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IP

Internet Protocol (IP) is a protocol on the network layer in the IP stack model that provides an unreliable, connectionless datagram delivery service, described in RFC 791. It is used for transporting datagrams from one IP interface to another, independent of the content of the datagram. Protocol version 4 is implemented.

ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a maintenance protocol on the Network Layer, described in RFC792. ICMP messages are encapsulated within an IP datagram, so that they can be routed through the internet. Ping verifies IP connectivity between IP hosts in the network by sending a number of ICMP echo request messages toward the specified destination IP address.

UDP
User Datagram Protocol (UPD) is a connectionless, datagram-oriented and unreliable protocol on the transport layer in the IP stack model, described in RFC768. It is used for carrying data from one host to another, in the same node, or between different nodes.

RTP
Real Time Protocol (RTP) is a protocol which provides end-to-end delivery services for data with real-time characteristics. It is described in RFC3550.

GTP
GPRS Tunneling Protocol for user plane (GTP-u) is a protocol used to tunnel mobile user-plane traffic across an IP network within the Long-Term Evolution (LTE) and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) networks. The protocol is described in the 3GPP Technical Specification 29.060.

NTP
Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol used for Network Synchronization. The Simplified Network Time Protocol (SNTP) is implemented and it is specified in RFC4330. Both NTP server mode (used for sending time information) and NTP client mode (used for receiving time information) are supported. The use and configuration of this protocol are not a part of the Managed Area, IP Transport. These are described in the Managed Area, Network Synchronization.

SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol)


SCTP is viewed as a protocol layer between an SCTP user and an unreliable and connectionless packet network service such as IP. SCTP is described in RFC2960. The basic service offered by SCTP is the reliable transfer of user messages between peer SCTP users. SCTP is a reliable transport protocol, operating on top of a connectionless packet network such as IP. SCTP is the equivalent of the link-level protocol for the IP bearer

and provides the same level of reliability in terms of message loss and duplication as traditional layer 2 links (MTP2 or NNI-SAAL). SCTP provides peer-to-peer associations with one or more streams in each association. The SCTP host can be configured in two ways: o Robust SCTP, and reference to RPU (ReliableProgramUniter) with one active and one passive slot. If the RPU does not share its slots with other SCTP RPUs, it is called the "1 + 1" redundancy configuration. o Non-robust SCTP, and reference to RPU with one active and no passive slot. Several SCTP RPUs may form a single "n + 1" redundancy configuration, where "n" can be 2 or 3. Each of these RPUs has a separate active slot, and they all share the same passive slot. If an active SCTP fails in this configuration, the passive slot can handle any of these RPUs, but only one RPU at the same time. To achieve redundancy when a robust SCTP configuration is used, the IP host is configured as Multi-Homed (MH) with two local IP addresses, IP 1 and IP 2, toward the Ethernet interfaces (Fast or Gigabit). For robustness, only one Association is needed toward an adjacent node with multi-homed Endpoint (EP)

IP Addressing
An InternetProtocol (IP) addressis a numerical label that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes. An IP address serves two principal functions in networking: host identification and location addressing. The role of the IP address has also been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there." The original designers of TCP/IP defined an IP address as a 32-bit number and now named Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). However, due to the enormous growth of the Internet and the resulting depletion of the address space, a new addressing system (IPv6), using 128 bits for the address, was developed in 1995 and last standardized by RFC 2460 in 1998. Although IP addresses are stored as binary numbers, they are usually displayed in human-readable notations, such as 208.77.188.166 (for IPv4), and 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:1:1 (for IPv6). The Internet Protocol also has the task of routing data packets between networks, and IP addresses specify the locations of the source and destination nodes in the topology of the routing system. For this purpose, some of the bits in an IP address are used to designate a subnetwork. The number of these bits is indicated in CIDR notation, appended to the IP address, e.g., 208.77.188.166/24. With the development of private networks and the threat of IPv4 address exhaustion, a group of private address spaces was set aside by RFC 1918. These private addresses may be used by anyone on private networks. They are often used with network address translators to connect to the global public Internet.

Two versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) are currently in use (see IP version history for details), IP Version 4 and IP Version 6. Each version defines an IP address differently. Because of its prevalence, the generic term IP address typically still refers to the IP version4 addresses IPv4 uses 32-bit (4-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique addresses. IPv4 reserves some addresses for special purposes such as private networks (~18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (~270 million addresses). This reduces the number of addresses that can be allocated to end users and, as the number of addresses available is consumed, IPv4 address exhaustion is inevitable. This foreseeable shortage was the primary motivation for developing IPv6, which is in various deployment stages around the world and is the only strategy for IPv4 replacement and continued Internet expansion.

IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dot-decimal notation (four numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g. 208.77.188.166). Each part represents 8 bits of the address, and is therefore called an octet. In less common cases of technical writing, IPv4 addresses may be presented in hexadecimal, octal, or binary representations. In most representations each octet is converted individually. IPv4networks In the early stages of development of the Internet protocol, network administrators interpreted an IP address as a structure of network number and host number. The highest order octet (most significant eight bits) was designated the network number and the rest of the bits were called the rest field or host identifier and were used for host numbering within a network. This method soon proved inadequate as additional networks developed that were independent from the existing networks already designated by a network number. In 1981, the Internet addressing specification was revised with the introduction of classful network architecture. Classful network design allowed for a larger number of individual network assignments. The first three bits of the most significant octet of an IP address was defined as the class of the address. Three classes (A, B, and C) were defined for universal unicast addressing. Depending on the class derived, the network identification was based on octet boundary segments of the entire address. Each class used successively additional octets in the network identifier, thus reducing the possible number of hosts in the higher order classes (B and C). The following table gives an overview of this system.

Class

First octetin binary

Rangeof first Possiblenumberof Possiblenumberof NetworkID Host ID octet networks hosts

0XXXXXXX

0 - 127

b.c.d 27 = 128

224 - 2 = 16,777,214

10XXXXXX

128 - 191

a.b

c.d

214 = 16,384

216 - 2 = 65,534

110XXXXX

192 - 223

a.b.c

221 = 2,097,152

28 - 2 = 254

The articles 'subnetwork' and 'classful network' explain the details of this design. Although classful network design was a successful developmental stage, it proved unscalable in the rapid expansion of the Internet and was abandoned when Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) was created for the allocation of IP address blocks and new rules of routing protocol packets using IPv4 addresses. CIDR is based on variablelength subnet masking (VLSM) to allow allocation and routing on arbitrary-length prefixes. Today, remnants of classful network concepts function only in a limited scope as the default configuration parameters of some network software and hardware components (e.g. netmask), and in the technical jargon used in network administrators' discussions. IPv4privateaddresses Early network design, when global end-to-end connectivity was envisioned for communications with all Internet hosts, intended that IP addresses be uniquely assigned to a particular computer or device. However, it was found that this was not always necessary as private networks developed and public address space needed to be conserved (IPv4 address exhaustion). Computers not connected to the Internet, such as factory machines that communicate only with each other via TCP/IP, need not have globally-unique IP addresses. Three ranges of IPv4 addresses for private networks, one range for each class (A, B, C), were reserved in RFC 1918. These addresses are not routed on the Internet and thus their use need not be coordinated with an IP address registry. Today, when needed, such private networks typically connect to the Internet through network address translation (NAT).

IANAreservedprivateIPv4networkranges

Start

End

No. of addresses

24-bit Block(/8 prefix, 1 x A)

10.0.0.0

10.255.255.255 16,777,216

20-bit Block(/12 prefix, 16 x B)

172.16.0.0 172.31.255.255 1,048,576

16-bit Block(/16 prefix, 256 x C)

192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255 65,536

Any user may use any of the reserved blocks. Typically, a network administrator will divide a block into subnets; for example, many home routers automatically use a default address range of 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.0.255 (192.168.0.0/24).

Subnetting
The IP address is the address used to find the correct recipient in the network. It is 32 bits long (for IP v4), composed of four 8-bit octets. The most significant part of the IP address is to address the actual IP network and the least significant part addresses the host on the network. The number of octets used for the network part depends on the size of the network, The larger the network, the fewer octets for the network part. To use the IP addresses in a more efficient way, subnetting is used to divide an IP network into subnets. A subnetwork , or subnet , describes networked nodes that have a common, designated IP address routing prefix. A subnet mask determines how to divide the address into the network, subnet and host parts. The Network Prefix Length is defined as the length of the subnet mask that is the number of bits in the subnet mask. Subnettingis used to break the network into smaller more efficient subnets to prevent excessive rates of Ethernet packet collision in a large network. Such subnets can be arranged hierarchically, with the organization's network address space partitioned into a tree-like structure. Routers are used to manage traffic and constitute borders between subnets. A routing prefix is the sequence of leading bits of an IP address that precede the portion of the address used as host identifier. In IPv4 networks, the routing prefix is often expressed as a "subnet mask", which is a bit mask covering the number of bits used in the prefix. An IPv4 subnet mask is frequently expressed in quad-dotted decimal

representation, e.g., 255.255.255.0 is the subnet mask for the 192.168.1.0 network with a 24-bit routing prefix (192.168.1.0/24). All hosts within a subnet can be reached in one "hop" (time to live = 1), implying that all hosts in a subnet are connected to the same link. A typical subnet is a physical network served by one router, for instance an Ethernet network (consisting of one or several Ethernet segments or local area networks, interconnected by network switches and network bridges) or a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN). However, subnetting allows the network to be logically divided regardless of the physical layout of a network, since it is possible to divide a physical network into several subnets by configuring different host computers to use different routers. While improving network performance, subnetting increases routing complexity, since each locally connected subnet is typically represented by one row in the routing tables of each connected router. However, with a clever design of the network, routes to collections of more distant subnets within the branches of a tree-hierarchy can be aggregated by single routes. Existing subnetting functionality in routers made the introduction of Classless Inter-Domain Routing seamless. The term networkaddresssometimes refers to logical address, i.e. network layer address such as the IP address, and sometimes to the first address (the base address) of a classful address range to an organization. Computers and devices that are part of an internetworking network such as the Internet each have a logical address. The network address is unique to each device and can either be dynamically or statically configured. An address allows a device to communicate with other devices connected to a network. The most common network addressing scheme is IPv4. An IPv4 address consists of a 32 bit address written, for human readability, into 4 octets and a subnet mask of like size and notation. In order to facilitate the routing process the address is divided into two pieces:

The network prefix (some contiguous range of higher-order bits) that is significant for routing decisions at that particular topological point. The network host (the remaining bits) that specify a particular device in the network.

This works much like a postal address in that network prefix would represent the city and the network host would represent the address of a specific house on that street. The subnet mask (e.g. 255.255.192.0 to specify the top 18 bits; in binary: 11111111.11111111.11000000.00000000) or CIDR suffix address (e.g. /18) is used in conjunction with the network address to determine how many higher-order bits are used for the network prefix. For instance, the following are equivalent:

192.168.0.0 with netmask 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0/16

Binarysubnetmasks
While subnet masks are often represented in dot-decimal form, their use becomes clearer in binary. Looking at a network address and a subnet mask in binary, a device can determine which part of the address is the network address and which part is the host address. To do this, it performs a bitwise "AND" operation. Example AvailableHostsper network Total usable hosts 254 252 248 240 224 192 128 256

CIDRnotation /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 /31

NetworkMask 255.255.255.0

AvailableNetworks 1

254 126 62 30 14 6 2 2*

255.255.255.128 2 255.255.255.192 4 255.255.255.224 8 255.255.255.240 16 255.255.255.248 32 255.255.255.252 64 255.255.255.254 128

Link Protection
Link Protection is used on the IP interface to achieve link redundancy. This means that two links are used for each interface. One is active, carrying all traffic, and one is passive carrying only a small amount of maintenance traffic. If the active link fails, a switch to the passive link occurs, and it becomes active and takes over the traffic.

Router Path Supervision


The Router Path Supervision (RPS) provides router redundancy. It supervises the IP layer connectivity toward a number of configured routers and decides which one should currently be used as the default router.

IP host
IP-based transport services are provided to user applications by means of IP hosts which can execute on different types of board. Depending on the type of board, the host can terminate different types of protocol. An IP host that executes on a processor board, for example a GPB host or an SPB host, supports raw IP, IP/ICMP and IP/UDP packets and an IP host that executes on the ET board, that is an ET host, supports IP/ICMP, IP/UDP, IP/UDP/RTP and IP/UDP/NTP.

P-bit: 802.1p priorities according to IEEE 8021D:

0 - Best effort 1 - Background 2 - Spare 3 - Excellent effort 4 - Controlled load 5 - Voice, less than 100 ms delay 6 - Voice, less than 10 ms delay 7 - Network control DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point) Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) is a field in the header of an IP packet that enables different levels of service to be assigned to network traffic. This is achieved by marking each packet on the network with a DSCP code and appropriating to it the corresponding level of service. Traffic Management: QoS and Ingress Policing The Ethernet Traffic Management uses queuing, strict priority scheduling and policing, but no shaping. As the queuing function uses the 802.1p values (p-bits) in the 802.1q VLAN tag for the mapping of Ethernet frames to queues, VLAN must be enabled for the queuing and scheduling to work. VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) It is recommended that there is a one-to-one mapping between subnet and VLAN. So for one subnet, the same VLAN should be used, and the opposite is also true. Using VLAN is mandatory if more than one subnet is allocated to the same ET-MFG board. It is recommended that the virtual LAN (VLAN) feature is used for the subnets. If used, VLAN attributes must be set as well. The VLAN is defined by the attributes vid and vLan. It is recommended to use separate subnets for Use Plane and control plane. Packet Data Router (PDR) PDR terminates the GTP-U protocol towards the Packet CN. SPP is an execution platform for layers 2 and 3 of the user plane, consisting of both software and hardware. Examples of applications that execute on SPP are: IP Access Host, Packet Data Router (PDR), Common Channel (CC) Device, and Dedicated Channel (DC) Device. IpAccessHostGpb This is an MO (Mangement Object ) class (Management -> IpSystem -> IpAccessHostGpb) for IP Access Host. This host type executes on a General Purpose processor Board (GPB) or on a Control Base Unit (CBU). Only one IpAccessHostGpb can be configured on one GPB.

A maximum of 64 host MOs (IpAccessHostGpb, IpAccessHostSpb and IpAccessHostEt) can be configured in a node. A maximum of 64 host MOs (IpAccessHostGpb, IpAccessHostSpb and IpAccessHostEt) can be connected to IpInterface MOs on one board.

IpAccessHostEt This is an MO (Mangement Object ) class (Management -> IpSystem -> IpAccessHostGpb) for IP Access Host. This host type executes on an ET board for IP. A maximum of 64 host MOs (IpAccessHostGpb, IpAccessHostSpb and IpAccessHostEt) can be configured in a node. A maximum of 64 host MOs (IpAccessHostGpb, IpAccessHostSpb and IpAccessHostEt) can be connected to IpInterface MOs on one board. Only one IpAccessHostEt MO can be connected to one IpInterface MO on the same board. SFP modules
The ET-MFX12/2 is a multiport Ethernet switch blade with IP termination and interworking functionality. It provides six 10/100/1000BASE-T electrical ports on Emily connectors and one connector which can connect a Small Formfactor Pluggable ( SFP) module. The optical ports are SFP slots. This provides flexibility in choice of transmission standards. For supported SFPs add link to ET-MFX Unit Descriptions (UDs). Each module contains an optoelectrical conversion unit and a connector.

ICF
The external transmission cables must be connected to the Interface Connection Field ( ICF) located at the bottom of a RNC cabinet. In the ICF, the choice of connection panels to use depends on the configuration of Exchange Terminal Boards (ET-boards). Using ET-MFX boards in an Extension Cabinet requires one Interconnection cable for one board and two Interconnection cables for more than one board. The connection cables are run between the ICFs in the Main and Extension Cabinets.

Packet Delay Variation


A definition of the IP Packet Delay Variation (ipdv) can be given for packets inside a stream of packets. The ipdv of a pair of packets within a stream of packets is defined for a selected pair of packets in the stream going from measurement point MP1 to measurement point MP2.

The ipdv is the difference between the one-way-delay of the selected packets.