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Lec. Saleh Hasson

Thermodynamic Processes


Lec. Saleh Hasson

Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a process, and the series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path of the process Fig 7 . To describe a process completely, one should specify the initial and final states of the process, as well as the path it follows, and the interactions with the surroundings.

Fig 7 If process occur in which pressure,Temeperature and density for each part of the system change in regular way , the process called REVERSIBLE else its IRREVERSIBLE . Process: Describes the Path - Reversible (always in Equilibrium) - Irreversible (defines direction of time) - Adiabatic (no heat transfer between system and surroundings) - Isobaric (constant pressure) - Isothermal (constant temperature) - Constant Volume

Heat and Work

Energy can be divided in to tow types Stored energy {chemical,electrical,mechanical(potential and kinetic)} and Transit energy (heat and work)(Energy interchange between system and its surroundings) . Heat(Q) is defined as the form of energy that is transferred between two systems (or a system and its surroundings) by virtue of a temperature difference. That is, an energy interaction is heat only if it takes place because of a temperature difference. Then it follows that there cannot be any heat transfer between two systems that are at the same temperature, therefore Heat is energy in transition. It is recognized only as it crosses the boundary of a system. Thus, in thermodynamics, the term heat simply means heat transfer
Heat is transferred by three mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation.`

THERMODYNAMICS / CHPTER 1 Q = +ve if it transfer to system , Q = -ve if it transfer from system Q = 0 at equilibrium state .

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Temperature it is a property that show if the system is at a thermal equilibrium with another one or more ( it is a measure of heat quantity in to the system ) .

Work(W), like heat, is an energy interaction between a system and its surroundings. Energy can cross the boundary of a closed system in the form of heat or work. Therefore, if the energy crossing the boundary of a closed system is not heat, it must be work. Heat is easy to recognize: Its driving force is a temperature difference between the system and its surroundings. Then we can simply say that an energy interaction that is not caused by a temperature difference between a system and its surroundings is work. More specifically, work is the energy transfer associated with a force acting through a distance. A rising piston, a rotating shaft are all associated with work interactions. Work is also a form of energy transferred like heat and, therefore, has energy units such as kJ.

EXAMPLE 1 A candle is burning in a well-insulated room. Taking the room (the air plus the candle) as the system, determine (a) if there is any heat transfer during this burning process and (b) if there is any change in the internal energy of the system Solution A candle burning in a well-insulated room is considered. It is to be determined whether there is any heat transfer and any change in internal energy. EXAMPLE 2 A potato initially at room temperature (25C) is being baked in an oven that is maintained at 200C, as shown in Fig. 2 21. Is there any heat transfer during this baking process? Solution A potato is being baked in an oven. It is to be determined whether there is any heat transfer during this process. EXAMPLE 3 Heating of an Oven by Work Transfer A well-insulated electric oven is being heated through its heating element. If the entire oven, including the heating element, is taken to be the system, determine whether this is a heat or work interaction. Solution A well-insulated electric oven is being heated by its heating element. It is to be determined whether this is a heat or work interaction. EXAMPLE 4 Heating of an Oven by Heat Transfer Answer the question in Example 3 if the system is taken as only the air in the oven without the heating element.


Lec. Saleh Hasson

Solution The question in Example 3 is to be reconsidered by taking the system to be only the air in the oven. Discussion For both cases, the amount of energy transfer to the air is the same. These two examples show that an energy transfer can be heat or work, depending on how the system is selected.





The zeroth law of thermodynamics

Experimentally it was found that when two body A and B are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body C then A and B are also in thermal equilibrium.

and it serves as a basis for the validity of temperature measurement.

Temperature Scale
The Thermometer is an instrument to measure temperature , work according with changing one of physical properties of matter with alteration temperature (alteration pressure, resistance, extend matter with alteration temperature) Thermometer Liquid Thermometer Matter Mercury& alcohol Property Change in length


Resistance Thermometer Radiation Thermometer

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Change in radiation colour

Hydrogen Platinum Pyrometer

From this table , we can design many types of Thermometers according with changing of physical properties .

Celsius Scale (centigrade scale ) This thermometer depend on freezing and boiling points of water,
which are also called the ice point and the steam point, respectively.

Fahrenheit scale
On the Celsius scale, the ice and steam points were originally assigned the values of 0 and 100C, respectively. The corresponding values on the Fahrenheit scale are 32 and 212F.


C 0 100 0

F 32 212 32

The Fahrenheit scale is related to the Celsius scale by T(F) = 1.8 T(C) + 32

Kelvin Scale(Absolute scale)

In thermodynamics, it is very desirable to have a temperature scale that is independent of the properties of substances. Such a temperature scale is called a Kelvin scale, which is developed later in conjunction with the second law of thermodynamics. This thermometer is based on the principle that at low pressures, the temperature of a gas is proportional to its pressure at constant volume. That is, the temperature of a gas of fixed volume varies linearly with pressure at sufficiently low pressures. Then the relationship between the temperature and the pressure of the gas in the vessel can be expressed as T=a+bP (a,b are constant) . Experimentally we found the following plot :


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The Kelvin scale is related to the Celsius scale by T(K) = T(C) + 273.15

The triple point of water

the state at which all three phases of water coexist in equilibrium , which is assigned the value 273.16 K. Its useful to find the temperature for specific system .

Now if (X3) is a thermometer property (length , resistance , atc) at The

triple point of water (TX3) and (X) at a temperature that we want

measure in it (TX) then

TX TX 3 X X3

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X X3




EX)If the length of mercury in thermometer is 6cm at the triple point of water . Calculate the length when its record 150K. Sol) X=3.3cm

Kind of thermometers
1. 2. 3. 4. Mercury thermometer Thermocouple The gas thermometer Electrical resistance thermometer H.W

5.Radiation barometers Radiation is heat transfer by the emission of electromagnetic waves which carry energy away from the emitting object .

Barometer an equipment measure very high temperature and deepened on radiation of hot bodies (coulor of bodies is a function of intensity of radiation) . The maximum rate of radiation that can be emitted from a surface at an absolute temperature Ts is given by the Stefan Boltzmann law as

For hot objects other than ideal radiators, the law is expressed in the form:

where e is the emissivity of the object (e = 1 for ideal radiator). If the hot object is radiating energy to its cooler surroundings at temperature Tc, the net radiation loss rate takes the form


Lec. Saleh Hasson

The Stefan-Boltzmann relationship is also related to the energy density in the radiation in a given volume of space. The idealized surface that emits radiation at this maximum rate is called a blackbody, and the radiation emitted by a blackbody is called blackbody radiation. The emissivities of some surfaces are given in the following Table:

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