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http://homepages.cae.wisc.edu/~me231/online_notes/section_views/section_views.

htmIntroduction to Engineering
Graphics
Why do we bother with learning mechanical drawing? Isn't everything done with high powered
3D solid modeling software? While CAD systems have revolutionized the mechanical design
process, a large amount of information is still conveyed using traditional 2D mechanical
drawings. These 2D drawings are not generated by hand but rather extracted from 3D solid
models. However all the rules, standards and techniques of traditional mechanical drafting still
apply and that is where this course impacts your engineering career. Students should be aware
that this course is for all intents and purposes a course in communication, specifically the graphic
language. The objective of the course is to teach students to communicate using graphic
techniques. This involves learing to "read" or interpret the information contained in a 2D
mechanical drawing. To accomplish this the student must learn the principals and standards of
mechanical drawing and dimensioning.

Standards
The graphic language is quite similar to the spoken/written language familiar to all. Specific
rules, or standards, have been developed to retain consistency in industry. Imagine the confusion
if each individual decided how to spell words as they were written, with no standards. Or if
pronunciation of the spoken language was not consistent. That is why the standards you will
learn are so important, even if many seem to be trivial. Books are written in chapters, that are
broken up into paragraphs. Words are spoken in different tones to communicate meaning.
Engineering drawings must also be presented and arranged in a certain format so the information
they contain can be interpreted.
It is true that many companies create their own internal standards, but most companies rely on
resources from outside sources, especially in the current business environment. Pressure to
reduce the work force and cut costs has left many companies with no choice but to hire outside
contractors to complete work which was previously performed by company employees.
Therefore the importance of a standard graphic language is steadily increasing.

Course Objectives
Students completing the course should realize the following objectives:

• Comprehend general projection theory, with an emphasis on the use of orthographic


projection to represent three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional views
• Understand the application of industry standards and techniques applied in engineering
graphics
• Apply auxiliary or sectional views to most practically represent engineered parts
• Dimension and annotate two-dimensional engineering drawings
• Employ freehand 3D pictorial sketching to aid in the visualization process and to
efficiently communicate ideas graphically
Introduction
Proper Form and Technique for Vertical Lettering
Proper Form and Technique for Inclined Lettering
COMMON DRAFTING LINE TYPES

Object lines Bold continuous lines.

Construction lines _____________ Very light thin continuous lines.

Hidden lines _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Dashed lines used to represent hidden features.

Center lines _____ _ _____ Used to locate the center of arcs, circles, etc. (thin).

_____ _ _ ______
Phantom lines Used to illustrate features which do not
truly exist, for

example section cuts, the extents of travel for machine parts, etc
What is Descriptive Geometry?

Descriptive Geometry is the graphical solution of point, line and plane problems in
space. These solutions are accomplished by means of the same principles of
orthographics projection which are used in making a 3 view drawing of an object.

Some Definitions Used in Descriptive Geometry and Orthographic Projection

(1) Orthographic Projection - the use of parallel lines of sight at 90 degrees


(orthogonal) to an image plane

(2) Image Plane - the plane which is perpendicular to the line of sight (LOS). This
plane is located between the observer and the object being viewed.

(3) Line of Sight - the vector path from the viewer to a particular point on an object.
For our purposes, these LOS are parallel.

(4) Principal Views (planes) - any of the six orthogonal image planes defined by the
six mutually othogonal LOS

(5) Fold Line - line defined by the intersection of two adjacent image planes. The fold
line is represented on the drawing by a phantom line.
Projection of lines

True length of a line

Given: Line ab.


Required: Find the true length of line ab.
Given: Line ab.
Required: Find the true length of line ab.

Area of a plane surface


Given: Plane abc.
Required: Find and measure the area of abc.
Area of a plane surface - Graphical solution
Given: Plane abc.
Required: Find and measure the area of abc.

Solving problems with auxiliary views

Now that you can use auxiliary views to create desired views of geometric entities, you can solve
many descriptive geometry problems. There are basically only four separate manipulations you
can generate with auxilliary views:

1. Show true length of any line.


2. Show point view of any line.
3. Show line or edge view of any plane.
4. Show true size view of any plane.
When presented with a problem, these are the only tools you have to solve it graphically. Before
beginning any of them to solve the problem, you must determine first what view is required.
Creating that view is a matter of using one or more of the four previouly listed steps.

We will solve the first set of problems graphically, and deal with intersections through the use of
auxiliary views. We have already discussed intersections of two lines. Remember that if two lines
intersect, they have a single point in common, and that point must project from view to view.
Now let us consider the intersection of a line and a plane in space.

Visibility

As entities intersect in 3D space, it is often desirable to show the intersections with correct
visibility.

Intersection of line and plane

Realize that the intersection between a line and a plane in space is still a single point. This single
point is defined as the piercing point, the point at which the line pierces the plane. To solve the
problem graphically, first determine what view must be drawn to find the solution.

Using aids to visualize the problem is helpful. A pencil can represent the line and a clear plastic
drafting triangle can represent the plane. Hold the pencil so it passes through or intersects the
opening in the triangle. To find the single point on the line which lies on the plane, how must
these objects be viewed?

It should be clear that in a view in which the plane appears as a line, the single point the line has
in common with the plane can be indentified easily. The construction of views to obtain that view
has been previously reviewed. Once the piercing point is located, it can be projected back into
the given views.

A "two-view" method can also be used to find the piercing point of a line and a given plane. The
construction to solve the problem is quite simple, but, it is more difficult to grasp conceptually
than the auxilliary view method.

Intersection of two planes

Two planes in space intersect to form a single line. If the planes are assumed to extend
indefinitely in all directions, the line of intersection will have infinite length. If the planes are
defined as having a certain size and shape, the line of intersection will be finite, and will appear
as a visible line where it lies within the boundaries of both planes.

To find the line of intersection using auxilliary views, you must construct a view where either
one of the given planes appears in edge view. In that view, the line defined by the two points that
lie on the boundary of the plane that appears forshortened and the plane that appears as a line,
define the line of intersection. This is basically a piercing point problem you do twice. Find
where any line on one plane pierces the other plane. Now repeat that step and find where a
different line on either plane pierces the other plane. The two points you have will define the line
of intersection between the two planes.

True angle between two lines

The true angle between any two lines can be measured in a view where both lines are true length.
To construct that particular view, choose one of the two lines and construct a view where it
appears as a point. If neither of the given lines is true length, this will take two views. Remember
to project both lines into each view. Once the point view of one of the lines is constructed, the
other line will appear foreshortened (unless they are parallel). An additional auxiliary view
parallel to the foreshortened line in that view will show both lines TL. Measure the angle
between the lines in that view.

If the two lines lie on the same plane (i.e. if they intersect), an alternate approach usually can
reduce the number of views required to solve to problem. The intersecting lines define a plane.
Draw that plane true size, and every line on the plane will be TL, and the angle can be measured
in that view.

True angle between line and plane

The true angle between a line and a plane can be measured in a view where the line is TL and the
plane appears as a line (or edge). There are two different approaches to construct this desired
view.

To solve using the plane method, first construct the TS view of the plane. If the plane does not
appear as a line in the given problem, the edge view must be constructed before you can obtain
the TS view. Project the line into each view as well. Once the TS view of the plane is
constructed, any adjacent view will show that plane as a line. Construct an auxiliary view
parallel to the foreshortened line in the view where the plane appears TS. Projection onto this
view will show the TL line, and the plane will appear as a line. Measure the angle in that view.

To solve using the line method, first construct the point view of the line. The plane will appear
foreshortened in this view. Once the point view of the line is constructed, any adjacent view of
the line will show it TL. Determine the auxiliary view direction, which will also show the plane
as a line by constructing a TL line on the plane in the view where the given line appears TL. An
auxiliary view perpendicular to this line will show the plane as a line, and the line will be TL.
Measure the angle in that view.

True angle between two planes

The true angle between two planes can be measured in a view where both planes appear as lines.
How does the line of intersection between two planes appear when both planes appear as lines?
To measure the true angle between two planes, a view must be constructed where both planes
appear as lines. In that view, the line of intersection will appear as a point. Once the line of
intersection is determined, it is simply a matter of constructing the required views to show that
line as a point.

Shortest distance from point to line

The shortest distance from a point to a line is always a line through the given point that is
perpendicular to the line. This is very similar to a true angle problem, where the true angle must
be 90 degrees.

To find the shortest distance from a point to a line, construct a view where the line is TL. A line
drawn from the given point perpendicular to the line will be a view of the shortest distance from
the point to the line. If the shortest distance must be measured, that line must be projected into a
view where it appears TL.

An alternative method also can be used. A line and a point define a plane. Construct a view
where that plane appears TS. Every line on that plane is TL, and angles between lines are true. A
line can be drawn from the given point perpendicular to the given line and measured in that view.

Shortest distance point to plane

The shortest distance from a point to a plane is always a line through the given point that is
perpendicular to the plane.

To find the shortest distance from a point to a plane, construct the edge view of the plane. A line
from the point drawn perpendicular to the plane will be the shortest line from the point to the
plane. The line will always be TL and can be measured in that same view.

Shortest distance between two lines

The shortest distance between two lines is always a line which is perpendicular to both lines.

To find the shortest distance between two lines, construct a view where either of the given lines
appears as a point. Construct a line, from that point view, perpendicular to the other given line
shown in that view. In order for the line you construct to be perpendicular to both given lines, it
must be TL in this view.

Remember that to determine whether or not two lines are perpendicular, only one of them has to
be TL. If the angle between them is 90 degrees in a view where either of the lines is TL, they are
perpendicular.
Views of line

Given: The point view of a line


Required: How does it appear in any adjacent view.
Views of line

Given: The point view of a line


Required: How does it appear in any adjacent view
Views of Plane

Given: TS view of plane surface.


Required: How does it appear in any adjacent view.
Views of Plane

Given: TS view of plane surface.


Required: How does it appear in any adjacent view.
Section of solids
Sectional Views - Overview
Conventional views, either principal or auxiliary views, may not always give the clearest
representation of an object. Many objects in the engineering world have complex internal
features which will appear as hidden lines in conventional views. It is often desirable for the sake
of clarity to represent the interior features as visible. To present objects in this method, the
component can be imagined as being separated by a cutting plane in a location selected to most
clearly show interior features. The cutting plane may be placed in several different positions,
depending upon the symmetry and complexity of the object.

After the cutting plane location is selected, the object is drawn as if the portion of the object to
one side of the cutting plane is removed. The remaining object outline and all visible features are
drawn. To indicate the cross-sectional shape of the object along the cutting plane, sections lines
are added. Section lines, or crosshatching, are included to clearly indicate where the defined
cutting plane passes through solid material of the object. The pattern of the section lines can be
used to define the material of which the object is to be made. This is done in assembly drawing
which show multiple components in an asembled state. In detail drawing, continuous line
hatching is more common. Hatching is constructed at a 45 degree angle (with respect to the
view) if possible. Other angles my be used if the hatching is parallel to too many object lines,
hence making reading of the drawing more difficult.

The cutting plane is shown as a dashed or phantom line, thicker than the normal object lines in a
view where is appears as an edge. In cases where the location of the cutting plane is easily
understood, and no other logical sections would be presented, the cutting plane line may be
omitted. This is usually done on circular objects, where the cutting plane line is placed along one
of the axial centerlines. If there is any chance that omission of the cutting plane could introduce
confusion to the drawing reader, it must be shown. When the cutting plane line is shown,
arrowheads must be added to indicate the direction from which the object is to be viewed. The
arrowheads also indicate which part of the object is to be removed for the section view. If the
cutting plane line coincides with a centerline, the cutting plane line takes precedence.

If the arrowheads point to the left, everything to the right of the cutting plane is imagined to be
removed. The view would then be drawn to the right of the view where the cutting plane is
shown. If the arrowheads point up, everything to the below the cutting plane is imagined to be
removed. The view would then be drawn directly below the view where the cutting plane is
shown.
Conventional view
Sectional Views

Conventions - Cutting Plane


Sectional Views

Conventions - Cutting Plane


Representation Formats for Threaded Holes in Section

Simplified--

Schematic (conventional)-
Detailed (graphic)-

Sectional Views

Sectional Views Example


Sectional Views

Sectional Views Example


Sectional Views

Sectional Views Example S2


Conventional View

Sectional Views

Sectional Views Example S2


Full View
Sectional Views

Sectional Views Example S2


Half View
Example S3 - Full vs. Removed Sections
Given:Top and Front Conventional Views.
Required: Draw Section Views As Indicated.
Example S3 - Full vs. Removed Sections

Solutions Drawn As Full Sections

Solutions projected off the front view


Example S3 - Full vs. Removed Sections

Solutions Drawn As Removed Sections

Removed sections must be drawn to the right of the cutting plane lines since the
arrowheads are pointing to the left. They cannot be drawn as a direct projection
off the front view
Example 4 - Removed Section

Given:Top and Front Conventional Views.


Required: Draw Section View As Indicated.
Example - Removed Section

Given:Top and Front Conventional Views.


Required: Draw Section View As Indicated.
Example - Revolved Section
Given: Front and Right Side Conventional Views.
Required: Draw Revolved Section.

Example - Revolved Section


Given: Front and Right Side Conventional Views.
Required: Draw Revolved Section.
Orthographic projections
Orthographic Projection is a way of drawing an object from different directions. Usually a front,
side and plan view is drawn so that a person looking at the drawing can see all the important
sides. Orthographic drawings are useful especially when a design has been developed to a stage
whereby it is almost ready to manufacture.

IMPORTANT: There are two ways of drawing in orthographic - First Angle and Third Angle.
They differ only in the position of the plan, front and side views. Below is an example of first
angle projection.