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ECM2105 - Control Engineering

STABILITY

1. S-Plane: Poles and Zeros

2. The Stability of Linear Feedback Systems

3. Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

1. S-Plane: Poles and Zeros

A linear system can be represented by the following transfer function:

G (s) =

 b s m b + s m 1 + L + b s + b m m 1 1 0 a n s n a + n 1 s n 1 + L + a 1 s + a 0

p(s)

=

q (s)

=

 ( s z )( s 1 z 2 ) L ( s z m ) ( s p )( s 1 p 2 ) L ( s p n )

where m < n (for limited response at high frequency). Zeros: z i (the roots of the numerator) Poles: p i (the roots of the denominator or of the system or characterestic equation)

These can only be real or occur in complex conjugate pairs, as all parameters of a real system must be real.

 Exercises: What are the pole and zeros of the systems described by the following transfer functions:

(a)

(b)

 s 1 s 2 4s + 4 2(s + 1) s ( s + 2 )( s + 3)( s + 4 )

1.1. Locating poles and zeros with MATLAB

The roots of a polynomial (numerator or denominator of a tansfer function) can be found using the MATLAB command roots(P) where P is a vector containing the coefficients of the polynomial. The roots of the polynomial then represent the poles and zeros of the transfer function.

Alternatively, a map of the poles and zeros of the LTI system sys=tf(num,den) in the s-plane can be obtained with MATLAB using the command:

pzmap(sys)

or directly:

pzmap(num,den)

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ECM2105 - Control Engineering

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

For example, to identify the locations of the poles and zeros of the LTI system given by:

G (s) =

2s

2

+

s

+

3

s

3

+

4s

2

+

2s

1

on the s-plane, we type on the MATLAB command line:

sys = tf([0 2 1 3],[1 4 2 -1]) pzmap(sys)

The following output will then be produced. Note that poles are identified with crosses, while zeros are identified with open circles. Pole zero map
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-3.5
-3
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
Imag Axis

Real Axis

2. The Stability of Linear Feedback Systems

2.1. The concept of stability

 Fundamentally important. An unstable closed-loop system is of no use in practice. Many physical systems are inherently open-loop unstable (e.g. aircraft, inverse pendulum, etc.).

In designing a control system, we must be able to predict the dynamic behaviour of the system from knowledge of the components.

A linear time-invariant control system is stable if the output eventually comes back to its equilibrium state when the system is subjected to an initial condition. It is marginally stable if oscillations of the output continue forever. It is unstable if the output diverges without bound from its equilibrium state when the system is subjected to an initial condition.

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y(t)

ECM2105 - Control Engineering

2.2. Mathematical description

Consider the first-order differential equation:

dy ( t ) + dt

ay ( t )

=

r ( t )

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

where 'a' is a constant and the initial condition is y(0) = 0.

 Laplace transform with impulse input: sY(s) - y(0) + aY(s) = R(s) Time response: y(t) = e -at . There are three cases:

i) a > 0, y() = 0

ii) a = 0, y() = 1

iii) a < 0, y() =

stable

neutral (marginally stable)

unstable

2.2.1. Graphical representation

Location of the pole j
a > 0
 j   a = 0 Time response
1.0
1.5
0.8
1.0
0.6
0.4
0.5
0.2
0
0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
t (sec)
t (sec)
a > 0
a = 0
y(t)
y(t)

3

 Y(s) = 1 s + a j   a < 0

400 0
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

300

200

100

t (sec)

a < 0

ECM2105 - Control Engineering

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

2.3. Motivation

Fact: A system is stable if ALL the closed-loop poles are in the LEFT HALF of the s-plane and have negative real parts, i.e. all the roots of the characteristic equation are in the left-hand s- plane.

s-plane

j Unstable

region Unstable

region

Stable

region

Stable

region

0

A general closed-loop system transfer function:

T (s) =

p(s)

q (s)

=

 b s m b + s m 1 + L + b s + b m m 1 1 0 a n s n a + n 1 s n 1 + L + a 1 s + a 0

To use the above fact, we need to solve the characteristic equation:

q(s) = a n s n + a n-1 s n-1 + ◊◊◊+ a 1 s + a 0 = (s - p 1 )(s - p 2 ) ◊◊◊(s - p n ) = 0

The task of factorising q(s) becomes difficult for n > 2. Do we have an alternative and simple method?

2.3.1. Necessary condition

A necessary condition for stability of the system is that all the coefficients of the closed-loop characteristic equation a i are positive. This is to say that if at least one of the coefficients of the characteristic equation q(s) is negative, we can conclude that the system is unstable.

However, it does not mean that if all the coefficients of q(s) are positive, the system is stable. For example:

q(s) = s 3 + 3s 2 + 2s + 3

stable

All poles in left half of s-plane (s = -2.67, s = -0.16 ± j1.05)

q(s) = s 3 + 3s 2 + 2s + 7

unstable

Two poles in right half of s-plane (s = -3.09, s = 0.04 ± j1.50)

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ECM2105 - Control Engineering

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

3. Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion

Routh's stability criterion tells us whether or not there are unstable roots in the closed-loop characteristic equation without actually solving for them. Using this method, we can tell how many closed-loop system poles are in the right half of the s-plane, but not their exact location.

Consider the closed-loop characteristic equation:

q(s) = a n s n + a n-1 s n-1 + ◊◊◊+ a 1 s + a 0 = 0

The Routh table is constructed as follows:

where

b n

b n

1

3

=

=

n a

a

n

n a

a

n

1

1

a

a

a

a

n

n

n

n

s

n

s

s

s

n

n

n

M

s

0

1

2

3

a

n

a

b

c

n

n

n

M

g

n

2

3

4

5 1
=
a
n
1

1

1

1

1

(

a

a

a

b

c

n

n

n

n

M

2

3

3

3

a

a

b

c

n

n

n

n

M

4

5

5

5

a

a

n

n

L

L

a

n

3

a

n

1

a

n

n

2

c

n

1

= 1
b
n
1

a n

b n

)

1

1

6

7

a

b

L

L

n

n

3

3

.

.

.

3.1. Routh-Hurwitz criterion

The Routh-Hurwitz criterion states that the number of roots of q(s) with positive real parts (in right half plane) is equal to the number of sign changes in the first column of the Routh table.

Example: Use the R-H criterion to determine if the closed-loop system described by the following characteristic equation is stable:

q(s) = s 4 + 4s 3 + 6s 2 + 8s + 2

Solution:

s

s

s

s

s

4

3

2

1

0

1

4

b

c

1

1

2

6

8

b

2

2

0

b

b

c

1

2

1

=

=

=

1

4

1

4

( 8

(0

1

4

(8

24 )

=

4

8)

=

2

32 )

=

6

Since all the coefficients in the first column of the R-H table are all positive and there is no sign change, then the system is stable.

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ECM2105 - Control Engineering

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

Exercise: Use the R-H criterion to determine if the closed-loop system described by the following characteristic equation is stable:

q(s) = s 4 + 2s 3 + 3s 2 + 4s + 5

Exercises: Determine which of the following represents a stable system. If not then find how many poles there are on the right half plane.

 (a) q(s) = s 2 + 2s + 3 (b) q(s) = s 6 + 4s 5 + 3s 4 + 2s 3 + s 2 + 4s + 4

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ECM2105 - Control Engineering

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

3.2. Application of Routh's stability criterion in control system analysis

The R-H criterion can be used to determine the range of the parameter values which maintain a stable system.

Example: Consider closed-loop system shown below. Using the R-H criterion, determine the range of K over which the system is stable. R(s)
s
+ 1
+ K
s ( s
1)( s
+
6 )

Y(s)

Solution: Closed-loop transfer function:

Routh's table:

Y(s)

=

R(s)

K(s

+

1)

s

3

+

5s

2

+

s(K

6)

+

K 3
s
1
K
2
s
5
K
4
1
s
K
6
5
0
s
K

6

For stability, all the coefficients in the first column of the Routh's table must be positive, i.e. we require:

4K/5 - 6 > 0 leading to K > 15/2 and K > 0

Therefore we choose a value for K > 15/2 for stability.

Exercise: Consider closed-loop system shown below. Using the R-H criterion, determine the range of K over which the system is stable. R(s)
1
K
+
s ( s
+
7 )( s
+
11)

Y(s) 7

ECM2105 - Control Engineering

Dr M M Aziz (2010)

TUTORIAL PROBLEM SHEET 6

1. Using the R-H criterion, determine how many poles there are on the right half plane for the following system equations:

a) q(s) = s 5 + 3s 4 + 5s 3 + 4s 2 + s + 3

b) q(s) = s 3 + 9s 2 + 26s + 24

2. Determine whether the unity feedback systems with the following forward loop transfer functions are stable:

30

a) G (s) =

b) G(s) =

 ( s + 2 )( s + 3)( s + 4 ) 20

s

3

+

2s

2

4s

Show the locations of the poles and zeros of the closed-loop systems with MATLAB.

3. For a unity feedback system with forward loop transfer function:

G (s)

=

K ( s

+

2 )( s

2 )

s

2

+

3

determine the range of K for stability.

4. Determine the range of values of K in the following closed-loop control system that maintain the system stable. R(s)
s
+ 6
K
+
s(s
+
1)(s
+
3)

Y(s) 5. For the system shown below, determine the range of K to make the system stable.
R(s)
1
Y(s)
+ K
+ s ( s
+
2 )( s
+
3)
s

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