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8/20/13

Chromism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chromism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In chemistry, chromism is a process that induces a change, often reversible, in the colors of compounds. In most cases, chromism is based on a change in the electron states of molecules, especially the π- or d-electron state, so this phenomenon is induced by various external stimuli which can alter the electron density of substances. It is known that there are many natural compounds that have chromism, and many artificial compounds with specific chromism have been synthesized to date. Chromism is classified by what kind of stimuli are used. The major kinds of chromism are as follows. thermochromism is chromism that is induced by heat, that is, a change of temperature. This is the most common chromism of all. photochromism is induced by light irradiation. This phenomenon is based on the isomerization between two different molecular structures, light-induced formation of color centers in crystals, precipitation of metal particles in a glass, or other mechanisms. electrochromism is induced by the gain and loss of electrons. This phenomenon occurs in compounds with redox active sites, such as metal ions or organic radicals. solvatochromism depends on the polarity of the solvent. Most solvatochromic compounds are metal complexes. cathodochromism is induced by electron beam irradiation.

Contents
1 Chromic phenomena 2 Color changing phenomena 3 Dyes and pigments 4 Luminescence 5 Light and energy transfer 6 Light manipulation 7 References

Chromic phenomena
Chromic phenomena are those phenomena in which color is produced when light interacts with materials in a variety of ways. These can be categorized under the following five headings: Stimulated (reversible) color change The absorption and reflection of light The absorption of energy followed by the emission of light The absorption of light and energy transfer (or conversion) The manipulation of light.
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8/20/13 Chromism . which is involved. hair. Dyes and pigments Classical dyes and pigments produce color by the absorption and reflection of light. Mechanochromism . fashion/cosmetics and optical memory and optical switches. Halochromism .color change caused by a gas . Gasochromism.color change caused by light. There is also a very large production of inorganic pigments.color change caused by a change in pH. electrochromics in car mirrors and smart windows. The following list includes all the classic chromisms plus others of increasing interest in newer outlets. Chronochromism . world production of organic dyes was 800.000 tonnes. In 2000.wikipedia. and solvatochromics in biological probes. these are the materials that make a major impact on the color of our daily lives. paper. Aggregachromism . en.hydrogen/oxygen redox. Radiochromism .color change caused by ions. leather.org/wiki/Chromism 2/4 . Organic dyes are used mainly to color textile fibers. while pigments are used largely in inks.color change indirectly as a result of the passage of time.color change caused by electron beam irradiation. plastics and textiles and architecture.color change caused by mechanical actions. Solvatochromism . Magnetochromism .color change caused by vapour of an organic compound due to chemical polarity/polarisation.color change caused by interfacing with biological entity. thermochromics in paints. Dyes are also made using the properties of chromic substances: Photochromic dyes and Thermochromic dyes Luminescence The absorption of energy followed by the emission of light is often described by the term luminescence. Electrochromism . Crystallochromism . Commercial applications of color change materials are very common and include photochromics in ophthalmics. Cathodochromism . Thermochromism .color change caused by ionising radiation. The exact term used is based on the energy source responsible for the luminescence as in color-change phenomena. paints and plastics. Photochromism . Ionochromism . the free encyclopedia Color changing phenomena Phenomena which involve the change in color of a chemical compound take their name from the type of external influence. Vapochromism .000 tonnes and of organic pigments.color change caused by an electrical current.color change caused by heat.color change due to changes in crystal structure of a chromophore.color change caused by mechanical pressure.color change caused by solvent polarity. Biochromism . Many of these phenomena are reversible. Tribochromism .color change caused by magnetic field. 250.color change caused by mechanical friction.Wikipedia. either chemical or physical.color change on dimerisation/aggregation of chromophores. Piezochromism .

and electroluminescence in the burgeoning areas of light-emitting diodes (LEDs/OLEDs).Photoluminescence Fluorescence Phosphorescence Biofluorescence. Important new developments are taking place in the areas of quantum dots and metallic nanoparticles. such as thermal or electrical. inks. By using this site. diagnostics and sensors. to other molecules in another form of energy.Wikipedia. Chemical . Light and energy transfer Absorption of light and energy transfer (or conversion) involves colored molecules that can transfer electromagnetic energy.electroluminescence Galvanoluminescence Sonoluminescence. Cathodoluminescence is used in cathode ray tubes. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. phosphorescence in safety signs and low energy lighting. technological applications of colour chemistry.wikipedia. or in conjunction with light. displays and panel lighting. Chromic Phenomena.php?title=Chromism&oldid=540534897" Categories: Chromism Photochemistry This page was last modified on 26 February 2013 at 07:24. photoluminescence in fluorescent lighting and plasma display panels. For instance. Bamfield Peter and Hutchings Michael G. and by modifying the movement of light through materials by electrical means as in organic lasers.Triboluminescence Fractoluminescence Mechanoluminescence Crystalloluminescence Lyoluminescence Elasticoluminescence. Cambridge. Mechanical . by interference and diffraction as in lustre pigments and holography.org/wiki/Chromism 3/4 . ISBN 978-1-84755-868-8. 2010. photodiagnosis and photoinsecticides).8/20/13 Chromism .Chemiluminescence Bioluminescence Electrochemiluminescence. opto-electronics.Thermoluminescence Pyroluminescence Candololuminescence.wikipedia. safety clothing. Many of these phenomena are widely used in consumer products and other important outlets. organic photoconductors. Electron Beam . Royal Society of Chemistry.Cathodoluminescence Anodoluminescence Radioluminescence. a change of orientation of molecules as in liquid crystal displays. en. the free encyclopedia Electrical . usually from a laser light source. and biological and medicinal analysis and diagnostics. optical brighteners. chemoluminescence and bioluminescence in analysis. or by purely optical means photonics for instance by using photonic crystals made by colloidal synthesis and other methods. additional terms may apply. fluorescence in pigments.org/w/index. Thermal . These laser addressable colorants are used in optical data storage. Photons (light) . The absorption of natural sunlight solar energy by chromophores is exploited in solar cells for the production of electrical energy by inorganic photovoltaics and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and also in the production of useful chemicals via artificial photosynthesis. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. References 1. in photomedicine (such as photodynamic therapy of cancer. Light manipulation Materials may be used to manipulate light via a variety of mechanisms. Retrieved from "http://en.

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