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A Study on Leadership Styles

INTRODUCTION
Every group of people that performs near its total capacity has some person as its head who is skilled in the art of leadership styles. Successful performance of the leader ship role is essential to the survival of the business enterprise. In every business organization, people working there need leaders individuals who could be instrumental in guiding the efforts of people groups of workers to the achievement of goals and objectives both of the individuals and the organization. Goods and services are to be provided, products andcustomers need to be united and the workers efforts require integration and co-ordination. The leader guides the actions of others in accomplishing these tasks. Leadership involves the exercise of influence on the part of the leader over the perception, motivation, communication, personality and ultimately over the behavior of other people. Leader ship is, therefore, the study of leaders influence over the thoughts, opinions, beliefs, attitudes and actions of followers. Leader ship is defined as the process whereby one individual influence other group members towards the attainment of defined group or organizational goals.

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INDUSTRY PROFILE
The word confectionery was derived from the Latin word Confectionery which means Preparation. In other words a place where the sweets are made is called confectionery. It consists of both biscuits and chocolates. Confectionery is of two types Sugar confectionery Flavor confectionery
1. Sugar confectionery

Sugar confectionery means sweets in which sugar is major ingredient either they consist of sugar in very fine crystal from dispersed in sugar maintained in a solution of careful blend of different types as sugar i.e., boiled sweets, toffees or caramels, fats milk nuts are employed the obtained a variety of flavor and textures. Before the 19 th century sweet candies were the monopoly of apothecaries who made than to hide taste of their drugs.
2. Flavor confectionery

Flavor confectionery consists of patriots and fancy cakes having flavor as their basis sweetened and mixed with variety dairy products such as butter and eggs. Cocoa and chocolate Chocolate was derived from Cocoa bean seed of tree The brama Cocoa originally wild in Central America and is now cultivated in the tropical powder contains cocoa butter added to compensate for increased bulk due to inclusion of sugar. Eating chocolate can be derived in to two types: Moulded confectionery Covertures confectionery Confectionery covertures for converting fruits, nuts, biscuits, preserves and other centres need proportion of butter than chocolate for moulding in to blocks. The
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manufacturing of sugar coated nuts etc., known as DRAGEES is said to have been introduced by ROMAN, JULIUS, DRAGATUS, BONSONS, were first made in the 13 th century pastries in the 15th century and fondants in the 17th century. The great present day volume of manufacturers is due to introduction of automatic and semiautomatic machines about the middle of the century. CONFECTIONERY INDUSTRY OF INDIA In literal sense confectionery means hard boiled sweets in has an old age profession family confectioneries were there from 18th century in India. Thus industry can be classified in to two sectors they are Organized sector Unorganized sector
1. Organized sector

Major confectioneries in the organized sector are as follows: Nutrine Parrys Parle Ravalgon Cadbury Nestle Ninkeys Orton Crypteen Hicksets
2. Unorganized sector

It consists of small scale units of confectionery whose scale of operations is limited to their local areas.

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Each company is having specialization in their respective fields. CORPORATE VISION We shall operate in existing and new business which profitably capitalizes on our corporate image of quality and integrity. Our objective is to delight our customer both in India and abroad. We shall achieve this objective by reengineering our business and through continuous improvement in quality cost and customer service. We shall strive for excellence by nurturing developing and empowering our employees and suppliers. We shall encourage an open atmosphere conducive to learning and team work. QUALITY POLICY: Quality that was the key Never compromise Profits will come in good time. Put your money into quality. Maintain it at all cost.

Employee Relationship Nutrine has built up a reputation of excellent relationship reinforced by generals benefit like free clothing on the eve of festivals, there only one recognized unions and the industrial relation is maintained peacefully.

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COMPANY PROFILE
Nutrine confectionery limited is the flagship of the Nutrine group of companies planning diverse production and services like confectionery chewing gums, hire purchase and leasing, transportations. Nature of Business Establishment Chairman Managing Director Production capacity Annual Sales turn over Total number of employees Company Status : : : : : : : : Sugar boiled confectionery. February 1953 Late B. Venkatarama Reddy, a graduate from national university, Adayar. Sri V. Adi Godrej Sir V. Vivek Mahathur 1800 tons per month. 200 crores. 559 INDIAS LARGEST SELLING SWEETS The leader in the confectionery industry in India as well as organized sector.(38% of market share) Awards : Best Management award on 1st May 2003 and Best Management award on 1st May 2006 for outstanding performance in Industrial relations and Labour Welfare. Recently held AD ASIA Conference at Jaipur NUTRINE was selected as The BEST BRAND among fast moving consumer Goods industry because of inherent, innovative Product development capabilities Percentage of Shares : 43% Shares Godrej 6% Shares AB Godrej 51% Shares Hershley
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Boundary / Outline

10acres

Location Factor Nutrine confectionery limited is situated in the border town of Chittoor on the national highway-4 in Andhra Pradesh. The company is established in an area where the basic raw materials milk, sugar etc are available in plenty and easily procurable. Chittoor was in and advantageous, horticultural built where tropical fruits like mango, banana and papaya are grown in abundance. Nutrine products its confectionery with a main factory at various centers. Diversification Since 1985 Nutrine has diversified into food products like chewing gums, Instant food dehydrated fruits bars of Mango, banana, papaya, guava, fruit pulp, processed fruits. Nutrine has a wide range of more than 72 varieties of candies, toffees, lozenges etc, being the leader in the industry for more than a decade, Nutrine has always endeavored to satisfy the customers changing wants and desires with its special emphasis on quality range and cast effectiveness. Research and Development Nutrine is the only company in India producing dehydrated fruit bars, using an innovative. Nutrine has a well equipped research laboratory, where continuous product testing and product development is organized arrangements at various centers Nutrine enjoys a high market share of 34 % in confectionery in India. Innovation Nutrine is the first company to bring out a fruit bar, first company to soft center first company device a pillow pack of sweets first company to combine flavors with real fruits and nuts n pillow packs.
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Distribution System Nutrine has a very extensive well- organized distribution system throughout India. Nutrine Confectionery Company limited has regional office at Chennai, Bangalore, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Calcutta and departments and carrying and forwarding throughout India. Nutrine products are distributed through 3500 stockiest with in India and reach more the 4, 25,000 outlets through the country. Nutrine has been maintaining good relationship with the dealers and gives them margin of 12.5 %. Under Nutrine, about 1400 employees are work all over the country. An in house transport company called B.V.Reddy transport. A part from the onward dispatch of stocks helps in inventory control. Nutrine has 20 other contracts carries as well, which transport consignment from chattier on the whole Nutrine uses road transport for 95% of its goods container service for the rest consignment typically research retailers between 12 and 18 days which is quite fast in a country of Indias slots. Exports Nutrine exports confectionery, gums and fruit bars to Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nepal, Norway, Sandi Arabia, Singapore and silence which Nutrine does not export some products to Dubai, New Zealand and Africa it is concentrating mainly on the domestic market capacity is started to grouping the next 18 months it will add on amount 12000 tones. Company Growth and Performance From a small scale unit which manufacturers only candies in eh early 60s Nutrine Confectionery (P) Ltd., company has grown to multi market gains multi core, multi products and has been has the single largest manufacturing company of confectionery and toffees in India since 1982. The production strength and quality assurance given to the market the company is due to the business acumen of the board members particularly chairman Sri V. Dwarakanth Reddy who have added a number of sophisticated machinery imported from many countries possesses the most equipped R and D laboratory where continuous research and development and product of dimensions to business philosophy by the Nutrine corporate. Today Nutrine has more than 2000 employees including workers an employment rolls. NUTRINE CONFECTIONERY COMPANY (P) LTD has build up a reputation of
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excellent employee relationship continuously reinforced by various benefits offered which includes free uniform, apron, shops washing and medical allowances, subsidized Tiffin and meals tea, dresses in the eve of the festival to the family schools uniform fees and stationary for Nutrine confectionery company (P) Ltd., Grown has been one of the some and study progress with the lucky been one of sure and study progress with the lucky mascot BUNNY. The Nutrine group of companies expects to cross Rest 200/- crores turnover during the year 1998. Entry of MNCs The market has been evolving with the entry of many multinationals. More investments were taking place in the industry. Mr. Mahendran was hopeful that this category would grow at 8 to 12 percent annually. The organized market was 60 percent and the unorganized 40 percent. In five years the organized segment would raise its share to percent. GBFL would enter soft milk chocolates by April next but this would be under the Godrej, banner. Mr. Mahendran also indicates his companys entry into roasted and ground coffee. It might not be averse to emerging in to a tie up with a domestic or international player for this purpose. The Godrej basket it now half filled with items such as confectionery, juices and soya milk. It will soon add other items that will help the group get entrenched in the packaged food industry.

Computerized Attendance Recording System: Attendance recording system is working on computer; the employees will be given an identity card/punching card at the joining of the company. The employees has to record their attendance by inserting their punch card in the punching machine at their entering and leaving the company at office time. Employee Relationship: Nutrine has built up a reputation of excellent relationship reinforced by generous benefit like free education benefits to the benefits to the employees, free clothing on the eve of festivals, there only one recognized unions and the industrial relation is maintained peacefully.
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Social Obligations: Social services activities of Nutrine are given below. 1. Conducting fewer than bi super star cricket tournament to talent cricketing talent in younger generation of the country. 2. Setting up schools for children. 3. Financial assistance to association of blind people. 4. Setting up traffic dividers and issued as a act of development of Chittoor town.

Sponsoring For Games And Sports: Nutrine sponsor many games and tournaments in Kerala. Recently Nutrine is sponsored of the VI National Women Hockey Tournament held at Tirupati.

Welfare Amenities: 1. CANTEEN:

Tiffin will be served for the 1st shift. Lunch/ dinner will be served for G shift and 1st and 2nd shift. The items are served on subsidized basis. Tea is served free of cost.

2. UNIFORM:

All the eligible employees will be supplied with the two pairs of Terry cotton switched uniform in a year.

3. SHOES:

One pair of shoes in year.

4. REST HALL: -

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The employees reporting to duty earlier than a shift time during the lunchtime they can rest at rest room. Which is having facilities of toilets, drinking water, bench and newspapers.

5. SHIFT TIMINGS:

1st shift 2nd shift 3rd Shift General Shift

: : : :

6 am to 2 pm 2 pm to 10 pm 10 pm to 6 am 8.30am to 5.30

6. LEAVE PARTICULARS:

Each Leave - As per factory act. Casual Leave 12 days. National and Festival Holidays 10 days. Earned Leave 14 days for staff and workers

20 days for Management categories

Various Departments in the Company: PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT: Here the company looks after the production process. The department is further divided into three sub-departments. Confectionery department. Toffee department. Wrapping department.
CONFECTIONERY DEPARTMENT: -

Here the company produces more than 30 varieties of hard confectioners.

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In this department the company manufactures more than 35 varieties of Toffees.

WRAPPING DEPARTMENT: -

This department deals with the packing of the final products. The company has atomized the wrapping.
RAW MATERIALS DEPARTMENT: -

This department takes care of provision of the raw materials required for the manufacturer of the products and also availability of the raw materials.
QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT: -

Quality control department looks after the quality of the products this department has well equipped laboratory. This checks the quality of the product. WORKSHOP: The company has works shop to deal with the machinery. This workshop undertakes the repairs and technological changes. They are also having civil departments.
MARKETING DEPARTMENT: -

This department deals with all the promotional activities like advertising etc. in order to popularize the product.
PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT: -

This department deals with the welfare of the workers and also in maintenance of the workers and also workers in the company.
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The Training programmes conducted in NCCL.


1. The programmes conducted to workers Quality of life and quality of work. Self development and organization development. Quality circles. Technical training. Total productivity maintenance. Good manufacturing practices. 2. The programmes conducted to officers Transactional analysis and effective communication. Total productivity maintenance. Good manufacturing practices. Quality circles. ISO. Behavior training. 3. The programmes conducted to Managers Positive attitudes. Good manufacturing practices. Total productivity maintenance. Quality circles. ISO. Personal improvement programmes. Behavioral training.

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PRODUCT PROFILE
More than 75 varieties of hard boiled candies, toffees, lozenges etc makes the Nutrine product mix and position for the competitors being the leader in the competitors being the leader in the confectionery industry for more than a decade Nutrine has always stood to meet the customers changing needs with a special emphasis on quality, choice, cost benefits the following are the confectionery product Nutrine.
Counts per 190 270 200 174 210 206 210 210 210 290 290 270 170 170 126 260 280 200 206 210 290 270 SALN 13 Product Code ASA SPL ASA NML NICKS WK CHE SSA CML NGL MLC CC DSM NSC GKD SPB ORC LBB HFB NEC (W) RGA PT DPL College Product Name Assay Special Assay Regular Nutrine Nutrine Cookies Wild Coffey Chocolate clairs Super Star Assortment Caramels Nutrine Gold Milk Cacaramilk Chumma chumma Dishum Amras Garland Surfeit Basundi Orange Candies Lacto Banbon Honey Falk Nutrine White clairs Regal Assortment Pine Apple Toffee Dishumpineapple of Engineering Unit Packing in gm 500 1000 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 1000 1000 1000 500 500 850 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 and M.R.P per Kg. 47.50 69.00 50.00 43.50 52.50 51.50 52.50 52.50 52.50 72.50 70.00 69.00 42.50 42.50 106.00 35.00 70.00 50.00 51.50 52.00 34.50 34.50 Management

A Study on Leadership Styles 174 174 174 ECKS MCKS PCKS Elash Cookies Milk Cookies Pista Cookies 500 500 500 43.50 43.50 43.50

CHAIRMAN MANAGING DIR ECTOR DIRECTORS EXECUTIVE VICEPRESID ENT S&M Dept Material Departme nt Product ion Personne lD EPT Corp.Affairs EDP. DEPT FINANCE D EPART MENT

Sr.Vice Pres ident

Sr.Vice Pres ident

Senior V.P Senior G .M G.M (MAIN .)/( Pack)

Vice Pres ident

Senior V.P

Senior Manager

General Manager

Dy G.M Sales Marketing Distribution Senior Officer

Manager

Manager Stores

Deputy Mana ger -HR

Asst Mgr Dy Mgr Senior manager

Senior Ge neral Manager & Company Secretary

General Manager Asst General Manager Sales Manager/ Regional Sales Manager

Asst General Manager Brand Manager Asst Brand Manager

Manager

Senior Officer

Assistant Mana ger

Asst Mgr Officers

Assistants Managers Clerks

Managers Assistants

Deputy Manager

Officers

Officers

Senior Clerks Junior Clerks

Manager (Legal and Company Affairs)

Dy Managers

Attender

Deputy Managers

Executive

Junior Officers

Junior Officers

Assistant Manager Security Canteen Welfare Officer Time office Senior Engineers

Assistant Managers

Clerks Brand Executive Trainee Jr.Officer Attenders Assistant

Clerks

Workmen

Security Supervisor Security Head Guards

Cooks

Jr.officer

Assistants

Senior officers officers

Area Sa les Manager

Officers Helpers Assistant Cycle Stand Workmen

Area S M Trainee Jr.Clerk Area Sa les Executive Office Boys Sales O fficer Sales Supervisor

Supervisors Security Guards EPABZ Assistant

Junior officers Assistants Clerks

Clerks

Clerks Workmen L& u Workmen

Attemders

drivers

Attenders

Sales Representative

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Leadership styles play a vital role in every organization. Manpower requirements are to be established far beyond the actual requirements. The present study includes the leadership styles carried out by NCCL Chittoor. The study includes that the sources utilized by NCCL Chittoor internally and externally. The study is going to be conducted in NCCL Chittoor on leadership styles practices. I find a lot of scope to study my topic in this company. The entire environment is found to be provided well opportunity to me.

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NEED FOR THE STUDY


Human Resource is the type of resource, which needs effective leadership styles for smooth running of the organization. Every organization tries to perform itself at the most possible way, which requires potential manpower for that. So the effective leadership style is to be selected so as to achieve good result. Here the Democratic leadership style plays a major role for getting effective outcome of work from employees. So the need of study is to know how the Democratic Style exists in the NCCL. Building trust for executives and staff alike Aligning belief system and promoting teamwork Empowering all levels to take ownership of their work Refining communication and transparency

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


To study the internal sources of leadership styles in NCCL. To study the external sources of leadership styles in NCCL. To highlight the direct and indirect method of leadership styles to suggest the company in designing most promising leadership styles policy. To find out whether the employees are satisfied about the leadership styles. To recommend proper leadership style to the management.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE
I used to think that running an organization was equivalent to conducting a symphony orchestra. But I don't think that's quite it; it's more like jazz. There is more improvisation. Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of selfstudy, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982). This guide will help you through that process. To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels. Definition of leadership Leadership is defined as the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of group goals Leadership is

defined as influencing people to follow the leader for the accomplishment of common goal. ------ Kountze Leadership is defined as interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed, through the communication process towards the attainment of a specialized goal or goals. ------ Robert Tannenbaum

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It is a human factor that binds a group together and motivates it towards goals. Leadership styles transform potential into reality. It is the ultimate act that brings to success all the potential that is in organization and its people. ------ Keith Davis

Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. This is called Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). However, we know that we have traits that can influence our actions. This is called Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), in that it was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made. These two leadership types are shown in the chart below (Northouse, 2007, p5): While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique. Skills, knowledge, and attributes make the Leader, which is one of the:

Four factors of Leadership


There are four major factors in leadership (U.S. Army, 1983):

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1. Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. 2. Followers Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes. 3. Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you "set the example," that communicates to your people that you would not ask them

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to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. 4. Situation All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective. Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than the Trait Theory of Leadership. Various forces will affect these four factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the skill of your followers, the informal leaders within your organization, and how your organization is organized.

Boss or Leader
Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization (called Assigned Leadership), this power does not make you a leader, it simply makes you the boss (Rowe, 2007). Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals (called Emergent Leadership), rather than simply bossing people around (Rowe, 2007). Thus you get Assigned Leadership by your position and you display Emergent Leadership by influencing people to do great things.

Bass' Theory of Leadership


Bass' theory of leadership states that there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders (Stogdill, 1989; Bass, 1990). The first two explain the leadership development for a small number of people. These theories are:
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Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory. A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory.

People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational or Process Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based.

LEADERSHIP MODELS
Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken. Two models will be discussed, the Four Framework Approach and the Managerial Grid.

Four Framework Approach


In the Four Framework Approach, Bolman and Deal (1991) suggest that leaders display leadership behaviors in one of four types of frameworks: Structural, Human Resource, Political, or Symbolic.

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This model suggests that leaders can be put into one of these four categories and there are times when one approach is appropriate and times when it would not be. That is, any style can be effective or ineffective, depending upon the situation. Relying on only one of these approaches would be inadequate, thus we should strive to be conscious of all four approaches, and not just depend on one or two. For example, during a major organization change, a Structural leadership style may be more effective than a Symbolic leadership style; during a period when strong growth is needed, the Symbolic approach may be better. We also need to understand ourselves as each of us tends to have a preferred approach. We need to be conscious of this at all time and be aware of the limitations of just favoring one approach.

1. Structural Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a petty tyrant whose leadership style is details. Structural Leaders focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation. 2. Human Resource Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocating, and empowerment. while in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a pushover, whose leadership style is abdication and fraud. Human Resource Leaders believe in people and communicate that belief; they are visible and
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accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization. 3. Political Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is an advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a hustler, whose leadership style is manipulation. Political leaders clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders, use persuasion first, and then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. 4. Symbolic Framework In an effective leadership situation, the leader is a prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration. While in an ineffective leadership situation, the leader is a fanatic or fool, whose leadership style is smoke and mirrors. Symbolic leaders view organizations as a stage or theatre to play certain roles and give impressions, these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision.

MANAGERIAL GRID
The Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid, also known as the Leadership Grid (1985) uses two axes: 1) "Concern for people" is plotted using the vertical axis. 2) "Concern for task or results" is plotted along the horizontal axis. They both have a range of 0 to 9. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. These two dimensions can be drawn as a graph or grid:

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Most people fall somewhere near the middle of the two axes Middle of the Road. But, by going to the extremes, that is, people who score on the far end of the scales, we come up with four types of leaders: Authoritarian strong on tasks, weak on people skills

Country Club strong on people skills, weak on tasks Impoverished weak on tasks, weak on people skills Team Leader strong on tasks, strong on people skills The goal is to be at least in the Middle of the Road but preferably a Team Leader that is, to score at least between a 5, 5 to 9, and 9.

1. Authoritarian Leader (high task, low relationship)

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People who get this rating are very much task oriented and are hard on their workers (autocratic). There is little or no allowance for cooperation or collaboration. Heavily task oriented people display these characteristics: they are very strong on schedules; they expect people to do what they are told without question or debate; when something goes wrong they tend to focus on who is to blame rather than concentrate on exactly what is wrong and how to prevent it; they are intolerant of what they see as dissent (it may just be someone's creativity), so it is difficult for their subordinates to contribute or develop.

2. Team Leader (high task, high relationship)


This type of person leads by positive example and endeavors to foster a team environment in which all team members can reach their highest potential, both as team members and as people. They encourage the team to reach team goals as effectively as possible, while also working tirelessly to strengthen the bonds among the various members. They normally form and lead some of the most productive teams.

3. Country Club Leader (low task, high relationship)


This person uses predominantly reward power to maintain discipline and to encourage the team to accomplish its goals. Conversely, they are almost incapable of employing the more punitive coercive and legitimate powers. This inability results from fear that using such powers could jeopardize relationships with the other team members.

4. Impoverished Leader (low task, low relationship)


A leader who uses a "delegate and disappear" management style. Since they are not committed to either task accomplishment or maintenance; they essentially allow their team to do whatever it wishes and prefer to detach themselves from the team process by allowing the team to suffer from a series of power struggles. The most desirable place for a leader to be along the two axes at most times would be a 9 on task and a 9 on people the Team Leader. However, do not entirely dismiss the other three. Certain situations might call for one of the other three to be used at times. For example, by playing the Impoverished Leader, you allow your team to gain self-reliance. Be an Authoritarian Leader to instill a sense of discipline in an unmotivated worker. By carefully
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studying the situation and the forces affecting it, you will know at what points along the axes you need to be in order to achieve the desired result.

Total Leadership
What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader, she does not think about your attributes, rather, she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. She uses this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers.

BE - KNOW - DO
The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well-being. Respected leaders concentrate on (U.S. Army, 1983): What they are be (such as beliefs and character) What they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature) What they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction). What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. BE a professional. Examples: Be loyal to the organization, perform selfless service, take personal responsibility. BE a professional who possess good character traits. Examples: Honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness, imagination.

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KNOW the four factors of leadership follower, leader, communication, situation. KNOW yourself. Examples: strengths and weakness of your character, knowledge, and skills. KNOW human nature. Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how people respond to stress. KNOW your job. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others in their tasks. KNOW your organization. Examples: where to go for help, its climate and culture, who the unofficial leaders are. DO provide direction. Examples: goal setting, problem solving, decision making, planning. DO implement. Examples: communicating, coordinating, supervising, evaluating. DO motivate. Examples: develop morale and esprit de corps in the organization, train, coach, counsel.

The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership


According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004). They found that: Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: 1) Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy. 2) Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. 3) Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing relative to strategic business objectives.

Principles of Leadership
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To help you be, know, and do, follow these eleven principles of leadership (U.S. Army, 1983). Note that later chapters in this guide expand on these and provide tools for implementing them: 1) Know yourself and seek self-improvement - In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking selfimprovement means continually strengthening your attributes. This can be accomplished through self-study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. 2) Be technically proficient - As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees' tasks. 3) Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions - Search for ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later do not blame others. Analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. 4) Make sound and timely decisions - Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. 5) Set the example - Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see - Mahatma Gandhi 6) Know your people and look out for their well-being - Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. 7) Keep your workers informed - Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other key people. 8) Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers - Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their professional responsibilities. 9) Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished Communication is the key to this responsibility. 10) Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teams...they are just a group of people doing their jobs. 11) Use the full capabilities of your organization - By developing a team spirit, you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.
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Attributes of Leadership
If you are a leader who can be trusted, then those around you will grow to respect you. To be such a leader, there is a Leadership Framework to guide you:

Environment
Every organization has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders.

Goals, Values, and Concepts


Leaders exert influence on the environment via three types of actions:
1. The goals and performance standards they establish. 2. The values they establish for the organization. 3. The business and people concepts they establish.

Successful organizations have leaders who set high standards and goals across the entire spectrum, such as strategies, market leadership, plans, meetings and presentations, productivity, quality, and reliability.

Values reflect the concern the organization has for its employees, customers, investors, vendors, and surrounding community. These values define the manner in how business will be conducted. Concepts define what products or services the organization will offer and the methods and processes for conducting business. These goals, values, and concepts make up the organization's "personality" or how the organization is observed by both outsiders and insiders. This personality defines the roles, relationships, rewards, and rites that take place.
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Roles and Relationships


Roles are the positions that are defined by a set of expectations about behavior of any job incumbent. Each role has a set of tasks and responsibilities that may or may not be spelled out. Roles have a powerful effect on behavior for several reasons, to include money being paid for the performance of the role, there is prestige attached to a role, and a sense of accomplishment or challenge. Relationships are determined by a role's tasks. While some tasks are performed alone, most are carried out in relationship with others. The tasks will determine who the role-holder is required to interact with, how often, and towards what end. Also, normally the greater the interaction, the greater the liking. This in turn leads to more frequent interaction. In human behavior, its hard to like someone whom we have no contact with, and we tend to seek out those we like. People tend to do what they are rewarded for, and friendship is a powerful reward. Many tasks and behaviors that are associated with a role are brought about by these relationships. That is, new task and behaviors are expected of the present role-holder because a strong relationship was developed in the past, either by that role-holder or a prior roleholder.

Culture and Climate


There are two distinct forces that dictate how to act within an organization: culture and climate. Each organization has its own distinctive culture. It is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history, and size (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). This result in rites: the routines, rituals, and the "way we do things." These rites impact individual behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and directs the appropriate behavior for each circumstance. The climate is the feel of the organization, the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members (Ivancevich, Konopaske, Matteson, 2007). While the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions, and customs; climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the current leadership. Climate represents the beliefs about the "feel of the organization" by its members. This individual perception of the "feel of the organization" comes from what

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the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization. These activities influence both individual and team motivation and satisfaction, such as: How well does the leader clarify the priorities and goals of the organization? What is expected of us? What is the system of recognition, rewards, and punishments in the organization? How competent are the leaders? Are leaders free to make decisions? What will happen if I make a mistake? Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, based on the values, attributes, skills, and actions, as well as the priorities of the leader. Compare this to "ethical climate" the "feel of the organization" about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. The behavior (character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate. On the other hand, culture is a long-term, complex phenomenon. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. The mature values that create "tradition" or the "way we do things here." Things are done differently in every organization. The collective vision and common folklore that define the institution are a reflection of culture. Individual leaders cannot easily create or change culture because culture is a part of the organization. Culture influences the characteristics of the climate by its effect on the actions and thought processes of the leader. But, everything you do as a leader will affect the climate of the organization.

The Process of Great Leadership


The road to great leadership (Kouzes and Posner, 1987) that is common to successful leaders: Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most.

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Inspire a shared vision - Next, share your vision in words that can be understood by your followers. Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do; a leader shows that it can be done. Encourage the hearts - Share the glory with your followers' hearts, while keeping the pains within your own. An effective Project Management Professional (PMP) is able to invoke various leadership styles. The key is to use each style at the right time. There are six distinct leadership styles that were identified by Daniel Goleman. He likens these styles to golf clubs in a seasoned professional's bag; you choose the correct club ('style') for each shot ('situation'). Here is a summary and an example of each style: 1. Coercive Style This style is used when a leader issues orders in such a manner that there is only one direction to go. It is also used when there is a lack of time, or subordinates have no idea how to craft a solution. By giving a direct order, there is less room for error. However, the drawback to this approach is that you may stifle creativity. Many may resent this style and avoid discussing controversial topics with you. An example of this would be when the project manager specifies every detail of the system design, without letting the systems analysts explore other ideas. 2. Authoritative Style This style is used when the project manager shares their vision with the team, but allows them to use their various talents to come up with a collaborative solution. By valuing each team member's contribution, the leader is motivating the team. It is important that the leader is respected for his/her knowledge so that others feel honoured to be part of the effort. A real life example of this would be Steve Jobs. Apple Computers hires very talented people who are eager to make his vision come to life. One would assume that they take a great sense of pride in their innovations.

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3. Affiliative Style This style is where a team leader seeks to encourage each member to think of themselves as 'one of the gang', so to speak. There is a lot of flexibility on how the work is actually done, as long as all objectives are met. Open communication and team harmony are some of the by-products of this style. However, one must be careful not to be so loose that team members feel they don't have any guidance and are struggling through on their own. An example of this style would be a team leader that actually cares about work life balance, such as the needs of one's family, along with an individual's career goals. 4. Democratic Style The democratic style is employed when everyone has a say. While this style may cause the planning and execution stages to be time consuming, morale is usually high. Also, if there is no true hierarchy, there can be constant disagreement where there is no true resolution in sight. An example of this would be a committee without a Chair. 5. Pace-setting Style The pace-setting style involves the setting of high performance standards. There is usually a weeding out process that identifies employees who may have weaknesses in a certain area. Some team members may feel constant pressure to compete and not feel they are providing any meaningful contribution to the creative process. An example of this would be a team leader that focuses on high productivity without a focus on quality. 6. Coaching Style The coaching style leader is willing to teach and allow people to work on their strengths and weaknesses. The coach challenges all to do better and is encouraging when any failure is present. It works well when the team is inexperienced and small in number. An example of this would be a manager of freshly minted graduates. In summary, an effective project manager must employ a variety of leadership styles, or as Daniel Goleman put it - 'the correct club for the shot', in order to be successful. There is no one size fits all.

Suggested qualities of leadership


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Studies of leadership have suggested qualities that people often associate with leadership. They include: Technical/specific skill at some task at hand
Charismatic inspiration - attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this

esteem to motivate others Preoccupation with a role - a dedication that consumes much of leaders' life service to a cause
A clear sense of purpose (or mission) - clear goals - focus - commitment

Results-orientation - directing every action towards a mission - prioritizing activities to spend time where results most accrue Cooperation - work well with others Optimism - very few pessimists become leaders Rejection of determinism - belief in one's ability to "make a difference" Ability to encourage and nurture those that report to them - delegate in such a way as people will grow Role models - leaders may adopt a persona that encapsulates their mission and lead by example Self-knowledge (in non-bureaucratic structures)
Self-awareness - the ability to "lead" (as it were) one's own self prior to leading

other selves similarly Awareness of environment - the ability to understand the environment they lead in and how they affect and are affected by it With regards to people and to projects, the ability to choose winners recognizing that, unlike with skills, one cannot (in general) teach attitude. Note that "picking winners" ("choosing winners") carries implications of gamblers' luck as well as of the capacity to take risks, but "true" leaders, like gamblers but
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unlike "false" leaders, base their decisions on realistic insight (and usually on many other factors partially derived from "real" wisdom). Empathy - Understanding what others say, rather than listening to how they say things - this could partly sum this quality up as "walking in someone else's shoes" (to use a common clich).
Integrity - the integration of outward actions and inner values.

Sense of Humour - people work better when they're happy. In 2008 Burman and Evans published a 'charter' for leaders: 1. Leading by example in accordance with the companys core values. 2. Building the trust and confidence of the people with which they work. 3. Continually seeking improvement in their methods and effectiveness. 4. Keeping people informed. 5. Being accountable for their actions and holding others accountable for theirs. 6. Involving people, seeking their views, listening actively to what they have to say and representing these views honestly. 7. Being clear on what is expected, and providing feedback on progress. 8. Showing tolerance of peoples differences and dealing with their issues fairly. 9. Acknowledging and recognizing people for their contributions and performance. 10. Weighing alternatives, considering both short and long-term effects and then being resolute in the decisions they make. The approach of listing leadership qualities, often termed "trait theory of leadership", assumes certain traits or characteristics will tend to lead to effective leadership. Although trait theory has an intuitive appeal, difficulties may arise in proving its tenets, and opponents frequently challenge this approach. The "strongest" versions of trait theory see these "leadership characteristics" as innate, and accordingly labels some people as "born leaders" due to their psychological makeup. On this reading of the theory, leadership development involves identifying and measuring leadership qualities, screening potential leaders from nonleaders, then training those with potential.

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David McClelland saw leadership skills, not so much as a set of traits, but as a pattern of motives. He claimed that successful leaders will tend to have a high need for power, a low need for affiliation, and a high level of what he called activity inhibition (one might call it self-control). Situational leadership theory offers an alternative approach. It proceeds from the assumption that different situations call for different characteristics. According to this group of theories, no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. The situational leadership model of Hersey and Blanchard, for example, suggest four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. For effectiveness, the model posits that the leadershipstyle must match the appropriate level of followership-development. In this model, leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of followers as well. Other situational leadership models introduce a variety of situational variables. These determinants include: The nature of the task (structured or routine) Organizational policies, climate, and culture The preferences of the leader's superiors The expectations of peers The reciprocal responses of followers

The contingency model of Vroom and Yetton uses other situational variables, including: The nature of the problem The requirements for accuracy The acceptance of an initiative Time-constraints Cost constraints

However one determines leadership behavior, one can categorize it into various leadership styles. Many ways of doing this exist. For example, the Managerial Grid Model, a
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behavioral leadership-model, suggests five different leadership styles, based on leaders' strength of concern for people and their concern for goal achievement. Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lipitt, and R. K. White identified three leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire, based on the amount of influence and power exercised by the leader. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leaders effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorableness (later called "situational control"). Limitations of Transformational Leadership There is a great deal of perfectly effective leadership that is not transformational. It is possible to lead by citing hard facts in a quiet, soft or even assertive manner. Also, too much emphasis is placed on style over substance. Today, substance has become extremely important, including integrity or character and content (as in "content is king"). There is a growing demand for "evidence based" decision making where, to show leadership, you need to cite hard evidence. Whether you can present your business case in an inspiring manner is not as important as having solid facts to back you up. You can have great sales skills to get people on board but if you do so for unethical purposes, this style of leadership can be dangerous. Cult leaders, for example, are often transformational. Secondly, without good content, leaders have nothing worth saying so it doesn't matter how powerfully they say it. Participative leadership means involving employees in making decisions. To be a participative leader, it isn't necessary to be an inspirational speaker. Transformational leaders make their mark primarily by promoting a vision in an inspiring manner. We admire such leaders, but they aren't necessarily skilled at employee engagement. They are like skilled sales people or promoters so they want to sell you their vision. In today's knowledge intensive world, the participative leadership style is likely to be more engaging and motivating for knowledge workers. Another issue is the fact that transformational leadership has, for some people, become the very meaning of leadership while its transactional counterpart is identified with management. This is unfortunate. The beauty of a purely functional way of defining
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leadership and management (leadership promotes new directions; management executes them) is that you can leave the style question completely open. Now we can say that inspirational leaders move followers to change direction while inspirational managers motivate employees to work harder. That is, style pertains to how you influence people; it is not a way of defining leadership. Suppose you lead by example by just quietly being the first to try something new. There is no inspiring speech or vision offered here. Benefits of Transformational Leadership There is no doubt that being able to inspire people, stimulate them to think differently and pay attention to their needs are great ways for a leader to behave. If you have good content and integrity and can present a case for change with enough enthusiasm to inspire people, you are more likely to win them over than if your communication style is sleepinducing. Being inspirational is most useful in situations where there is no evidence or the facts are unclear. This is especially true with clashes of values or standards of behavior. Martin Luther King appealed to a basic sense of fair play to move the U.S. Supreme Court to outlaw segregation on buses. The facts alone wouldn't have done it. The truth is, however, that different influencing styles work better with different audiences. Also, we live in a much more knowledge-driven world today where knowing what you are talking about has become just as important as how you say it. Women and Leadership In most societies, status of women has always been inferior as compare to male. The work environment around the world has changed dramatically in last two decades due to globalisation. In Recent years more women have started working in private and government owned organization and some of them have become managers. Due to the complex nature of management environment, female managers consider to serve as a better manager due to their friendly nature, especially in America and Europe, where women see themselves independent and capable of making decisions effectively. Bass (1990) found specific gender differences in leadership style. According to the author, women are less likely to practise management-by-exception, intervening only when something goes wrong. Envick (1998) conducted study about the difference in managerial
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behaviour between men and women business leaders. He found out that, controlling behaviour, which was considered as a typical mail trait was actually more prevalent among women business leaders. He further mentions that, women entrepreneurial managers are motivated by the desire to be in control . In his studies, he found out that women business leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to engage in internal communication and human resource management. Alimo and Alban (2003) carried out research about women role in organizations and stated that, women are related directly to the notion of transformational leadership, whereas men are related to transactional leadership. Rosener (1990) mentions in his article about women nature of o leadership. He argues that Male leaders operate from a power base using position and coercion while, women typically avoid power bases and instead choose a more personal and indirect interaction. philips (1995) in his research about the working behaviour of women mentions that, Women business leaders are likelier than their male counterparts to describe their business as a family. They are also more likely than men to praise group members. when an employee falls short of expectations, women are more likely than men to buffer criticism by finding something praiseworthy. Wu and Minor (1993) research women behaviour at work in Japan, Taiwan and America. According to them, American female managers are more dependent, less aggressive and Social while Japanese female managers are more dependent, less aggressive and more work related while Taiwanese female managers are more conservative, with greater orientation toward traditional, family and gender role. Taiwanese female managers perceive and average level on role problem and personal traits and tend to be risk-takers with rapid decision making pattern.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research cause recognize that students preparing to manage business not for profit and public organizations in all functional areas Needs training in a discipline process for conducting an enquiry of a management. The factors that stimulate an interest in a specific approach in decision making 1. The managers increase need for more and better information 2. The availability of improved techniques and tools to meet this need 3. The resulting information overload discipline is not employed in the process DEFINITION According to P. Cook Research is an honest, exhaustive, intelligent researching for facts and their meanings or implications with reference to a given problem. It is a process of arriving a dependable solution to problems through the plan and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. According to C. C. Craford Research is simply a systematic and redefined of thinking employing specialized tools, instruments and produce to obtain a more adequate solution of a problem. According to J. W .Best Research is considered to be more formal, systematic intensive process of carrying on the scientific method of analysis.

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Exploratory Design: An exploratory study is taken up to explore the field of study. It is intended to increase researches formalities with this specific field to study. This is done to identify the area for further research, to obtain the required experience that will help to formulating relevant hypothesis for different investigation in the field. Descriptive Design: Descriptive research design helps the researcher to describe accurately the characteristics of phenomena (data), an individual or an institution or a community. Its function is to describe only the characteristics such as age, sex compositions, cost wise distribution and education status etc. The main objective of descriptive design is to promote the acquisition of knowledge and perhaps to expand the existing knowledge and perhaps in comparative new fields Diagnostic (Identification) design: It means diagnosing a social problem and finding a solution for it. The diagnosing problem would mean to study the problem by making a careful investigation of the facts. Sample: Generally the required data the study may be collected from primary data or secondary data. When secondary data are not available for the problem under study, a decision may be taken

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to collect primary data by using any popular method of primary data collection. The required information may be obtained by following either senses method or simple method Classification of sampling method: Probability sampling method Non-probability sampling method

Probability sampling method Simple random sampling Stratified random sampling

Probability sampling: In probability sampling each unit of universe has a known change of being selected. In probability sampling design the population must be clearly defined and the list of target population must be available. The following are the frequently used random sampling methods Simple random method: It refers that sampling technique is which each and every unit of population has an equal opportunity of being selected from simple random sampling items. Getting selected in the sample is just a matter of chance Strata random sampling: This procedure of sampling refers to the drawing of samples of known sizes from different strata into which the population is divided before drawing the samples. The samples are drawn in random. Here n denotes the population sample size Non-Probability sampling: Judgment sampling: This is also known as purposive sampling. In this method samples are taken based on the judgment of the researchers. He selects the cause which will be more appropriate for the study.
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Convenience sampling or pilot sampling The sampling method by which research is made based on his convenience is called as convenience sampling. Under this method the sample units are selected.

DATA SOURCE
Data which is a plural form of datam usually treated as singular it is defined as An individual fact or a piece of information, or a statistics, or a group or body of facts, either it is historically or derived by calculation, or experimentation Primary data Primary data is the data originally collected by the researcher. By actual observation, measurement, government and recording during the course of investigation. Secondary data Secondary data are the data collected by the researcher from other sources, collected by others for a different purpose. Methods of collecting Primary data: The following are the methods to collect primary data (a) Questionnaire or Survey method The survey technique is intended to secure one or more of information from a sample of respondents of informants representative of e1ees. The information is recorded on a form know as questionnaires pr a schedule or a blank from of inquiry. As data is gathered by asking questions to persons who are thought to have desired information it is also called questionnaire technique.

Type of survey We can gather information any one of these three alternatives 1. Mail Survey by Questionnaire The printed from is sent to be respondent by postal. 2. Telephone Survey Through telephone the researcher will gather information from respondents.
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3. Personal interview field survey It involves face to face communication. The researchers ask questions directly and get answers from the respondent. (b) Observation method In the observation method we use the services of an observer or interpreter of things seen or who examine carefully what happens order certain conditions. Vents are recorded as they happen either persons or even by same mechanical device. (c) Experimental research Experimental research methods is a method of putting rest on job satisfaction how they are vacating in organizational environment.

(d) Panel research When research analyst interviews the same sample group of respondents two are more times or secure data from them on two or more occasions it is called panel research. CONCLUSION: We know that primary data is the information which is collected at the first time. In this project we used that survey method to collect the information.

USES OF SURVEY METHOD


1. We can have factual survey to gather with factors 2. We can have opinion survey to secure personal or thinking on a Particulars matter 3. Interpretative survey can be conducted to probe into personal feelings motives attitudes etc., of the respondents who is not only a reporter but also un-interpreter.

USES OF ADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY DATA


1) The present opinion of the respondents can be find 2) The accurate data can be collected 3) The needs of e1ees will know time to time

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DISADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY DATA


It is compiled by some one other than the researcher for purpose not directly related to the researcher currently under consideration. It is already exists. It must be relevant to the research under study. In simple word secondary data is the data which is collected from the published records.

METHODS OF COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA


1. General library research sources. 2. Government publications and reports. 3. News Papers 4. Magazines 5. Trade journals 6. Trade associations and other technical and professional groups. 7. Specialized research and foundation organization. 8. Specialized libraries. 9. Internal sources such as, Employees report Employees complaints Company records.

ADVANTAGES:
1) Time consuming 2) Cost reduction

DISADVANTAGES:
1) Errors will be sometimes b) Not innovative

SAMPLE:
A part of a population which is provided by some process or other, usually by deliberate selection with the object of investing the properties of the employees.

Sample design:
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The precision and according to the survey results are affected by the manner to the survey results are effected by the manner to which the sample has been chosen.

Sample Unit:
Sample unit is the basis unit containing all the elements of target population. Ex: - Top level executives that company.

Sample Size:
Sample size is the no. of samples chosen employees from the company are 100 employees.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS
It refers to a special kind of ratio. This is used for making comparison between 2 or more series of data, it is denoted by %. Percentage (%) = (Number of respondents / total respondents)*100 Percentages are measures of central tendency. Percentages are often used in the data presentation; the data are reduced in the standard form with base equal to 100, which facilitate relative comparison. PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS = (Number of respondents / Total respondents)*100

CHI-SQUARE TEST
This was used to find out the significance of relation between the factors that are compared. The quantity 2 describes the magnitude of discrepancy between theory and observation and we are in a position to know whether a given discrepancy between theory and observation may be attributed to chance or whether it results from inadequacy of the theory to fit the observed facts. If 2 is zero it means observed and expected frequencies coincide completely.

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Chisquare test ( ) =
2

(Oi Ei ) 2 E i

Degrees of freedom Where as,

= O E n

(n-1) = = = observed frequency expected frequency number of rows

The calculated value of 2 is compared with the value of 2 for given degrees of freedom at a certain specific level of significance (generally 5% level). If calculated value is greater than the table value the difference is considered to be significant and null hypothesis is rejected. If calculated value is less than the table value the difference is not considered as significant and null hypothesis is accepted.

TABLE - 1 Opinion about leadership present in the organization


OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total RESPONDENTS 8 32 46 14 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 8 32 46 14 100

CHART - 1

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INFERENCE 8% of the respondents opinion about leadership present in the organization is highly satisfied, 32% of respondents opinion is satisfied, 46% of respondents opinion is dissatisfied, 14% of respondents opinion is highly dissatisfied.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 1
To test the hypothesis that the present Leadership is satisfied in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.
Respondents No. of workers Highly satisfied 8 Satisfied 32 Dissatisfied 46 Highly dissatisfied 14

Null Hypothesis: Ho Present Leadership is not satisfied in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.

Observed
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Frequency(Oi) 8 32 46 14

Frequency(Ei) 25 25 25 25

-17 7 21 -11

289 49 441 121 Total

11.56 1.96 17.64 4.84 36

Ei = 100/4 = 25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 = 3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 36 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: The calculated value is greater than table value. Hence, the H0 is rejected. From the above test we conclude that the present leadership is satisfied in Nutrine confectionary company limited. Table value= 7.815 36 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 2 Do you satisfy in listening to others opinion

OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total

RESPONDENTS 22 40 30 8 100

PERCENTAGE (%) 22 40 30 8 100

CHART 2

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INFERENCE 22% of respondents are highly satisfied in listening to others opinion, 40% of respondents are satisfied, 30% of respondents are dissatisfied, 8% of respondents are highly dissatisfied.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 2
To test the hypothesis that there is satisfaction in listening to others opinion in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.
Respondents No. of workers Highly satisfied 22 Satisfied 40 Dissatisfied 30 Highly dissatisfied 8

Null Hypothesis: Ho
There is no satisfaction in listening to others opinion in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.

Observed Frequency(Oi) 22 40 30 8
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(Oi-Ei) -3 15 5 -17
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2 9 225 25 289


and

(Oi-Ei)2/Ei 0.36 9 1 11.56


Management

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Total

21.92

Ei = 100/4 = 25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 = 3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 21.92 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: The calculated value is greater than table value, H0 is rejected. From the above test we conclude there is satisfaction in listening to others opinion in Nutrine confectionary company limited. Table value= 7.815 21.92 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 3 Do you satisfy in communicating your ideas


OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total RESPONDENTS 10 50 26 14 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 10 50 26 14 100

CHART 3

SALN 52

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it state that 10% of respondents are highly satisfied in communicating their ideas, 50% of respondents are satisfied, 26% of respondents are dissatisfied, 14% of respondents are highly dissatisfied.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 3
To test the hypothesis that there is satisfaction in communicating their ideas in Nutrine confectionery company ltd.
Respondents No. of workers Highly satisfied 10 Satisfied 50 Dissatisfied 26 Highly dissatisfied 14

Null Hypothesis: Ho
There is no satisfaction in communicating their ideas in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.

Observed Frequency(Oi)
SALN 53

Expected Frequency(Ei)
of

(Oi-Ei)
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2
and

(Oi-Ei)2/Ei
Management

College

A Study on Leadership Styles

10 50 26 14

25 25 25 25

-15 25 1 -11

225 625 1 121 Total

9 25 0.04 4.84 38.88

Ei = 100/4 = 25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 = 3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 38.88 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: The calculated value is greater than table value, H 0 is rejected. From the above test we conclude there is satisfaction in communicating their ideas in Nutrine confectionary company limited. Table value= 7.815 38.88 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 4 Do you satisfy in using I statement at work places


OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total RESPONDENTS 20 32 32 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 20 32 32 16 100

CHART 4

SALN 54

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it state that 20% of respondents are highly satisfied in using Istatements at work places,32% of respondents are satisfied, 32% of respondents are dissatisfied, 16% of respondents are highly dissatisfied.

TABLE 5 Do you satisfy in motivating the employees to know their present and future role for their enhancement?
OPINIONS highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total RESPONDENT 16 34 34 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 16 34 34 16 100

CHART 5

SALN 55

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 16% of respondents are highly satisfied in motivating their employees, 34% of respondents are satisfied, 34% of respondents are dissatisfied, 16% of respondents are highly dissatisfied.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 4
To test the hypothesis that there is satisfaction in motivating the employees in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.
Respondents No. of workers Highly satisfied 16 Satisfied 34 Dissatisfied 34 Highly dissatisfied 16

Null Hypothesis, Ho:


There is no satisfaction in motivating the employees in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.

Observed Frequency(Oi) 16 34 34
SALN 56

Expected Frequency(Ei) 25 25 25
of

(Oi-Ei) -9 9 9
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2 81 81 81
and

(Oi-Ei)2/ Ei 3.2 3.24 3.24


Management

College

A Study on Leadership Styles

16

25

-9

81 Total

3.24 12.96

Ei = 100/4 = 25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 = 3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 12.96 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: The calculated value is greater than table value, H0 is rejected. From the above test we conclude there is satisfaction in motivating the employees in Nutrine confectionary company limited. Table value= 7.815 12.96 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 6 The friendliness movement of a leader with employees in this organization


OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied highly Dissatisfied Total RESPONDENT 32 36 16 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 32 36 16 16 100

CHART 6

SALN 57

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it states that 32% of respondents are highly satisfied in the friendliness movement of the leader with employees, 36% of respondents are satisfied, 16% of respondents are dissatisfied, 16% of respondents highly dissatisfied.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 5
To test the hypothesis that there is satisfaction in friendly nature of leader in Nutrine confectionery company ltd.
Respondents No. of workers Highly satisfied 32 Satisfied 36 Dissatisfied 16 Highly dissatisfied 16

Null Hypothesis: Ho
There is no satisfaction in friendly nature of leader in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.

Observed Frequency(Oi)
SALN 58

Expected Frequency(Ei)
of

(Oi-Ei)
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2
and

(Oi-Ei)2/Ei
Management

College

A Study on Leadership Styles

32 36 16 16

25 25 25 25

7 11 -9 -9

49 121 81 81 Total

1.96 4.84 3.24 3.24 31.2

Ei = 100/4 = 25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 = 3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 31.2 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: The calculated value is greater than table value, H0 is rejected. From the above test we conclude there is satisfaction in friendly nature of leader in Nutrine confectionary company limited. Table value= 7.815 31.2 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 7 The degree of loyalty shown by the subordinates to the leader


OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total RESPONDENT 8 44 32 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 8 44 32 16 100

CHART 7

SALN 59

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it states that the degree loyalty shown by the subordinates to the leader is 8% highly satisfied, 44% satisfied, 32% is dissatisfied, and 16% of respondents says it is highly dissatisfied.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 6
To test the hypothesis that there is satisfaction in showing the degree of loyalty to the leader in Nutrine confectionery company ltd. Respondents No. of workers Highly satisfied 8 Satisfied 44 Dissatisfied 32 Highly dissatisfied 16

Null Hypothesis, Ho:


There is no satisfaction in showing the degree of loyalty to the leader in Nutrine confectionary company ltd.

Observed Frequency(Oi)
SALN 60

Expected Frequency(Ei)
of

(Oi-Ei)
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2
and

(Oi-Ei)2/Ei
Management

College

A Study on Leadership Styles

8 44 32 16

25 25 25 25

-17 19 7 -9

289 361 49 81 Total

11.56 14.44 1.96 3.24 31.2

Ei = 100/4 =25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 =3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 31.2 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: From the above test we conclude there is satisfaction in showing the degree of loyalty to the leader in Nutrine confectionery company limited. Table value= 7.815 31.2 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 8 The subordinates behaviour towards the leaders decisions


OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total RESPONDENTS 18 46 18 18 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 18 46 18 18 100

CHART 8

SALN 61

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it states that subordinates behavior towards the leaders decisions are 18% highly satisfied, 46% satisfied, 18% dissatisfied, 18% highly dissatisfied.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 7
To test the hypothesis that there is satisfaction in subordinates behavior towards the leader decision in Nutrine confectionery company ltd. Respondents No. of workers Highly satisfied 18 Satisfied 46 Dissatisfied 18 Highly dissatisfied 18

Null Hypothesis, Ho:


There is no satisfaction in subordinates behavior towards the leader decision in Nutrine confectionery company limited.

Observed
SALN 62 College

Expected
of

(Oi-Ei)
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2
and

(Oi-Ei)2 / Ei
Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

Frequency(Oi) 18 46 18 18

Frequency(Ei) 25 25 25 25

-7 21 -7 -7

49 441 49 49 Total

1.96 17.64 1.96 1.96 23.52

Ei = 100/4 =25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 =3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 23.52 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: From the above test we conclude there is satisfaction in subordinates behaviour towards the leader decision in Nutrine confectionery company limited. Table value= 7.815 23.52 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 9 Do you encourage your team to participate when it comes decision making time and do you try to implement their ideas and suggestions?
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 18 34 32 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 18 34 32 16 100

CHART 9

SALN 63

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it is clear that 18% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most the times, 32% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally encourage their team to participate in decision making and implement their ideas.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 8
To test the hypothesis that there is encouragement to the team during participation in decision making in Nutrine confectionery company ltd. Respondents No. of workers Some times 18 Most of the times 34 Always 32 Neutral 16

Null Hypothesis, Ho:


There is no encouragement to the team during participation in decision making in Nutrine confectionery company ltd.

Observed Frequency(Oi) 18
SALN 64

Expected Frequency(Ei) 25
of

(Oi-Ei) -7
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2 49
and

(Oi-Ei)2/Ei 1.96
Management

College

A Study on Leadership Styles

34 32 16

25 25 25

9 7 -9

81 49 81 Total

3.24 1.96 3.24 10.4

Ei = 100/4 =25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 =3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 10.4 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: From the above test we conclude there is encouragement to the team during participation in decision making in Nutrine confectionery company limited. Table value= 7.815 10.4 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 10 Do you give more importance for accomplishing a goal or task


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 20 46 18 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 20 46 18 16 100

CHART 10

SALN 65

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it is clear that 20% of respondents some times, 46% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally give importance for accomplishing a goal or task.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 9
To test the hypothesis that there is importance for accomplishing a goal or task in Ntrine confectionery company ltd. Respondents No. of workers Some times 20 Most of the times 46 Always 18 Neutral 16

Null Hypothesis, Ho:


There is no importance for accomplishing a goal or task in Nutrine confectionery company ltd.

Observed Frequency(Oi)
SALN 66 College

Expected Frequency(Ei)
of

(Oi-Ei)
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2
and

(Oi-Ei)2/Ei
Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

20 46 18 16

25 25 25 25

-5 21 -7 -9

25 441 49 81 Total

1 17.64 1.96 3.24 23.84

Ei = 100/4 =25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 =3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 23.84 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION:
From the above test we conclude there is importance for accomplishing a goal or task in Nutrine confectionery company limited.

Table value= 7.815

23.84 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 11 Do you enjoy in giving coaching to people on new tasks and procedures
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 32 44 8 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 32 44 8 16 100

CHART 11

SALN 67

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it is clear that 32% of respondents some times, 44% of respondents most of the times, 8% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally enjoy in giving coaching to people on new task and procedures.

CHI-SQUARE TEST: 10

To test the hypothesis that there is satisfaction in giving coaching to the people in Nutrine confectionery company limited. Respondents No. of workers Some times 32 Most of the times 44 Always 8 Neutral 16

Null Hypothesis, Ho:


There is no satisfaction in giving coaching to the people in Nutrine confectionery company ltd.

Observed
SALN 68 College

Expected
of

(Oi-Ei)
Engineering

(Oi-Ei)2
and

(Oi-Ei)2/Ei
Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

Frequency(Oi) 32 44 8 16

Frequency(Ei) 25 25 25 25

7 19 -17 -9

49 361 289 81 Total

1.96 14.44 11.56 3.24 31.2

Ei = 100/4 =25 Degrees of freedom = (n-1) = 4-1 =3 The table value of 2 at 5% level of significance at 3 degree of freedom is 7.815. Calculated value = 31.2 Hence, Ho is rejected. CONCLUSION: From the above test we conclude there is satisfaction in giving coaching to the people in Nutrine confectionery company limited. Table value= 7.815 31.2 > 7.815 i.e., calculated value is greater than table value

TABLE 12 Do you enjoy the more challenging task?


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 18 32 16 34 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 18 32 16 34 100

CHART 12

SALN 69

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it shows that 18% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 16% of respondents always, 34% of respondents neutrally enjoy the more challenging task.

TABLE 13 Do you satisfy in leaders encouragement to employees to be creative about their job
OPINIONS Highly satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Highly dissatisfied Total RESPONDENTS 6 32 44 18 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 6 32 44 18 100

CHART 13

SALN 70

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it states that 6% of respondents are highly satisfied, 32% of respondents are satisfied, 44% of respondents are dissatisfied, 18% of respondents are highly dissatisfied in leaders encouragement to employees to creative about their job.

TABLE 14 Do you find it easy to carry out several complicated tasks at the same time
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 16 34 18 32 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 16 34 18 32 100

CHART 14

SALN 71

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the table it is clear that 16% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 32% of respondents neutrally carry out several complicated tasks at the same time.

TABLE 15 Do you manage your time very efficiently


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 18 46 16 20 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 18 46 16 20 100

CHART 15

SALN 72

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table 18% of respondents some times, 46% of respondents most of the times, 16% of respondents always and 20% of respondents neutrally manage time very efficiently.

TABLE 16 Do you enjoy analyzing problems


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 10 34 28 28 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 10 34 28 28 100

CHART 16

SALN 73

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 10% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most of the times, 28% of respondents always, 28% of respondents neutrally enjoy analyzing problems.

TABLE 17 Do you honour other peoples boundaries


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 20 16 18 46 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 20 16 18 46 100

CHART 17

SALN 74

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 20% of respondents some times, 16% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 46% of respondents neutrally honor other peoples boundaries.

TABLE 18 Have you given a chance to your subordinates to correct their mistakes
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 16 34 14 36 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 16 34 14 36 100

CHART 18

SALN 75

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 16% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most of the times, 14% of respondents always, 36% of respondents neutrally give chance to their subordinates to correct their mistakes.

TABLE 19 Do you feel that relationships are based on respect and trust
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 18 24 32 26 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 18 24 32 26 100

CHART 19

SALN 76

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 18% of respondents some times, 24% of respondents most of the times, 32% of respondents always, 26% of respondents neutrally feel the relationships are based on respect and trust.

TABLE 20 Whether the employees are satisfied about the leadership style
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always neutral Total RESPONDENTS 8 32 44 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 8 32 44 16 100

CHART 20

SALN 77

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 8% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 44% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally says that the employees are satisfied about the leadership styles

TABLE 21 Do you like to take risk to learn something?


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 16 32 8 44 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 16 32 8 44 100

CHART 21

SALN 78

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 16% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 8% of respondents always, 44% of respondents neutrally like to like to take risk to learn something.

TABLE 22 Do you like to take formal courses, challenging job experiences?


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 8 32 28 32 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 8 32 28 32 100

CHART 22

SALN 79

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 8% of respondents sometimes, 32% of respondents most of the times, 28% of respondents always, 32% of respondents neutrally like to take formal courses, challenging job experiences.

TABLE 23 Would you give preference for using committees and specially covered groups to solve problem rather than being a sole decision maker
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 34 32 18 16 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 34 32 18 16 100

CHART 23

SALN 80

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 34% of respondents sometimes, 32% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally give preference for using committees to solve problem.

TABLE 24 Do you closely monitor the schedule to ensure that a task or project will be completed in time
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 16 32 34 18 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 16 32 34 18 100

CHART 24

SALN 81

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 16% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 34% of respondents always, 18% of respondents neutrally says leader closely monitor the schedule to ensure that a task is completed in time.

TABLE 25 Do you enjoy reading articles, books, and journals about training leadership and psychology and do you put it in to action
OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 32 24 18 26 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 32 24 18 26 100

CHART 25

SALN 82

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 32% of respondents some times, 24% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 26% of respondents neutrally enjoys reading articles, books and journals about training, leadership and psychology and putting it in to action.

TABLE 26 Counselling the employees to improve their performance or behavior


OPINIONS Some times Most of the times Always Neutral Total RESPONDENTS 32 18 12 44 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 32 18 6 44 100

CHART 26

SALN 83

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

INFERENCE From the above table it is clear that 32% of respondents some times, 18% of respondents most of the times, 6% of respondents always, 44% of respondents neutrally says counseling the employees to improve their performance is second nature to them.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


1. This study is confined only to NCCL, located in Chittoor. 2. The management wants to provide an opportunity to collect the answers for questionnaire from employees. 3. Most of the employees may not ready to express their opinion due to restrictions from management. 4. The period of the study is restricted to 2 month. So it is not possible to analyze the study deeply. 5. Some of the matters highly confidential. So, I am unable to collect that matters. 6. Due to their busy schedule, they are unable to give proper responses.

SALN 84

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

FINDINGS
1. 8% of the respondents opinion about leadership present in the organization is highly satisfied, 32% of respondents opinion is satisfied, 46% of respondents opinion is dissatisfied, 14% of respondents opinion is highly dissatisfied. 2. 22% of respondents are highly satisfied in listening to others opinion, 40% of respondents are satisfied, 30% of respondents are dissatisfied, 8% of respondents are highly dissatisfied. 3. 10% of respondents are highly satisfied in communicating their ideas, 50% of respondents are satisfied, 26% of respondents are dissatisfied, 14% of respondents are highly dissatisfied. 4. 20% of respondents are highly satisfied in using Istatements at work places,32% of respondents are satisfied, 32% of respondents are dissatisfied, 16% of respondents are highly dissatisfied.
SALN 85 College of Engineering and Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

5. 16% of respondents are highly satisfied in motivating their employees, 34% of respondents are satisfied, 34% of respondents are dissatisfied, and 16% of respondents are highly dissatisfied. 6. 32% of respondents are highly satisfied in the friendliness movement of the leader with employees, 36% of respondents are satisfied, 16% of respondents are dissatisfied, 16% of respondents highly dissatisfied. 7. The degree loyalty shown by the subordinates to the leader is 8% highly satisfied, 44% satisfied, 32% is dissatisfied, and 16% of respondents say it is highly dissatisfied. 8. Subordinates behavior towards the leaders decisions are 18% highly satisfied, 46% satisfied, 18% dissatisfied, and 18% highly dissatisfied. 9. 18% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most the times, 32% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally encourage their team to participate in decision making and implement their ideas. 10. 20% of respondents some times, 46% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally give importance for accomplishing a goal or task. 11. 32% of respondents some times, 44% of respondents most of the times, 8% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally enjoy in giving coaching to people on new task and procedures. 12. 18% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 16% of respondents always, 34% of respondents neutrally enjoy the more challenging task. 13. 6% of respondents are highly satisfied, 32% of respondents are satisfied, 44% of respondents are dissatisfied, 18% of respondents are highly dissatisfied in leaders encouragement to employees to creative about their job. 14. 16% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 32% of respondents neutrally carry out several complicated tasks at the same time. 15. 18% of respondents some times, 46% of respondents most of the times, 16% of respondents always and 20% of respondents neutrally manage time very efficiently. 16. 10% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most of the times, 28% of respondents always, 28% of respondents neutrally enjoy analyzing problems. 17. 20% of respondents some times, 16% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 46% of respondents neutrally honor other peoples boundaries.
SALN 86 College of Engineering and Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

18. 16% of respondents some times, 34% of respondents most of the times, 14% of respondents always, 36% of respondents neutrally give chance to their subordinates to correct their mistakes. 19. 18% of respondents some times, 24% of respondents most of the times, 32% of respondents always, 26% of respondents neutrally feel the relationships are based on respect and trust. 20. 8% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 44% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally says that the employees are satisfied about the leadership styles 21. 16% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 8% of respondents always, 44% of respondents neutrally like to like to take risk to learn something. 22. 8% of respondents sometimes, 32% of respondents most of the times, 28% of respondents always, 32% of respondents neutrally like to take formal courses, challenging job experiences. 23. 34% of respondents sometimes, 32% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 16% of respondents neutrally give preference for using committees to solve problem. 24. 16% of respondents some times, 32% of respondents most of the times, 34% of respondents always, 18% of respondents neutrally says leader closely monitor the schedule to ensure that a task is completed in time. 25. 32% of respondents some times, 24% of respondents most of the times, 18% of respondents always, 26% of respondents neutrally enjoys reading articles, books and journals about training, leadership and psychology and putting it in to action 26. 32% of respondents some times, 18% of respondents most of the times, 6% of respondents always, 44% of respondents neutrally says counselling the employees to improve their performance is second nature to them.

SALN 87

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

SUGGESTIONS
. The coaching for new tasks in NCCl should be modified and it should be made user friendly. In NCCl, the concept of Leadership should be known to all and it also maintained effectively. I statements at work place in NCCl should be maintained properly. The encouragement of leaders towards the employes in NCCl should be made slight change so as that it should be creative in their jobs. Subordinates in NCCl should correct their mistakes, rather than sayings from the employees. The employees of NCCl should take some risk in learning new things and they should gain resistivity towards the change. Books, articles are to be provided during the training leadership and psychology.
SALN 88 College of Engineering and Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

Regular counselling to the employees of NCCl should be taken. The company as to reduce gap between seniors and subordinates should conduct a formal function. The company should organize enough awareness programmes in the premises of the organization about carrier developmental activities.

CONCLUSION
The organization is helping the employees to increase their skills by conducting the Leadership activities regularly and by assessing employee needs effectively. The organization has a strong linkage with the Leadership activities and these programs are helpful motivation and the organizational development. From study made in assessing the effectiveness of leadership styles, the organization has certainly tried its level best to impart leadership styles which makes the employees acquire skills and knowledge about their job and importance which results in their job satisfaction.

SALN 89

College

of

Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

Hence Leadership styles play a vital role in increasing knowledge and create a skillful employee for the organization.

QUESTIONNAIRE
Name of the employee Number .. Gender a) female Age a) less than 30 Experience
SALN 90 College of Engineering and

( b)male ( b) 31-40 c) 41-50 d) 50 and above (

)
Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

a) <10 years Designation a) work man

b) 11-20 years

c) 21-30 years d) 31& above ( )

b) supervisor

c) executive ( )

1. Your opinion about leadership present in the organization a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied d) highly dissatisfied

2. Do you satisfy in listening to others opinion a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied

( d) highly dissatisfied (

3. Do you satisfy in communicating your ideas a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied d) highly dissatisfied

4. Do you satisfy in using I statement at work places a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied

( d) highly dissatisfied

5. Do you satisfy in motivating the employees to know their present and future role for their enhancement a) highly satisfied organization is a) highly satisfied . 7. The degree of loyalty shown by the subordinates to the leader is a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied ( ) d) highly dissatisfied ( ) b) satisfied c) dissatisfied d) highly dissatisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied d) highly dissatisfied ( ) 6. The friendliness movement of a leader with employees in this ( )

8. The subordinates behavior towards the leaders decisions are a) highly satisfied b) satisfied c) dissatisfied

d) highly dissatisfied

9. Do you encourage your team to participate when it comes decision making time and do you try to implement their ideas and suggestions a) some times
SALN 91

b) most of the times


College of Engineering and Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

c) always

d) neutral ( )

10. Do you give more importance for accomplishing a goal or task a) some times c) always b) most of the times d) neutral

11. Do you enjoy in giving coaching to people on new tasks and procedures ( a) some times c) always b) most of the times d) neutral (

12. Do you enjoy the more challenging task a) some times c) always b) most of the times d) neutral

13. Do you satisfy in leaders encouragement to employees to be creative about their job? a) highly satisfied C) dissatisfied b) satisfied d) highly dissatisfied ( )

14. Do you find it easy to carry out several complicated tasks at the same time? a) some times b) most of the times c) always d) neutral ( ( d) neutral ( c) always d) neutral ( c) always d) neutral ) ) ) ) )

15. Do you manage your time very efficiently a) some times b) most of the times c) always

16. Do you enjoy analyzing problems a) some times b) most of the times

17. Do you honor other peoples boundaries a) some times b) most of the times

18. Have you given a chance to your subordinates to correct their mistakes ( a) some times b) most of the times c) always d) neutral

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A Study on Leadership Styles

19.Do you feel that relationships are based on respect and trust or on disrespect a)some times b)most of the times c)always d)neutral ( ( ) )

20. Whether the employees are satisfied about the leadership styles a) highly satisfied b) satisfied

c) dissatisfied d) highly dissatisfied ( d) neutral ( ) )

21. Do you like to take risk to learn some thing a) some times b) most of the times c) always

22. Do you like to take formal courses, challenging job experiences a) some times b) most of the times c) always d) neutral

23. Would you give preference for using committees and specially covered groups to? solve problem rather than being a sole decision maker a) some times b) most of the times c) always d) neutral ( )

24. Do you closely monitor the schedule to ensure that a task or project will be completed? in time a) some times b) most of the times c) always d) neutral ( )

25. Do you enjoy reading articles, books, and journals about training leadership and psychology and do you put it in to action a) some times b) most of the times c) always d) neutral ( )

26. Counselling the employees to improve their performance or behavior is second nature to you a) some times b) most of the times c) always d) neutral ( )

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College

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Engineering

and

Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS:
1. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS .. P.SUBBARAO 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . C.R.KOTHARI 3. HUMAN RESOURCES AND PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
SALN 94 College of Engineering and Management

A Study on Leadership Styles

.. K.ASWATHAPPA 4. THE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT .... HEINZ WEIHRICH, HAROLD KOONTZ

WEB SITES:
WWW.GOOGLE.COM giasuddin@godrejhersheys.com www.GBFL.Nutrine.com http://suvidha.godrejcp.com/exchange

SALN 95

College

of

Engineering

and

Management