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Seminar on

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Presented By : Mahesh J. Vadhavaniya (122511) M. E. Regular, 2 12 1! "#$$$R, %handigarh &u'(e)t *a)ulty : Pr+,. Ra- Murat &ingh

Objectives :
At the end of the Session we will be able to:

Describe the major components of a common PLC. Interpret PLC specifications. Apply tro bleshootin! techni" es. Convert conventional relay lo!ic to a PLC lan! a!e. Operate and pro!ram a PLC for a !iven application.

Contents :
#istory of Pro!rammable Controllers $elay Ladder Lo!ic Central Processin! %nit Inp t&O tp t System Pro!rammin! and Peripheral Devices Pro!rammin! Concepts Applications 'ro bleshootin! and (aintenance

Process Control & Automation

Process control
Recognizing the status Process the Information Actuate the control elements

Rules & guidelines

Why Automation ?
#i!her prod ctivity S perior " ality of end prod ct )fficient sa!e of ener!y and raw materials Improved safety in wor*in! condition etc+

History of Process Control & Automation

PLC Control

Electronics Control

Hard-Wire Control

Manual Control

1. PLC !ntro"uction
What "oes PLC stan" for? PLC , Pro!rammable Lo!ic Controller

PLC implements lo!ic control f nctions by means of a pro!ram

Programmable Logic Controllers

( Definition according to NEMA standard ICS3-1978)

A di!itally operatin! electronic apparat s which ses a pro!rammin! memory for the internal stora!e of instr ctions for implementin! specific f nctions s ch as lo!ic- se" encin!timin!- co ntin! and arithmetic to control thro !h di!ital or analo! mod lesvario s types of machines or process.

1. PLC !ntro"uction
Ho# "oes a PLC "iffer from a com$uter?

A comp ter is optimi.ed for calc lation and display tas*s A comp ter is pro!rammed by specialists A PLC is desi!ned for /lo!ic0 control and re! lation tas*s A PLC is pro!rammed by non,specialists A PLC is well adapted to ind strial environment

PLC Origin

Developed to replace relays in the late 1234s Costs dropped and became pop lar by 1254s 6ow sed in many ind strial desi!ns

Historical Background
'he #ydramatic Division of the 7eneral (otors Corporation specified the desi!n criteria for the first pro!rammable controller in 1235 'heir primary !oal : 'o eliminate the hi!h costs associated with infle8iblerelay,controlled systems.

Historical Background
'he controller had to be desi!ned in mod lar form- so that s b,assemblies co ld be removed easily for replacement or repair. 'he control system needed the capability to pass data collection to a central system. 'he system had to be re sable. 'he method sed to pro!ram the controller had to be simple- so that it co ld be easily personnel. nderstood by plant

Programmable Controller Development

1235 1232 Pro!rammable concept developed #ardware CP% controller- with lo!ic instr ctions- 1 9 of memory and 1:5 I&O points 12;< %se of several /m lti0 processors within a PLC , timers and co nters= arithmetic operations= 1: 9 of memory and 14:< I&O points 12;3 12;; $emote inp t&o tp t systems introd ced (icroprocessors , based PLC introd ced

Programmable Controller Development

1254 Intelli!ent I&O mod les developed )nhanced comm nications facilities )nhanced software feat res /e.!. doc mentation0 %se of personal microcomp ters as pro!rammin! aids 125> 125@ onwards Low , cost small PLC?s introd ced 6etwor*in! of all levels of PLC- comp ter and machine sin! SCADA software.

Advanta!es of PLCs : Less wirin!. Airin! between devices and relay contacts are done in the PLC pro!ram. )asier and faster to ma*e chan!es. 'ro ble shootin! aids ma*e pro!rammin! easier and red ce downtime. $eliable components ma*e these li*ely to operate for years before fail re.

Advanta!es of PLCs : 'hey are cost,effective 'hey are fle8ible- reliable and compact 'hey have si!nificant advanta!es over traditional control systems based on relay or pne matics

1. PLC !ntro"uction
Ahat tas*s do PLC perform B 'he lo!ic control tas*s s ch as interloc*in!se" encin!timin! and co ntin! /previo sly

nderta*en with relays or pne matics0 In addition- PLCs can perform a variety of calc lation- comm nication and monitorin! tas*s

Leading Brands Of PLC

1. Allen Cradley

:. 7o ld (odicon >. 'e8as Instr ments <. 7eneral )lectric @. Aestin!ho se 3. C tter #ammer ;. S" are D Siemens



:. 9loc*ner D (o ller >. Eesto <. 'elemechani" e

Leading Brands Of PLC




:. Omron >. Ean c <. (its bishi

Areas of Application :
(an fact rin! & (achinin! Eood & Cevera!e (etals Power (inin! Petrochemical & Chemical

PLC Size :
It covers nits with p to 1:5 I&O?s and memories p to : 9bytes. 'hese PLC?s are capable of providin! simple to advance levels or machine controls.

(edi m:

#ave 9bytes.

p to :4<5 I&O?s and memories

p to >:


'he most sophisticated nits of the PLC family. 'hey have p to 512: I&O?s and memories p to ;@4 9bytes. Can control individ al prod ction processes or entire plant.

Major Components of a Common PLC


From SENSORS Pushbuttons, contacts, limit switches, etc.






To OUTPUT Solenoids, contactors, alarms. Motors etc.

Major Components of a Common PLC

Power S pply:
Provides the volta!e needed to r n the primary PLC components

I&O (od les:

Provides si!nal conversion and internal lo!ic, hi!h level si!nal. isolation between the

level si!nals inside the PLC and the field?s

Major Components of a Common PLC

Processor :
Provides intelli!ence to command and !overn the activities of the entire PLC systems.

Pro!rammin! Device :
%sed to enter the desired pro!ram that will determine the se" ence of operation and control of process e" ipment or driven machine.

I/O Module
'he I&O interface section of a PLC connects it to e8ternal field devices. 'he main p rpose of the I&O interface is to condition the vario s si!nals received from or sent to the e8ternal inp t and o tp t devices. Inp t mod les converts si!nals from discrete or analo! inp t devices to lo!ic levels acceptable to PLC?s processor. O tp t mod les converts si!nal from the processor to levels capable of drivin! the connected discrete or analo! o tp t devices.

I/O Module
DC Inp t (od le
IS NEEDED TO: Prevent voltage transients from damaging the processor. Helps reduce the effects of electrical noise


Current Limiting Resistor


Buffer, Filter, hysteresi s Circuits


I/O Module
AC Inp t (od le
IS NEEDED TO: Prevent voltage transients from damaging the processor. Helps reduce the effects of electrical noise


Rectifier, Resistor Network


Buffer, Filter, Hysteresis Circuits



I/O Module
DC&AC O tp t (od le
IS NEEDED TO: Prevent voltage transients from damaging the processor. Helps reduce the effects of electrical noise


TTL Circuits




I/O Circuits
DIEE)$)6' 'GP)S OE I&O CI$C%I'S 1. Pilot D ty O tp ts :
O tp ts of this type typically are sed to drive hi!h,c rrent electroma!netic loads s ch as solenoids- relays- valves- and motor starters. 'hese loads are hi!hly ind ctive and e8hibit a lar!e inr sh c rrent. Pilot d ty o tp ts sho ld be capable of withstandin! an inr sh c rrent of 14 times the rated load for a short period of time witho t fail re.

I/O Circuits
:. 7eneral P rpose O tp ts :
'hese are s ally low, volta!e and low,c rrent and are sed to drive indicatin! li!hts and other non,ind ctive loads. 6oise s ppression may or may not be incl ded on this types of mod les.

>. Discrete Inp ts :

Circ its of this type are sed to sense the stat s of limit

switches- p sh b ttons- and other discrete sensors. 6oise s ppression is of !reat importance in preventin! false indication of inp ts t rnin! on or off beca se of noise.

I/O Circuits
<. Analo! I&O :
Circ its of this type sense or drive analo! si!nals. Analo! inp ts come from devices- s ch as thermoco plesstrain !a!es- or press re sensors- that provide a si!nal volta!e or c rrent that is derived from the process variable. Standard Analo! Inp t si!nals: <,:4 mA= 4,14H Analo! o tp ts can be sed to drive devices s ch as

voltmeters- I,G recorders- servomotor drives- and valves thro !h the se of transd cers. Standard Analo! O tp t si!nals: <,:4 mA= 4,@H= 4,14H

I/O Circuits
@. Special P rpose I&O :
Circ its of this type are sed to interface PLCs to very specific types of circ its s ch as servomotors- steppin! motors PID /proportional pl s inte!ral pl s derivative0 loops- hi!h,speed p lse co ntin!- resolver and decoder inp ts- m ltiple8ed displays- and *eyboards. 'his mod le allows for limited access to timer and co nter presets and other PLC variables witho t re" irin! a pro!ram loader.





Push (utton Limit S#itch 'humb#heel SW

Le)el SW
*lo# SW

OUTPUT DEVICES: Motor Solenoid LED Display Heater Coil Lamp

Allen (ra"ley 1123 1A13

L1 L% !- !n$ut !+%

.o"ule slot / in rac0

P. ( SW!'CH

.o"ule 'erminal / A""ress !+%.,;,

LA7789 P96:9A.

!4P5' .675L8 W!9!4: 7!A:9A.


L1 L%

4. 6 .6'69 S6L846! 7 <AL<8S LA.P (5==89

L% L1 *!8L7 W!9!4:

65'P5' .675L8 W!9!4: L1


C64'AC'69 , LA7789 P96:9A.

Discrete Input A discrete input also referred as digital input is an input that is either ON or OFF are connected to the PLC digital input. In the ON condition it is referred to as logic 1 or a logic high and in the OFF condition maybe referred to as logic o or logic low. 4ormally 6$en Pushbutton 4ormally Close" Pushbutton 4ormally 6$en s#itch 4ormally Close" s#itch 4ormally 6$en contact 4ormally close" contact


OFF Logic 0

PLC Input Module

24 V dc


OFF Logic 1

PLC Input Module

24 V dc

Analog Input An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous signal. Typical inputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mA or 0 to10V. Below, a level transmitter monitors the level of liquid in the tank. Depending on the level Tx, the signal to the PLC can either increase or decrease as the level increases or decreases. Level Transmitter


PLC Analog Input Module

Digital Output A discrete output is either in an ON or OFF condition. Solenoids, contactors coils, lamps are example of devices connected to the Discrete or digital outputs. Below, the lamp can be turned ON or OFF by the PLC output it is connected to.


PLC Digital Output Module


Analog Output

An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous signal. Typical outputs may vary from 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mA or 0 to10V.
Electric to pneumatic transducer

PLC Analog Output Module

0 to 10V

Supply air

Pneumatic control valve

The processor module contains the PLCs microprocessor, its supporting circuitry, and its memory system. The main function of the microprocessor is to analyze data coming from field sensors through input modules, make decisions based on the users defined control program and return signal back through output modules to the field devices. Field sensors: switches, flow, level, pressure, temp. transmitters, etc. Field output devices: motors, valves, solenoids, lamps, or audible devices. The memory system in the processor module has two parts: a system memory and an application memory.

Memory Map Organization

System memory includes an area called the EXECUTIVE, composed of permanently-stored programs that direct all system activities, such as execution of the users control program, communication with peripheral devices, and other system activities. The system memory also contains the routines that implement the PLCs instruction set, which is composed of specific control functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic. System memory is generally built from read-only memory devices.


APPLICATION Data Table User Program

The application memory is divided into the data table area and user program area. The data table stores any data associated with the users control program, such as system input and output status data, and any stored constants, variables, or preset values. The data table is where data is monitored, manipulated, and changed for control purposes. The user program area is where the programmed instructions entered by the user are stored as an application control program.

Memory Designs
VOLATILE. A volatile memory is one that loses its stored information when power is removed. Even momentary losses of power will erase any information stored or programmed on a volatile memory chip. Common Type of Volatile Memory RAM. Random Access Memory(Read/Write) Read/write indicates that the information stored in the memory can be retrieved or read, while write indicates that the user can program or write information into the memory.

Memory Designs
The words random access refer to the ability of any location (address) in the memory to be accessed or used. Ram memory is used for both the user memory (ladder diagrams) and storage memory in many PLCs. RAM memory must have battery backup to retain or protect the stored program.

Memory Designs
Several Types of RAM Memory: 1.MOS 2.HMOS 3.CMOS The CMOS-RAM (Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) is probably one of the most popular. CMOS-RAM is popular because it has a very low current drain when not being accessed (15microamps.), and the information stored in memory can be retained by as little as 2Vdc.

Memory Designs
NON-VOLATILE Has the ability to retain stored information when power is removed, accidentally or intentionally. These memories do not require battery back-up. Common Type of Non-Volatile Memory ROM, Read Only Memory Read only indicates that the information stored in memory can be read only and cannot be changed. Information in ROM is placed there by the manufacturer for the internal use and operation of the PLC.

Memory Designs
Other Types of Non-Volatile Memory PROM, Programmable Read Only Memory Allows initial and/or additional information to be written into the chip. PROM may be written into only once after being received from the PLC manufacturer; programming is accomplish by pulses of current. The current melts the fusible links in the device, preventing it from being reprogrammed. This type of memory is used to prevent unauthorized program changes.

Memory Designs
EPROM, Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Ideally suited when program storage is to be semi-permanent or additional security is needed to prevent unauthorized program changes. The EPROM chip has a quartz window over a silicon material that contains the electronic integrated circuits. This window normally is covered by an opaque material, but when the opaque material is removed and the circuitry exposed to ultra violet light, the memory content can be erased. The EPROM chip is also referred to as UVPROM.

Memory Designs
EEPROM, Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Memory Only

Also referred to as E2PROM, is a chip that can be programmed using a standard programming device and can be erased by the proper signal being applied to the erase pin. EEPROM is used primarily as a non-volatile backup for the normal RAM memory. If the program in RAM is lost or erased, a copy of the program stored on an EEPROM chip can be down loaded into the RAM.

Programmable Logic Controller

Power supply

Input module

CPU Program memory

Output module


Control Input Elements Process / Machine

PLC 6$erating Princi$le

!n $ut scan

Self test

Communication 6ut $ut scan

PLC Operation
Basic Function of a Typical PLC Read all field input devices via the input interfaces, execute the user program stored in application memory, then, based on whatever control scheme has been programmed by the user, turn the field output devices on or off, or perform whatever control is necessary for the process application. This process of sequentially reading the inputs, executing the program in memory, and updating the outputs is known as scanning.

While the PLC is running, the scanning process includes the following four phases, which are repeated continuously as individual cycles of operation:


Read Inputs Scan


Program Execution

Diagnostics/ Comm

Output Scan

PHASE 1 Input Status scan

A PLC scan cycle begins with the CPU reading the status of its inputs.

PHASE 2 Logic Solve/Program Execution The application program is executed using the status of the inputs

PHASE 3 Logic Solve/Program Execution Once the program is executed, the CPU performs diagnostics and communication tasks

PHASE 4 - Output Status Scan

An output status scan is then performed, whereby the stored output values are sent to actuators and other field output devices. The cycle ends by updating the outputs.

As soon as Phase 4 are completed, the entire cycle begins again with Phase 1 input scan. The time it takes to implement a scan cycle is called SCAN TIME. The scan time composed of the program scan time, which is the time required for solving the control program, and the I/O update time, or time required to read inputs and update outputs. The program scan time generally depends on the amount of memory taken by the control program and type of instructions used in the program. The time to make a single scan can vary from 1 ms to 100 ms.

PLC Communications
Common Uses of PLC Communications Ports Changing resident PLC programs - uploading/downloading from a supervisory controller (Laptop or desktop computer). Forcing I/O points and memory elements from a remote terminal. Linking a PLC into a control hierarchy containing several sizes of PLC and computer. Monitoring data and alarms, etc. via printers or Operator Interface Units (OIUs).

PLC Communications
Serial Communications PLC communications facilities normally provides serial transmission of information. Common Standards RS 232 Used in short-distance computer communications, with the majority of computer hardware and peripherals. Has a maximum effective distance of approx. 30 m at 9600 baud.

PLC Communications
Local Area Network (LAN) Local Area Network provides a physical link between all devices plus providing overall data exchange management or protocol, ensuring that each device can talk to other machines and understand data received from them. LANs provide the common, high-speed data communications bus which interconnects any or all devices within the local area. LANs are commonly used in business applications to allow several users to share costly software packages and peripheral equipment such as printers and hard disk storage.

PLC Communications
RS 422 / RS 485 Used for longer-distance links, often between several PCs in a distributed system. RS 485 can have a maximum distance of about 1000 meters.

PLC Communications
Programmable Controllers and Networks Dedicated Network System of Different Manufacturers

Manufacturer Allen-Bradley Gould Modicon General Electric Mitsubishi Square D Texas Instruments

Network Data Highway Modbus GE Net Factory LAN Melsec-NET SY/NET TIWAY

Several factors are used for evaluating the quality and performance of programmable controllers when selecting a unit for a particular application. These are listed below. NUMBER OF I /O PORTS This specifies the number of I/O devices that can be connected to the controller. There should be sufficient I/O ports to meet present requirements with enough spares to provide for moderate future expansion.

Wor0ing of PLC

CPU !< User Program memory Internal timers Input I/O Bus I/O Bus Output Internal counters Module Module




Field signals

Field Controls

PLC Programming
PLC is software driven e" ipment li*e comp ter Aor*in! of PLC /process0 is decided by ser thro !h pro!ram. Dependin! on process re" irement pro!ram /set of instr ction0 is prepared. CP% se" entially read these instr ction and operates control elements based on inp t si!nals and pro!ram instr ction. Pro!rammin! can be done On,line or Off,line. 6ormally pro!rammin! & chan!e in pro!ram is done in memory of pro!rammin! nit and then simply this chan!e is loaded in CP% memory of PLC

A""ressing !n$uts & 6ut$uts

Slot numbers
, , 1 CP5 CP5 % > ? 3 1 1 % > 2 >, >1

Channel 4os.


Normally Open (NO)

Normally Closed (NC)

Power flows through these contacts when they are closed. The normally open (NO) is true when the input or output status bit controlling the contact is 1. The normally closed (NC) is true when the input or output status bit controlling the contact is 0.


Coils represent relays that are energized when power flows to them. When a coil is energized it causes a corresponding output to turn on by changing the state of the status bit controlling the output to 1. That same output status bit maybe used to control normally open or normally closed contact anywhere in the program.


Boxes represent various instructions or functions that are Executed when power flows to the box. Some of these Functions are timers, counters and math operations.


A Rung

Each rung or network on a ladder program represents a logic operation. In the rung above, both inputs A and B must be true (1) in order for the output C to be true (1).


A Rung (

In the rung above, it can be seen that either input A or B is be true (1), or both are true, then the output C is true (1).


A Rung

In the rung above, it can be seen that if input A is be true (1), then the output C is true (0) or when A is (0), output C is 1.

Writing Program
@ La""er 7iagram (LA7) A 5se relay logic symbols to formulate the control tas0 @ Control System *lo#chart (CS*) A 5se "igital gra$hical symbols to formulate the control tas0

@ Statement List (S'L) A 5se mnemonic abbre)iation in $rogramming.

1. PLC !ntro"uction
Data Flow in the PLC

1. PLC !ntro"uction
n 6ne of the a")antages of PLC is that it can be $rogramme" by non s$ecialists n Program can be #ritten either in the form of a statement list+ a set of mnemonic instructions re$resenting a function of the CP5 or a la""er "iagram+ a gra$hical language resembling the electrical relay "iagrams

1. PLC !ntro"uction
statement list

1. PLC !ntro"uction
La""er "iagram

Writing Program
@ Circuit 7iagram
! 1., ! 1.% ! 1.> ! 1.% ! 1.>

@ La""er 7iagram (LA7)

! 1., ! 1.1 B 2.1

! 1.1

B 2.1

Writing Program
@ Circuit 7iagram
! 1., ! 1.% ! 1.1 ! 1.1 ! 1.>

@ Control System *lo#chart (CS*)

! 1.,


! 1.% B 2.1 ! 1.> B 2.1


Writing Program
@ Circuit 7iagram
! 1., ! 1.% ! 1.>

@ Statement List (S'L) A ! 1., A ! 1.1 6 A ! 1.% A ! 1.> - B 2.1

! 1.1

B 2.1

(Kontaktplansprache, langage contacts)

Ladder logic (1)

'he la""er logic is the ol"est $rogramming language for PLC it bases "irectly on the relay intuition of the electricians. it is #i"ely in use outsi"e 8uro$e. !t is "escribe" here but not recommen"e" for ne# $roCects.

Ladder Logic (2)

origin+ electrical circuit ma0e contact (contact tra)ail),% ,1 relay coil (bobine) ?, brea0 contact (contact re$os)


,1 corres$on"ing la""er "iagram ?, ,>

,% ?, rung

,? 22

DcoilD ?, is use" to mo)e other contact(s)

Ladder logic (3)

'he contact $lan or Dla""er logicD language allo#s an easy transition from the tra"itional relay logic "iagrams to the $rogramming of binary functions. !t is #ell suite" to eE$ress combinational logic !t is not suite" for $rocess control $rogramming (there are no analog elements). 'he main la""er logic symbols re$resent the elements+

ma0e contact brea0 contact relay coil

contact tra)ail Arbeitskontakt contact re$os Ruhekontakt bobine


Ladder logic (4)

Binary combinations are expressed by series and parallel relay contact: ladder logic representation Series + 01 02 50 logic" equivalent 01 02 50

Coil 50 is active (current flows) when 01 is active and 02 is not. Parallel + 01 40 02 01 02 40

Coil 40 is active (current flows) when 01 is active or 02 is not.

Ladder logic (5)

The ladder logic is more intuitive for complex binary expressions than literal languages textual expression 1 2 3 5 4 50 6 !N 1 & 2 STR 3 & N 4 STR N 5 & 6 / STR & STR = 50

0 2

1 3 10

4 6 11

5 7

12 50 !0 & 1 STR 2 & 3 / STR STR 4 & 5 STR N 6 & 7 / STR & STR STR 10 & 11 / STR & 12 = 50

Ladder logic (6)

Ladder logic stems from the time of the relay technology. As PLCs replaced relays, their new possibilities could not be expressed any more in relay terms. The contact plan language was extended to express functions:


01 FUN 02 200

literal expression:
!00 & 01 FUN 02 = 200

The intuition of contacts and coil gets lost. The introduction of functions that influence the control flow itself, is problematic. The contact plan is - mathematically - a functional representation. The introduction of a more or less hidden control of the flow destroys the freedom of side effects and makes programs difficult to read.

Ladder logic (7)

Ladder logic provides neither: sub-programs (blocks), nor data encapsulation nor structured data types. It is not suited to make reusable modules. IEC 61131 does not prescribe the minimum requirements for a compiler / interpreter such as number of rungs per page nor does it specifies the minimum subset to be implemented. Therefore, it should not be used for large programs made by different persons It is very limited when considering analog values (it has only counters) used in manufacturing, not process control

Criteria for selecting a PLC

@ Ho# many control in$uts to be $rocesse" A 4os. 4os. of !n$ut @ Ho# many out$ut "e)ices or controlling elements are controlle" A 4os. 4os. of 6ut$ut. 6ut$ut. @ What memory ca$acity is nee"e" to store the Fuser $rogramG ? @ What s$ee" of $rocessing an" o$erational ca$abilities "esire? @ What are the communication reHuirements ? @ Are there any s$ecial or s$ecific reHuirements inclu"ing that of safetyI reliabilityI eE$an"ability etc. etc. @ System )oltage a)ailable for auEiliary su$$ly of PLC. PLC. 6n getting this information chec0 for the s$ecification of the a)ailable PLCs. PLCs.

Selecting a PLC
Criteria Number of logical inputs and outputs. Memory Number of special I/O modules Scan Time Communications Software

A Detailed Design Process 1. Understand the process 2. Hardware/software selection 3. Develop ladder logic 4. Determine scan times and memory requirements

Several factors are used for evaluating the quality and performance of programmable controllers when selecting a unit for a particular application. These are listed below. NUMBER OF I /O PORTS This specifies the number of I/O devices that can be connected to the controller. There should be sufficient I/O ports to meet present requirements with enough spares to provide for moderate future expansion.

OUTPUT-PORT POWER RATINGS Each output port should be capable of supplying sufficient voltage and current to drive the output peripheral connected to it. SCAN TIME This is the speed at which the controller executes the relay-ladder logic program. This variable is usually specified as the scan time per 1000 logic nodes and typically ranges from 1 to 200 milliseconds.

MEMORY CAPACITY The amount of memory required for a particular application is related to the length of the program and the complexity of the control system. Simple applications having just a few relays do not require significant amount of memory. Program length tend to expand after the system have been used for a while. It is advantageous to a acquire a controller that has more memory than is presently needed.

PLC Status Indicators Power On Run Mode Programming Mode Fault

Troubleshooting 1. Look at the process 2. PLC status lights HALT - something has stopped the CPU RUN - the PLC thinks it is OK (and probably is) ERROR - a physical problem has occurred with the PLC 3. Indicator lights on I/O cards and sensors 4. Consult the manuals, or use software if available. 5. Use programming terminal / laptop.

List of items required when working with PLCs: 1. Programming Terminal - laptop or desktop PC. 2. PLC Software. PLC manufacturers have their own specific software and license key. 3. Communication cable for connection from Laptop to PLC. 4. Backup copy of the ladder program (on diskette, CDROM, hard disk, flash memory). If none, upload it from the PLC. 5. Documentation- (PLC manual, Software manual, drawings, ladder program printout, and Seq. of Operations manual.)

Examples of PLC Programming Software: 1. Allen-Bradley Rockwell Software RSLogix500 2. Modicon - Modsoft 3. Omron - Syswin 4. GE-Fanuc Series 6 LogicMaster6 5. Square D- PowerLogic 6. Texas Instruments Simatic 6. Telemecanique Modicon TSX Micro

@ 6)er)ie# A A "e"icate" com$uter for ra$i" $rocessing of sim$le logic instructions in a "efine" time A 5se" in automate" $rocesses (rollercoaster) A 5se" a lot in automate" in"ustry A Logic control an" seHuencing a$$roaches A Cost+ J3, J2,, A .achine )ision commonly use" as su$$orting technology A 7r. 9e" - :oo" reference 5se in !n"ustry A A$$lications inclu"e sim$le an"I orI not "iagrams;$rograms A *e# limitations for its function A .ain 0no#n )en"ors+ Honey#ellI 9oc0#ellI Shar$I 5nitronics A Stan"ar"s+ !8C 311>1. 'rying to stan"ar"iKe PLC $rograms A$$lication eEam$les A .o"eling Programs an" 7iagnosable functions for PLCs A 5seful in $lanning an" "etermining structure an" "iagram A Par0ing garage )i"eo A 7esign your o#n street light system A 8n" of the line