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Ttulo: Utilizando skimming e scanning para ler essays sobre poltica *


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Tema: ensino de estratgias de leitura de textos argumentativos sobre poltica. Pblico Alvo: Ensino Mdio Durao das Atividades: 3 aulas (de 50 minutos cada)

Objetivos: - conhecer a estrutura do gnero argumentativo essay; - aprender a utilizar as estratgias de leitura skimming e scanning para ler esse gnero. Conhecimento Prvio: Simple Present; Simple Past (regular and irregular verbs). Contedo: 1) Caractersticas da estrutura argumentativa do gnero essay; 2) Estratgias de leitura skimming e scanning.

Descrio das Atividades: 1 aula Getting to know the aims of the sequence of lessons Previso de durao: 5 minutos. No primeiro momento, apresentam-se a justificativa, os objetivos e o cronograma da sequncia didtica por meio de uma apresentao de slides (Apndice A) para que os alunos tomem conhecimento do que esperado deles.

Predicting the content of the text Previso de durao: 5 minutos. Aps essa apresentao, o professor pergunta aos alunos se eles votaram nessas (ou em outras) eleies, se eles ficaram felizes com o resultado e se eles acham que o voto deles foi importante, etc. Aps isso, questiona-se sobre o que pode ser esperado de um texto intitulado The importance of voting. Durante a discusso o professor pode escrever no quadro o que foi dito por eles para que, posteriormente, compara-se com as informaes do texto.
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* Produzido por Jferson F. Belo e Melissa Ariadne T. A. Rodrigues (PIBID-Lngua Inglesa)

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Reading and discussing the text Previso de durao: 40 minutos. Nesse momento o professor entrega uma cpia do texto The importance of voting (Anexo A) para cada aluno e pede para que alguns deles o leiam em voz alta. Aps a leitura, pede-se que indiquem as palavras desconhecidas e que o professor apresente os possveis significados (Apndice B). Em seguida, o professor e os alunos discutem as principais ideias do texto (Apndice B). Alm disso, pode ser discutida qual a inteno do autor, qual seu pblico alvo, quais as diferenas podem existir entre um essay e outros gneros como, por exemplo, a notcia.

2 aula Flashback and starting off Previso de durao: 10 minutos. No primeiro momento dessa aula, o professor retoma com os alunos as ideias principais do texto The importance of voting. Feito isso, ele pergunta se haveria um modo (estratgia) em que eles no precisassem ler todo o texto para ter uma ideia geral de seu assunto. Depois, o professor pede para que leiam a primeira frase de cada pargrafo e os questiona se essa estratgia foi til (Skimming). Em seguida, pede-se para que os alunos encontrem o exemplo do texto em que as eleies foram decididas por um nico voto e que expliquem como eles encontram essa informao (Scanning).

Exploring the structure of an argumentative essay and reading strategies Previso de durao: 15 minutos. Apresentadas as estratgias implicitamente, o professor mostra uma apresentao de slides das caractersticas da estrutura argumentativa do gnero essay (Apndice C) e outra sobre as estratgias de leitura skimming e scanning (Apndice D). Para explicar, o professor pode ler em ingls e pedir aos alunos para dizerem o que entenderam, ou simplesmente ler e explicar em seguida.

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Using the strategies Previso de durao: 25 minutos. Logo aps, os alunos colocam em prtica as estratgias e os conceitos que acabaram de ser apresentados. Para isso, o professor entrega uma cpia do texto Democracy vs. Dictatorship: What do you prefer? (Apndice E).

O texto em questo est com seus pargrafos fora de ordem. Para demonstrar que aprenderam a estrutura do gnero essay, os alunos devem colocar um ttulo adequado para cada um e organiz-los. Ao final, o professor apresenta a sequncia correta, tira as dvidas de vocabulrio e comenta sobre as ideias, os argumentos utilizados, etc.

3 aula Doing an online quiz Previso de durao: 50 minutos. Para avaliar o aprendizado do contedo dessa sequncia didtica, o professor pode utilizar o site <www.quizstar.4teachers.org>, em que se encontra um quiz sobre a estrutura e a interpretao de um essay. Para acess-lo, o professor e os alunos devem estar inscritos no site.

Sendo assim, primeiramente o professor deve abrir uma conta (gratuita) no site. Feito isso, ele faz seu login, clica na aba Quiz Manager e depois em Import a quiz now. Solicitado o cdigo de importao do quiz, digita-se QI_DIACAD (sem as aspas). Com o quiz pronto para uso, o professor cria uma aula na aba Class Manager e adiciona-o a essa aula. Nesse momento, adicionam-se tambm os alunos que faro o quiz. Aqui h duas possibilidades: o professor pode pedir para cada aluno criar seu nome de usurio e senha, clicando em Student site e depois em Sign up, ou o prprio professor pode fazer isso.

Sendo a segunda opo mais confivel, criam-se os nomes de usurio e senha (que pode ser a mesma para todos). De posse dessas informaes, cada aluno acessa o site e responde o quiz.

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Ao final das doze questes, apresentado ao aluno seu resultado e a correo do quiz (em Review this quiz").

Alm do site, o professor pode utilizar o quiz impresso (Apndice F).

Recursos: - essays em lngua inglesa; - quizzes impressos e/ou online; - projetor multimdia; - dicionrio bilngue; - giz; -quadro; - computadores; - Internet.

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Referncias: MANGARAJ, Subrat. Essay on the General Election of India. Disponvel em: <http://www.preservearticles.com/201103294795/general-election-of-india.html>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2012. RAJKOOMAR, Manish. Democracy vs. Dictatorship - What do you prefer?. Disponvel em: <http://www.publishyourarticles.net/knowledge-hub/essay/democracy-vs-dictatorshipwhat-do-you-prefer-essay.html>. Acesso em: 27 set. 2012. SHOULD voting be compulsory in local and national elections in the United States. Disponvel em: <http://wg.serpmedia.org/pdf_2B/WG2B_individual_units/full_color/WG2B_Part19.pdf>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2012. THE importance of voting & close elections.Disponvel em: <http://www.bookrags.com/essay-2005/10/19/215034/57/>. Acesso em: 27 set. 2012. ZELENY, Jeff; RUTENBERG, Jim. In Final Days of the Race, Fighting County by County. Disponvel em: < http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/28/us/politics/in-final-days-of-presidentialelection-fighting-county-by-county.html?ref=politics&_r=1&>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2012.

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Apndice A Apresentao de slides Justificativa, objetivos e cronograma da sequncia didtica Utilizando skimming e scanning para ler essays sobre poltica

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Apndice B The importance of voting vocabulary several: alguns, algumas; right: direito; lightly: inconsequentemente; seemingly: aparentemente; fade away: desaparecer; convey: transmitir; care: preocupar-se com, importar-se com; available: disponvel, acessvel; matter: importar; mayoral: municipal; outcome: resultado; sheer: total; mean: meio, modo; Framers: deputados constituintes; aqueles que escreveram a Constituio Americana; citizen: cidados; roughly: aproximadamente; complain: reclamar; refuse: negar-se; Main ideas of the text First paragraph: the author proposes writing about the importance of voting; Second paragraph: voting is a right that was conquered with difficulty, therefore it should be taken seriously; Third paragraph: every vote is important; Fourth paragraph: the government represents all the people in a country, so it should be chose by all of them. Fifth paragraph: voting is important and instead of complaining one should vote and make difference.

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Apndice C Apresentao de slides Argumentative essay

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Apndice D Apresentao de slides Reading strategies

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Apndice E 1) Read the paragraphs below, choose the correct title to each one and then put them in order (1-6). Democracy vs. Dictatorship - What do you prefer?

But dictatorship cannot last long. It is very difficult to get a good successor to a dictator. Germany became a terror to the world in the days of Hitler. Turkey was revolutionized and modernized by Mustafa Kamal Pasha. But after them, their countries again fell in darkness. Further, people cannot criticize him or change the government through constitutional means and cannot express their views freely or pass their life in the way they think best. These are some of the greatest defects of the dictatorship.

The main advantages of democracy are three. First, in this form of government people enjoy a great deal of liberty. They get freedom for self-expression and can criticize the government through the press and the platform. As people are all powerful, this government can be dismissed at the will of them. In England, Sir Winston Churchill won the Second World War and became the war-time hero, but after the war he and his government were dismissed. Secondly, in democracy all the citizens are treated as equals and no distinctions are made on the basis of caste, creed or sex. Thus even a sweeper can become a president. Thirdly, democracy is best suited for a country in peace times. Everything great is achieved through the co-operation of the people, this is the basic principle.

Dictatorship has its own advantages. In war-time, no other government is as efficient as dictatorship. The dictator is the master of his own will and his orders are the final orders. No one can dare refuse to carry them out. When a nation is down trodden, a dictator certainly helps its rising high through heavy penalties and punishments. In Pakistan, Egypt, Burma, etc there were dictators.

Keeping all the above advantages and disadvantages of democracy and dictatorship in mind, we can say that democracy leads to the development of the individual as well as of society. It is in this form of government that the individual liberties and rights are highly respected. In recent times there has been turmoil all over Eastern Europe with thousands and thousands of people demanding democratic reforms, and fair and free elections on the basic of a multiparty system. Dictatorships in many of these countries

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have been replaced by democracies. All progressive countries want to follow the path of democracy. It is the highest form of civilized government.

Democracy has been defined as the government of the people, for the people, by the people. This government is formed through elections in which all the adult citizens cast votes and elect their representatives. Dictatorship is a form of government in which all power rests in the hands of one single individual and the people have no say in the matters of government. In India, England and United Sates, etc., there is democracy. In China, Egypt, etc., there is dictatorship.

There are also some disadvantages of democracy. It is a very slow moving form of government for everything. First of all, some legislation has to be passed, and it takes a pretty long time before the government comes to any decision. Moreover, it also lacks in secrecy. Its machinery is very complicated and every order runs through a long chain of officers and their staffs before it can be executed. Thus, it is said that it can never be successful in war times. Further, its success or failure depends on the voter. If the voters are educated and enlightened, then they will vote only to elect capable candidates. If they are ignorant, they will vote for undesirable people. Thus, democracy depends upon the voters.

Titles Advantages of democracy Conclusion

Disadvantages of dictatorship

Introduction

Advantages of dictatorship Disadvantages of democracy

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Answers Democracy vs. Dictatorship: What do you prefer?

Disadvantages of dictatorship But dictatorship cannot last long. It is very difficult to get a good successor to a dictator. Germany became a terror to the world in the days of Hitler. Turkey was revolutionized and modernized by Mustafa Kamal Pasha. But after them, their countries again fell in 5 darkness. Further, people cannot criticize him or change the government through constitutional means and cannot express their views freely or pass their life in the way they think best. These are some of the greatest defects of the dictatorship. Advantages of democracy The main advantages of democracy are three. First, in this form of government people enjoy a great deal of liberty. They get freedom for self-expression and can criticize the government through the press and the platform. As people are all powerful, this government can be dismissed at the will of them. In England, Sir Winston Churchill 2 won the Second World War and became the war-time hero, but after the war he and his government were dismissed. Secondly, in democracy all the citizens are treated as equals and no distinctions are made on the basis of caste, creed or sex. Thus even a sweeper can become a president. Thirdly, democracy is best suited for a country in peace times. Everything great is achieved through the co-operation of the people, this is the basic principle. Advantages of dictatorship Dictatorship has its own advantages. In war-time, no other government is as efficient as dictatorship. The dictator is the master of his own will and his orders are the final orders. No one can dare refuse to carry them out. When a nation is down trodden, a 4 dictator certainly helps its rising high through heavy penalties and punishments. In Pakistan, Egypt, Burma, etc there were dictators. Conclusion Keeping all the above advantages and disadvantages of democracy and dictatorship in mind, we can say that democracy leads to the development of the individual as well as of society. It is in this form of government that the individual liberties and rights are 6 highly respected. In recent times there has been turmoil all over Eastern Europe with thousands and thousands of people demanding democratic reforms, and fair and free elections on the basic of a multiparty system. Dictatorships in many of these countries have been replaced by democracies. All progressive countries want to follow the path of democracy. It is the highest form of civilized government.

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Introduction Democracy has been defined as the government of the people, for the people, by the people. This government is formed through elections in which all the adult citizens cast votes and elect their representatives. Dictatorship is a form of government in which all power rests in the hands of one single individual and the people have no say in the matters of government. In India, England and United Sates, etc., there is democracy. In China, Egypt, etc., there is dictatorship. Disadvantages of democracy There are also some disadvantages of democracy. It is a very slow moving form of government for everything. First of all, some legislation has to be passed, and it takes a pretty long time before the government comes to any decision. Moreover, it also lacks in secrecy. Its machinery is very complicated and every order runs through a long chain of officers and their staffs before it can be executed. Thus, it is said that it can never be successful in war times. Further, its success or failure depends on the voter. If the voters are educated and enlightened, then they will vote only to elect capable candidates. If they are ignorant, they will vote for undesirable people. Thus, democracy depends upon the voters.

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Apndice F Quiz 1) Which excerpt is part of an argumentative essay? I) [] Mr. Obama now has a solid lead in states that account for 185 electoral votes, and he is well positioned in states representing 58 more, for a total of 243, according to a ranking of states by The New York Times, based on polls and interviews with strategists in both campaigns. Mr. Romney has solid leads in states with 180 electoral votes and is well positioned in states with 26 more, according to the Times rating, for a total of 206. It takes 270 electoral votes to win the presidency. In the closing days of the race, seven states representing 89 electoral votes Colorado, Florida, Iowa, New Hampshire, Ohio, Virginia and Wisconsin are now considered tossups. Here is a look at their dynamics and the potential path for each candidate. [] II) [] Do elections as they are held today in our country truly reflect the will of the people? Doubts are often expressed in this regard. Parties are so many that it is difficult to judge their credentials. They often represent local, regional, communal or sectarian interest and therefore they divert attention from important national issue. Often a party, which is in a minority on a total count of voter, may win in a large number of constituencies, and thus secure an effective majority for functioning as a government. Another irritant to Indian Election system is the presence of a large number of unprincipled independent candidates in the election process. With all its limitations, election on the basis of adult franchise seems to be the most practical way of ensuring a truly democratic government.

a) 1. b) 2. c) 1 and 2. d) None.

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2) Which is the purpose of an essay? a) To persuade the reader about a topic. b) To inform the reader about a topic. c) To entertain the reader. d) To make the reader laugh.

3) When you are skimming a text, you are looking for: a) a specific information. b) examples. c) a general idea. d) concepts.

4) Which of the options below is an example of scanning? a) looking up for a word in a dictionary. b) reading a novel. c) watching a movie. d) telling a joke.

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Read the following text to answer question 5 to 12. Should voting be compulsory in local and national elections in the United States In countries such as Bolivia where voting is mandatory, there is a law that requires that all citizens vote in elections. And for those who disobey it, they are punished for not complying with their civic duty. However, not all countries with compulsory voting enforce this law. If a citizen from Australia or Brazil provides a good reason for not voting (e.g., being in a hospital) it is accepted. Many nations have dropped mandatory voting altogether. For example, Venezuela dropped mandatory voting in 1993 and saw a decline or drop in attendance at the polls of 30%. Low voter turnout is a common problem in countries without compulsory voting. Low voter turnout might be explained by voter apathy. In 2005, American Idol viewers cast over 500 million votes, but only 122 million votes were cast in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Evidently some citizens feel their vote counts more in television contests than in political contests. Perhaps they have decided that politicians have their own agenda and won't listen to the will of the people. Mandatory voting seems attractive but it can be misused. In dictatorships, citizens are often forced to vote for the same person every election because the government does not allow other candidates to run for the same position. In Paraguay, General Stroessner was "elected" by a wide majority every four years for almost 40 years. But how can democracies have representative governments unless all or most of their citizens vote? Some say the reason to force people to vote is to make sure that the government elected represents the majority of the population. But those against compulsory voting say that being required to vote is a violation of personal liberties. Others say that compulsory voting should be seen as a civic right and not a civic duty. What do you think? Should all Americans be required to vote? Or should voting be voluntary?

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5) What is the text about? a) The text is about mandatory voting in countries where there is dictatorship. b) The text is about how low voter turnout is in countries where voting is not mandatory. c) The text is about how voting is in countries where it is mandatory. d) The text is about if US elections should be mandatory.

6) How many votes, respectively, American Idol and U.S. presidential election had in 2005? a) 500; 122. b) 500 thousand; 122 thousand. c) 500 million; 122 million. d) 122 million; 500 million.

7) Why General Stroessner was "elected" by a wide majority every four years for almost 40 years? a) Because he was a dictator. b) Because he was famous. c) Because he was a good man. d) Because he was a humble man.

8) Why the word elected in the third paragraph is between quotation marks? a) Because the word is from a foreign language. b) Because the word has a different meaning. c) Because the word is a metaphor. d) Because the word was spelled wrongly.

9) What is the purpose of the fourth paragraph? a) Register the authors opinion. b) Present ideas against and in favor of compulsory voting. c) Inform about recent happenings in the countries mentioned. d) Tell the reader about the history of democracy and dictatorship.

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10) Judge the sentences below. Which is against and which is in favor of mandatory voting? Use A (against) or F (in favor). I) the reason to force people to vote is to make sure that the government elected represents the majority of the population. ( ) II) being required to vote is a violation of personal liberties ( ) III) compulsory voting should be seen as a civic right and not a civic duty ( )

a) A; A; F. b) F; A; F. c) F; A; A. d) A; F; A.

11) What is the position of the author toward mandatory voting in the US? a) The author is against mandatory voting in the US. b) The author doesnt take any position toward mandatory voting in the US. c) The author is in favor of mandatory voting in the US. d) The author is against mandatory and non-mandatory voting.

12) What is the function of the text? a) To entertain the reader. b) To inform about the world around us. c) To provide general information about a product. d) To make the reader think about the topic.

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Answers 1b 2a 3c 4a 5d 6c 7a 8b 9b 10 c 11 b 12 d

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Anexo A The importance of voting Why is it important to participate in the democratic process by voting? That's an interesting question with several different ways to answer it.

First, voting in free elections is a right that should not be taken lightly. Millions of people in the United States and around the world have fought and even died for the seemingly simple right to vote. Should their sacrifices just fade away into some distant memory? By voting, a person conveys that sense of patriotism that he/she cares enough about the direction of the country and exercises the power available to millions and millions of people.

Second, no matter how much a person feels their single vote does not count, they are dead wrong. In the mayoral election in Ann Arbor in 1977, the outcome was decided by a single, solitary vote. As another example, John F. Kennedy won the Presidential election of 1960 by a small margin, one vote per district in twelve states. If every person believes that his or her vote doesn't matter, the sheer volume of non-voters will destroy the democratic process.

Third, voting is the principle mean of a representative government. The Framers left the future of the country in the hands of its citizens. How can a government be representative if roughly 45-50 percent of eligible voters don't vote? This makes a government only representative to half of the country.

In conclusion, everyone should recognize the importance of voting and act accordingly. Instead of just sit back and complain when something the government does isn't in your best interest, get out, vote and make a difference. Eligible voters who refuse to do so have absolutely no right to complain when they have that exact power, but do nothing at all to protect their interests.