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Index
1. What is Static Electricity ?
2. Origins of Static Electricity
3. What are the hazards of static electricity ?
4. Prevention Ways to Control Electrostatic Hazards
5. Practical Safety Instructions
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Unit1
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Definition
Static electricity is a surface phenomenon which causes by separation &
aggregation of materials charges which is in contact with each
other and then separated.
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Howdoesitgenerate?
1. The surface electrical charges of the objects try to balance each other by the
free flow of electrons between themselves when they are in contact.
2. After separating, objects are left with either an excess or deficiency of
electrons which causes both objects become electrically charged.
3. If the mentioned charge dont have a path to ground, objects wont be able to
move and become static .
4. If static electricity is not rapidly eliminated , the charge will build up.
5. It will eventually develop enough energy to jump as a spark to some nearby
grounded or less highly charged object in an attempt to balance the charge.
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Somesourcesofstatic
electricitygeneration
Movement of human body / Conveyor belts /Reeling or
unreeling of paper or plastic sheets
Solid / Solid
Discharge of wet steam / Liquid sprays , including water
Gas / Liquid
Discharge of carbon dioxide / Filling of containers with
powder
Gas / Solid
Stirring of immiscible liquids / Settling of drops of one
liquid through another
Liquid /Liquid
Flow of liquids through pipelines / Splash filling of tanks
Liquid / Solid
Examples Materials
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Moreexamples
1. Flashover / lightning
2. Spraying / Coating
3. Blending / mixing
4. Flow of dust or small, solid objects in a pipe
5. Screens in a moving steam of liquid
6. Inside of pipes carrying moving liquid, dust, or small solid objects
7. Transfer of liquid fuels from one tank to another
8. High velocity flow of any liquid in a pipe
9. Flow of liquids through a screen
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10. Conveyor belts made of rubber, leather, or plastic
11. Movement of material in a pile of dust or of fine, solid particles
12. Rubbing of explosives
13. Plastic covers and containers of flammable materials
14. Metal or plastic chutes and funnels used with flammable dusts or
liquids
15. Steam cleaning of tanks in which there are flammable vapors
16. Nylon or wool carpet in the vicinity of flammable materials
17. Personnel borne charges
18. Conductors in the vicinity of magnetic fields
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Physics
The amount of energy stored or discharge :
E : energy in Joules
C : capacitance in Farad
V : potential in Volts
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Releasable energy of walking over a carpet in dry air
Capacitance for a person is approximately : 100 Pf
Produced voltage between person & carpet : 50000 v
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Unit2
Originsof
Static
Electricity
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2.1.DoubleLayerCharge
Work Function :
Essentially energy for separation an electron from the surface of
materials to infinity.
Work Function of insulated objects is high.
Work Function of objects with the more conducting electrons is low.
Work Function will be decreased by increasing temperature.
While two dissimilar objects are in contact with each other at the same
temperature, interchanging of electrons would produced on their
interfacial areas.
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Electrons transfer from donor materials with the lower work function to
acceptor materials with the higher work function.
Results :
1. Materials with the higher work function will receive the excess
charge of electrons on their surface.
2. Capacitance of the system will be increase because of the minimum
distance between layers and this causes charge polarization on
materials interfacial areas.
HelmholtzTheory
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2.2.ElectrostaticInduction
Fig1 Unchargedobjectsposition
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2.2.ElectrostaticInduction
Fig2Inducedchargeonconductorby
Negativeelectrons
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2.2.ElectrostaticInduction
Fig3Groundingconductorandflowingofnegativeinducedchargesto earth
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2.2.ElectrostaticInduction
Fig5relocationofpositivecharges
ontheconductorsurface
Fig4Equivalentremainedpositive
chargeonconductor
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2.2.ElectrostaticInduction
Fig6Remainedpositivecharges
onconductor
Fig5relocationofpositivecharges
ontheconductorsurface
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2.2.ElectrostaticInduction
Fig6Remainedpositivecharges
onconductor
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2.3.StaticChargeson
Clothes&Body
Excess charges is usually aggregated on human body.
we are concerned here with the below conditions:
1. Sparkly draining from body it causes fire in flammable areas or may
lead to electrostatic shock.
2. Gas discharging from clothes particularly when it occurs in the most
sensitive flammable areas such as Acetylene Air mixture or
Hydrogen Air mixture
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2.4.ChargingofFlowing
Liquids
Double layer charge will be produced on liquid / liquid
interfacial area , as solids.
Presence of most ions is needed for charging of liquids
While a liquid is transferring through a pipeline into a tank , if positive
ions of liquid remain on the surface of pipeline then negative charges
will produce a diffuse layer in liquid.
Amount of charge swept by liquid is depended on volume
resistivity and separation velocity of liquid from pipeline.
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Conductance property of liquids is usually expressed by
electrical conductivity.
Conductivity is measured in reciprocal ohms and the unit used
to be called mho and the SI name for the unit is Siemens.
between the V 1 when the application of S 1 Conductivity is
to flow. A 1 points causes
Conductivity
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Relaxation :
The dissipation of a charge
Relaxation time :
The time taken for a hydrocarbon liquid to lose about 2/3 of
its charge
It is not possible to give a time for the complete loss of charge voltage
and therefore also the current flowing from the charge decreases
continuously.
SomeDefinition
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Unit3
Whatarethe
hazardsof
Static
Electricity?
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1. Great potential for discharge
2. Surprise & involuntary response of a person who receives
the static charge
3. Creation of an arc and ignition of certain vapor or dust
mixture in air
4. Creation of sparks in an explosive or flammable
atmosphere.
5. Fire and explosion
Hazards
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Four conditions must be met that static electricity be
hazardous :
1 There must be a means for a static charge to develop.
2 Enough energy must build up to cause ignition.
3 There must be a discharge of this energy ( a spark )
4 The spark must occur in an ignitable vapor or dust mixture.
Whatareneedstomakestatic
electricityhazardous?
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Unit4
PreventionWaysto
Control
Electrostatic
Hazards
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Hazardous static charges can be avoided in two ways :
1. Preventing the generation of static electricity
2. Draining it away so that a charge cannot be build up.
It would be wrong to think that the generation of static electricity
can be completely eliminated , so we must :
Minimizing the build up of charge
Preventionways
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1. Bonding & Grounding
2. Humidification
3. Static collectors
4. Additives
Howcanstaticelectricitybe
controlled?
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Bonding :
Connecting two or more conductive objects with a conductor, such as cooper
wire, that equalizes the potential charges between them.
Bonding&Grounding
Bonding is also connecting the various parts of equipment and containers that
are electrically separated .
Fig7 WhenbondedTogether,both
ObjectsshareSamecharge
BondWire
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Grounding :
Connecting one or more conductive objects directly to earth using ground rods,
cold water cooper pipes , or building steel .
Grounding drains the static charges away as quickly as they are
produced.
Note that bonding does not eliminate the static charge
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A relative humidity of 60% to 70% at 700 F may prevent paper or layers of
cloth and fibers from sticking together.
A high relative humidity, however, is no guarantee against the
accumulation of static electricity.
Humidification of air in closed environment may help, but is
usually costly and less effective in reducing risk .
Humidification
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Static charge build up is greater when the air has low
moisture content.
Dont rely solely on humidification as a control
measure in areas where there are flammable liquids ,
gases or dusts.
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A static collector works by its closeness to the source of electrostatic
generator
If a discharge occurs , it is captured by the highly conductive
collector which this results in preventing long hot spark .
To be effective , collectors must be properly grounded.
StaticCollectors
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Using of antistatic additive , is one of the other controlling
ways against generation of static electricity
The additive increases the conductivity or lowers the resistance
of the liquid .
The ones used for aviation fuels will typically increase the
conductivity to greater than 50 pS/m
Additive
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Unit5
PracticalSafety
Instructions
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1 electrical conduit systems 2 plastic pipes
3 gas or steam pipes 4 dry pipe sprinkler systems
5 lightning rods 6 metal storage racks
7 building support beams
A designated ground source is preferred
Staticgroundsmustnotbe
madeto:
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Establishingagoodconductive
pathbyconnectors:
1 Remove all dirt, paint , rust , or corrosion from areas where
connections are to be made
2 Use connectors that are strong enough for the job use
connectors with higher conductivity
3 Use flexible connectors where there is vibration or
continuous movement
4 Connect metal to metal
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Controllingstaticelectricityon
people:
1 Conductive flooring
Conductive floors reduce risks in hospital operation rooms, where anesthetic
gases may be explosive under the right condition.
2 Conductive cloth and footwear
In locations where static charge from clothing could be dangerous, workers
wear conductive clothing, particularly shoes.
All of these items must be free of dirt and other contaminant .
3 Cotton or linen clothing instead of wool , silk , or synthetic material
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4 Static discharge from clothing fabric
U.K. Standards of safety clothes which is used in flammable areas :
Where the minimum ignition energy of atmosphere is more than 0.2 mJ:
use every types of clothes if a proper grounding of people is established by
conductive floor and antistatic shoes.
Resistance between person and earth does not be over than 100 mega
ohms by flooring and shoe
This resistance does not be lower than 50 kiloohms where there is an
encounter danger with main voltage
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Where the minimum ignition energy of atmosphere is less than 0.2 mJ
Resistance between person and earth does not be over than 1 Mega ohms
by flooring and shoe.
Surface resistivity of cloth must not be over than 50 Gohms
Mentioned surface resistivity of clothes with natural fiber such as
cotton and linen will be existed if relative humidification of area be
65% or more.
Using of antistatic agents for clothing Dacron such as polyester and
nylon is necessary.
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HydrocarbonLiquidsandHazards
Reductionways
Conductivities of Hydrocarbon liquids which generate hazardous
charges :
The corresponding relaxation times are :
Lowering the velocity of the liquid by using a pipe line of larger
diameter The surface to volume ratio will also be reduced but this does not have
a significant effect.
When dispensing flammable liquids, both bonding and grounding are
required ensure that the receiving container is bonded to dispensing container
before pouring the liquid, and the dispensing container is grounded
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Alternative
locationsfor
bondingwire
fastenedtopipe
Alternative
locationforbond
(onlyif
inherently
connected
withtheloading
piping)
Productflow
Tanktruckwith
nochargeon
outsidesurface
Ground
Figure8 BondingandGroundingwhileTopLoadingaTank
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Prevent of presence of any immiscible liquid (such as water ) in
flowing of hydrocarbon liquids
they increase the charge in the receiving vessel by as much as 50 times.
The maximum velocity in the pipe line should be 1 m/s , if the
liquid is contaminated .
If the hydrocarbon is completely dry , then higher velocities can be used:
2 m/s at the lowest conductivity
7 m/s at the higher conductivity
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Passing liquid through a pump increase charging considerably
particularly if it goes through a microfilter
A length of earthed conductive pipeline should be provided between pump and
tank .
The residence time in the pipeline should be about three times the relaxation
time of the liquid but not less than 30 s which would be sufficient for
any liquid with a conductivity of 2 pS/m or more
The residence time can become inconveniently long for liquids with very low
conductivities required time can be reduced by the use of antistatic
additive.
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Safetynotificationsfortanks
andfuelinghazards
If there is a flammable atmosphere in the tank
At least 30 min should be allowed after filling has stopped for the
charge to relax , before any manual dipping or sampling is allowed
Splash filling will generate charges as well as releasing flammable vapor
and spray
The filling velocity should be restricted to 1 m/s until the outlet of the
fill line is covered to a depth of at least 0.5 m
This velocity applies also to the filling of road and rail tankers.
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Visualnotification
1. Warning Signs
2. Warning Tapes
3. Warning Labels
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WarningSigns
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WarningTapes
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WarningLabels
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References
1.ElectrostaticHazards GunterLuttgens& GunterLuttgens&
NormanWilson NormanWilson
2.Healthandsafetyforengineers2006 2006
edition edition
4.IndustrialAccidentPreventionAssociation
staticelectricityRevised Revised2006 2006
5.www.sceinc.com
6.www.labelsourceonline.co.uk
7.www.esdjournal.com
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