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# INTRODUCTION

A rocket is basically a system that takes mass plus energy and converts them into a force to move a vehicle. The input mass for a rocket is usually called propellant. The force a rocket produces is thrust.

Thrust A rocket ejects mass at high speed in one direction so a vehicle can go in the other. The simplest example of this is a balloon. Most people have blown up a toy balloon and let go of the stem to watch it fly wildly around the room, as What makes the balloon go? Newtons Third Law: For every action there is an equal but opposite reaction. When you blow into a balloon, you force air into it, making the rubber skin tighten, increasing the internal air pressure, and storing energy like a spring. When you let go of the stem, the air pressure has an escape route, so the skin releases, forcing the air out under pressure. Following Newtons Third Law, as the air, which has mass, is forced out in one

direction (the action), an equal force pushes the balloon in the opposite direction (the reaction).

ROCKET EQUATIONS
The thrust a rocket produces depends only on the velocity of the propellant ejected (effective exhaust velocity) and how much mass is ejected In a given time (mass flow rate, or mdot).

Fthrust = mdot C
Where F thrust = rockets total thrust (N) C = effective exhaust velocity (m/s) mdot = mass flow rate (kg/s)

The velocity change (V) delivered by a rocket depends on its effective exhaust velocity (C) and the ratio of initial to final mass of the rocket. The higher the effective exhaust velocity, the more V delivered for a given mass of propellant used.
=l

where V = velocity change (m/s) C = effective exhaust velocity (m/s) ln = natural logarithm of the quantity in the parentheses m initial = vehicles initial mass, before firing the rocket (kg) m final = vehicles final mass, after firing the rocket (kg)

PROPOLLENT MANAGEMENT

To design a specific system, we start with the desired thrust, usually at some very specific time. The propulsion system controller manages these inputs and forms commands to send to the propellant-management actuators, which turn the flow of propellant on or off. For some systems, the controller also manages the energy input to the rocket. For example, in an electrodynamic rocket, the system has to work with the spacecrafts electrical-power subsystem (EPS) to ensure it provides the required power . The controller uses sensors often to monitor the propellants temperature and pressure throughout the system.

## REAL TIME SYSTEM ROCKET LAUNCHING SYSTEM

ROCKET LAUNCH - A rocket launch is the take off phase of the flight of a rocket. Launches for orbital spaceflights, or launches into interplanetary space, are usually from a fixed location on the ground, but may also be from a floating platform such as sea launch vessel or from super heavy airplane. Launch of sub orbital flights ( including missile launches ) can be form: A missile silo A mobile launcher Vehicle A submarine Surface ship An inclined rail Air launch From a plane From a ballon

Rocket Launch Technologies Generally refers to the entire set of system needed to successfully launch a vehicle, not just the vehicle itself but also the firing control system, ground control station, launch pad and tracking station needed for a successful launch and/or recovery. Firing control system Ground control system

## Launch pad Tracking station

FIRING CONTROL SYSTEM It is a no. Of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar which are designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. It performs the same task as human gunner firing a weapon, but attempt to do so faster and more accurately. GROUND CONTROL SYSTEM (GCS) is a land or sea based control centre that provides the facilities for human control of unmanned vehicles in the air or in space. A GCS could be used to control unmanned vehicles aerial vehicle or rocket within or above the atmosphere. LAUNCH PAD A Launch pad is the area and facilities where rocket or spacecraft lift off. A support can contain one or many launch pad. A typical launch pad consists of the service and umbilical structure. TRACKING SYSTEM A ground station, earth station or earth terminal is a terrestrial station designed for extra planetary telecommunication with space craft or reception of radio waves from an astronomical radio source. Tracking stations are located either on the surface of earth or within the atmosphere. Earth station communicates with spacecraft by transmitting and receiving radio waves in super high frequency or extremely high frequency bands. When ground station successfully transmits radio waves to a spacecraft, it establishes a telecommunication link.

## HOW ROCKET LAUNCH IS EXAMPLE OF REAL TIME SYSTEM

Definition of Real Time System A real time system is a system that must satisfy explicit response time constraints or risk serve consequences including failure. A real time system is one whose logical correctness is based on both the correctness of the output and their timeliness. A real time system is any information processing activity or system which has to respond to externally generate input stimuli within a finite and specified period. Related Notions Reactive system Continuous interaction with environment. Embedded system Computer system encapsulated in its environment, combination of computer hardware or software. Safety critical system A failure may cause injury, loss of lives significant financial loss.

Control System

Sensory System

Actuation System

Environment

## HARD REAL TIME Aircraft control Nuclear plant Detection of condition

critical

SOFT REAL TIME Multimedia application Booking system Displaying status information

## WHY ROCKET LAUNCH CHARACTERISTICS BY REAL TIME SYSTEM

Mixture of hardware and software, use of special purpose hardware and architecture. Concurrent control of separate system components, device operates in parallel in the real time world, better to model this parallelism by concurrent entities in the program. Extreme reliability and safety, real time system are usually safety critical.

WHICH PART IN ROCKET LAUNCHES SYSTEM WE GENERALLY HAVE REAL TIME SYSTEM
DATA BASE Booking system, telephone switching, radar tracking APPLIANCES Temperature sensor, cooling agent, machines IMAGE PROCESSING Multimedia, digital camera, industrial inspection VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM Embedded system in space missions TRANSPORT CONTROL SYSTEM Switching network, air traffic control

## HOW SATTELITE IS LAUNCHED

Stages of a Rocket Launch Rockets are engines that produce their own propulsion using self-contained propellants, unlike car or airplane engines, which introduce outside air into the engine to produce thrust. Most earthbound rockets--such as fireworks--are single stage and use a chemical reaction that is sufficient for the rocket to travel the desired distance. However, for larger rockets that are meant to travel into space, a single stage rocket is insufficient, and a multi-stage rocket, powered by engines with propellants, oxygen and a combustion chamber, is required.
1. Primary Stage
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The primary stage of a rocket is the first rocket engine to engage, providing the initial thrust to send the rocket skyward. Usually the first stage is larger than the next stage, or stages, because it must transport not only its own weight, but the weight of the rest of the rocket. This engine will continue to operate until its fuel is exhausted, at which time it separates from the rocket and falls to the ground.

2.Secondary Stage
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After the primary stage has fallen away, the next rocket engine engages to continue the rocket on its trajectory. The second stage has considerably less work to do, since the rocket is already traveling at high speed and the rocket's weight has significantly decreased due to the separation of first stage. If the rocket has additional stages, the process will repeat until the rocket is in space.

## 3.Third stage (Payload)

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Once the payload, whether it be a satellite or a spacecraft, is in orbit, the rocket's final stage falls away, and the craft will be maneuvered using smaller rockets whose purpose is to guide the spacecraft. Unlike the main rocket engines, these maneuvering rockets can be used multiple times .

## EXAMPLE OF SOME ROCKET LAUNCHES REALTED TO REAL TIME SYSTEM

After launching a rocket into space then also system works in real time system. If real time system does not work, then it may cause some hazardous and disaster result, and loss of Crore Rupees. Some of the examples are APOLLO 11 This have the problem of overloaded control system so that computer too slow to handle all task concurrently. MARS PATHFINDER This got the problem of frequency deadlock, so it reset lots, and have loss of time. THERAC-25 Got the problem of software during descent on first landing on Moon.

To work in real time system, we generally use camera in rocket launch. The camera system is officially called Vehicle Imagery System or VIS. 4 camera assemblies on stage engine compartment 2 camera assemblies on stage interface 2 lighted camera assemblies internal to chamber