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AP BIO DIFFUSION/OSMOSIS LAB Part A: Qualitative Diffusion/Osmosis across Dialysis Tubing

Objective: to hypothesize the molar concentration of unknown solutions using mass and the property of osmosis as an indicator. Dialysis membranes are made from cellulose that have tiny pores to allow the passing of certain size molecules. Dialysis tubing with different pore sizes can be obtained and are used in the laboratory to clean chemical compounds. The solutions are made up of different concentrations of sucrose. There are 0M, .2M, .4M, .6M, & 0.8M solutions. Procedure: Obtain 5 strips of pre-soaked dialysis tubing per group. Tie a knot close to the end of the first tube. Open the tube up and fill it half way with unknown solution. Close it with another knot. Rinse the outside of the tubing carefully with tap water. Dry it with paper towels. Weigh the tube and record the mass. Place the tube into Cup A. Fill Cup A with De-ionized water until the tube is covered. Record changes after 30 min. Cover Cup A with saran wrap and incubate it overnight. Repeat this procedure with the other unknown solutions; be sure to label your cups! Take the tubes out of the cups. Dry it off and record the final mass. Results: Table 1 CUP MASS MASS FINAL % Change in Hypothesized INITIAL Mass Concentration (0.0-0.8M) A B C D E

Part B- Molar Concentration of Potatoes (DAY 2)

Objective: to find the molar concentration (isomolar point) of different types of potato cores. Procedure 1. Label 4 cups with 0M, 0.2M, 0.4M, 0.6M, & 0.8M and fill them half way with the appropriate sucrose solution. 2. Take a potato and cut 15 cores using a cork borer. Make sure there is no skin on any of the cores.

3. Put the cores into groups of 3. Mass each group of 3 cores and record the initial masses in the Initial mass column of Table 2 before placing the cores into their destined cup. Make sure keep track of which core group goes into which cup. 4. Cover the cups with plastic wrap and let them stand overnight. 5. Remove the potato cores from the cups. Blot them dry and then mass them. Record the values under the final mass column in Table 2. 6. To calculate % change in mass use the following formula: Percent Change in Mass = Final Mass Initial Mass Initial Mass Results: Table 2 Content in beaker 0M 0.3 M 0.6 M 0.9 M Initial mass Final mass Mass difference % Change in mass x 100 = %

Graph the results in your lab notebook. Use a best fit line through the dots. Circle where your line crosses the x-axis (the isomolar point of the potato). Write the approximate coordinates of the isomolar point on the graph. Calculate the water potential from the experimental data Use these instructions to calculate the water potential for all 4 solutions that your potatoes were incubated in. Show all work! Enter the results into Table 3. Use the isomolar point from your graph to calculate the water potential of your potato cores. Draw arrows directly on the table to indicate the water flow. Remember that water flows towards lower water potential. = pressure + solute solute = -i x C x R xT i = ionization constant (for sucrose =1.0) C = molar concentration of solute (C= ? M) R = Pressure constant (R=0.0831 l bars/mole oK) T = temperature in Kelvin = 273 + oC

Table 3

Concentration of solutions 0M 0.2 M 0.4 M 0.6 M 0.8M

Conclusion 1. 2. 3. 4.

of solution

of potato

What is the molarity of the potato core (= isomolar point)? In which solutions did the potato lose mass? Why did it lose mass? In which solutions did the potato gain mass? Why did it gain mass? What would be the molarity of a sucrose solution, isomolar to the potato, in which the potato core would not show a net change? 5. How and why does this experiment allow you to determine the molar concentration inside the potato core?