surface of cusp 3 of any molar, or an independent feature is being confused with the parastyle. Given the rarity of the parastyle, any expression on the buccal surface is scored. 17. Enamel extensions. Upper molars and premolars. Pedersen (1949) was the first worker to systematically score this feature and his classification is followed with minor modification. No reference plaque). Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. Enamel border is straight, or rarely curved towards the crown. Score any extension not attached to crown as absent. A faint, approximately 1.0 mm long enamel extension projects towards and along the root. A medium-sized, approximately 2.0 mm long enamel extension. A lengthy extension, generally greater than 4.0 mm in length is present. It may extend all the way to the root bifurcation on molar teeth.

Comment: Any of these four grades may have an enamel pearl present at or near the site of the extension, even when there is no extension. Pearls are not scored in the ASU system because intersample comparability would require that all molar root surfaces be examined --- an
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impossibility for most dental series. Premolar enamel extensions almost never exceed grade 2. They are almost always on roots with strong buccal developmental groove expression. The first upper molar is the key site. Enamel extensions can also occur on the lingual surface. 18. Premolar root number. Upper premolars. Procedure defined by Turner (1967,1981). No reference plaque. Scoring: 1. 2. 3. One root. Tip may be bifurcated. Two roots. Separate roots must be greater than 1/4 to 1/3 of total root length. Three roots. Length defined as above.

Comment:. When multiple roots occur they are usually on the first premolar. Three roots result from bifurcation of the buccal root. Multiple-rooted upper incisors and canines have not been found in more than 15,000 individuals. The upper first premolar is the key site. 19. Molar root number. Upper molars. Procedure defined by Turner (1967). No reference plaque. Scoring: 1. 2 One root. Tip may be bifurcated with deeply inset developmental grooves. Two roots. Separate roots are greater than 1/4 to 1/3 of total root length. Length determination should take into account bending which is common on third molars. Three roots. Length defined as above. Four roots. Length defined as above.

3. 4.

Comment: The first upper molar usually has three roots. The greatest variation in root number occurs at the key second molar. The third molar usually has one or two roots; rarely, five or more third molar roots are present. This unusual condition seems associated with developmental problems where hypo- or hyperplastic crown form and excess cusp numbers and/or other anomalies exist. 20. Radical number. All tooth roots. These elements of all roots were first defined by Turner (1967). In cross section a root may be single and lack any developmental grooving. More often a single-rooted tooth will exhibit developmental grooves which partition the cross-sectional area into two or more "unseparated" root-like divisions termed radicals. No reference plaque. Scoring: 1. 2. 3. One radical. No developmental grooves. Two radicals. Two developmental grooves or two round roots with no developmental grooves. Three radicals. Three developmental grooves or one round root with no developmental grooves and one root with two developmental grooves. Four radicals. Continuation of above with various root number and developmental groove combinations. Five radicals. Continuation of above. Six radicals. Continuation of above. Seven radicals. Continuation of above. Eight radicals. Continuation of above.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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Comment: More than eight radicals may occur on a multi-rooted molar. Radical number has not been found to show much variation except on molar teeth. Definitions given here apply to all teeth. Radical assessment should not be done when there is extensive cement. In some cases of hypercementosis even root numbers cannot be identified with certainty. 21. Peg-shaped incisor. Upper lateral incisor. Defined by various workers, but standardized by Turner (n.d.). No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. Normal-sized incisor. Incisor reduced in size, but crown form is normal. Incisor is very reduced in size, lacks appropriate morphology, being instead peg-shaped.

Comment: A continuum probably exists that ends with congenital absence of the upper lateral incisor, peg-form being near the absence threshold. 22. Peg-shaped molar. Upper third molar. Recognized by various workers, but usage here defined by Turner (n.d.). No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. Full-sized crown with normal third molar morphology. Molar reduced in size to 7 to 10 mm linguobuccal diameter. Form is near normal or somewhat shriveled." Molar is less than 7 mm in linguobuccal diameter. Crown is peg or cone-shaped with rarely more than two rounded cusps lacking secondary morphology. Root is simple and single.

Comment:A continuum probably exists that ends with congenital absence of the upper third molar, peg-form being near the absence threshold. Peg-shaped upper third molars can easily be identified from socket size and circular form if tooth has been lost postmortem. 23. Odontome. Upper and lower first and second premolars. Recognized by Pedersen (1949) and defined by Alexandersen (1970) as any pin-sized spike-shaped enamel and dentine projection occurring on the premolar occlusal surface. No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. Odontome not present. Odontome present.

Comment: Because odontomas usually have a dentine component, they can be recognized as having been present by a circular light brown dentine exposure even after these fragile structures break off. Moreover, because they often occur in or near the sagittal sulcus, they can be identified even in premolars with moderate cusp wear. Once a premolar has worn to the extent that normal dentine is visible on the buccal cusp I score the odontoma site as missing data. Because of their rarity it is suggested that their frequency be determined by a "tooth count" rather than an "individual count" basis. Odontomas are only rarely found on other teeth. I inspect all premolar crown surfaces for odontomas with a 1OX hand lens. 24. Congenital absence. Upper lateral incisors, lower central incisors, upper and lower second premolars, upper and lower third molars. Congenital absence was first extensively studied by Montagu (1940). Skeletal reports vary in their use of x-ray equipment so comparability is low. Here, no x -ray films are involved because my studies have been too far-ranging to make possible standardized x-ray procedures. No reference plaque. Scoring:
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0. 1.

Tooth is present. Any degree of visible impaction is considered as present. Tooth is congenitally absent. No sign of tooth.

Comment: I consider congenital absence only in adult individuals who are older than 17-20 years as determinedly obliteration of the basisphenoid suture or other dentally independent growth events. When congenital absence is suspected in adults for upper or lower third molars I inspect with a 1OX hand lens the distal surface of the existing second molars for wear facets that would indicate antemortem third molar presence. Gaps at the incisor or premolar sites usually indicate antemortem loss. It is possible that some individuals I have scored as having a congenitally absent tooth actually had total nonerruption of that tooth. The nature of my studies have dictated that this source of potential scoring error be acceptable due to cost and time considerations. 25. First lower premolar lingual cusp variation. Various procedures have been developed to classify the considerable variation in lower premolar crowns, for example Pedersen (1949) and Kraus and Furr (1953). The procedure of Scott (1973), slightly modified, is followed here. This procedure considers only the number of lingual cusps and their relative size. Reference plaque ASU LP1. Scoring: A. No lingual cusp. A ridge may be present that suggests a much reduced structure without a free tip, but it is scored as cusp absent. Grade A was added after plaque production began when it was realized that lingual cusps can be absent. One lingual cusp. Size and form may vary a great deal but tip can be seen. One or two lingual cusps. This indecisive class should not be used for worn teeth. It is better to score such teeth as missing data. Two lingual cusps. Mesial cusp is much larger than distal cusp. Two lingual cusps. Mesial cusp is larger than lingual cusp. Two lingual cusps. Mesial and distal cusps are equal in size. Two lingual cusps. Distal cusp is larger than mesial cusp. Two lingual cusps. Distal cusp is much larger than mesial cusp. Two lingual cusps. Distal cusp is very much larger than lingual cusp. With wear this class can be confused with grade 0. When in doubt score individual as missing data. Three lingual cusps. Each is about the same size. Three lingual cusps. Mesial cusp is much larger than medial and/or distal cusp. With wear grade 9 can be confused with grade 3. When in doubt score such an individual as missing data.

0. 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Comment: This classification of premolar crown variation is very sensitive to wear. Careful judgment is needed so as not to misidentify a given tooth. If a worker is not experienced in side identification, loose teeth should not be scored. A useful rule for side determination of loose lower first premolars is that the root tip is usually deflected distalward, it usually has stronger developmental grooving on its mesial border, and the buccal cusp is almost always larger and morphologically more complex than the lingual cusp. Odontomas are not considered in this classification. 26. Lower second premolar lingual cusp variation. The i nformation given for the first premolar applies to the second premolar classification developed by Scott (1973) and modified by Turner (n.d.). The same scale of A, 0, 1 -9, and respective definitions is used. Reference plaque ASU LP2. The second premolar is considered the key tooth for this variation as it is easier to score.

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27. Anterior fovea. Lower first molar. Located on the anterior occlusal surface, this feature, termed precuspidal fossa, was considered taxonomically significant by Hrdlicka (1924). Variation was standardized by Turner and Shawn-Mari Chilton in 1979. Reference plaque ASU LM1 anterior fovea. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. Anterior fovea is absent. The sulcus between cusps 1 and 2 continues without interruption from the center of the occlusal surface to the mesial border. A weak ridge connects the mesial aspects of cusps 1 and 2 producing a faint groove. The connecting ridge is larger and the resulting groove deeper than grade 1. Groove is longer than in grade 2. Groove is very long and mesial ridge is robust.

Comment: Due to the early eruption of the first molar it is almost always very worn, even in young adults. Scoring such individuals is hazardous, especially for grades 0-2. It is recommended that anterior fovea observations be limited in non-industrial individuals to those whose age is less than 12 years. Caries can rapidly obliterate the anterior fovea site. 28. Groove pattern. Lower molars. Well defined studies of lower molar groove pattern begin with Gregory (1916), were expanded on by Hellman (1928), and culminate in the three class system developed by Jorgensen (1955) which is followed here. No reference plaque. Scoring: Y. +. X. Cusps 2 and 3 are in contact. Cusps 14 are in contact. Cusps 1 and 4 are in contact.

Comment: Groove pattern should always be determined with the aid of a 1OX hand lens. Even with advanced attrition groove pattern is often recognizable. Caries can obliterate the pattern site quickly, and plaster dental casts may be very unreliable. On third molars with many supernumerary cusps and hypoplastic form, groove pattern determination is difficult. The second lower molar has the greatest amount of inter-population groove pattern variation making it the key tooth to score if time does not permit all three to be studied. Morris (1970) observed that groove pattern can be affected by the deflecting wrinkle, which should also be studied for correlation purposes. 29. Cusp number. Lower molars. The pioneering work on lower molar cusp number was by Gregory (1916), and only slight modification (Turner, 1967) has been done to his classification. No reference plaque. Scoring: 4. 5. 6. Cusps 14 are present (1, protoconid; 2, metaconid: 3, hypoconid; 4, entoconid). Cusps 1-5 are present (5, hypoconulid). Cusps 1-6 are present (6, entoconulid).

Comment: Score cusps as present regardless of size. Do not confuse cusp 7, which is not used in this classification, with cusps 2 or 4. Cusp 7 is wedge-shaped and occurs between cusps 2 and 4. If cusp 5 exists, but presence of cusp 6 is uncertain, score tooth as having more than four cusps so that a VA dichotomy can be used for comparative purposes. Note, cusp 3 can be very small in third molars.

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30. Deflecting wrinkle. Lower first molar. This trait is the form variation of the medial ridge on cusp 2. First recognized by Weidenreich (1937), variation was standardized by Richard Seybert and Turner in 1975. Reference plaque: ASU LM deflecting wrinkle. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. Deflecting wrinkle is absent. Medial ridge of cusp 2 is straight. Cusp 2 medial ridge is straight but shows a midpoint constriction. Medial ridge is deflected distalward, but does not make contact with cusp 4. Medial ridge is strongly deflected distalward, forming an L-shaped ridge. The medial ridge contacts cusp 4.

Comment: The deflecting wrinkle seldom occurs on the second or third lower molars. With wear it is difficult to score on teeth of individuals much older than 12 years of age. There is no apparent dentine involvement in this trait. 31. Distal trigonid crest. Lower first molar. This is another feature studied by Hrdlicka (1924) and found useful for comparative purposes. A trait occurrence plaque was developed for deciduous teeth by Hanihara (1961). This trait is a ridge or loph that bridges between cusps 1 and 2 of the lower molars. No permanent molar reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. Absent. Distal borders of cusps 1 and 2 are not attached by a crest or loph. Present. Distal borders are connected by a ridge.

Comment:This trait is difficult to score, even with only grade 1 wear, and unreliably identified with grade 2 wear (cusps worn off). The distal trigonid crest is a rare feature. When present, it is usually on the first molar. 32. Protostylid. Lower molars. This paramolar cusp occurs on the mesiobuccal surface of cusp 1, chiefly those of the first and third molars. The stand used here was developed by Dahlberg in 1956. Reference plaque: Zoller Laboratory LM protostylid. Scoring: 0. 1. 2 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. No expression of any sort. Buccal surface is smooth. A pit occurs in the buccal groove separating cusps 1 and 3. Buccal groove tends to curve distalward. A faint groove occurs extending mesialward from the buccal groove. Groove is slightly more pronounced. Groove is stronger and can be easily seen. Groove extends across most of the buccal surface of cusp 1. This is considered a weak or small cusp. A cusp occurs with a free (unattached) cusp tip.

Comment: The buccal pit (grade 1) is frequently the site of dental caries in agricultural populations. If the pit can be identified in a carious molar, score appropriately. However, if caries has destroyed the protostylid site, no observation can be made even though it is very likely that a pit had been present. Not scoring such an individual will cause some underreporting of protostylid occurrence.

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33. Cusp 5. Lower molars. Cusp 5 or the hypoconulid occurs on the distal occlusal aspect of the lower molars. It is graded in terms of size only in the absence of cusp 6. The standard used here was developed by Turner and Richard Warner in 1977. Reference plaque ASU LM cusp 5. Scoring: 0. 1. 2 3. 4. 5. No occurrence of cusp 5. The molar has only four cusps (cusps 14). Cusp 5 is present and very small. Cusp 5 is small. Cusp 5 is medium-sized. Cusp 5 is large. Cusp 5 is very large.

Comment:There is no way to know if a single distal cusp is number 5 or 6. If single, assume it is cusp 5 as 6 seems to be a supernumerary cusp. 34. Cusp 6. Lower molars. Cusp 6 or the entoconulid occurs on the distal occlusal aspect of the lower molars lingualward of cusp 5. The standard used here was developed by Turner in 1970. Reference plaque: ASU LM cusp 6. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cusp 6 is absent. Cusp 6 is much smaller than cusp 5. Cusp 6 is smaller than cusp 5. Cusp 6 is equal in size to cusp 5. Cusp 6 is larger than cusp 5. Cusp 6 is much larger than cusp 6.

Comment: There is no way of knowing whether a single distal cusp is actually 5 or 6. This procedure requires that there be two distal cusps to define cusp 6. 35. Cusp 7. Cusp 7 or the metaconulid occurs in the lingual groove between cusps 2 and 4 of the lower molars, most commonly on the first molar. The standard used here was developed by Turner in 1970. Reference plaque LM cusp 7. Scoring: 0. 1. 1A. 2 3. 4. No occurrence of cusp 7. Faint cusp is present. There are two weak lingual grooves also present instead of one. A faint tipless cusp 7 occurs displaced as a bulge on the lingual surface of cusp. Cusp 7 is small. Cusp 7 is medium-sized. Cusp 7 is large.

Comment: Due to its lingual position and the nature of upper and lower molar occlusal contact, cusp 7 can be commonly identified and graded even in molars with the main cusps worn off (grade 2 wear). Cusp 7 is never involved in determining lower molar cusp number, only cusps 1-6 are involved.

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36. Canine root number. Lower canine. The number of roots of all the teeth was standardized by Turner (1967). The canine can have one or two roots. No reference plaque. Scoring: 1. 2 One root. Two roots, free more than 1/4 to 1/3 total root length.

Comment: When a second root is present it is usually small, conical in form, and present on the lingual aspect. 37. Tome's root. Lower first premolar. Tome (1923) was the first to draw attention to this condition when the mesial and root surfaces are deeply grooved. As now known this anomaly is part of a morphogenetic continuum from a single to a double-rooted tooth. Standardized variation scale developed by Turner and Steven Herzog in 1979. Reference plaque: ASU LP Tome's root. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Developmental grooving is absent, or if present, shallow with rounded rather than V-shaped indentation. Developmental groove is present and has a shallow V-shaped cross-section. Developmental groove is present and has a moderately deep V-shaped cross-section. Developmental groove is present, V-shaped, and deep. Groove extends at least 1/3 of total root length. Developmental grooving is deeply invaginated on both the mesial and distal root surfaces. Two free roots are present. Their length is at least 1/4 to 1/3 of the total root length.

Comment:Tome's anomalous root is equivalent to grades 3 to 4 of the present classification. A previous ASU classification recognized the condition as present (new grades 3 to 5) or absent (new grades 0 to 2). 38. First molar root number. Lower molar. The first molar can have one to three roots. The history of studies on lower first molar root number are reviewed in Turner (1971). Variation was standardized by Turner in 1967. No reference plaque. Scoring: 1. One root. Root will usually be U-shaped in cross section with a deep developmental groove in the lingual surface. Root tip may be bifurcated. If tips are free more than 1/4 to 1/3 of the total root length, score as two-rooted. Two roots. Two separate roots exist for at least 1/4 to 1/3 of total root length. A strong distolingual radical is likely an unattached supernumerary third root. Three roots. A third (supernumerary) root is present on the distolingual aspect. It may be very small, but usually is about 1/3 the size of the normal distal root.

2 3.

Comment: A single-rooted tooth can occur is indicated above and by what appears to be failure of complete separation of a double-rooted condition. The rule I follow is that to be considered a single rooted first molar no light can be seen between the incompletely separated mesial and distal roots. I use a three volt pen light to inspect all suspect cases. Occasionally one will find a first lower molar that has the one root form, but also possessing the supernumerary third distal lingual root. In such cases I score the individual as having two roots, even though this may be homologically erroneous.

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39. Second molar root number. Lower molar. Variation standardized by Turner (1967). No reference plaque. Scoring: 1. 2. 3. One root. A single deep lingual, or deep lingual and buccal developmental grooves can occur. Two roots. Condition produced as in first molar. Three roots. Condition produced as in first molar.

Comment: Observation criteria are the same as for the first molar, including use of a pen light to identify one or two roots. Even if root tips are united, light through the middle of the root defines a two-rooted second molar. If cementosis is excessive, I usually score the individual as "missing data." The rules for first and second molar root number determination also apply to the third molar. However, the third molar may have so much developmental noise like hypercementosis, bent roots, and hypoplasia that the scoring of root number is difficult and susceptible to error. The single-rooted state with a second supernumerary distolingual root can occur on this molar as well as on the first molar. 40. Torsomolar angle. Lower third molar. This condition occurs when the third molar has rotated lingualward or buccalward relative to a line drawn through the middle of the first and second molars. Torsomolar angle was first recognized as common in American Indians, and defined by Neiburger His procedure is followed here. No reference plaque. Procedure: Lay a small transparent protractor on the lower third molar and measure its rotation relative to a baseline formed from the middle of the first and second molars. Without rotation the angle is 0 degrees. If rotation is present record it by degree, tooth, and direction, that is, lingual or buccal rotation. I do not attempt to measure torsomolar angle when a tooth is impacted or if there has been possible positional shift due to antemortem loss of the first or second molar, i.e., mesial drift.

OTHER SYSTEMATICALLY RECORDED FEATURES


41. Palatine torus. This is the linear bony exostosis that can develop along part or all of the palatine suture. The standard used here was developed by Turner (n.d.). No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. Torus is absent. Palate is smooth. Trace. Torus is elevated about 1 to 2 mm. Medium. Torus is more extensive, elevated between 2 to 5 mm. Marked. Torus is elevated more than 5 mm. Very marked. Torus may be 10 mm high and 10 to 20 mm wide. This degree of development is seldom encountered outside of Arctic populations, and even there it is rare.

Comment: I record palatine torus regardless of individual age, but for comparative purposes one should use only adults since the torus is age dependent.

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42. Mandibular torus. This is the nodular bony exostosis that can develop on the lingual aspect of the lower jaw in the canine and premolar region. The standard used here was developed by Nancy Morris (1970). No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. Absent. No elevation can be palpated. Trace. An elevation can be palpated but not easily seen. Medium. Elevation is between 2 to 5 mm. Marked. Elevation is greater than 5 mm.

Comment:Torus is scored by size, regardless of degree of bilateral asymmetry. Score the strongest expression. For comparative purposes only adults are used as with the palatine torus. The most marked degrees of mandibular torus known occur in Eskimos, and these may be so large that bony contact almost occurs near the midline. 43. Rocker jaw. This feature is the inferior surface curvature of the lower jaw's horizontal ramus. The standard used here was developed by Turner (n.d.). No reference plaque. Scoring: 0. 1. 2 Absent. Lower jaw does not rock back and forth when set on a flat surface because the projections formed by the chin and distal borders of the ascending rami form a tripod. Almost rocker. The lower border of the horizontal ramus is sufficiently curved to make the jaw unstable when placed on a flat surface. Such a mandible will rock for about one second. Rocker. Horizontal ramus is so convexly curved that the mandible will rock back and forth on a flat surface for several seconds.

Comment: As with the tori, rocker jaw is an age-dependent condition and only adults are used for comparative purposes. Rocker jaw is included in this battery of dental morphological features because it is so quickly observed when handling mandibles and because I wanted to have a few traits in each dental series to compare with non-metric osteological studies that frequently do not include dental observations. 44. Age determination. The Schour and Massler (1944) schedule for crown and root development is followed for estimating subadult age. An individual is considered an adult when the third molars have erupted and/or the basisphenoid suture is obliterated. When both the skull base and third molar area are missing, age can still be estimated in a regional skeletal series by dental wear. Such a fragmentary individual is obviously an adult if all the remaining teeth are in grade 2 wear. But, an individual with mostly grade 1 wear could be a subadult in a severely abrasive dental environment. In such cases I classify the individual as age unknown if root development cannot be inspected. 45. Sex determination. While sex is not a major variable for dental morphology, it is still useful for record checking purposes to make a sex estimate. I follow the commonly used practice of estimating sex on the basis of cranial robusticity, size, and if post-cranial elements are readily available, pelvic configuration, femur head diameter, and size. The extreme upper end of tooth size range correlates well with male osteological features. There are no morphological dental features that are strongly associated with sex.

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46. Tooth status. Every tooth or tooth site is scored for presence, absence, and wear. When a tooth is present it is scored as follows: 0. 0-1. 1. 2. 3. 4. No wear. This occurs only in unerupted and erupting teeth. Wear facets can be seen with a 1OX hand lens on one or more cusp occlusal planes. Dentine is exposed in one or more cusps. This is almost always earlier in incisors than in post incisor teeth. Cusps worn off. Incisors are graded as 2 if most of the cusp mass is gone. Exposed pulp. Incisor crowns usually off. Root stump is functional. All or most enamel is worn off.

Other notations used if wear status not possible to score are: A C. I. P. U. -Antemortem loss. Socket partly or fully filled in. Congenital absence. This indicator is never used for subadults, as defined by third molar eruption or basisphenoid closure. Impacted. Usually third molars and second premolars. Postmortem loss. Socket is open, smooth, and shows no sign of filling or resorption. Tooth is present but unerupted. Missing data. Site not available for scoring.

Comment: Indecisive wear grades of 1-2, 2-3, 3-4 are used when such conditions exist. A, P, U, 1, 04 equal present. 47. Caries. Every erupted tooth is inspected for caries. These are defined according to the procedure of Koritzer (1977). A tooth is considered carious if the lesion has an irregular border, and discolored easily-removed necrotic enamel or dentine at the lesion site. An occlusal pit with a hard polished interior and usually hemispherical shape is not considered carious. Such occlusal pits are rare, and when observed occur chiefly in Arctic populations. The same sort of occlusal pit has been found in sea otter molars. Caries are scored by location on a tooth, with nine possible sites: Occlusal (0c), mesial (M), distal (D), buccal (B), lingual (L), and combinations of occlusal and the other four surfaces such as mesio-occlusal (MO). All carious sites on a tooth are recorded. If a crown is totally destroyed by caries, leaving only a necrotic root stump, the status for such a tooth is scored as 4 (root stump functional), and caries scored as occlusal (0c). 48. Abscessing and periodontal disease. Alveolar bone loss is correlated with soft-tissue periodontal disease. The diseased individual can have localized infection, such as pockets of bone loss adjacent to one or a few teeth, or the bone loss can be generalized, affecting most or all teeth. I score periodontal disease as follows (Turner 1979): None. No identifiable bone loss. Alveolar tooth border is hard and smooth. Root exposure does not exceed 1 to 3 mm dependent on age. Note that super-eruption can occur with as much as 1/3 of entire root length being exposed without any indication of alveolar bone loss, necrosis, or pocketing. Pockets. One to three teeth may have localized alveolar bone loss. Pockets vary in size. Remainder of alveolar bone is smooth. Record affected teeth.

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Generalized, slight. Periodontal disease affects many teeth with 3 to 5 mm of exposed root plus possible alveolar border pitting. Pockets usually occur also. Generalized, medium. There is more than 4 to 5 mm of root exposure, alveolar border is usually ragged, and deep pockets can occur. Generalized, marked. More than 50 percent of root is exposed in many teeth. Alveolar border is severely eroded. Pocket depth and form easily grade into the appearance of an abscess. Because bone loss is usually not uniform, generalized amount is estimated on average state of one or both jaws. Deep pockets in an advanced case of periodontal disease cannot be differentiated from abscesses. Nevertheless, I define an abscess as any perforation of the alveolar bone that exits from a root socket. Any shallow to deep necrotic area without a perforation is called a periodontal pocket. 49. Cultural treatment. Anterior teeth are sometimes modified or removed according to various cultural practices and customs. The following treatments are looked for: A. Tooth removal or ablation. Seldom found in individuals less than 12 years of age. Ablation can be certain if gaps occur or if there is strong differential wear in opposing upper or lower teeth. To be certain a population pattern must exist. Filing. Teeth may be filed to a point, have their labial surfaces filed flat or depressed, or be decorated with incised lines. Filed or chipped notches at the tooth corners may occur along with other treatment. Staining. In betel-chewing regions of eastern Asia and the Pacific, crania are frequently encountered with red-brown obtained teeth. This is unintentional treatment, whereas intentionally black-stained teeth are found in the same region. Use of tobacco also stains teeth; but it is black-brown in color. Inlaying. Cup-shaped holes can be drilled into the enamel of an incisor's labial surface followed by the insertion of various decorative materials like gold, pyrite, or turquoise. Cleaning striations. Abrasives like pumice mixed with charcoal will scratch enamel. Such cleaning or brushing striations can easily be seen on labial and buccal surfaces with a 1OX hand lens. Excessive brushing can leave notches on buccal surfaces, usually at the crown-root junction. Toothpick grooves can be found on buccal surfaces, but more often on distal or mesial root surfaces at or near the crown-root junction.

B.

C.

D. E.

50. Crown chipping. Exfoliation or pressure chips are indicative of various tooth use activities (Turner and Cadien 1969). When less than ten teeth are chipped, each is scored. If chipping is present on the majority of teeth, regardless of number, it is identified as generalized. Minor flaking of marginal enamel in teeth with grade 2 or 3 wear is not considered as crown chipping. 51. Other treatment. This category is used for any tooth modification that is not listed under cultural treatment (no. 50). An example of other treatment is a newly recognized wear pattern that Turner and Machado (1983) termed LSAMAT (lingual surface attrition of maxillary anterior teeth). Such treatment or conditions should be scored per tooth.

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52. Temporal-mandibular joint damage. Since 1980 1 have regularly recorded the articular surface condition of the left and right TMJ for osteoarthritic destruction. Scoring: 0. 1. 2. 3. No damage. TMJ surface is smooth and unpitted. Slight. One quarter of the TMJ surface is pitted. Medium. More than 1/4 but less than 1/2 of TMJ surface is pitted, sometimes deeply so and sometimes with raised borders. Severe. More than 1/2 of the TMJ area is pitted, eroded, and raised borders may be substantial. Eburnation may be present.

Comment: TMJ damage has been observed in an effort to account for some of the bilateral asymmetry in tooth wear that has been found in a number of individuals, and as a secondary source of information on stress arising from tooth-use activity. TMJ damage is age-dependent, so inter-group comparisons should be limited to adults.

RECORDING AND COUNTING


A typical ASU Dental Anthropology Laboratory data form is included at the end of this chapter. Except for the caries rows where empty boxes signify no caries, unfilled boxes elsewhere on the form mean that observations were not possible, regardless of indicated dental status for upper and lower jaws. For example, the upper canines were present, but no observations could be made on the distal accessory ridge (C d.a.r.) because of wear. No box is reserved for the extremely rare tri-cusped I upper premolars. When such occur they are noted as present in the P m. & d. boxes with an asterisk. The single box for lower incisor shoveling is used for scoring only the lower central incisors. Congenital absence is redundantly scored (status lines and boxes) in this system. Upper incisor labial curvature was not being observed at the time this individual was studied. All teeth are observed and noted for the various features itemized on the data form. When grouping observations for population characterization, individuals, not teeth, are counted. For example, a medial interruption groove existed on the left upper lateral incisor while the right side had none. The individual is counted as having the interruption groove. Left and right scores can be used for symmetry studies.

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SCORING ABNORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE HARD TISSUES


The hard tissues include both the cranial and post-cranial bones, and the teeth. These tissues can be affected by a number of both internal and external agents, ranging from genetic to environment to culture-specific in origin. The following is a compilation of paleopathologies known or hypothesized to have affected prehistoric Southwestern human populations. However, the list is not comprehensive. Pathologies that are rare or that, to date, have not been found in the prehistoric Southwest (e.g. leprosy) are generally not included. Therefore, the discovery of any remains with pathologies of questionable or unknown etiology will have to be dealt with on a case by case basis. This section is outlined using a modified classification as set forth by Ortner and Putschar (1985).

TRAUMA
Trauma is usually caused by an external agent, and it is one of the most common pathological conditions to affect the skeleton. There are four broad categories of this pathology that may be inferred from archaeological specimens: 1) a partial or complete break in the bone, 2) a traumatic dislocation of a bone, 3) bone deformation and 4) miscellaneous trauma, such as injury caused by foreign objects or complications in childbirth (Ortner and Putschar 1985; Merbs, personal communication, 1987). Fractures Of the four categories, a bone break or fracture is by far the most common. A fracture is usually due to an acute or dynamic stress (Ortner and Putschar 1985). However, it may also occur as a result of chronic or fatigue stress (e.g. spondylolysis) (Merbs 1983) or from pathological factors such as osteoporosis (Ortner and Putschar 1985, Ubelaker 1989). Breakage due to all of these factors has been found in prehistoric Southwest populations (McGregor 1943; Turner 1961; Cross 1962; Wiener 1981; Merbs and Euler 1985; Merbs and Vestergaard 1985; Fink 1989). When a broken bone is found, several variables are involved in determining the nature and type of the break (from Morse 1969; Brothwell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1985; Merbs, personal communication, 1987; and Ubelaker 1989). These include: 1) Location of the break. Breaks in certain areas of the skeleton may indicate the type of activity the individual was involved in when the fracture occurred (e.g. Parry Fracture of the ulna's mid-shaft may indicate self-defense). 2) Timing of the break. It may be: a) Ante-mortem - will show signs of callous formation and healing. Complete healing may obscure the break, therefore suspected healed fractures should be X-rayed for determination (see Appendix G), b) Perimortem - will show partial or no healing. Some bones may show signs of blood stains. Or c) Post-mortem. - due to ground pressure or excavation. 3) Type of break. Is it a single or multiple (comminuted) fracture? Was it closed or open (compound)? (Infection may occur with compound fractures). Was it complete or partial (greenstick fracture)? 4) The type of stress responsible. This is often difficult to ascertain, especially in healed fractures. As mentioned above, acute stress is the most common cause of fracture. There are five types of force that may cause this stress: a) compression, b) tension, c) torsion or twisting, d) flexion or bending and e) shearing. The former type of stress fracture is most commonly found in the
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vertebral bodies, or on the skull as a result of a blow. The latter stresses are most common in the remainder of the skeleton. Chronic stress may also be a factor in breakage, particularly in the neural arch of the vertebrae (spondylolysis). 5) State of healing (if any). Is it totally or partially healed? Is the break aligned correctly or is it misaligned (angulation, rotation, displaced, non-union)? If misaligned, is there evidence of secondary arthritis? Is there evidence of infection (see section II)? Has ossification of the overlying muscle occurred (traumatic myositis ossificans)? Dislocations Traumatic dislocation or luxation of a joint may occur due to acute stress. In order to detect dislocation in an archaeological specimen, the bone must have been displaced for a long period of time. This may result in 1) secondary joint formation, 2) atrophy of the original joint surface and 3) severe degenerative arthritis in the new articular surface. The most commonly affected joints are the shoulder and the hip (Ortner and Putschar 1985). This type of dislocation can be distinguished from congenital luxation (see below) by the presence of remnants of the surfaces of the original joints (Ubelaker 1989). Traumatic dislocation is relatively rare in prehistoric populations (Morse 1969). A review of the Southwest archaeological literature did not reveal any cases of this pathology. However, one case was reported for a Mississippian individual from Dickson Mound, Illinois (ibid.). Deformations Bone deformation is caused by chronic, low-grade trauma over an extended period of time (Ortner and Putschar 1985). This type of pathology is common in the prehistoric Southwest in the form of posterior cranial deformation due to the use of a cradleboard (Gavan 1940; Stewart 1937, 1940; McGregor 1943; Turner 1961; Bennett 1967; El-Najjar and Dawson 1977; Wiener 1981; and Wheeler 1985). Stewart (1937) identifies two types of this unintentional deformation in the Southwest; these may be scored as: 1) vertical occipital or 2) lamboidal flattening. The former displays flattening at right angles to the Frankfurt line. In the latter, the plane is inclined at an angle of 50+ degrees to the horizontal line. These two types may also be either symmetrical or asymmetrical in appearance (El-Najjar and Dawson 1977). Miscellaneous Trauma This is a very broad category that may involve either chronic or acute stress. One example of chronic stress would be squatting facets on the distal-anterior articular surface of the tibiae (Ubelaker 1989); another example is the presence of "tumpline facets." The use of a tumpline for transporting heavy objects can leave 1) flattened surfaces on the frontal bones and 2) "kissing facets" on the neural arches of the cervical vertebrae from hyperextension (Merbs and Euler 1985; Fink 1989). An example of acute stress involves trauma resulting from foreign objects. Several cases of prehistoric projectile point wounds have been found in the Midwestern U.S. (Morse 1969). Examples of this from the Southwest include a probable arrow wound in a frontal sinus and a projectile point embedded in the calcaneus of two different southern California Indians (Merbs, personal communication, 1987) and evidence of possible scalping at the prehistoric Chavez Pass and Grasshopper sites in northern Arizona (Allen et al. 1985). The latter pathologies were identified by cut marks on the cranium. Short-term survival after scalping would leave even more evidence in the form of proliferation of granulation tissue on the outer table (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Cut marks have also been noted near joint surfaces in several instances from both the Eastern U.S. (Ubelaker 1989) and the Southwest (Turner, personal communication, 1989), indicating intentional disarticulation of human remains.
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Very few infectious diseases directly affect the skeleton. Those that do tend to be chronic in nature and may not be the immediate cause of death (Ortner and Putschar 1985). One of three types of bony involvement may occur due to various infections: 1) joint fusion, 2) bone proliferation and 3) bone destruction. Only one probable cause of fusion due to infection is reported in the Southwest literature: a fused hip from the Wupatki Pueblo (A.D. 1050-1250), Arizona (Jarcho et al. 1963). The other two types of involvement are more common. These involve four major kinds of infectious bone diseases known or hypothesized to occur in the Southwest: osteomyelitis, periostitis, tuberculosis and coccidioidomycosis. Osteomyelitis This malady may develop as a result of pus-forming bacteria getting into the bone from a compound fracture or other traumatic injury, or through infection spreading there from elsewhere in the body (Brothwell 1981; Ubelaker 1989). The result is bone inflammation that mainly affects the cancellous tissue. In advanced cases, large amounts of bone deposition may occur in the area and spread outward, causing a thickening around the cortical bone. The presence of cloacal openings for pus drainage is very likely. Long bones are most commonly affected (Brothwell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1985). Although rare, osteomyelitis has been found in several Pueblo Indians from New Mexico (Hooton 1930; Wheeler 1985) and in Classic Hohokam remains from the Grand Canal and Casa Buena sites in Arizona (Fink 1989). It has also been noted in several early cultures from the Midwest (Morse 1969). If this pathology is encountered, it should be scored as present, and the degree of involvement should also be indicated. Periostitis Periostitis is also a rare pathology with an inflammatory response that affects mainly long bones. It may result from a blow, but is more commonly thought to occur due to some type of infection (Brothwell 1981). Instead of affecting the cancellous tissue, this pathology involves the cortical surface in the form of new bone formation. Unlike osteomyelitis, the new bone growth is highly vascularized and does not contain cloacal openings (Brothwell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1985). The new bone overlies the original cortical surface, and as a result, it appears that -one could peel it off (Merbs, personal communication, 1989). As with osteomyelitis, the degree of involvement should be noted if present. However, when it is questionable as to whether the pathology is osteomyelitis or periostitis, the term osteitis should be used as a general term indicating bone inflammation (Brothwell 1981). Remains of the Classic Hohokam from Arizona (Fink 1989) and New Mexican Zuni (Wheeler 1985) have been diagnosed as having periostitis. Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is a chronic disease caused by a bacteria inhaled into the lungs. If the immune system fails to deal with the problem, the bacilli may disseminate through the bloodstream to other organs and tissues of the body. At this time, bony involvement may occur in the form of tuberculosis osteitis (Brothwell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1985). Any part of the skeleton may be involved, but the thoracic and lumbar vertebral bodies are most commonly affected. In the beginning phase, the vertebral body softens. This is followed by lytic destruction leading to cavitation (identifiable as rounded pits). Following this, the weakened body may collapse, forming a wedge shape. The destruction may then spread to adjacent vertebral bodies. If this continues, such destruction invariably leads to anterior angulation of the spine, producing a hunchbacked individual (known as kyphosis) (Brothwell 1981;
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Ortner and Putschar 1985; Ubelaker 1989). If TB is suspected, the area of involvement should be noted, and the degree of destruction should be described. Very few cases of probable tuberculosis in prehistoric North America exist. However, it has been found to exist in the Southwest region (Sumner 1985). Another example comes from an individual at the Point of Pines site. In the latter case, the osteitic involvement is located in the sacroiliac region (Micozzi and Kelley 1985). tissue. Coccidioidomycosis This infectious disease is currently endemic to arid and semi-arid regions of Arizona, California, and other areas in the Southwest. It is contracted by inhalation of a fungus, Coccidioides immitis. The function of this fungus is to degrade organic material and is commonly found in rodent burrows. Once in the lungs it can result in bad flu-like symptoms. However, like tuberculosis it can disseminate throughout the body and affect bony tissue (Poswall, 1976). Cancellous bone areas throughout the skeleton may be affected and multiple lytic lesions with sclerotic borders can be seen. In the spine, these lesions are almost identical to TB, and thus differentiating between the two may be difficult. However, if cocci is suspected, scoring should follow the same guidelines as for tuberculosis. Unlike TB, the spinous processes may also become involved (Poswall 1976; Ortner and Putschar 1985; Merbs, personal communication, 1987). Evidence of coccidioidomycosis is very rare in prehistoric Southwest humans. Only one possible case, that of an 1800 year old Yokut Indian skeleton from California has been found (Poswall 1976). However, new evidence of prehistoric involvement has been hypothesized (L. Harrison, personal communication, 1989). Considering the prevalence of the disease today, more early cases seem likely to be appear. Perhaps its similarity to TB has masked its occurrence.

HEMOPOIETIC DISORDERS
Hemopoietic disorders pertain to problems with the production and development of blood cells, and the bony involvement that may occur. Specifically, such involvement may entail thickening of red blood cell producing spongy bone, with thinning and possible perforation of the outer, cortical bone. This will result in one or more small porous openings which may cover a large area in severe cases (Steinbock 1976; Stuart-MacAdam 1987). This most commonly occurs on the cranium in the form of porotic hyperostosis, cribra cranii, and cribra orbitalia (Nathan and Haas 1966; Steinbock 1976; Ortner and Putschar 1985). When x -rayed, they all give a 'hair-on-end' appearance due to the trabaeculae which are pushed outwards from the diploe space (Zaino 1967; El-Najjar and Robertson 1976; Stuart-MacAdam 1987). Although each of these pathologies can occur separately, they are commonly found in conjunction with one another (Ortner and Putschar 1985). The only probable difference between them is their location on the skull. Porotic hyperostosis occurs on the external portions of the cranial vault, mostly on the posterior portions of the parietals and the occipital. However, it may also be found on the frontal bones. Cribra cranii occurs on the internal portions of these same squamae. Cribra orbitalia occurs on the anterior portion of the orbital roof (Steinbock 1976; Ortner and Putschar 1985). These pathologies are thought to be a result of iron deficiency anemia that, in the Southwest, may be related to a maize-dependent diet in some populations. Corn is low in iron, plus it contains high amounts of phytic acid which inhibits iron absorption (El-Najjar et al., 1975; El-Najjar and Robertson 1976). However, this is unsupported by others who believe that the cause is due to a synergistic etiology, involving such factors as protozoal, helminthic and bacterial infection of intestines. This can prevent adequate iron absorption, in addition to blood loss. Other factors may include lack of folic acid,
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vitamin B12, iron, ascorbic acid, and/or protein (Steinbock 1976; Weiner 1981; Walker 1985; Kent 1986). Osseous changes in the crania associated with anemia are extremely common in the late prehistoric Southwest (Walker 198-5) and Mexico (Weaver 1985). Cases have been noted by a large number of authors (Turner 1961; Zaino 1967; El-Najjar et al., 1975; El-Najjar and Robertson 1976; Merbs 1980; Wiener 1981; Martin et al., 1985; Taylor 1985; Walker 1985; Weaver 1985; Kent 1986, among others). In order to record incidences of cranial porosities due to anemia, the method of El-Najjar et al. (1975) may be followed. First, it should be ascertained whether the porosities are due to porotic hyperostosis, cribra cranii, or cribra orbitale. Second, the exact location on the skull should be noted. Third, skulls with one or more clusters of such lesions greater than 5mm in diameter should be scored as positive. Widened diploe or thinned outer tables should not be considered unless accompanied by apertures. In addition to this, the shape of the porosities may also be noted: 1) porotic type (scattered, isolated fine apertures), 2) cribrotic type (conglomerate of larger but still isolated apertures - may be honeycomb shaped), or 3) trabecular type (apertures confluent resulting in the formation of bone trabaculae) (Nathan and Haas 1976).

METABOLIC DISORDERS
Bone growth and size may be greatly influenced by an inadequate diet, particularly if there is a deficiency in calcium uptake (Brothwell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1985). This latter problem has been implicated in two pathological conditions found in the Southwest. Rickets Rickets is a non-fatal malady characterized by softening of the bones with related skeletal deformities during childhood. It is due to a deficiency of calcium (Brothwell 1981; Ivanhoe 1985) Evidence of rickets (curved femurs) have been found in prehistoric northern Mexico and Arizona populations (Ivanhoe 1985; Fink 1989). In these areas the etiology is thought to be associated with diets high in grains, such as maize. As noted above, maize is rich in phytate, an acid that precipitates calcium in the human gut. This can impede calcium absorption by the body (Ivanhoe 1985). Renal disorder and hyperparathyroidism may also be a factor (Fink 1989). Rickets may be present to varying degrees. One or more of the following features may be found in the skeleton (Dick 1922 as quoted in Brothwell 1981): a) General retardation of skeleton. b) Development of frontal and parietal 'bossing'. c) Light and brittle bone. d) The arch of the palate may be abnormally high. e) The femur may be abnormally curved anteriorly and laterally (bow-legged). The tibia, fibula, ulna and radius may also be curved. f) Asymmetry and distortion of the ribs (pigeon-chest). g) Scoliosis or lateral deviation of the spine. In addition to these characteristics, deformation of the pelvis may also occur. This can be extremely detrimental if it occurs in a female, as difficulty in giving birth may result (Ortner and Putschar 1985).

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Osteomalacia, an adult form of rickets with similar skeletal deformation, has not yet been reported in the Southwest. However, if rickets are present it is possible that this pathology may also occur (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Its etiology is identical to that of rickets. However, it engenders an additional causation known to particularly affect females who have numerous closely spaced pregnancies and protracted lactation -- loss of vitamin D to the fetal skeleton and to milk production (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Osteoporosis Osteoporosis represents deossification with decrease in bone tissue as a result of longstanding imbalance between bone resportion and bone formation. It is particularly common in older females, 50 years of age or more. This occurs due to the sharp drop in estrogens at menopause. However, lack of physical activity or atrophy can also be a factor. It affects the bones of the trunk, particularly the spine, ribs and pelvis to a greater degree than the remainder of the skeleton. It can be recognized by, and recorded according to enlargement of the marrow and Haversian spaces, along with decreased thickness of the cortical bone (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Because it normally affects only older individuals, this pathology can be useful in age determination. In the Southwest, osteoporosis has been reported in pre-Columbian sites from southern Colorado (Wiener 1981), California (Merbs 1980), New Mexico (Minear and Rhine 1985), Arizona (Fink 1989), and elsewhere.

SKELETAL MALFORMATIONS AND ANOMALIES


This is a broad category that can encompass a large number of congenital defects. However, only five malformations known to have been found in the Southwest will be discussed. Craniostenosis This abnormality entails the premature fusion of one or more sutures of the skull. If this happens while growth is still occurring the normal shape of the skull will change. Thus, if the coronal suture fuses early the skull will become very broad whereas if the sagittal suture closes the skull will be long and narrow (Bennett 1967; Ortner and Putschar 1985). Unilateral fusion may also occur (Bennett 1%7). Craniostenosis is not necessarily detrimental to the individual as long as some skull growth is allowed. The reason for its occurrence is unknown. Out of 1000+ Southwest skulls studied by Bennett 1967), 19 displayed some degree of premature suture closure. Ten out of the 19 involve premature closure of the sagittal suture. Spina Bifida Spina bifida is a defect in which the two halves of the vertebral or sacral neural arch fail to close (Devor and Cordell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1985). It is one of the most common, severe congenital malformations in humans (Devor and Cordell 1981). The reason for this anomaly is due to a problem in the formation of the cartilage (Merbs, personal communication, 1987). For some time this cause was linked to inbreeding in small populations. However, evidence from a 12th century Pueblo site in New Mexico points to a metabolic etiology. Devor and Cordell (1981) believe that zinc deficiency from high levels of phytic acid found in corn and beans, and absorption of lead during glaze manufacture are to blame for the problem in the 5 affected individuals out of 54 examined. When spina bifida is suspected, the location, degree and number of affected vertebrae should be noted.
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Other Vertebral Anomalies In addition to spina bifida, several other vertebral problems may be seen. This includes hemivertebrae, fusion of vertebral segments, and sacralization of lumbar vertebra or lumbarization of the sacral vertebrae. Hemivertebrae are extra, partially formed vertebral bodies which may form between normal vertebrae. If this occurs, congenital scoliosis (lateral deviation) or kyphosis (anterior deviation) may result, depending on the location of these anomalous segments (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Merbs (personal communication 1988) has found a hemivertebra between the skull and atlas in an early, southern California Indian. Fusion of the vertebrae can occur if there is segmental disarrangement of the ossification centers (Ortner and Putschar 1985). This most frequently involves fusion of C1 to the skull with associated fusion of C2 and C3. This condition is known as Klippel-Feil syndrome. Fusion of the thoracic vertebrae may also occur (Ortner and Putschar 1985; Merbs personal communication, 1987), and is typified by the remains of an Anasazi female from Bright Angel Ruin in the Grand Canyon (Merbs and Euler 1985). Sacralization and lumbarization refers to a condition when a vertebra at the border between these two regions takes on the characteristics of the other. For example, it is very common for the fifth lumbar vertebra to actually be incorporated into the sacrum - producing a six segmented sacrum rather than the normal five. Conversely, the first sacral segment may form as a sixth lumbar vertebra - leaving the sacrum with only four segments (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Both of these conditions have been noted by Reed (1967) in his comprehensive study of skeletal material from Southwestern archaeological collections. He additionally reported the occurrence of an extra, fully formed sixth lumbar vertebra. Such anomalies may occur elsewhere in the spine, but are much more rare. Congenital Dislocation Individuals with a shallow, hypoplastic acetabulum are prone to dislocation of the femur upwards. If this occurs, a secondary acetabulum may form accompanied by all of the problems discussed in the section on traumatic dislocation (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Congenital dislocation is said to occur in modern Navaho populations from Arizona (Turner, personal communication, 1989). This condition occasionally may be difficult to differentiate from a traumatic dislocation, as the acetabulum in the latter case has a tendency to become shallow as a result of disuse (Merbs, personal communication, 1987).

TUMORS
Tumors or neoplasms which may be found on bones are the result of uncontrolled proliferation of cells derived from the bone itself, the cartilage, the fibrous tissue, or the blood vessels (Ortner and Putschar 1985). They can be benign, where the growth is well-differentiated and localized, or they can be malignant, where the tissue is poorly differentiated and can spread (Ortner and Putschar 1985; Merbs, personal communication, 1987). The latter condition is better known as carcinoma or cancer. Most cancers primarily affect older individuals. As a result, malignant growths are rare in archaeological samples where individuals tend to have died at an early age (Ortner and Putschar 1985). Therefore, only the benign form of neoplasm will be discussed.

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Osteoma The only type of tumor noted to be discussed in studies of Southwest populations is the osteoma. This lesion consists of dense bone without a marrow space. If present, it will almost always be found on the skull, usually on the frontal or parietal bones. It can be identified as a smooth lump, less than two centimeters in diameter. It may also be referred to as a button osteoma. Osteomas have been noted on individuals from several areas throughout the Southwest, including southern Colorado (Wiener 1981) and Arizona (Fink 1989).

LESIONS OF THE JOINTS


Lesions of the joints may be due to a variety of factors, such as infection, trauma, or even metabolic problems. However, the result is commonly the same - some form of arthritis (although other maladies (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) do exist) (Brothwell 1981; Ubelaker 1989). Arthritis is the most common pathological condition known. It is produced by the breakdown of cartilage between the adjoining bones of a joint so that the articular surfaces come into direct contact with one another (Ubelaker 1989). Of the many causes of arthritis, the only one we will be concerned with here is that produced by the normal process of aging: osteoarthritis. This is the most common form and it is found in great abundance throughout the Southwest (Hooton 1930; Gavan 1940; Reed 1967; Wiener 1981; Berry 1985a; Merbs and Euler 1985; Miller 1985; Stark and Brooks 1985; among others). Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition produced as a consequence of long-term mechanical stress, repeated minor irritation of the cartilage, or diruption of blood circulation to the area (Ubelaker 1989). The term osteoarthritis is actually misleading because the suffix 'itis' indicates an inflammatory response, which does not occur. Therefore, a better term may be DJD or degenerative joint disease when it is found in the joints, and DDD or degenerative disk disease when it occurs in the vertebrae (Merbs, personal communication, 1987). There are 4 stages in the breakdown of a joint or intervertebral region. First is fibrilation. This refers to the cracking, disintegration and/or sloughing away of the cartilage. Second is osteophyte development, where lipping of bone occurs at the margins. Third is eburnation, which is due to bone rubbing on bone. A polishing process occurs, resulting in an ivory-like appearance. Fourth, the most severe indication is pitting on the surface. The pitting is due to the underlying trabecular bone being exposed and to the resulting new bone growth occurring. This new growth causes more foramina to form for an increased blood supply to the area (Ortner and Putschar 1985; Merbs, personal communication, 1987; Ubelaker 1989). Of these four stages, only two through four can be observed and thus scored in archaeological remains. In addition to simply observing degree of involvement, osteoarthritis can also be of value in determining activity induced pathology (Merbs 1983). As stated, DJD and DDD commonly occur as a result of long-term mechanical stress. Therefore, areas of the skeleton which received greater use during life are commonly more affected than other areas. Using this rationale, Miller (1985) hypothesized that the high incidence of DJD of the elbow in a Sinagua population from north-central Arizona was due to the use of two-handed manos in conjunction with large trough metates. He likened it to the modem-day "tennis elbow". Therefore, patterns of DJD and DDD occurrence should be noted. On very rare occasions, fusion of a joint may occur as a result of the osteophyte build-up. However, this is normally associated with either infections (see above), or with inflammatory reactions such as rheumatoid arthritis (Merbs, personal communication, 1987). This latter pathology is apparently
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unknown in the prehistoric Southwest, although it has been noted in an historic Southwest Indian (Ortner and Putschar 1985).

LESIONS OF THE JAWS AND TEETH


The pathologies and abnormalities that can affect the dentition and its supporting structures are almost as numerous and varied as those which can affect the remainder of the entire skeleton. The etiology can involve genetic (e.g. ameliogenesis imperfecta) and chemical (e.g. fluorosis) factors, but are most commonly diet and environment related. These latter two factors are of more direct concern to the physical anthropologist and thus, only pathologies involving them will be discussed. Dental Caries Caries are a condition in which the enamel and dentine is decalcified, and the remnant organic material disintegrates, resulting in a necrotic pit (Colby et al., 1961). The cause is mainly diet/environment related and is thought to be a result of high carbohydrate ingestion (Pelton et al., 1969). Carbohydrate substances can be metabolized by bacteria in the mouth, resulting in production of acetic acid waste products which can soften the enamel (Colby et al., 1961). Left untreated, the cavity can enlarge rapidly, resulting in crown destruction and possible ante-mortem tooth loss (Pelton et al., 1969). Caries is commonly found in Southwest populations which consumed a diet high in carbohydrate-rich maize. Examples of this come from Hohokam (Fink 1989), Salado (Gavan 1940; Bassett and Atwell 1985), Anasazi (Berry 1985b), and countless other (Schmucker 1985) groups. Caries should be scored according to the ASU Dental Anthropology System (Turner n.d.). In this system, a tooth is considered carious if the lesion has both an irregular border and discolored, easily-removed necrotic enamel or dentine. Caries are scored by location on a tooth, with nine possible sites: occlusal, mesial, distal, buccal, lingual, and combinations of occlusal and the other surfaces (e.g. mesio-occlusal). Dental Wear There are two types of dental crown wear: attrition and abrasion. Normal attrition is age-related and can be defined as the gradual loss of tooth substance as a result of mastication. Abrasion is a type of abnormal wear, and is defined as the pathologic wearing away of the dental hard tissue by the friction of a foreign body (Colby et al., 1961; Pindborg 1970). If the pulp cavity (interior of tooth) becomes exposed from either type of wear, bacteria may enter the tooth and cause infection. If this occurs, ante-mortem tooth loss may result. Dental attrition is universal in Southwest populations. Work by Schmucker (1985) on California hunter-gatherers and New Mexico agriculturalists indicates a notable difference in attrition between the two subsistence strategies. Heavier, and more varied wear was found to occur in the hunter-gatherers. However, extensive wear is still common in agriculturalists (Schmucker 1985; Fink 1989). The agriculturalist wear may be related to the introduction of grit into their diet through the use of stone manos and metates, as mentioned above. Because attrition is age dependent, those teeth which erupt into the oral cavity first are most heavily affected. Dental abrasion is also common in the Southwest. Abrasion can be noted by unusual patterns of wear in both individual and groups of teeth. This may relate to the use of teeth as tools for prying, stripping plant matter, or other miscellaneous tasks. Unusual wear patterns were noticed by Fink (1989) in the Hohokam from Grand Canal and Casa Buena. Other examples additionally exist.

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As with caries, tooth wear is scored using the ASU system. Each tooth is given a score of 0-4, with 4 indicating the highest degree of wear. Thus: 0. 0-1. 1. 2. 3. 4. No wear. This occurs only in unerupted and erupting teeth. Wear facets can be seen with a 1OX hand lens on one or more cusps. Incisors almost always wear earlier than posterior teeth. Dentine is exposed on one or more cusps. Cusps are worn off. The tooth pulp is exposed. The crown is worn away, leaving a root stump.

Alveolar Resorption This is also a common pathology which can occur as a result of two main agents: pulp perforation (by caries and wear) an gingival inflammation due to external bacterial involvement. Both types are known throughout the prehistoric Southwest (Berry 1985b; Schmucker 1985; Fink 1989). As discussed above, pulp exposure creates an access for bacteria. This may result in tooth death. Following this, infection can proceed down the root canal, causing periapical inflammation. If unchecked an abscess may form, resulting in loss of alveolar bone (Pindborg, 1970). The major agent thought to be involved in the second type of resorption is calculus, and its precursor, plaque (Colby et al., 1961; Pelton et al., 1969). Calculus may cause gingival inflammation, allowing bacteria to penetrate into the tooth sulcus. It is the bacteria and waste in the calculus that causes a low grade infection in the alveolar bone, with resulting bone loss (Colby et al., 1961). Calculus is commonly found in Southwest agriculturalists, as is this type of resorption, known as periodontitis (Berry 1985b; Schmucker 1985; Fink 1989). An abscess will normally affect only a limited area - near the infected tooth. Thus, the location and size of these areas should be recorded. Periodontitis is less localized, and should be scored as follows (Turner, n.d.): None. No identifiable bone loss. Alveolar tooth border is hard and smooth. Root exposure does not exceed 13 mm dependent on age. Pockets. One to three teeth may have localized alveolar bone loss. Record affected teeth. Generalized - slight. The pathology affects many teeth with 3-5 mm of exposed root plus possible alveolar border pitting. Pockets may also occur. Generalized - medium. More than 4-5 mm of root exposure, alveolar border is usually ragged and deep pockets can occur. Generalized - marked. More than 50% of root is exposed in many teeth. Alveolar border is severely eroded. Pocket depth may be so deep as to be mistaken for an abscess. However, an abscess can be recognized by the presence of a perforation for pus drainage. A periodontal pocket will have none. Enamel Hypoplasia Enamel hypoplasia refers to deficiencies in the enamel in the form of pits or bands on the crown. These deficiencies may be discolored - showing a brownish color, or they may simply appear as indentations. Hypoplasia occurs when something causes an interruption in the process of amelogenesis. This means that the insult must happen during childhood, when the enamel forming process is
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occurring. The insult may involve local trauma, congenital problems, or metabolic disturbances. This makes it useful as an indicator of acute or chronic stress relating to illness or poor nutrition. Also, because enamel deposition is fairly constant, hypoplasia can give an estimate of the age of the individual when the insult occurred (Colby et al., 1961; Pelton et al., 1969; Berry 1985b). Berry (1985b) and Fink (1989) record enamel hypoplasia in Mogollon, Anasazi, and Hohokam groups. Additionally, Fink notes an association of enamel hypoplasia and porotic hyperostosis in Hohokam, suggesting substantial evidence of diet related problems. Enamel hypoplasia should be recorded by type, location (on individual and groups of teeth), and severity.

MISCELLANEOUS PATHOLOGIES
As mentioned in the introduction, this compilation is far from complete. Scores of other pathologies exist, many of which have been, and potentially may be, found in the Southwest. Among these are additional spinal pathologies and anomalies such as spondylolisthesis (Merbs and Euler 1985), disk herniations, sagittal cleavage, long spinous processed and small neural canals associated with achondroplastic dwarfism, and lumbar or cervical ribs (Merbs, personal communication, 1987). Lastly, non-skeletal, but associated finds such as renal or bladder stones have been and probably will continue to be found (Steinbock 1985; Fink 1989).

PSEUDOPATHOLOGIES
One last category that should be mentioned is false or pseudopathologies. When examining skeletal material, particularly prehistoric specimens, extra care should be taken so as not to confuse primary skeletal involvement with that caused by the environment after the death. An example of this has already been discussed: post-mortem fractures due to ground pressure or careless excavation. A second example is reported by Minear and Rhine (1985) involving a prehistoric female from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. In this case, sand became incorporated in several of the vertebrae, giving a false impression of extreme density in the radiographs. A third example is noted by Brooks et al. (1985). An early historic skeleton near Las Vegas, Nevada showed over 145 holes in the shafts of several bones. This "pathology" turned out to be the result of beetle borings. Several other cases additionally exist. Thus, not everything is necessarily as it first appears.

X-RAY PROCEDURES
Analysis of X-ray films of pathological bones is one of the most important tools for the paleopathologist and should be part of almost all descriptions of such material. The use of X-rays or radiography has the advantage over many other methods in being completely nondestructive and thus, should always be used before chemical or histological methods are applied (Ortner and Putschar 1985). X-rays are special waves which are able to penetrate many substances (Brothwell 1981). They are produced in an X-ray or anode tube, where current passes through a filament and boils off electrons into 99% heat, with some useful X-rays. These X-rays then come into contact with the object being studied, and expose the X-ray film (Barnes, personal communication, 1987). Bone, containing calcium, is resistent to X-ray penetration and therefore can give a clear picture not only of the external form, but also of the internal structure (Brothwell 1981; Barnes, personal communication, 1987). An X-ray of the side of a skull, for example, gives a fairly clear sagittal view as well as revealing other bone contours. Similarly, when a longbone is viewed, the internal structure (marrow cavity) is revealed, as are any lines (Harris lines) which are related to stress (Brothwell 1981; Griffiths 1987).

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The correct exposure of an X-ray film depends on several factors, including: 1) electrical current flow measured in milliamperes, 2) energy of current measured in kilovolts, 3) time of exposure measured in seconds, 4) distance between the specimen and the X-ray tube, 5) type of film being used and 6) density of the specimen (Ortner and Putschar 1985; Barnes, personal communication, 1987). Another factor to consider in radiographic quality is distortion -- the perversion of shape in a radiographic image. Some distortion is inherent when attempting to project a three-dimensional object onto a two-dimensional plane (Ortner and Putschar, 1985). However, gross distortion can be prevented by proper alignment of the anode tube, the object plane, and the film plane. The plane to be projected in the object must align with the tube and the film plane, or foreshortening or elongating of the object will occur on the radiograph (Barnes, personal communication, 1987). Finally, one must know the working procedures involved in using an X-ray machine and in processing the exposed film. All of these factors are too complex to discuss here. Complete instructions should be obtained from a competent radiologist before attempting to utilize X-rays. As mentioned, the main use of radiology in archaeological specimens is the study of pathology, although other uses are possible. X-rays can view the underlying structure of a bone to determine the exact nature of the surface manifestation. For example, X-rays can be used when studying the dentition to 1) examine dental parts hidden in the alveolus, 2) look at the size and shape of tooth roots, 3) look at internal tooth characters (root canal, pulp cavity, etc.), 4) distinguish between congenital absence and unerupted teeth, 5) examine anomalies (e.g., supernumerary teeth), 6) diagnose pathological conditions such as fractures or root caries and 7) check on eruption sequences and the stage of crown formation (Barnes, personal communication, 1987). X-rays can also be of tremendous value in studying the rest of the skeleton (Griffiths 1987). They can be used to 1) check for hidden indications of stress, such as growth arrest or Harris lines (which may indicate illness or metabolic deficiencies during skeletal growth), 2) look for evidence of fracture in healed specimens, 3) test for imbedded weapons, 4) reveal bone density to test for, among other things, osteoporosis or atrophy, 5) determine the depth of surface lesions or growths and 6) help in the determination of pseudopathologies (Morse 1969; Brothwell 1981; Ortner and Putschar 1985). In addition to their usefulness on dry bone, mummified remains can be X-rayed to study the underlying hard tissues without destruction of the surface tissue. Many other uses are also possible.

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Hanihara, K. 1961

Criteria for Classification of Crown Characters of the Human Deciduous Dentition. Zinriugaku Zassi 69:27-45.

Harris, E.F. 1977

Anthropologic and Genetic Aspects of the Dental Morphology of Solomon Islanders, Melanesia. PhD dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe.

Harris, E.F. and Bailit, H.L. 1980 The metaconule: A morphologic and familial analysis of a molar cusp in humans. American Journal Physical Anthropology. 53:349-358. Hawkey, D.E. 1988 Hellman, M. 1928 Hooton, E. A. 1930

Use of Upper Extremity Enthesopathies to Indicate Habitual Activity Patterns. MA thesis. Arizona State University. Tempe. Racial Characters in the Human Dentition. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 67:157-164.

The Indians of Pecos Pueblo: A Study of their Skeletal Remains. Yale University Press, New Haven.

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Shovel-shaped teeth. American Journal Physical Anthropology 3:429-465. New data on the teeth of early man and certain fossil European apes. American Journal Physical Anthropology 7:109-132. Catalog of Human Crania in the USNM Collections. US Natural Museum Proc. 78(2845):1-95.

1931

Ivanhoe, F. 1985 Elevated Orthograde Skeletal Plasticity of some Archaeological Populations from Mexico and the American Southwest: Direct Relation to Maize Phytate Nutritional Load. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe.

Jamison, P. L., and S. L. Zegura 1974 A Univariate and Multivariate Examination of Measurement Error in Anthropometry. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 40:197-204. Jantz, R. L. 1970 Change and Variation in Skeletal Populations of Arikara Indians. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Kansas.

Jarcho, S., N. Simon and E. M. Bick 1963 A Fused Hip from Wupatki. Plateau 3-5:69-74.

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Jit, I., V. Jhingan and M. Kulkarni 1980 Sexing the Human Sternum. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 53:217-224. Jorgensen, K.D. 1955

The Dryopithecus Pattern in Recent Danes and Dutchmen. Journal Dent. Res. 34:195-208.

Kaul, S. S. and R. K. Pathak 1984 The Mylohyoid Bridge in Four Population Samples from India, with Observations on its Suitability as a Genetic Marker. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 65:213-218. Keita, S. 0. Y. 1988

An Analysis of Crania from Tell-Duweir Using Multiple Discriminant Functions. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 75:375-390.

Kent, S. 1986 The Influence of Sedentism and Aggregation on Porotic Hyperostosis and Anaemia: a Case Study. Man 21:605-636.

Korey, K. A. 1980

The Incidence of Bilateral Nonmetric Skeletal Traits: A Reanalysis of Sampling Procedures. American Journal of Physical Anthropo1ogy 53:19-23.

Koritzer, 1977 An Anthropological Approach to the Study of Dental Pathology. In Orofacia Growth and Development, edited by A. A. Dahlberg and T. M. Graber. The Hauge: Nouton, pp.283-299.

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Dental morphology of the Gran Quivira Indians. MA thesis, Arizona State University,Tempe.

Martin, D. L., C. Piacentini and G. J. Armelagos 1985 Paleopathology of the Black Mesa Anasazi: a Biocultural Approach. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe.

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McGrath, J. W., J. M. Cheverud, and J. E. Buikstra 1984 Genetic Correlations Between Sides and Heritability of Asymmetry for Nonmetric Traits in Rhesus Macaques on Cayo Santiago. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 64:401-411. McGregor, J. C. 1943

Burial of an Early American Magician. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 86:270-298.

McKern, T.W. and T.D. Stewart 1957 Skeletal Age Changes in Young American Males. Headquarters Quartermaster Research and Development Command, Technical Report EP-45. Nattick, Maine. McWilliams, K. R. 1974

Gran Ouivira Pueblo and Biological Distance in the US Southwest. Ph.D. dissertation. Arizona State University, Tempe.

Merbs, C. F. 1980

The Pathology of a La Jollan Skeleton from Punta Minitas, Baja California. Pacific Coast Arch. Soc. Quar. 16:37-43. Patterns of Activity-induced Pathology in a Canadian Inuit Population. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 119. Ottawa.

1983

Merbs, C. F. and R. C. Euler 1985 Atlanto-occipital Fusion and Spondylolisthesis in an Anasazi Skeleton from Bright Angel Ruin, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. American Journal Physical Anthropology 67:381-391. Merbs, C. F. and E. M. Vestergaard 1985 The Paleopathology of Sundown, a Prehistoric Site near Prescott, Arizona. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe. Micozzi, M. S. and M. A. Kelley 1985 Evidence for pre-Columbian Tuberculosis at the Point of Pines Site, Arizona: Skeletal Pathology in the Sacroiliac Region. In Health and Disease in the Southwest, edited by Charles F. Merbs and Robert J. Miller. Anthropological Research Papers No. 34, pp. 347-359. Arizona State University, Tempe. Miller, R. J. 1981 Chavez Pass and Biological Relationships in Prehistoric Central Arizona. Ph.D. dissertation. Arizona State University, Tempe.

Miller, R. J. 1985 Lateral Epicondylitis in a Prehistoric Central Arizona Indian Population from Nuvakwewtaqa (Chavez Pass). In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe.

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Minear, W. L. and S. Rhine 1985 Increased Radiographic Density in Lumbar Vertebrae from Prehistoric New Mexico. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe. Molto, J. E. 1983

Biological Relationships of Southern Ontario Woodland Peoples: The Evidence of Discontinuous Cranial Morphology. National Museum of Man Mercury Series No. 117. Ottawa. The Assessment and Meaning of Intraobserver Error in Population Studies Based on Discontinuous Cranial Traits. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 51:333-344.

1979

Montagu, M.F.A. 1940

The Significance of the Variability of the Upper Lateral Incisor Teeth in Man. Human Biology. 12-.323-358.

Moorrees, C.F.A, E.A. Fanning, and E.E. Hunt, Jr. 1963 Formation and Resorption of Three Deciduous Teeth in Children. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 21:205-213. 1963 Age Variation of Formation Stages for Ten Permanent Teeth. Journal of Dental Research 42(6):1490-1502.

Morris, Donald H. 1970

Walnut Creek Village: A Ninth Century Hohokam-Anasazi Settlement in the Mountains of Central Arizona. American Antiquity 35:49-61.

Morris, Donald H., Dahlberg A.A. and Glasstone-Hughes, S. 1978 The Uto-Aztecan premolar: The anthropology of a dental trait. In Development, Function, and Evolution of the Teeth, edited by PM Butler and K.A.Joysey, pp. 69-79. London: Academic Press. Morris, N.T. 1970

The Occurrence of the Mandibular Torus at Gran Quivira. MA thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe.

Morse, D.H. 1975 1970

Bushmen Maxillary Canine Polymorphism. So. Journal Science. 71:333-335. On Deflecting Wrinkles and the Dryopithecus Pattern in Human Mandibular Molars. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 32:97-104. Ancient Disease in the Midwest. Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL.

1969

Nathan, H., and N. Haas 1966 "Cribra orbitalia." A Bone Condition of the Orbit of Unknown Nature. Israel 1. Med. Sci. 2:171-191.

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Neiberger, E.J. 1978

Incidence of Torsiversion in Mandibular Third Molars. Journal Dent. Res. 57:209-212.

Nichol, C.R. and Turner, C.G., 11 1986 Intra- and Interobserver Concordance in Observing Dental Morphology. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 69:299-315. Nichol, C.R., Turner, C.G, 11 and Dahlberg, A.A. 1984 Variation in the Convexity of the Human Maxillary Incisor Labial Surface. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 63:361-370. Ortner, D. J. and Putschar, W. G. J. 1985 Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains. Smithsonian Institution Press. Ossenberg, N. S. 1987

Retromolar Foramen of the Human Mandible. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 73:119-128. Isolate Conservatism and Hybridization in the Population History of Japan: The Evidence of Nonmetric Cranial Traits. In Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherers in Japan, edited by T. Akazawa and C. M. Aikens, pp. 199-215. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo. An Argument for the Use of Total Side Frequencies of Bilateral Non-metric Skeletal Traits in Population Distance Analysis: The Regression of Symmetry on Incidence. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 54: 471479.

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Pedersen, P.O. 1949

The East Greenland Eskimo dentition. Meddelser om Gronland. 142:1-256.

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Pathology of the Dental Hard Tissues. W. B. Saunders, Co., Philadelphia.

Coccidioidomycosis and North American Blastomycosis: Differential Diagnosis of Bone Lesions in Pre-Columbian American Indians. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. April 14-18,1976.

Reed, E. K. 1967

Variations of the Spine in Human Skeletal Material from Southwestern Archaeological Collections. In Miscellaneous Papers in Paleopathology 1, edited by W. D. Wade. Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff.

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Regan, M.H. 1988

Methodological and Nutritional Correlates of Long Bone Growth in two Southwestern Prehistoric Skeletal Samples. MA thesis. Arizona State University. Tempe.

Saunders, S. R. 1978

The Development and Distribution of Discontinuous Morphological Variation of the Human Infracranial Skeleton. National Museum of Man Mercury Series No. 81. Ottawa.

Sawyer, D. R. and M. L. Kiely 1987 Jugular Foramen and Mylohyoid Bridging in an Asian Indian Population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 72:473-477. Schmucker, B. J. 1985

Dental Attrition: a Correlative Study of Dietary and Subsistence Patterns. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe. Dental morphology: A genetic study of American White families and variation in living Southwest Indians. PhD dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe. Classification, sex dimorphism, association, and population variation of the canine distal accessory ridge. Human Biology. 49:453-469. Population variation of Carabelli's trait. Human Biology. 52:63-78.

Scott, G.R. 1973

1977

1980

Scott, G.R. and Turner, C.G., II 1988 Dental Anthropology. Annual Revue Anthropo1ogy. 17:99-126. Seltzer, C. C. 1944

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Shipman, J. H. 1982

Biological Relationships Among Prehistoric Western Pueblo Indians. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor.

Sokal, R. R., H. Uytterschaut, F. W. Rosing and I. Schwidetzky 1987 A Classification of European Skulls from Three Time Periods. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 74:1-20. Stark, C. and S. T. Brooks 1985 A Survey of Prehistoric Paleopathology in the Nevada Great Basin. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe. Steinbock, R. T. 1976 Paleopathological Diagnosis and Interpretation: Bone Diseases in Ancient Human Populations. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, IL.

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Stewart, T. D. 1940 Arizona.

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1937

Different Types of Deformity in the Pueblo Area. American Anthropologist 39:169-171.

Stuart-MacAdam, P. 1987 A Radiographic Study of Porotic Hyperostosis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 74:511-520. Suchey, J. M. 1975 Sumner, D. R. 1985

Biological Distance of Prehistoric Central California Populations Derived from Nonmetric Traits. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Riverside. A Probable Case of Prehistoric Tuberculosis from Northeastern Arizona. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe. The Paleopathology of a Southern Sinagua Population from Oak Creek Pueblo, Arizona. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe.

Taylor, M. G. 1985

Tomes, C.S. 1923

A Manual of Dental Anatomy, Human and Comparative. 8th edition. HW Marett-Tims (ed.). London: j and A Churchill.

Trotter, M., and G. C. Gleser 1952 Estimation of Stature from Long Bones of American Whites and Negroes. American Journal of Physical Anthropo1ogy.10:463-514. 1958 A Re-evaluation of Estimation of Stature Based on Measurements of Stature Taken During Life and of Long Bones after Death. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 16:79-124.

Turner, C. G. II 1961

Appendix II Human Skeletons from the Coombs Site: Skeletal and Dental Aspects. In The Coombs Site Part III: Summary and Conclusions, by R. H. Lister and F. C. Lister. University of Utah Department of Anthropology Anthropological Papers No. 41 (Glen Canyon Series No. 8), Salt Lake City. The Dentition of Arctic Peoples. PhD dissertation, University of Wisconsin, Madison. New Classifications of Non-metrical Dental Variation: Cusps 6 and 7. Paper presented at the 39th annual meetings American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Washington,D.C.

1967

1970

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1971

Three-rooted Mandibular First Permanent Molars and the Question of American Indian Origins. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 34:299-342. Dental Anthropological Indications of Agriculture Among the Joman People Central Japan. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 51:619-635. Root Number Determination in Maxillary First Premolars for Modern Human Populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 54:59-62. ASU Dental Anthropology System. Scoring Procedures for Key Morphological Traits of the Permanent Dentition. Unpublished lab manual.

1979

1981

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Turner, C. G. II and Cadien 1969 Dental Clipping in Aleuts, Eskimos and Indians. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 31(3):303-310. Turner, C. G. II and Machado 1983 A New Dental Wear Pattern and Evidence of High Carbohydrate Consumption in a Brazilian Archaic Skeletal Population. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 61:125130.

Turner, C.G. II and Scott, G.R. 1977 Dentition of Easter Islanders. In Orofacial Growth and Development, edited by AA Dahlberg and T Ubelaker, D.H. 1989 1978

Human Skeletal Remains. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Human Skeletal Remains: Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation. Aldine Publishing Co., Chicago.

Walker, P. L. 1985

Anemia among Prehistoric Indians of the American Southwest. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe. Subsistence and Settlement Patterns at Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, Mexico. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe.

Weaver, D. S. 1985

Weidenreich, F. 1937

The Dentition of Sinanthropus pekinensis: A Comparative Odontography of the Hominids. Palaeontologia Sinica, New Series D, No. 1, Peking.

Wheeler, R. L. 1985

Pathology in the Late 13th Century Zuni from the El Moro Valley, New Mexico. In Health and Disease in the Prehistoric Southwest, edited by C. F. Merbs and R. J. Miller. Arizona State University, Tempe.

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Zaino, E. C. 1967

Symmetrical Osteoporosis, a Sign of Severe Anemia in the Prehistoric Pueblo Indians of the Southwest. In Miscellaneous Papers in Paleopathology: 1, edited by W. D. Dade. Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff.

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