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OMTEX CLASSES Science Revision

Units 1. Charge The coulomb 2. Current The ampere 3. Potential Difference - The Volt 4. Resistance - The ohm 5. Resistivity The ohm metre 6. Energy The joule 7. Power The watt 8. Focal length The metre 9. Power of a lens The dioptre. Distinguish between Periods i. The horizontal rows of elements in the modern periodic table are called as periods. ii. There are seven periods in the modern periodic table. iii. The period number indicates the number of electronic shells present in an atom of every element belonging to that period. iv. Elements show gradual variation in chemical properties along a period.

Groups i. The vertical columns of elements in the modern periodic table are called as groups. ii. There are eighteen groups in the modern periodic table. ii. There are eighteen groups in the modern periodic table. iii. The group number indicates the number of electrons in the outermost shell of an atom of every element belonging to that group. iv. Elements belonging to a particular group show strong resemblance in their chemical properties. Modern periodic table i. In Modern periodic table, elements are arranged in an increasing order of atomic numbers. ii. In modern periodic table, there are 18 groups. iii. In Modern periodic table isotopes of same elements are given same positions. iv. Hydrogen has been placed at the top of group I in modern periodic table. Normal elements i. In the atoms of Normal elements only the outermost shell is incompletely filled. ii. These elements are placed in groups 1 and 2 on the left side and 13 to 17 on the right side of modern periodic table. iii. These elements do not have stable electronic configuration and hence, they are chemically active. iv. They normally show one type of valency. Transition Elements i. In the atoms of these elements the last two shells are incompletely filled. ii. These elements are placed in groups 3 to 12 in the middle of the modern periodic table. iii. They are included in d block of modern periodic table. iv. They show variable valency. Inner transition elements i. In the atoms of these elements the last three shells are incompletely filled. ii. These elements are placed in two additional rows (i.e. lanthanides and actinides) called series, placed at the bottom of the modern periodic table.

Mendeleev's periodic table i. In Mendeleev's periodic table, elements were arranged in an increasing order of atomic weight. ii. In Mendeleev's periodic table there were 8 groups. iii. In Mendeleev's periodic table isotopes of same elements were given different positions. iv. A correct position could not be assigned to hydrogen in the Mendeleev's periodic table. Inert gas elements i. In the atoms of Inert gas elements all the shells are completely filled including the outermost shell. ii. These elements are placed in zero group (group 18) of modern periodic table. iii. These elements have stable electronic configuration and hence, they are chemically inactive. iv. Their valency is zero. Normal Elements i. In the atoms of Normal elements only the outermost shell is incompletely filled. ii. These elements are placed in groups 1 and 2 on the left side and 13 to 17 on the right side of modern periodic table. iii. They are included in s block and p block of modern periodic table. iv. They normally show one type of valency. Transition elements i. In the atoms of these elements the last two shells are incompletely filled. ii. These elements are placed in groups 3 to 12 in middle of the modern periodic table. iii. They are included in d block of the modern

OMTEX CLASSES Science Revision


periodic table. s block elements i. In modern periodic table the groups 1 and 2 are included in s block. ii. These includes alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. iii. They have 1 or 2 electrons in the last shell. iii. They are included in f - block of modern periodic table. p block elements i. In modern periodic table the groups 13 to 17 and the zero group elements are included in p block. ii. These includes metals, non metals and metalloids. iii. They have 3 to 8 electrons in the last shell.

Oxidation Reduction i. The chemical reaction in which reactants i. The chemical reaction in which reactants gain gain oxygen or lose hydrogen is called hydrogen or lose of oxygen is called reduction. oxidation. ii. An oxidising agent undergoes reduction. ii. A reducing agent undergoes oxidation. Conductors and Insulators. (Notes) Resistance and Resistivity. (Notes) Resistances in series and Resistances in parallel. (Notes) High resistance and low resistance. (Notes) Voltmeter Ammeter i. A voltmeter is used to measure the potential i. An ammeter is used to measure the current difference between two points. in a circuit. ii. A voltmeter is connected in parallel to the ii. An ammeter is connected in series with the conductor across which the potential conductor, the current through which is to difference is to be measured. be measured. iii. A voltmeter has a very high resistance. iii. An ammeter has a very low resistance. Direct current i. Direct current flows only in one direction. ii. It cannot be used for large scale of electricity of household purpose. iii. The frequency is zero. Alternating current i. Alternating current reverses its direction periodically with time. ii. It is used in household electrical appliances such as an electric heater, and electric iron, a refrigerator, etc. iii. The frequency of alternating current in India is 50 Hz.

Electric Motor and Electric Generator.(Notes) Real image Virtual image i. A real image is formed when the light rays i. A virtual image is formed when the light rays starting from an object meet after reflection starting from an object appear to meet after or refraction. reflection or refraction. ii. It can be projected on a screen. ii. It cannot be projected on a screen. iii. It is inverted with respect to the object. iii. It is erect with respect to the object. Convex mirror (Notes) Convex lens Concave lens i. A convex lens has its surfaces bulging i. A concave lens has its surfaces curved inward. outward. ii. It is thicker at the edges than in the middle. ii. It is thicker in the middle than at the edges. iii. It can form only a virtual image. iii. It can form a real image as well as virtual image. Myopia(Near sightedness) and Hypermetropia (Long sightedness) (Notes) Metals Non metals i. Metals have a lustre. i. Non metals have no lustre. Exception : ii. They are generally good conductors of heal Iodine and diamond. and electricity. ii. They are bad conductors of heal and iii. They are generally solids at room electricity. Exception: Graphite temperature. Exception : Mercury and iii. They are generally gases and solids at room Gallium are liquids. temperature. Exception : Bromine is a liquid. iv. Metals form basic oxides. iv. Non metals form acidic or neutral oxides.

OMTEX CLASSES Science Revision


Roasting i. In this process, the ore is heated strongly in the presence of air. ii. In this process, sulphide ore is converted into metal oxide. iii. During this process SO4 is given out. Detergents and Soap (Notes) Saturated hydrocarbons i. In saturated hydrocarbons, the carbon atoms are linked to each other only by a single covalent bonds. ii. They contain only single bond. iii. These compounds are chemically less reactive. iv. Substitution reaction is a characteristic property of these hydrocarbons. v. Their general formula is CnH2n+2. Calcination i. In this process, the ore is heated strongly in the limited supply of air. ii. In this process, carbonate ore is converted into metal oxide. iii. During this process CO2 is given out. Unsaturated hydrocarbons i. In unsaturated hydrocarbons, the valencies of carbon atoms are not fully satisfied by single covalent bonds. ii. They contain carbon to carbon double or triple bonds. iii. These compounds are chemically more reactive. iv. Addition reaction is a characteristic property of these hydrocarbons. v. Their general formula is CnH2n or CnH2n - 2. Closed chain hydrocarbons i. A hydrocarbon in which the chain of carbon atoms is present in a cyclic form or ring form is called the closed chain hydrocarbons. ii. All aromatic hydrocarbons contain closed chains. Small intestine i. The small intestine is the narrowest part of the alimentary canal. ii. Glands present in the intestinal wall produce intestinal juice. iii. There is alkaline medium in the small intestine. iv. Food gets completely digested in the small intestine. Internal respiration i. Internal respiration is also called cellular respiration. ii. It is a biochemical process. iii. It takes place in the mitochondria inside the cell. iv. The gaseous exchange between the blood and tissues occurs during inter respiration. v. Oxidation of food occurs during internal respiration releasing energy. Veins i. Veins are blood vessels which carry blood towards the heart. ii. Veins are thin walled blood vessels. iii. The blood flow in veins is slower and is under lesser blood pressure. iv. Veins are situated superficially (Apparently) in the body. v. Veins have valves to prevent back flow of the blood. vi. Except for pulmonary vein all the veins carry

Open chain hydrocarbons i. A hydrocarbon in which the chain of carbon atoms is not cyclic is called the open chain hydrocarbon. ii. All aliphatic hydrocarbons contain open chains. Stomach i. The stomach is the broadest part of the alimentary canal. ii. Glands present in the stomach wall produce gastric juice. iii. There is acidic medium in the stomach. iv. Food gets partially digested in the stomach.

External respiration i. External respiration is also called breathing. ii. It is a physical process. iii. It takes place in the respiratory tract. iv. The gaseous exchange between external atmosphere and the blood takes place during external respiration. v. Oxidation of food does not occur during external respiration. Arteries i. Arteries are blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart. ii. Arteries are thick walled, elastic blood vessels. iii. The blood flow in arteries is a rapid and is under higher blood pressure. iv. Arteries are situated deep inside the body. v. Arteries do not have valves. vi. Except for pulmonary artery all the arteries carry oxygenated blood.

OMTEX CLASSES Science Revision


deoxygenated blood. Atria i. ii. iii. iv. v. Ventricles i. Ventricles are the lower chambers of the heart. ii. Ventricles are driving chambers as they sent the blood the body. iii. Ventricles have comparatively thicker walls. iv. Pulmonary artery leaves from right ventricle. v. Aorta leaves from the left ventricle.

Atria are the upper chambers of the heart. Atria are receiving chambers as they receive the blood. Atria have comparatively thinner walls. Superior and inferior vena cavae enter into right atrium. Pulmonary veins enter into the left atrium.

Growth dependent movements in plants Growth independent movements in plant. i. Growth dependent movements result in i. Growth independent movements do not the growth of plants. result in the growth of plants. ii. Growth dependent movements are also ii. Growth independent movements are also called tropic movements. called nastic movements. iii. Growth dependent movements are in iii. Growth independent movements are in response to light, water, chemical stimuli, response to touch or for capturing prey or gravity, etc. liberating the seeds. Voluntary movements and Involuntary movements. (Notes) Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system i. The central nervous system is located in the central i. The peripheral nervous system is located on the part of the body. peripheral parts of the body. ii. It is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. ii. It is composed of cranial nerves and spinal nerves. Cerebrum i. The cerebrum is the part of the forebrain. ii. The cerebrum is concerned with thinking and interpreting sensory information. iii. The cerebrum stores memory. Nervous control in animal i. Nervous control of the body is done with the help of neurons. ii. Nervous system is concerned with the nervous control. iii. Nervous impulses are rapid. iv. Nervous impulses are of shorter duration. Multiple fission i. Multiple fission is a type of asexual reproduction. ii. In multiple fission, division of the nucleus takes place. iii. Multiple fission is carried out by the repeated division of the cytoplasm, e.g. Amoeba. Asexual reproduction i. Asexual reproduction is the process in which only one cell divides into two. ii. Only one parent participates in asexual reproduction. iii. Only mitosis takes place at the time of asexual reproduction. iv. The process of fertilization and formation of zygote do not take place in asexual reproduction. cerebellum i. The cerebellum is the part of the hindbrain. ii. The cerebellum is concerned with coordination of voluntary movements and maintaining the balance. iii. The cerebellum does not store memory. Chemical control in animal i. Chemical control of the body is done through hormones. ii. Endocrine system is concerned with the chemical control. iii. Hormonal actions are slower. iv. Hormonal actions are of longer duration, i.e. long lasting. Regeneration i. Regeneration cannot be called reproduction process. It is an accidental process. ii. In regeneration division of the nucleus may not take place. iii. Regeneration is carried out by specialized cells in the body. e.g. Planaria. Sexual reproduction i. Sexual reproduction is the process in which two cells fuse with each other. ii. Two parents belonging to two different sexes participate in the sexual reproduction. iii. Both mitosis and meiosis take place at the time of sexual reproduction. iv. The process of fertilization and zygote formation are the important steps in

OMTEX CLASSES Science Revision


v. Somatic cells are involved in the asexual reproduction. v. Meiosis i. ii. iii. iv. sexual reproduction. Germ (Reproductive) cells are involved in the sexual reproduction.

Mitosis i. Mitosis is a type of cell division that takes place in the somatic cells. ii. In mitosis the chromosome number dies not change. iii. It is also called equational division as the cells produced contain the same number of chromosomes as that of the parent cell. iv. Mitosis occurs at the time of asexual reproduction such as binary fission. It also takes place at the time of growth and sexual reproduction. Testis i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that takes place in the germ cells. In meiosis the chromosome number is reproduced to half. It is also called reduction division as the cells produced contain half the number of chromosomes. Meiosis occurs at the time of sexual reproduction during gamete formation.

Testis is an essential gonad in male. Testis produces sperms. Testis secretes testosterone. Testis is located outside the body in the scrotum. Testis does not have sperms at the time of the birth of a boy.

Ovary i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Ovary is an essential gonad in female. Ovary produces eggs. Ovary secretes estrogen. Ovaries are located inside the lower abdomen. Ovary has immature eggs at the time of the birth of a girl.

Monohybrid cross i. Crosses involving a single pair of alleles are called monohybrid crosses. ii. Monohybrid crosses yield a phenotypic ratio of 3:1 in the F2 generation. iii. Genes are not assorted to form new recombination of characters. Dominant characters i. The characters that are expressed in the F1 generation are called dominant character. ii. Tall habit and red colour of the flower in pea plants are dominant characters. iii. Dominant character is expressed in the presence of one or both the dominant genes. iv. Dominant characters cannot be masked by recessive characters. Phenotype i. Phenotype refers to the outward appearance of an individual such as shape, colour, sex, etc. ii. Phenotype can be observed directly in an individual. iii. Individuals resembling each other may or may not have the same genotype. iv. The phenotypic ratio obtained in the F2 generation of a monohybrid cross is 3:1. Homologous organs i. Homologous organs show same structural plan.

Dihybrid cross i. Crosses involving two pairs of alleles are called dihybrid crosses. ii. Dihybrid crosses yield a phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 in the F2 generation. iii. Genes are assorted to form new combinations of characters. Recessive characters i. The characters that are not expressed in the F1 generation are called recessive characters. ii. Dwarf habit and white colour of the flower in pea plants are recessive characters. iii. Recessive characters is expressed only when both the recessive alleles of a gene are present. iv. Recessive characters can be masked by dominant characters. Genotype i. Genotype refers to the genetic composition of an individual. ii. Genotype can be determined from ancestry of an individual. iii. Individuals possessing the same genotype usually have the same phenotypic expression. iv. The genotypic ratio obtained in the F2 generation of a monohybrid cross is 1:2:1. Analogous organs 1. Analogous organs show different structure in

OMTEX CLASSES Science Revision


ii. Functions performed by the homologous organs are different. iii. Homologous organs explain the common ancestry in the evolution. iv. Forelimb of a man, front leg of a bull, wing of a bird, fin of a whale are all homologous organs. different animals. ii. Functions performed by the analogous organs are always the same. iii. analogous organs explain the common adaptation due to common habitats. iv. Wing of a bird and wing of an insect, tail fin of a lobster and tail flukes of whale are analogous organs. Ethyl alcohol Sodium ethoxide Methane Hydrochloric acid Magnesium Chloride Aluminium chloride Zinc Chloride Ferrous chloride Sulphuric Acid Magnesium Sulphate Ferrous sulphate Sodium aluminate Aluminium Hydroxide Zinc sulphide Zinc oxide Zinc carbonate Carbon monoxide Magnesium dioxide Manganese dioxide Iron (II) oxide Cinnabar Mercuric oxide Cuprous Sulphide Cuprous oxide Nitric Acid Magnesium nitrate C2H5OH C2H5ONa CH4 HCl MgCl2 AlCl3 ZnCl2 FeCl2 H2SO4 MgSO4 FeSO4 NaAlO2 Al(OH)3 ZnS ZnO ZnCO3 CO MgO2 MnO2 Fe2O3 HgS HgO Cu2S Cu2O HNO3 Mg(NO3)2

Sucrose (Sugar) Water Glucose (Fructose) Iron Sulphur Iron Sulphide Carbon dioxide Carbonic acid Tricalcium Aluminate Concrete Plaster of Paris Gypsum Carbon (Coke) Calcium Carbonate Copper Sulphate Zinc Copper chloride Silver Bromide Potassium iodide Cupric iodide Potassium Chloride Potassium chromate Barium sulphate Precipitate (yellow) Potassium Sulphate Quicklime Zinc Sulphate Aluminium Aluminium Oxide (Alumina)

C12H22O11 H2O C6H12O6 Fe S FeS CO2 H2CO3 3CaO.Al2O3 CaO.Al2O36H2O CaSO4.H2O CaSO4.2H2O C CaCO3 CuSO4 Zn CuCl2 AgBr KI CuI2 KCl K2CrO4 BaSO4 BaCrO4 K2SO4 CaO ZnSO4 Al Al2O3