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Oct 31, 2013

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VSD

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46 Aufrufe

VSD

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Pumps and Fans

Teddy Nickolayevsky and Sigmond Singer, Member, IEEE

Driven

Abstract - In this paper a new approach in overall drive system choice for centrifugal applications is proposed. This approach lies in tradeoff between number of induction motor poles and overall system efficiency and investment. The proposed technique of induction motor and proper drive selection based on theoretical proof that high nominal speed motor have better efficiency at any operated speed that low speed one in spite of nominal torque is equivalent for both. In present article curves, that represents induction motor efficiency changes versus speed when it driven by VSD, theoretically calculated for various pole number motors at various load types, speeds and VSD control techniques. Based on calculated data energy efficiency and tradeoff analysis for various types of motors and loads was carried out.

Iron-core power loss Pfe, Rotor cage power loss PCU2Mechanical loss Pmech. Additional load loss Padd. In order to calculate each part of loss the geometry and details of the motor should be known. The example of the motor geometry is introduced in Fig. 1 and basic lamination nomenclature identified in Table I.

2) 3) 4) 5)

Index Terms - Induction motor, variable speed drive, efficiency, centrifugal load, tradeoff.

I. INTRODUCTION

THE three phase induction motor is a workhorse of modern industry. In a last decade the VSD has been wide spread in the industry according to its undoubted power saving functions and as a result cost benefit for end user. In spite of motor drive revolution the motor choice technique for application has not been changed. Up to this date most of engineers following by conventional rule of motor choice for low speed pumps and fans (centrifugal loads) - nominal speed and power of motor should exceed highest operating load point and be as close as possible to the next catalogue power. The objective of this paper is to present a new approach in induction motor tradeoff for VSD driven pumps and fans. The motor concerned not as stand alone unit, but as part of drive system and it choice based on tradeoff of overall system performance.

II. INDUCTION MOTOR EFFICIENCY CALCULATION

A. Stator winding loss Stator winding power losses Pcu1 is a loss due to copper winding resistance and they calculated as follow:

Pcu= 3IRcul(105)

(1)

I

Rcul(105) ::::::::1.33pcu

(2)

The efficiency of any electrical machine is a ratio of output power to the sum of output power and machine losses. According to IEC [1] and IEEE [2] standards the losses of induction motor are segregated as follow: 1) Stator winding power loss Pc111

Manuscript received September 9, 2006.

T. Nickolayevsky and S. Singer are with the Department of Interdisciplinary studies, Faculty of engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Israel (e-mail: teddynicgtau.ac.il).

where I is the stator phase current and R1,(]o05) is the phase resistance of stator windings corrected to 1050C, pcu is the copper volume resistance at 200C (pcu=1.75.10-8 Q.m), I is the conductor length and q,, is the conductor cross-sectional area. The stator winding resistance adjusted to 1050C based on assumption that motor have temperature rise of 800C according to class B insulation and ambient temperature is 250C according to IEC [3] and IEEE [2] standards. 1) Conductor length calculation: Conductor length of windings can be calculated as product of one turn length Lw and number of turns in phase wl: I = Lww1 (3)

WI

TCZ1 6a

(4)

(5)

270

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TABLE I LAMINATION NOMENCLATURE Symbol Name Radial air gap 6 Area of stator slot qz1 Area of rotor slot qz2 Stator slot opening bol Rotor slot opening bo2 Stator tooth width bzl

laminations.

PFemain

PB f (50)

mzl

=

MRI

(8)

(9)

(10)

tzi tZ2

Z1

bZ2 Din

Lf,

hZ2

Z2

Rotor tooth width Stator inner diameter Stator outer diameter Height of stator yoke Height of rotor yoke Height of stator slot Height of rotor slot Iron core length Stator slot pitch Rotor slot pitch Number of stator slots Number of rotor slots

Y11T(Din + hzl)

z

(6)

where T is the number of turns per coil, C is the number of coils per slot, a is the number of parallel brunches, Kend is the end windings length coefficient, bv is the average coil width, y' is the coil pitch and B is the end adjustment length. For low voltage motors with random windings B=10mm should be accepted. The value of Kend depends on motor poles pair number and it just empirical number. For low voltage motors with random windings which are not tape isolated the values are introduced in Table II according to Kopylov [4].

TABLE II END WINDINGS LENGTH COEFFICIENT FOR LOW VOLTAGE RANDOM WINDINGS (NOT TAPE ISOLATED)

where Pfe is the iron core steel density (pfe=7700K g/M3). The value of PBif can be found in catalogues of non oriented fully processed electrical steel manufacturers. In present paper all calculation was based on M530-50A steel type manufactured by Surahammars Bruks AB (Sweden). Rated power supply frequency for all motors is 50Hz and the peak value of B at each part of lamination not exceeds 1.6T. Thus, as per manufacturer catalogue the pBif=pB 650=50 1 51W/kg. According to Kopylov [4] the ka factor for stator teeth and stator yoke for motors up to 250kW can be accepted as ka,z =1. 8 and karl = 1. 6 respectively. 2) Surface iron core loss: The surface iron core loss occurs due to flux density fluctuation resulting from presence of slots and slot openings. The losses per unit surface of the stator and rotor teeth are given in following equations:

ps,A::

0.kl

~(B0tZ2 )2

(B0tz1)2

(1 1)

(12)

Ps2

0k2K(10f5 72

Kend

2p

2 1.2

4 1.3

6 1.4

>8 1.5

2) Conductor cross-sectional area calculation: Conductor cross sectional area can be calculated as follow: 0.43 Al TC (7) where 0.43 is a slot fill factor and Al is a slot cross-sectional area.

B. Iron-core losses Hysteresis and eddy current losses are the main part of core losses but not sole. The iron core losses also concluded surface, flux pulsation and other losses [4-6], but the last one has been neglected in present article due to it very low relative value. 1) Main iron core loss: The classical equation for the main iron core loss PFemain of motor concludes the core loss per unit mass PBif at fixed magnetic flux density B and frequency fi, iron core weights mzl and mR] of yoke and teethes respectively and coefficient ka that consider core loss augment due to punching and other technology processes applied to steel

_I-TDin _I-TDin Z, Z2 where pl and Ps2 are the surface per unit losses of stator and rotor teeth respectively, kol and ko2 are the factors taking into account unit loss increase due to processing of the stator and rotor teeth (kO=kO2=1.4), Bo is the amplitude of the air gap flux density fluctuations. The amplitude of the air gap flux density fluctuations can be found through the Carter factor kc and the air gap flux density B, according to equation (13). The value of B6 admitted as 0.75T in order to simplify and uniform calculations and analysis. (13) Bo = (kc - I)B8 The Carter factor according to Levi [5] accounts for the presence of slot openings. The Carter factor shows how much increase air gap ampere-turns if one of the surfaces has slot openings and the other one is smooth in comparison with two smooth surfaces. In our case both stator and rotor surfaces have slots. Thus, the Carter factor is a product of two Carter factors, which are calculated for each side separately.

kc2

=(1

(14)

b2 l-1 ) bo2

j, 0

tZ2

(15)

271

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kc = kclkc2

(16)

P Pmech

After per unit surface loses was calculated, the overall surface losses for complete machine can be calculated as in equation (17): Ps = psl (tz1- bOi)ZILfe + Ps2 (tz2- bO2)Z2Lfe (17) 3) Flux pulsation loss: According to Levi [5] in machines with slots both on the stator and rotor, the flux density in the teeth varies as the relative position of the teeth varies. The frequency of the pulsation in stator teethes depend on rotor teeth number while frequency of pulsations in rotor teethes depend on stator teeth number due to they relative rotation. According to Postnikov [6], the amplitude of flux density fluctuations in stator and rotor teethes Bpl and Bp2 respectively can be found as follow:

Bl =1 2

out

(25)

E. Additional load loss Additional load losses are the losses introduced by load in active iron and other metal parts of other than the conductors. Due to difficulties and complexity of additional load loss calculation and measuring the most of national and international standards stay their value as percentage of input power. The IEC standard [1] stays that additional load loss is equal to 0.5% of the rated input power. Padd = 0.005Pin (26)

III. EQUIVALENT MOTOR CIRCUIT PARAMETERS, CONTROL STRATEGY AND TYPES OF LOAD

2tZ1

(K

1)

(18)

(19)

where Bzl and Bz2 are the stator and rotor teeth flux density. As mentioned above rated Bzl= Bz2=1.6T. The pulsation losses in watts can be obtained from equations (20) as summation of losses per unit weight of the stator and rotor teeth multiplied by they weight mzl and mz2.

Voltage-fed VSD implicates output voltage amplitude and frequency modulation according to required by load speed and power. Thus, motor efficiency versus speed change calculation requires not only load power, but also VSD supplied voltage, input current and sleep values at any point of load. This data can be obtained when known type of load, equivalent motor circuit parameters and VSD control strategy.

A. Equivalent motor circuit parameters and they variations when itfed by VSD Elements Rc1, and R'CU2 of motor equivalent circuit (Fig. 2) are represent stator windings (paragraph II) and rotor cage resistances respectively and they don't vary within speed change. Element R, is an equivalent resistance corresponding to iron core loss and it can be expressed as follow: 3E 2

Pp =Jfe

Bpi)

mz2

mz1

(21)

I/f

2

hZ2bZ2Z2LfePfe

fe

(22) where 5fe is the eddy current loss constant for electrical steel, A is the electrical steel width and rf1 is the resistivity of electrical steel. For M530-50A steel A=0. OOSm and rf1=36 10-8 Q m. 4) Total iron core loss: After the all parts of core loss were determined, the sum of iron core power loss can be calculated.

6pfe rfe

(27) The air gap emf Eag and iron core losses are the functions of frequency. Thus R, is frequency (speed) dependent element of equivalent scheme.

ag rfe

Rcul

X1

R2'

1;10

a

Pfe PFemain + Ps + PP

X'cU2

(23)

A 11 -

,~~

12

tR2(1-s)fs

C. Rotor cage power loss According to IEC standards [1] and [3] the rotor cage losses determined as product of electromagnetic power Pelm, which crosses the air gap from stator to rotor, and sleep s: Pcu2 = S Pelm = s.(Pin Pcul Pfe) (24)

D. Mechanical loss

The mechanical losses are the result of friction in the bearings, windage between stator and rotor and power absorbed by cooling fan. For TEFC motors, that have two or more pairs of poles, according to Kopylov [4] the mechanical losses can be obtained as in equation (25).

Element R'2(1-s)ls represents output electro-mechanical power PoutE (28), while the output mechanical power or shaft power Pout calculated according to equation (29):

Is

s

272

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p (31) From equation (30) by substituting (28-29) and (31) the torque equation of induction motor can be written as follows:

21~j~fPs3J~R2 1.3(1 - DOU()K 2/-T Cf, s 221 s

(32) The reactances Xl and X'2 are represents leakages of stator windings and rotor cage, X>, is a magnetizing reactance. All reactances are changes proportional to frequency (speed) variations. The nominal value calculation procedure of elements X1, X'2, X,, and R'2 doesn't introduced in present article due to it complexity and inconvenience. The values have been calculated by using Ansoft RMxpert 5.0 software. B. Types ofload and they power versus speed relations. Each type of load have its own torque-speed characteristic T=f('w) and according to equation (31) they can be expressed as function of frequency fi. Most type of loads can be classified into the three types: 1) Constant torque (lift motion): T=const => Pnoto. fi 2) Linear torque (piston pump load): T-f=> Pmotorfi 3) Square-law torque (centrifugal pump or fan load): T fi > Pmotor f It should be note that rated load point of each characteristic corresponds with rated motor power and rated speed.

C. VSD control strategy The equation (32) has three variables - "2, f' and s. Frequency change proportionally to speed and irrespective of torque and power. Therefore "2 and s are the parameters that should be controlled in order to receive required torque and power to load. In a constant torque loads control strategy is to keep 1'2 constant in order to avoid thermal overheating and magnetic saturation of motor [7]. Sleep in this case is a single variable that depended on output power and speed changes. In case of variable torque loads sleep s should be kept as

10U_a

80

I-'

_8Q

E 40 w

201f Li

If

Fig. 3. 1 OkW 1500 rpm motor efficiency versus frequency change for various types of loads and control strategies.

Authorized licensed use limited to: Nanyang Technological University. Downloaded on June 07,2010 at 11:20:44 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

_~ .0

co

2 z

(1-

S)

D(UI (

I

constant due to pure efficiency of "'2=const control strategy for such kinds of load. In Fig. 6 introduced study case dependence of efficiency to frequency (speed) change for lOkW 1500 rpm motor driving constant torque and centrifugal loads. As it can be seen from the figure, centrifugal load driving by s=cont control strategy have significant efficiency advantage over "'2=const strategy.

IV. LAMINATION GEOMETRY

For better understanding, efficiency calculations carrying out and following comparison and analysis, all other parameters of motors, than power and sped, has been equalized as more as possible. For this purpose have been chosen five motors in IEC frame 315S (Table III). As it can be seen from the table, except equal frame size and torque, studied motors also have equal electrical steel core volume identical stator outer diameter and core length. Lamination geometry and core length have been accepted according to Eurotranciatura S.p.A. - lamination Manufacturer Company. Motors windings have been designed and calculated by using RMxpert 5.0 software.

V. RESULTS

In Fig. 4 introduced efficiency versus speed change of 1lOkW 1500rpm VSD operated motor that drives various types of load. The constant torque and centrifugal types of load has similar efficiency versus speed characteristics whereas linear load have better efficiency characteristic. In Fig. 5 are represented efficiency-speed curves of two motors that drives centrifugal load required 44kW at nominal speed of 600rpm. The 44kW 600 rpm motor operates the load by VSD in conventional way by reducing speed from nominal value of 600 rpm to the lowest required speed. The 55kW 1000 rpm motor operates the load in such a manner that motor speed has been reduced by VSD to 600 rpm by keeping constant torque characteristic and below 600rpm the motor operated according to variable torque load strategy. Similar case curves are introduced in Fig. 6 where 55 kW 750 rpm and 37kW 500 rpm motors operates centrifugal load required 37kW at nominal speed of 500rpm. As it can be seen from figures, in both cases high speed motor have efficiency advantage over the low speed one. Similar results have been received from analogous studies on all introduced in Table III motors. It should be notes, that motor speed can be reduced according to constant torque strategy only to half of a nominal speed. Such limitation introduced in IEC [12-13] and proceeds from the torque limitation for self ventilated motors in order to eliminate motor overheating. The disadvantage of high speed motor operating on low speed load is a high nominal current, and as follow high power loss in cables and increased power rate of VSD. This fact can lead to increasing of price of all drive system.

30 40

10

Frequency

20

50

(Hz)

273

Frame Power, kW No. of poles Synchronous sped, rpm Nominal torque, Nm Stator outer diameter, mm Rotor outer diameter, mm Rotor inner diameter, mm Core length, mm lamination catalog No. acc. to Eurotranciatura Number of stator slots Number of rotor slots Coil pitch Number of coils per slot Number of turns per coil No. of parallel branches

TABLE III STUDIED MOTORS DETAILS IEC 315S IEC 315S 110 75 4 6 1000 1500 722.8 706.9 500 500 325 375 115 115 300 300 IEC 315/6.375 IEC 315/4.325 72 60 48 56 12 10 2 2 10 9 4 3

IEC 315S 55 8 750 707.9 500 375 115 300 IEC 315/8.375 72 60 8 2 28 8

IEC 315S 44 10 600 708.6 500 375 115 300 IEC 315/8.375 72 60 6 2 8 2 .

IEC 315S 37 12 500 716.7 500 375 115 300 IEC 315/8.325 72 60 5 2 28 6

96

95 .

92

S94

5: 92

Constanttorque load

_*f # t- _

go -

Linea~~~~rqtue load

80 t0

77 150

rpm

300

500

700

900

1lOkW 1500rpm motor for

300

750

Fig 5. Efficiency versus speed change of 55kW 750rpm and 44kW 600 motors operated 44kW 600 rpm centrifugal load. machines for traction vehicles)", International Electrotechnical Commission, 1972, pp. 25-27. IEEE Standard 112-1996, "IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators", IEEE standards Board, 1996, pp. 510. Intemnational Standard 61972, "Methods for determining losses and efficiency of three-phase cage induction motors", International Electrotechnical Commission, 2002, pp. 9-23. I.P. Kopylov, B.K. Klokov, V.P. Morozkin, B.F. Tokarev, "Proyektirovaniye electricheskih mashin", Moscow, Vishaya schola, 2002. E. Levi "Polyphase motors. A direct approach to their design", John Wiley & Sons, 1984 I.M. Postnikov, " Proyektirovaniye electricheskih mashin", Kiyev, 1960. Bimal K. Bose, "Modern power electronics and AC drives", Prentice Hall PTR, 2002, pp. 33-39 Technical specification 60034-17, "Cage induction motors when fed by converters - Application guide", International Electrotechnical Commission, Third edition, March 2002, pp. 17 Technical specification 60034-25, "Guide for the design and performance of cage induction motors specifically designed for converter supply", International Electrotechnical Commission, First edition, April 2004, pp. 10-19.

95 92

O86 K 4E 83

R

[2] [3]

LSw

[4]

[5]

80 7

77, 150

300

Fig 6. Efficiency versus speed change of 55kW 750rpm and 37kW 500 rpm motors operated 37kW 500 rpm centrifugal load.

Speed (rpm)

450

600

750

VI. CONCLUSION Efficiency change of VSD fed induction motors has been studied. It was found that high speed motors operated low speed pumps and fans have efficiency advantage over low speed motors. Proposed motor tradeoff lies in number of motor poles choose and overall system efficiency and investment.

REFERENCES

[1]

International Standard 60034-2, "Methods for determining losses and efficiency of rotating electrical machinery from tests (excluding

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