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Orange (fruit)From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the fruit.

For the colour, see Orange (colour). For other uses, see Orange (disambiguation). "Orange trees" redirects here. For the painting by Gustave Caillebotte, see Les orangers. This article needs attention from an expert in botany. The specific problem is: Some information seems imprecise and some sources may be outdated. See the talk page for details. WikiProject Botany (or its Portal) may be able to help recrui t an expert. (November 2012) Orange Orange blossoms and oranges on tree Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Sapindales Family: Rutaceae Genus: Citrus Species: C. sinensis Binomial name Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck[1] The orange (specifically, the sweet orange) is the fruit of the citrus species C itrus ?sinensis in the family Rutaceae.[2] The fruit of the Citrus sinensis is c alled sweet orange to distinguish it from that of the Citrus aurantium, the bitt er orange. The orange is a hybrid, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and m andarin (Citrus reticulata), cultivated since ancient times.[3] Probably originating in Southeast Asia,[4] oranges were already cultivated in Ch ina as far back as 2500 BC. Arabo-phone peoples popularized sour citrus and oran ges in Europe;[5] Spaniards introduced the sweet orange to the American continen t in the mid-1500s. Orange trees are widely grown in tropical and subtropical climates for their swe et fruit, which can be eaten fresh or processed to obtain juice, and for the fra grant peel.[4] They have been the most cultivated tree fruit in the world since 1987,[6] and sweet oranges account for approximately 70% of the citrus productio n.[7] In 2010, 68.3 million tonnes of oranges were grown worldwide, particularly in Brazil and in the US states of California[8] and Florida.[9] Contents [hide] 1 Botanical information and terminology 1.1 Etymology 2 Varieties 2.1 Common oranges 2.1.1 Valencia 2.1.2 Hart's Tardiff Valencia 2.1.3 Hamlin 2.1.4 Other varieties of common oranges 2.2 Navel oranges 2.2.1 Cara cara navels 2.2.2 Other varieties of navels 2.3 Blood oranges 2.3.1 Other varieties of blood oranges 2.4 Acidless oranges 3 Attributes

3.1 Nutritional value 3.2 Acidity 3.3 Grading 4 History 5 Cultivation 5.1 Climate 5.2 Propagation 5.2.1 Principal rootstocks 5.2.2 Other rootstock varieties in the United States 5.3 Harvest 5.4 Degreening 5.5 Storage 5.6 Pests and diseases 5.6.1 Cottony cushion scale 5.6.2 Citrus greening disease 5.6.3 Greasy spot 6 Production 7 Juice and other products 7.1 Products made from oranges 8 Etymology 9 See also 10 References 11 External links Botanical information and terminology Orange fruit and cross sectionAll citrus trees belong to the single genus Citrus and remain almost entirely interfertile. This means that there is only one supe rspecies that includes grapefruits, lemons, limes, oranges, and various other ty pes and hybrids.[10] As the interfertility of oranges and other citrus has produ ced numerous hybrids, bud unions, and cultivars, their taxonomy is fairly contro versial, confusing or inconsistent.[3][7] The fruit of any citrus tree is consid ered a hesperidium (a kind of modified berry) because it has numerous seeds, is fleshy and soft, derives from a single ovary and is covered by a rind originated by a rugged thickening of the ovary wall.[11][12] Different names have been given to the many varieties of the genus. Orange appli Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. The orange tree is es primarily to the sweet orange an evergreen, flowering tree, with an average height of 9 to 10 metres (30 to 3 3 ft), although some very old specimens can reach 15 metres (49 ft).[13] Its ova l leaves, alternately arranged, are 4 to 10 centimetres (1.6 to 3.9 in) long and have crenulate margins.[14] Although the sweet orange presents different sizes and shapes varying from spherical to oblong, it generally has ten segments (carp els) inside, and contains up to six seeds (or pips)[15] and a porous white tissu e called pith or, more properly, mesocarp or albedo[16] lines its rind. When unri pe, the fruit is green. The grainy irregular rind of the ripe fruit can range fr om bright orange to yellow-orange, but frequently retains green patches or, unde r warm climate conditions, remains entirely green. Like all other citrus fruits, the sweet orange is non-climacteric. The Citrus sinensis is subdivided into fou r classes with distinct characteristics: common oranges, blood or pigmented oran ges, navel oranges, and acidless oranges.[17][18][19] Other citrus species also known as oranges are: the bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), also known as Seville orange, sour orange especially when used as rootstock for a sweet orange tree , bigarade orange and m armalade orange; the bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia Risso). It is grown mainly in Italy for its peel, which is used to flavour Earl Grey tea; the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), sometimes included in the genus (cl assified as Citrus trifoliata). It often serves as a rootstock for sweet orange trees, especially as a hybrid with other Citrus cultivars. The trifoliate orange

is a thorny shrub or small tree grown mostly as an ornamental plant or to set u p hedges. It bears a downy fruit similar to a small citrus, used to make marmala de. It is native to northern China and Korea, and is also known as "Chinese bitt er orange" or "hardy orange" because it can withstand subfreezing temperatures;[ 20] and Satsumasthe mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata). It has an enormous number of cu ltivars, most notably the satsuma (Citrus unshiu), the tangerine (Citrus tangeri na) and the clementine (Citrus clementina). In some cultivars, the mandarin is v ery similar to the sweet orange, making it difficult to distinguish between the two. The mandarin, however, is generally smaller and oblate, easier to peel, and less acid.[21] Orange trees generally are grafted. The bottom of the tree, including the roots and trunk, is called rootstock, while the fruit-bearing top has two different na mes: budwood (when referring to the process of grafting) and scion (when mention ing the variety of orange).[22] EtymologyThe origin of the term orange is presumably the Sanskrit word for "oran ge tree" (?????, nara?ga),[23] whose form has changed over time, after passing t hrough numerous intermediate languages. The fruit is known as "Chinese apple" in several modern languages. Some examples are Dutch sinaasappel[24] (literally, " China's apple") and appelsien, or Low German Apfelsine. In English, however, Chi nese apple usually refers to the pomegranate.[25] VarietiesCommon orangesCommon oranges (also called "white", "round", or "blond" oranges) constitute about two-thirds of all the orange production. The majority of this crop is used mostly for juice extraction.[17][19] ValenciaMain article: Valencia orange The Valencia orange is a late-season fruit, and therefore a popular variety when navel oranges are out of season. This is why an anthropomorphic orange was chos en as the mascot for the 1982 FIFA World Cup, held in Spain. The mascot was name d Naranjito ("little orange") and wore the colours of the Spanish national footb all team kit. Hart's Tardiff ValenciaThomas Rivers, an English nurseryman, imported this varie ty from the Azores Islands and catalogued it in 1865 under the name Excelsior. A round 1870, he provided trees to S. B. Parsons, a Long Island nurseryman, who in turn sold them to E. H. Hart of Federal Point, Florida.[26] HamlinThis cultivar was discovered by A. G. Hamlin near Glenwood, Florida, in 18 79. The fruit is small, smooth, not highly coloured, seedless, and juicy, with a pale yellow coloured juice, especially in fruits that come from lemon rootstock . The tree is high-yielding and cold-tolerant and it produces good quality fruit , which is harvested from October to December. It thrives in humid subtropical c limates. In cooler, more arid areas, the trees produce edible fruit, but too sma ll for commercial use.[13] Trees from groves in hammocks or areas covered with pine forest are budded on so ur orange trees, a method that gives a high solids content. On sand, they are gr afted on rough lemon rootstock.[6] The Hamlin orange is one of the most popular juice oranges in Florida and replaces the Parson Brown variety as the principal early-season juice orange. This cultivar is now[needs update] the leading early orange in Florida and, possibly, in the rest of the world.[13] Other varieties of common oranges Indian hybrid OrangeBelladonna: grown in Italy Berna: grown mainly in Spain Biondo Commune ("ordinary blond"): widely grown in the Mediterranean basin, espe cially in North Africa, Egypt, Greece (where it is called "koines"), Italy (wher

e it is also known as "Liscio"), and Spain; it also is called "Beledi" and "Nost rale";[17] in Italy, this variety ripens in December, earlier than the competing Tarocco variety[27] Biondo Riccio: grown in Italy Cadanera: a seedless orange of excellent flavour grown in Algeria, Morocco, and Spain; it begins to ripen in November and is known by a wide variety of trade na mes, such as Cadena Fina, Cadena sin Jueso, Precoce de Valence ("early from Vale ncia"), Precoce des Canaries, and Valence san Pepins ("seedless Valencia");[17] it was first grown in Spain in 1870[28] Calabrese or Calabrese Ovale: grown in Italy Carvalhal: grown in Portugal Castellana: grown in Spain Clanor: grown in South Africa Dom Joo: grown in Portugal Fukuhara: grown in Japan Gardner: grown in Florida, this mid-season orange ripens around the beginning of February, approximately the same time as the Midsweet variety; Gardner is about as hardy as Sunstar and Midsweet[29] Homosassa: grown in Florida Jaffa orange: grown in the Middle East, also known as "Shamouti" Jincheng: the most popular orange in China Joppa: grown in South Africa and Texas Khettmali: grown in Israel and Lebanon Kona: a type of Valencia orange introduced in Hawaii in 1792 by Captain George V ancouver; for many decades in the nineteenth century, these oranges were the lea ding export from the Kona district on the Big Island of Hawaii; in Kailua-Kona, some of the original stock still bears fruit Lue Gim Gong: grown in Florida, is an early scion developed by Lue Gim Gong, a C hinese immigrant known as the "Citrus Genius"; in 1888, Lue cross-pollinated two and obtai orange varieties the Hart's late Valencia and the Mediterranean Sweet ned a fruit both sweet and frost-tolerant; this variety was propagated at the Gl en St. Mary Nursery, which in 1911 received the Silver Wilder Medal by the Ameri can Pomological Society;[6][30] originally considered a hybrid, the Lue Gim Gong orange was later found to be a nucellar seedling of the Valencia type,[31] whic h is properly called Lue Gim Gong; since 2006, the Lue Gim Gong variety is grown in Florida, although sold under the general name Valencia Macetera: grown in Spain, it is known for its unique flavour Malta: grown in Pakistan Maltaise Blonde: grown in north Africa Maltaise Ovale: grown in South Africa and in California under the names of Garey 's or California Mediterranean Sweet Marrs: grown in Texas, California and Iran, it is relatively low in acid Midsweet: grown in Florida, it is a newer scion similar to the Hamlin and Pineap ple varieties, it is hardier than Pineapple and ripens later; the fruit producti on and quality are similar to those of the Hamlin, but the juice has a deeper co lour [29] Moro Tarocco: grown in Italy, it is oval, resembles a tangelo, and has a distinc tive caramel-coloured endocarp; this colour is the result of a pigment called an thocarpium, not usually found in citruses, but common in red fruits and flowers; the original mutation occurred in Sicily in the seventeenth century Mosambi: grown in India and Pakistan, it is so low in acid and insipid that it m ight be classified as acidless Narinja: grown in Andhra, South India Parson Brown: grown in Florida, Mexico, and Turkey, it once was a widely-grown F lorida juice orange, its popularity has declined since new varieties with more j uice, better yield, and higher acid and sugar content have been developed; it or iginated as a chance seedling in Florida in 1865; its fruits are round, medium l arge, have a thick, pebbly peel and contain 10 to 30 seeds; it still is grown be cause it is the earliest maturing fruit in the United States, usually maturing i n early September in the Valley district of Texas,[19] and from early October to

January in Florida;[29] its peel and juice colour are poor, as is the quality o f its juice [19] Pera: grown in Brazil, it is very popular in the Brazilian citrus industry and y ielded 7.5 million tonnes in 2005 Pera Coroa: grown in Brazil Pera Natal: grown in Brazil Pera Rio: grown in Brazil Pineapple: grown in North and South America and India Premier: grown in South Africa Rhode Red: is a mutation of the Valencia orange, but the colour of its flesh is more intense; it has more juice, and less acidity and vitamin C than the Valenci a; it was discovered by Paul Rhode in 1955 in a grove near Sebring, Florida Roble: it was first shipped from Spain in 1851 by Joseph Roble to his homestead in what now is Roble's Park in Tampa, Florida; it is known for its high sugar co ntent Queen: grown in South Africa Salustiana: grown in North Africa Sathgudi: grown in Tamil Nadu, South India Seleta, Selecta: grown in Australia and Brazil, it is high in acid Shamouti Masry: grown in Egypt; it is a richer variety of Shamouti Sunstar: grown in Florida, this newer cultivar ripens in mid-season (December to March) and it is more resistant to cold and fruit-drop than the competing Pinea pple variety; the colour of its juice is darker than that of the competing Hamli n [29] Tomango: grown in South Africa Verna: grown in Algeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Spain Vicieda: grown in Algeria, Morocco, and Spain Westin: grown in Brazil Navel orangesNavel oranges are characterized by the growth of a second fruit at the apex, which protrudes slightly and resembles a human navel. They are primari ly grown for human consumption for various reasons: their thicker skin make them a result of the high con easy to peel, they are less juicy and their bitterness centrations of limonin and other limonoids renders them less suitable for juice. [17] Their widespread distribution and long growing season have made navel orang es very popular. In the United States, they are available from November to April , with peak supplies in January, February, and March.[32] A navel orange, peeled and sectioned; the underdeveloped twin fruit is located o n the bottom rightAccording to a 1917 study by Palemon Dorsett, Archibald Dixon Shamel and Wilson Popenoe of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), a single mutation in a Selecta orange tree planted on the grounds of a monaster y near Bahia, Brazil, probably yielded the first navel orange between 1810 and 1 820.[33] Nevertheless, a researcher at the University of California, Riverside, has suggested that the parent variety was more likely the Portuguese navel orang e (Umbigo), described by Antoine Risso and Pierre Antoine Poiteau in their book Histoire naturelle des orangers ("Natural History of Orange Trees", 1818 1822).[33 ] The mutation caused the orange to develop a second fruit at its base, opposite the stem, as a conjoined twin in a set of smaller segments embedded within the peel of the primary orange.[34] Navel oranges were introduced in Australia in 18 24 and in Florida in 1835. In 1870, twelve cuttings of the original tree were tr ansplanted to Riverside, California, where the fruit became known as "Washington ".[35] This cultivar was very successful, and rapidly spread to other countries. [33] Because the mutation left the fruit seedless and, therefore, sterile, the o nly method to cultivate navel oranges was to graft cuttings onto other varieties of citrus trees. The California Citrus State Historic Park and the Orcutt Ranch Horticulture Center preserve the history of navel oranges in Riverside. Today, navel oranges continue to be propagated through cutting and grafting. Thi s does not allow for the usual selective breeding methodologies, and so all nave

l oranges can be considered fruits from that single, nearly two-hundred-year-old tree: they have exactly the same genetic make-up as the original tree and are, therefore, clones. This case is similar to that of the common yellow seedless ba nana, the Cavendish. On rare occasions, however, further mutations can lead to n ew varieties.[33] Cara cara navels Cara cara orange slices (left)Cara cara oranges (also called "red navel") are a type of navel orange grown mainly in Venezuela, South Africa and in California's San Joaquin Valley. They are sweet and comparatively low in acid,[36] with a br ight orange rind similar to that of other navels, but their flesh is distinctive ly pinkish red. It is believed that they have originated as a cross between the Washington navel and the Brazilian Bahia navel,[37] and they were discovered at the Hacienda Cara Cara in Valencia, Venezuela, in 1976.[38] South African cara caras are ready for market in early August, while Venezuelan fruits arrive in October and Californian fruits in late November.[36][37] Other varieties of navelsBahianinha or Bahia Dream Navel Late Navel Washington or California Navel Blood oranges Comparison between the inside and the outside of regular and blood orangesMain a rticle: Blood orange Blood oranges are a natural mutation of C. sinensis, although today the majority of them are hybrids. High concentrations of anthocyanin give the rind, flesh, a nd juice of the fruit their characteristic dark red colour. Blood oranges were f irst discovered and cultivated in Sicily in the fifteenth century. Since then th ey have spread worldwide, but are grown especially in Spain and Italy under the na mes of sanguina and sanguinella, respectively. The blood orange, with its distinct colour and flavour, is generally considered the most delicious juice orange,[17] and has found a niche as an ingredient vari ation in traditional Seville marmalade. Other varieties of blood orangesMaltese: a small and highly coloured variety, ge nerally thought to have originated in Italy as a mutation and cultivated there f or centuries. It also is grown extensively in southern Spain and Malta. It is us ed in sorbets and other desserts due to its rich burgundy colour. Moro: originally from Sicily, it is common throughout Italy. This medium-sized f ruit has a relatively long harvest, which lasts from December to April. Sanguinelli: a mutant of the Doble Fina, discovered in 1929 in Almenara, in the Castelln province of Spain. It is cultivated in Sicily. Scarlet navel: a variety with the same mutation as the navel orange. Tarocco: a relatively new variety developed in Italy. It begins to ripen in late January.[27] Acidless orangesAcidless oranges are an early-season fruit with very low levels of acid, which are rather insipid. They also are called "sweet" oranges in the U .S., with similar names in other countries: douce in France, sucrena in Spain, d olce or maltese in Italy, meski in North Africa and the Near East (where they ar e especially popular), seker portakal ("sugar orange") in Turkey,[39] succari in Egypt, and lima in Brazil.[17] The lack of acid, which protects orange juice against spoilage in other groups, renders them generally unfit for processing as juice, so they are primarily eate n. They remain profitable in areas of local consumption, but rapid spoilage rend ers them unsuitable for export to major population centres of Europe, Asia, or t he United States.[17]

AttributesNutritional valueOranges, raw, all commercial varieties Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 197 kJ (47 kcal) Carbohydrates 11.75 g - Sugars 9.35 g - Dietary fibre 2.4 g Fat 0.12 g Protein 0.94 g Water 86.75 g Vitamin A equiv. 11 g (1%) Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.087 mg (8%) Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.04 mg (3%) Niacin (vit. B3) 0.282 mg (2%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.25 mg (5%) Vitamin B6 0.06 mg (5%) Folate (vit. B9) 30 g (8%) Choline 8.4 mg (2%) Vitamin C 53.2 mg (64%) Vitamin E 0.18 mg (1%) Calcium 40 mg (4%) Iron 0.1 mg (1%) Magnesium 10 mg (3%) Manganese 0.025 mg (1%) Phosphorus 14 mg (2%) Potassium 181 mg (4%) Zinc 0.07 mg (1%) Link to USDA Database entry Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database This section requires expansion with: nutritional properties (see talk page). ( November 2012) Oranges, like most citrus fruits, are a good source of vitamin C. AcidityBeing a citrus fruit, the orange is acidic: its pH levels are as low as 2 .9,[40] and as high as 4.0.[40][41] GradingThe United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has established the fo llowing grades for Florida oranges, which primarily apply to oranges sold as fre sh fruit: US Fancy, US No. 1 Bright, US No. 1, US No. 1 Golden, US No. 1 Bronze, US No. 1 Russet, US No. 2 Bright, US No. 2, US No. 2 Russet, and US No. 3.[42] The general characteristics graded are colour (both hue and uniformity), firmnes s, maturity, varietal characteristics, texture, and shape. Fancy, the highest gr ade, requires the highest grade of colour and an absence of blemishes, while the terms Bright, Golden, Bronze, and Russet concern solely discolouration. Grade numbers are determined by the amount of unsightly blemishes on the skin an d firmness of the fruit that do not affect consumer safety. The USDA separates b lemishes into three categories: 1.General blemishes: ammoniation, buckskin, caked melanose, creasing, decay, sca b, split navels, sprayburn, undeveloped segments, unhealed segments, and wormy f ruit 2.Injuries to fruit: bruises, green spots, oil spots, rough, wide, or protruding navels, scale, scars, skin breakdown, and thorn scratches 3.Damage caused by dirt or other foreign material, disease, dryness, or mushy co ndition, hail, insects, riciness or woodiness, and sunburn.[42] The USDA uses a separate grading system for oranges used for juice because appea rance and texture are irrelevant in this case. There are only two grades: US Gra

de AA Juice and US Grade A Juice, which are given to the oranges before processi ng. Juice grades are determined by three factors: 1.The juiciness of the orange 2.The amount of solids in the juice (at least 10% solids are required for the AA grade) 3.The proportion of anhydric citric acid in fruit solids HistoryThere are no reports of sweet oranges occurring in the wild. In general, it is believed that sweet orange trees have originated in Southeast Asia, northe astern India, or southern China,[6] and that they were first cultivated in China around 2500 BC.[citation needed] In Europe, citrus fruits among them the bitter orange, introduced to Italy by the crusaders in the 11th century were grown widely in the south for medicinal purpose s,[6] but the sweet orange was unknown until the late 15th century or the beginn ings of the 16th century, when Italian and Portuguese merchants brought orange t rees into the Mediterranean area.[6] Shortly afterward, the sweet orange quickly was adopted as an edible fruit. It also was considered a luxury item and wealth y people grew oranges in private conservatories, called orangeries. By 1646, the sweet orange was well known throughout Europe.[6] Spanish explorers introduced the sweet orange into the American continent. On hi s second voyage in 1493, Christopher Columbus took seeds of oranges, lemons, and citrons to Haiti and the Caribbean. Subsequent expeditions in the mid-1500s bro ught sweet oranges to South America and Mexico, and to Florida in 1565, when Ped ro Menndez de Avils founded St Augustine.[43] Spanish missionaries brought orange trees to Arizona between 1707 and 1710, while the Franciscans did the same in Sa n Diego, California, in 1769. An orchard was planted at the San Gabriel Mission around 1804 and a commercial orchard was established in 1841 near present-day Lo s Angeles. In Louisiana, oranges probably were introduced by French explorers. Archibald Menzies, the botanist and naturalist on the Vancouver Expedition, coll ected orange seeds in South Africa, raised the seedlings onboard and gave them t o several Hawaiian chiefs in 1792. Eventually, the sweet orange was grown in wid e areas of the Hawaiian Islands, but its cultivation stopped after the arrival o f the Mediterranean fruit fly in the early 1900s.[6][44] As oranges are rich in vitamin C and do not spoil easily, during the Age of Disc overy, Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch sailors planted citrus trees along trade r outes to prevent scurvy. Around 1872, Florida farmers obtained seeds from New Orleans, so many orange gro ves were established by grafting the sweet orange on to sour orange rootstocks. CultivationClimate Orange tree in the National Botanic Garden of Belgium in MeiseLike most citrus p lants, oranges do well under moderate temperatures between 15.5 and 29 C (60 and 84 F) and require considerable amounts of sunshine and water. It has been suggested t hat the use of water resources by the citrus industry in the Middle East is a co ntributing factor to the desiccation of the region. [citation needed] Another si gnificant element in the full development of the fruit is the temperature variat ion between summer and winter and, between day and night. In cooler climates, or anges can be grown indoors. As oranges are sensitive to frost, there are different methods to prevent frost damage to crops and trees when subfreezing temperatures are expected. A common p rocess is to spray the trees with water so as to cover them with a thin layer of ice that will stay just at the freezing point, insulating them even if air temp eratures drop far lower. This is because water continues to lose heat as long as the environment is colder than it is, and so the water turning to ice in the en

vironment cannot damage the trees. This practice, however, offers protection onl y for a very short time.[45] Another procedure is burning fuel oil in smudge pot s put between the trees. These devices burn with a great deal of particulate emi ssion, so condensation of water vapour on the particulate soot prevents condensa tion on plants and raises the air temperature very slightly. Smudge pots were de veloped for the first time after a disastrous freeze in Southern California in J anuary 1913 destroyed a whole crop.[46] PropagationSee also: Fruit tree propagation It is possible to grow orange trees directly from seeds, but they may be inferti le or produce fruit that may be different from its parent. For the seed of a com mercial orange to grow, it must be kept moist at all times. One approach is plac ing the seeds between two sheets of damp paper towel until they germinate and th en planting them, although many cultivators just set the seeds straight into the soil. Commercially grown orange trees are propagated asexually by grafting a mature cu ltivar onto a suitable seedling rootstock to ensure the same yield, identical fr uit characteristics, and resistance to diseases throughout the years. Propagatio n involves two stages: first, a rootstock is grown from seed. Then, when it is a pproximately one year old, the leafy top is cut off and a bud taken from a speci fic scion variety, is grafted into its bark. The scion is what determines the va riety of orange, while the rootstock makes the tree resistant to pests and disea ses and adaptable to specific soil and climatic conditions. Thus, rootstocks inf luence the rate of growth and have an effect on fruit yield and quality.[47] Rootstocks must be compatible with the variety inserted into them because otherw ise, the tree may decline, be less productive, and even die.[47] Among the several advantages to grafting are that trees mature uniformly and beg in to bear fruit earlier than those reproduced by seeds (3 to 4 years in contras t with 6 to 7 years),[48] and that it makes it possible to combine the best attr ibutes of a scion with those of a rootstock.[49] Principal rootstocksToday, five types of rootstock predominate in relatively coo l climates where cold or freezing weather is probable, especially Florida and so uthern Europe. Sour rootstock: it is the only rootstock that truly is an orange (the Citrus aur antium or bitter orange). It is vigorous and highly drought-resistant. Poncirus trifoliata: it is a close relative of the Citrus genus, sometimes class ified as Citrus trifoliata. It is especially resistant to cold, the tristeza vir us, and the fungus Phytophthora parasitica (root rot) and grows well in loam soi l. Among its disadvantages are its slow growth it is the slowest growing rootstock a nd its poor resistance to heat and drought. It is primarily used in China, Japan , and areas of California with heavy soils.[50] Swingle citrumelo: it is tolerant of tristeza virus and Phytophthora parasitica and moderately resistant to salt and freezing.[48] This rootstock selection was hybridized from the Duncan grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) and the Poncir us trifoliata (L.) Raf. by Walter Tennyson Swingle in Eustis, Florida, in 1907. It was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to nurserymen in 1974. Troyer citrange and Carrizo citrange: these reasonably vigorous rootstocks are r esistant to Phytophthora parasitica, nematodes, and tristeza virus and show good cold tolerance. They also are highly polyembryonic, so growers can obtain multi ple plants from a single seed. Citrange, however, does not do well in clay, calc areous or high-pH soils, and is sensitive to salinity. It is not feasible as roo tstock for mandarin scions, as it overgrows them by producing branches of its ow n in competition with the grafted budwood.[51] Citranges are hybrids of the Wash ington navel orange and the Poncirus trifoliata. The original crosses, made in t he early 1900s by the U.S. Department of Agriculture with the intention of produ

cing cold tolerant scion varieties, were later identified as suitable for use as rootstocks. The commercial use of these rootstocks began in Australia in the 19 60s. The Troyer variety generally is found in California, while the Carrizo vari ety is used in Florida. Cleopatra mandarin: it is tolerant of salinity and soil alkalinity and also suit able for shallow soils. It is used primarily in Spain, Australia, and Florida. D ade County, for example, has 85% calcareous soil, a typical trait of land that h as been under water.[52] The Cleopatra mandarin, originated in India and introdu ced into Florida from Jamaica in the mid-nineteenth century, has been distribute d and tested as a rootstock throughout the world. Nowadays, however, it is consi dered an inferior rootstock because it is sensitive to many diseases, grows slow ly, and is difficult to propagate.[53] Other rootstock varieties in the United StatesAfrican shaddock X trifoliate hybr id[33] Benton citrange trifoliate hybrid[33] Borneo Rangpur lime[33] Bitters C-22 citrange (X Citroncirus sp. Rutaceae): it was hybridized at the USD A U.S. Date and Citrus Station in Indio, California, and developed further by th e University of California, Riverside. It is used primarily as rootstock for nav el oranges in California. In 2009, a report suggested it also may be useful to r eplace sour orange rootstock for grapefruit in Texas because it is tolerant of c alcareous soil.[54][55] Its name is not related to the bitter orange: it was nam ed after Dr William Bitters, professor of Horticulture and a curator of the Citr us Variety Collection. Carpenter C-54 citrange[55] C-32 citrange trifoliate hybrid[33] C-35 citrange trifoliate hybrid[33] Calamondin kumquat hybrid[33] Carrizo citrange trifoliate hybrid[33] Citradia trifoliate hybrid[33] Citremon trifoliate hybrid (CRC 1449)[33] Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid C190[33] Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid (CRC 1452)[33] Citrumelo trifoliate hybrid (CRC 4475)[33] Citrus macrophylla (Alemow)[33] Citrus volkameriana (Volkamer lemon)[33] Cleopatra mandarin X trifoliate hybrid X639[33] Flying dragon trifoliate (CRC 3330A)[33] Fraser Seville sour orange[33] Furr C-57 citrange[55] Goutoucheng sour orange (CRC 3929)[33] Goutoucheng sour orange (CRC 4004)[33] Grapefruit seedling (CRC 343)[33] Pomeroy trifoliate[33] Rangpur lime X Troyer citrange hybrid[33] Rich 16-6 trifoliate[33] Rubidoux trifoliate[33] Rusk citrange trifoliate orange[33] Satsuma X trifoliate hybrid[33] Schaub rough lemon[33] Small-leaf trifoliate[33] Smooth Flat Seville sour orange[33] Sun Chu Sha Kat mandarin[33] US 119 (Grapefruit X trifoliate) X Sweet Orange hybrid[33] Vangassay rough lemon[33] Yuma Ponderosa lemon pummelo hybrid[33] Zhuluan sour orange hybrid (CRC 3930)[33] Zhuluan sour orange hybrid (CRC 3981)[33] Harvest This section requires expansion. (November 2012)

Canopy-shaking mechanical harvesters are being used increasingly in Florida to h arvest oranges. Current canopy shaker machines use a series of six-to-seven-foot long tines to shake the tree canopy at a relatively constant stroke and frequen cy.[56] DegreeningOranges cannot be ripened artificially and must be mature when harvest ed.[citation needed] In the United States, laws forbid harvesting immature fruit for human consumption in Texas, Arizona, California and Florida.[57] Ripe orang es, however, often have some green or yellow-green colour in the skin. Ethylene gas is used to turn green skin to orange. This process is known as "degreening", also called "gassing", "sweating", or "curing".[57] Storage A stand with oranges in a market at Agadir, MoroccoCommercially, oranges can be stored by refrigeration in controlled-atmosphere chambers for up to 12 weeks aft er harvest. Storage life ultimately depends on cultivar, maturity, pre-harvest c onditions, and handling.[58] In stores and markets, however, oranges should be d isplayed on non-refrigerated shelves. At home, oranges have a shelf life of about one month.[59] In either case, optim ally, they are stored loosely in an open or perforated plastic bag.[59] Pests and diseasesSee also: List of citrus diseases Cottony cushion scaleThe first major pest that attacked orange trees in the Unit ed States was the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi), imported from Austral ia to California in 1868. Within 20 years, it wiped out the citrus orchards arou nd Los Angeles, and limited orange growth throughout California. In 1888, the US DA sent Alfred Koebele to Australia to study this scale insect in its native hab itat. He brought back with him specimens of Novius cardinalis, an Australian lad ybird beetle, and within a decade the pest was controlled.[26] Citrus greening diseaseThe citrus greening disease, caused by the bacterium Libe robacter asiaticum, has been the most serious threat to orange production since 2010. It is characterized by streaks of different shades on the leaves, and defo rmed, poorly-coloured, unsavoury fruit. In areas where the disease is endemic, c itrus trees live for only five to eight years and never bear fruit suitable for consumption.[60] In the western hemisphere, it was discovered in Florida in 1998 , where it has attacked nearly all the trees ever since. It was also reported in Brazil by Fundecitrus Brasil in 2004.[60] As from 2009, 0.87% of the trees in B razil's main orange growing areas (So Paulo and Minas Gerais) showed symptoms of greening, which means an increase of 49% over 2008.[61] The disease is spread primarily by two species of psyllid insects. One of them i s the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama), an efficient vector of t he Liberobacter asiaticum. Generalist predators such as the ladybird beetles Cur inus coeruleus, Olla v-nigrum, Harmonia axyridis, and Cycloneda sanguinea, and t he lacewings Ceraeochrysa spp. and Chrysoperla spp. make significant contributio n to the mortality of the Asian citrus psyllid, which results in 80 100% reduction in psyllid populations. In contrast, parasitism by Tamarixia radiata, a species -specific parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, is variable and generally low in southwest Florida: in 2006, it amounted to a reduction of less than 12% from May to September and 50% in November. In 2007, foliar applications of insecticides reduced psyllid populations for a s hort time, but also suppressed the populations of predatory ladybird beetles. So il application of aldicarb provided limited control of Asian citrus psyllid, whi le drenches of imidacloprid to young trees were effective for two months or more .[62] Management of citrus greening disease is difficult and requires an integrated ap

proach that includes use of clean stock, elimination of inoculum via voluntary a nd regulatory means, use of pesticides to control psyllid vectors in the citrus crop, and biological control of psyllid vectors in non-crop reservoirs. Citrus g reening disease is not under completely successful management.[60] Greasy spotGreasy spot, a fungal disease caused by the Mycosphaerella citri, pro duces leaf spots and premature defoliation, thus reducing the tree's vigour and yield. Ascospores of M. citri are generated in pseudothecia in decomposing falle n leaves.[63] Once mature, ascospores are ejected and subsequently dispersed by air currents. ProductionMain article: Citrus production Brazil is the world's leading orange producer, with an output almost as high as that of the next three countries combined (the United States, India, and China). Orange groves are located mainly in the state of So Paulo, in the southeastern r egion of Brazil, and account for approximately 80% of the national production. A s almost 99% of the fruit is processed for export, 53% of total global frozen co ncentrated orange juice production comes from this area and the western part of the state of Minas Gerais. In Brazil, the four predominant orange varieties used for obtaining juice are Hamlin, Pera Rio, Natal, and Valencia.[64][65] The United States is the second largest producer. Groves are located especially in Florida, California, Texas, and Arizona. The majority of California's crop is sold as fresh fruit, whereas Florida's oranges are destined to juice products. Mid-south Florida produces about half as many oranges as Brazil, but the bulk of its orange juice is not exported. The Indian River area of Florida is known for the high quality of its juice, which often is sold fresh in the U.S. and freque ntly blended with juice produced in other regions because Indian River trees yie ld very sweet oranges, but in relatively small quantities.[66] Production of orange juice between the So Paulo and mid-south Florida areas makes up roughly 85% of the world market. Brazil exports 99% of its production, while 90% of Florida's production is consumed in the U.S.[67] Orange juice is traded internationally in the form of frozen, concentrated orang e juice to reduce the volume used so that storage and transportation costs are l ower.[68] The European Union is the third largest producer of oranges worldwide.[65] Top orange producers (million tonnes) 2005 2008 2010 Brazil 17.9 18.5 18.1 United States 8.4 9.1 7.5 India 3.3 4.9 6.0 China 2.7 4.2 5.0* Mexico 4.1 4.3 4.1 Spain 2.4 3.4 3.1 Egypt 1.9 2.1 2.4 Italy 2.3 2.2 2.4 Indonesia 2.2 2.5 2.0 Turkey 1.4 1.4 1.7 Pakistan 1.7 1.6 1.5 Iran 2.3 2.6 1.5 World Total 63.1 69.6 68.3 *= unofficial figure. All figures for 2005 and 2008 are official. Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Economic and Social Department: the Statistical Division[69] Other countries with a significant production of oranges are South Africa, Moroc

co, and Argentina. Juice and other productsOranges, whose flavour may vary from sweet to sour, are commonly peeled and eaten fresh or squeezed for juice. The thick bitter rind is usually discarded, but can be processed into animal feed by desiccation, using p ressure and heat. It also is used in certain recipes as a food flavouring or gar nish. The outermost layer of the rind can be thinly grated with a zester to prod uce orange zest. Zest is popular in cooking because it contains the oil glands a nd has a strong flavour similar to that of the orange pulp. The white part of th e rind, including the pith, is a source of pectin and has nearly the same amount of vitamin C as the flesh and other nutrients. Although not so juicy or tasty as the flesh, orange peel is edible and has highe r contents of vitamin C and more fibre. It also contains citral, an aldehyde tha t antagonizes the action of vitamin A, Particularly in environments where resour ces are scarce and therefore maximum nutritional value must be obtained with the minimum generation of waste, for example, on a submarine, orange peels have bee n consumed routinely. Since large concentrations of pesticides have been found i n orange peels,[70] some organizations[which?] recommend consumption of the peel of only organically grown and processed oranges, where chemical pesticides or h erbicides would not have been used.[71] Products made from orangesOrange juice is obtained by squeezing the fruit on a s pecial tool (a juicer or squeezer) and collecting the juice in a tray underneath . This can be made at home or, on a much larger scale, industrially. Brazil is t he largest producer of orange juice in the world, followed by the U.S., where it is one of the commodities traded on the New York Board of Trade. Octyl acetate is responsible for the fragrance of orangesFrozen orange juice con centrate is made from freshly squeezed and filtered orange juice.[72] Sweet orange oil is a by-product of the juice industry produced by pressing the peel. It is used for flavouring food and drinks and also in the perfume industry and aromatherapy for its fragrance. Sweet orange oil consists of approximately 90% D-limonene, a solvent used in various household chemicals, such as wood cond itioners for furniture and along with other citrus oils detergents and hand cleanser s. It is an efficient cleaning agent with a pleasant smell, promoted for being e nvironmentally friendly and therefore, preferable to petrochemicals. D-limonene is, however, classified from slightly toxic to humans,[73] to very toxic to mari ne life in different countries.[74] Although once thought to cause renal cancer in rats, limonene is now considered a natural chemopreventive agent in humans,[75][76] since there is no evidence fo r its carcinogenicity or genotoxicity. The Carcinogenic Potency Project estimate s that D-limonene causes human cancer on a level roughly equivalent to that caus ed by exposure to caffeic acid via dietary coffee intake,[77] whereas the Intern ational Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it under Class 3, which means it is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans.[78] Orange blossoms are used in several different ways, as are fruit peels and the l eaves and wood of the tree. The orange blossom, which is the state flower of Florida,[79] is highly fragrant and traditionally associated with good fortune. It has long been popular in bri dal bouquets and head wreaths. Orange blossom essence is an important component in the making of perfume. Orange blossom petals can also be made into a delicately citrus-scented version of rosewater, known as "orange blossom water" or "orange flower water". It is a common ingredient in French and Middle Eastern cuisines, especially in desserts and baked goods. In some Middle Eastern countries, drops of orange flower water are added to disguise the unpleasant taste of hard water drawn from wells or sto red in qullahs (traditional Egyptian water pitchers made of porous clay). In the

United States, orange flower water is used to make orange blossom scones and ma rshmallows. In Spain, fallen blossoms are dried and used to make tea. Orange blossom honey (or citrus honey) is obtained by putting beehives in the ci trus groves while trees bloom. By this method, bees also pollinate seeded citrus varieties. This type of honey has an orangey taste and is highly prized. Marmalade usually is made with Seville oranges. All parts of the fruit are used: the pith and pips (separated and placed in a muslin bag) are boiled in a mixtur e of juice, slivered peel, sliced-up flesh, sugar, and water to extract their pe ctin, which helps the conserve to set. Orange peel is used by gardeners as a slug repellent. Orange leaves can be boiled to make tea. Orangewood sticks are used as cuticle pushers in manicures and pedicures, and as spudgers for manipulating slender electronic wires. Orangewood is used in the same way as mesquite, oak, and hickory for seasoning g rilled meat. Oranges and orange juice Juice squeezer A jar of marmalade EtymologyMain article: Orange (word) The word orange derives from the Sanskrit word for "orange tree" (?????? nara?ga ), probably of Dravidian origin.[23] The Sanskrit word reached European language s through Persian ????? (narang) and its Arabic derivative ????? (naranj). The word entered Late Middle English in the fourteenth century via Old French or enge (in the phrase pomme d'orenge).[80] The French word, in turn, comes from Ol d Provenal auranja, based on Arabic naranj.[23] In several languages, the initial n present in earlier forms of the word dropped off because it may have been mis taken as part of an indefinite article ending in an n sound in French, for example , une norenge may have been heard as une orenge. This linguistic change is calle d juncture loss. The colour was named after the fruit,[81] and the first documen ted use in this sense dates to 1542.[citation needed] As Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named af ter them. Some examples are Albanian portokall, Bulgarian ???????? (portokal), G reek p??t????? (portokali), Persian ?????? (porteghal), and Romanian portocala.[ 82][83] Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic ???????? ( bourtouqal), Georgian ????????? (p'ort'oxali), and Turkish portakal.[82] In Ital y, words derived from Portugal (Portogallo) to refer to the sweet orange are in common use in most dialects throughout the country, in contrast to standard Ital ian arancia.[84] In other Indo-European languages, the words for orange allude to the eastern ori gin of the fruit and can be translated literally as "apple from China". Some exa mples are Low German Apfelsine, Dutch appelsien and sinaasappel, Swedish apelsin , and Norwegian appelsin.[83] A similar case is Puerto Rican Spanish china.[85][ 86] Various Slavic languages use the variants pomaranc (Slovak), pomeranc (Czech), p omaranca (Slovene), and pomarancza (Polish), all from Old French pomme d'orenge. [87][not in citation given] See alsoCam snh (Green orange or Longan. Citrus reticulata maxima) Orange production in Brazil University of California Citrus Experiment Station Eliza Tibbets (for the history of orange groves in California, US) References1.Jump up ^ "Citrus sinensis information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin

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. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-06-463271-3. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 86.Jump up ^ See also List of Puerto Rican slang words and phrases 87.Jump up ^ Hoad, T. F. (1996). "orange". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Engl ish Etymology. HighBeam Research. Retrieved May 19, 2010. External links Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Oranges Wikimedia Commons has media related to Citrus sinensis. Wikispecies has information related to: Citrus sinensis Citrus sinensis List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical D atabases), USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Fundecitrus (Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura) See Tfd (Portuguese) [hide]v t eCitrus List of citrus fruits Important species Citron Citrus limetta Key lime Mandarin orange Pomelo

Important cultivars Bitter orange Clementine Grapefruit Lemon Lime Orange Persia / Satsuma Rangpur Shonan Gold Tangelo Tangerine Other topics Citrus production List of citrus diseases Orangery Book:Citrus Category:Citrus

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