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LECTURE MANUAL IN EDUC 112 (THE TEACHING PROFESSION)

CHAPTER I-THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF TEACHING A. Legal Bases 1. The 1987 Philippine Constitution 2. P.D. 1006- Providing for the Professionalization of Teachers , Regulating their practice in the Philippines and For Other Purposes 3. R.A. No. 7836- An Act to Strengthen the Regulation and Supervision of the Practice of Teaching in the Philippines and prescribing a licensure Examination for Teachers and for other purposes. 4. Republic Act 9293- An Act amending certain sections of R.A. 7836 otherwise known as The Philippine Teachers Professionalization Act of 1994. 5. Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHERS Resolution No. 4355 series of 1997 Pursuant to the provisions of paragraph PREAMBLE Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possess dignity and reputation with high moral values as well as technical and professional competence. In the practice of their noble profession, they strictly adhere to, observe and practice this set of ethical and moral principles, standard and values. B. 1. Meaning of Profession, Professionalism vs. Professionalization (According to Professor Julia Evetts, an expert in the field of sociology of professions from Nottingham University, UK.) The terms are very different. Profession Professionalization Professionalism -means a generic is the process of becoming, It is an occupational value category of a particular in which an occupation or a normative value, type of occupation, seeks to promote itself to something that in effect is usually, one that be promoted by external a good thing and is worth involves knowledge, a agents into a professional preserving and worth service and an extended occupation protecting, because period of education, someone that exhibits training and work professionalism is experience with an essentially doing a good experienced practitioner job in providing a social that has been practicing service that is valued and for a number of years. useful. Ex. Teaching, engineer

2. Do professionalization and professionalism go hand in- hand? Yes and no. Professionalism and professionalization have sometimes been seen in opposition or in contrast to one another. Professionalism is a functional occupational value that provides civility and stability at the macro level to the whole social system. Professionalization is more of the process of occupation trying to protect its practitioners by closing the market to a particular occupation so that only those that are trained in that particular category of knowledge can practice the occupation. Clearly, they can go hand in hand in that following professionalization, when an n occupation has become a closed occupation, then the practitioners in that occupation can exhibit professionalism. 3. How has the use of the term professionalization changed in theory and practice in the last few decades? Professionalization has changed less than professionalism itself. The process of professionalization has been pursued by numerous occupations recently, particularly by occupations in the health sector who have attempted to regulate the occupation, standardize the education and training to be received and often moved that education and training into the tertiary or university sector in order to add status to that particular occupation. So, it is something that is done in the interest of the professional practitioners themselves, but it can also be functional to the extent which occupations regulate or are regulated. It is a useful thing because clients, patients, students and school children can at least anticipate that the service they are receiving will be of particular standard. 4. Which occupations and sectors are experiencing the biggest changes? All occupations and sectors are experiencing big changes because regulation now is a term being expanded and extended to all kinds of work. 5. To what extent can the terms professionalism and professionalization be related to the field of vocational education and training? Professionalism and professionalization can be related to vocational education training, as you want a good plumber if you are in a crisis situation with a leaking tap or toilet, likewise with an electrician or a carpenter. Gas fitters for example fits appliances that run on gas, these appliances are dangerous and apart from anything else they can leak carbon monoxide which can be lethal. Gas fitters are therefore very highly regulated and the fitters that fit these appliances have to reach a very high level of practical and theoretical knowledge in the fitting of these appliances. It is a mixture really and the tendency is to professionalize manual work as well as service sector. All occupations can exercise professionalism.

Would we eventually see that the occupational group will professionally acquire or move towards a more professionalized occupation? It depends on how restrictive are you going to use the term. Professionalism is wider and much broader. Professionalization is about movement towards becoming a profession, which is a specific category based sector occupations that are based on abstract knowledge. So all professions can exercise professionalism but they cannot all professionalize and they cannot all become professions. Does doing a good job is enough for describing professionalism or is professionalism more of a reflection of what you are performing? Does it make sense if someone is doing a good job but is not passionate and does not identify him or herself with what he or she is doing, although they may do it? It does not only mean doing a good job. But it does mean being committed to providing a good service whatever the occupation involves. It is in a sense somebody that is self-driven and self-motivated. It is being inner directed. This is somebody that does not really need a supervisor or a manager because they themselves want to do a good job so it is removing the need for constant supervision, checking times, etc. 6. What is the difference in observing professionalization and professionalism at the personal vs. occupational level? Meso level or middle level of analysis. And micro level is on the personal level. With professionalism, we can appreciate when customers are satisfied. When a doctor, lawyer or a plumber actually has satisfied a client, then it is certainly the result of that practitioner exercising professionalism. The only way you can observe professionalization is by looking at an occupation and how its position, its system of education and training and perhaps how its social status have changed overtime.

Elements of Professionalization 1. Initial Professional Education Professionals generally begin their professional lives by completing a University program in their chosen fields-law school medical school, engineering school, and so on. 2. Accreditation University programs are accredited by oversight bodies that determine whether the programs provide adequate education. Accreditation assures that graduates from accredited programs start their professional lives with the knowledge they need to perform effectively. The accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) oversees engineering programs. AAACCUP is an external and private agency accrediting programs of SCUs in the Philippines. 3. Skills Development

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For most professions, education alone is not sufficient to develop full professional capabilities. Nascent professionals need practice applying their knowledge before they are prepared to take primary responsibility from performing work in their fields. Physicians have three (3) years residency. Certified Public Accountants (CPAs must work one (1) year for a boardapproved organization before receiving their licenses. Professional engineers must have at least four years of work experience. Requiring some kind of apprenticeship assures that people who enter a profession have practice performing work at a satisfactory level of competence. Certification After completion of education and skills development, a professional is required to pass one or more exams that assure the person has attained a minimum level of knowledge. Doctors take board exams. Accountants take CPA exams. Engineers take an engineering exam about four years later. Some professionals require recertification from time to time. Licensing Licensing is similar to certification except that it is mandatory instead of voluntary and is administered by a government authority. Only licensed professionals can be found guilty of malpractice, but following generally accepted practices of your profession can be a defense against accusations of malpractice. Non-licensed workers are rarely sued for poor wok, except in extreme cases of neglect or intent to harm; usually the company employing the worker is sued if its workers produce defective products. Dissatisfied customers can sue the licensed professional as an individual, in addition to suing their employer. Along with licensing comes malpractice insurance, to allow the licensed professional to practice his or her craft without fear of personal bankruptcy. Professional Development Many professions are required to keep their professional education current. Ongoing professional education maintains or improves worker knowledge and skills after they begin professional practice. Professional development requirements tend to be strongest in professions where a body of technical knowledge is rapidly changing. Medicine is perhaps the most notable because of the constant improvement in drugs, therapies, and medical equipment and diagnosis and diagnosis and treatment procedures. After professionals initial education and skills development are complete, this additional education requirement helps to assure a minimum competency throughout the professionals career. Professional Societies Professionals see themselves as part f the community of like-minded individuals who put their professional standard above the individual self-interest or their employers self-interest. When a professional society is just beginning, it usually

promotes the exchange of knowledge and over time its functions evolves to include defining certification criteria, managing certification programs, establishing accreditation standards, and defining a code of ethics and disciplinary action for violation of that code. 8. Code of Ethics Each profession has a code of ethics to ensure that each practitioner behave responsibly. The Code states not just what each practitioner actually does by what they should do. Professionals can be ejected from their professional societies or lose their licenses to practice for violating the code of ethics. Adherence to a recognized code of conduct helps professionals feel they belong to a well regarded community, and enforcement of ethics standards helps maintain a minimum level f conduct. 9. Organizational Certification In many professions, not only must individuals be certified, their organizations must be certified. Accounting firms are peer reviewed. Hospitals are accredited, as are universities. For fields as complex as accounting, education, and medicine, organizational certification is a response to the reality that individual competence is not sufficient to guarantee adequate levels of professional service, organizational characteristics can have as much influence as individuals characteristics. C. Teaching as a Profession, Vocation and a Mission Keep interested in your own career, however humble: it is a real possession in the changing fortunes of time, DESIDERATA Etymology of the word vocation Latin- vocare which means to call. If there is a call, there must also be a caller and called ones. For Christians, Abraham was the 1st one called by God to do something not for themselves but for others. TEACHNG as your vocation. It may not be your choice to be a teacher but if you believe that God has called you, you have no other choice but to respond to that call. It may not give you material wealth but your rewards are the fulfillment that you feel within and the peace that you have obeyed the caller. ETYMOLOGY OF THE WORD MISSION Teaching is also a mission which means to send. Latin-misio. You were called to be teachers and you are sent into the world to accomplish a mission, to teach. Webster New Collegiate Dictionary defines mission as task assigned. You are sent to accomplish assigned task.

Teaching as your mission means it is the tasks entrusted to you in this world. If it is your assigned task, you have to prepare yourself. Dont take your studies for granted. You have to be equipped with KSA to become an effective teacher. As a teacher you need to undergo continuing professional education as stated in the Code of Ethics for professional Teachers. As the saying goes, once a teacher, forever a student. Flowing from your uniqueness, you are expected to contribute to the betterment of this world in your own unique way. Your unique and most significant contribution to the humanization of life on earth is in the field where you are prepared for teaching. The mission to teach is to help the child become the man of culture and of expertise. It is also to influence every child entrusted in your care to become better and happier because life becomes more meaningful... To teach is to help the child become more human. To teach is to influence every child entrusted in your care to become better and happier because life becomes more meaningful. To teach is to help the child become more human. Dear teacher: I am a survivor of a concentration camp. -Gas chambers built by learned engineers -Children poisoned by educated physicians -Infants killed by trained nurses -Woman and babies shot and burned by high school and college graduates. So I am suspicious of education. My request is: Help your students become human; your efforts must never produce learned monsters, skilled psychopaths and Eichmanns. Reading and writing, arithmetic are important only if they serve to make our children more human. Just like the soldier. Can we say mission accomplished after teaching.

TEACHNG AS YOU PROFESSION A profession requires long and arduous years of preparation and a striving for excellence. Because the end goal of a profession is service and as we have heard many times we cannot give what we do not have we can give more if we have more. For us to give more, continuing professional education is a must. This is explicit in our Code of Professional Ethics.

Our service to the public turns out to be dedicated and committed only when our moral ethical and religious convictions inspire us to embrace continuing professional education. If you take teaching as your profession, this means that you must be willing to go through a long period of preparation and a continuing professional development .You must strive for excellence, commit yourself to moral, ethical and religious values and dedicate yourself to public service. The pwede na mentality vs. excellence as one element of professionalism TEACHING AND A LIFE OF MEANING A MEANINGFUL PURPOSE-DRIVEN LIFE CALLS FOR PASSIONATE TEACHING, THE NOBLEST PROFESSION. Teaching may not be a lucrative position. It cannot guarantee financial security. It even means investing your personal time, energy and resources. Sometimes it means disappointments, heartaches, and pains. But touching the hearts of people and opening the minds of children can give you joy and contentment which money could not buy. These are the moments I teach for. These are the moments I live for. If we stick to this complacent mentality, excellence eludes us. CHAPTER II----------PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION A. WHAT IS PHLOSOPHY OF EDUCATION Philosophy of education is a system of values by which one lives. B. FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHY OF DUCATION Philosophy of education helps in answering what schools are for, what subjects are important, how students should learn and what materials and methods should be used. In decision making, philosophy provides the starting point and will be used for the succeeding decision making. Philosophy of education is your window to the world and compass in life. It is reflected in your dealings with students, colleagues, parents and administrators. Your attitude towards problems in life as a whole has an underlying philosophy. Philosophy of education contains the following; 1. The Human person, the learner in particular and the educated person. 2. What is true and good and therefore must be taught. 3. How a learner must be taught in order to come close to the truth.

C. VARIOUS PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION ESENTIALISM: Reason to teach: The philosophy contends that teachers teach for learners to acquire basic knowledge, skills and values. Teachers each not to radically shape society but rather to transmit the traditional moral values and intellectual knowledge that students need to become model citizens Content to teach: The emphasis is on academic content for students to learn the basic skills or the fundamental rs( reading, riting, rithmitic right conduct)- as these are essential to the acquisition of higher or more complex skills needed in preparation for adult life. The essentialist curriculum includes the traditional discipline such as Math, Natural Science, History, Foreign Language and Literature. Essentialist frowns upon vocational upon vocational courses or other courses with watered down academic content. The teachers and administrators decide what is most important for the students to learn and places little emphases on students interest, particularly when they divert time and attention from the academic curriculum. Manner to Teach: Essentialist teachers emphasize mastery of subject matter. They are expected to be intellectual and moral models of their students. They are seen as fountain of information and as paragon of virtue, if ever there is such a person. Teachers have to observe core requirements, longer school day and longer school year to gain mastery of basic skills. Teachers rely heavily on the use of textbooks, the drill method and other methods that will enable them to cover as much academic content as possible like the lecture method. There is a heavy stress on memorization and discipline. PROGRESSIVISM: Reasons to Teach: Progressivism teachers teach to develop learners into becoming enlightened and intelligent citizens of a democratic society. These teachers teach learners so they may live life fully NOW not to prepare them for adult life. Content to Teach: The progressivism is identified with need-based and relevant curriculum. This curriculum responds to the needs of students and relates to students personal lives and experiences. They accept the impermanence of life and the inevitability of

change. They are more concerned with teaching the learners the skills to cope with change. Instead of teaching facts or bits of information that are true today but obsolete tomorrow, they focus their teaching on the teaching of skills or processes in gathering information and in problem solving. The subjects they are giving emphasis are the natural and social sciences. Teachers expose students to new scientific, t4echnological and social developments, reflecting the progressivism notion that progress and change are fundamental. Students solve problems in the school like what they will encounter outside. Manner to teach: Progressive teachers employ experiential methods. They believe that one learns by doing. Book learning is no substitute for actual experience. One experiential method progressivism teachers employ is the problem-solving method... Other methods are field trips because in this method, students interact with nature and society. Teachers stimulate students through thought provoking games and puzzles. PERENNIALISM: Reason to teach: Schools develop the students rational and moral powers because teachers with this philosophy believe that we are all rational animals. They are convinced that if we neglect the students reasoning skills, we deprive them of the ability to use their higher faculties to control their passions and appetites. Content to Teach: Perennials content is heavy on the humanities, on general education. It is not a specialist curriculum but rather a general one. There is less emphasis on vocational and technical education. What the perennials teach are lifted from the Great books. Manner to teach: The classroom is centered on teachers. The teachers do not allow students interest or experiences to substantially dictate what they teach... They apply whatever creative techniques and other tried and true methods which are believed to be most conducive to disciplining the students minds. EXISTENTIALISM: Reason to teach: The main concern of the existentialist is to help students understand and appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept complete responsibility for their thoughts, feelings and actions. Their role is to help students define their own essence by exposing them to various paths they take to life and by creating an environment in which they freely choose their own preferred way. They demand the education of the whole person, not just the mind.

Content to teach: Students are given a wide variety of options from which to choose. Students are afforded great latitude in their choice of subject matter. Humanities however, are given tremendous emphasis to provide students with vicarious experiences that will help unleash their own creativity and self-expression. Moreover, vocational education is regarded more as a means of teaching students about themselves and their potential than of earning a livelihood. In teaching art, existentialist encourage individuals creativity and imagination more than copying and imitating established models. Manner to teach: Existentialist methods focused on the individual. Learning is self-paced, selfdirected. It includes a great deal of individual contact with the teacher, who relates to each student openly and honestly. Teachers employ values clarification strategy is used by the teacher to help students know themselves and their place in the society. In the use of such strategy, teachers remain non-judgmental and take care not to impose their values on their students since values are personal. BEHAVIORISM: Reason to Teach: Behaviourist is concerned with the modification of students behaviour by providing for a favourable environment. They believe that students are product of their environment. They are after students who exhibit desirable behavior in the society. Content to teach: Behaviourist teaches students to respond favourably to various stimuli in the environment. This is because they look at people and other animals as complex combinations of matter that act only in response to internally or externally generated physical stimuli. Manner to teach: Behaviorist teachers arrange environmental conditions so that students can make the responses to stimuli. Physical variables like light, temperature, arrangement of furniture, size and quantity of visual aids have to be controlled to get the desired responses from the learners. Teachers make the stimuli clear and interesting to capture and hold the learners attention. They need to provide appropriate incentives to reinforce positive responses and weaken or eliminate weak ones. (Trespeces, 1995)

D. THE 4 PILLARS OF LEARNING UNESCOS REPORT OF THE International Commission on Education for the 21st century must be organized around four fundamental types of learning. 1. LEARNING TO KNOW; It may be regarded as both a means and an end of human existence. People have to learn to understand the world around them. Learning to know provide the cognitive tools required to better comprehend the world and its complexities and to provide and appropriate foundation for future learning. 2. LEARNING TO DO Learning must transform certified skills into personal competence. It is assessed by looking at a mix of skills and talents, social behavior, personal initiative and a willingness to work. These are often referred to as interpersonal skills or peoples skills by employers. Knowledge along with other qualities like communication skills. Team building and problem solving skills is most demanded by the service sector these days. Learning to do to provide the skills that would enable individuals to effectively participate in the global economy and society. 3. LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER Education should help in inculcating a spirit of empathy in students so that it can have a positive effect on their social behavior throughout their lives. Understanding each other, resolving conflicts through dialogue and discussion should be the essential tool of present day generation. To expose individuals to the values implicit within human rights, democratic principles, intercultural understanding and respect and peace at all levels of society and human relationships to enable individuals and societies to live in peace and harmony. 4. LEARNING TO BE: The aim of development is the complete fulfillment of man and his development in a holistic way as an individual member of a family and community and is responsible citizen. To provide self-analytical and social skills to enable individuals to develop to their fullest potential psychosocially, affectively as well as physically for an all-around complete person

Chapter III-

THE NATIONAL COMPETENCY-BASED TEACHER STANDARDS

Schematic Representation of the Integrated Domains of the National Competency-Based Teacher Standards Doman 1 Domain Social Regard for Learning Act as positive role model Domain 7 Personal growth and Professional development Domain 2 The Learning Environment

Domain 6 Community Linkages

Statement of Principle

Domain 3 Diversity of Learners

Domain 5 Planning, Assessing and Reporting

Domain 4 Curriculum -Demonstrate mastery of the subject

STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLE Teachers in all Philippine schools are committed and accountable for providing classroom instruction with results that are manifested in high performance levels in terms of student learning outcomes. Teachers are dedicated to the well-being of the students and communities

they serve, taking into account their cultural diversity, group aspirations and what is valued in education. 1. Domain 1- Social Regard for Learning Acts as positive role model for students 2. Domain 2- The Learning Environment Creates an environment that promotes fairness Makes the physical environment safe and conducive to learning Communicate higher learning expectations to each learner Establishes and maintains consistent standards of learners behaviour 3. Domain 3Diversity of Learners Is familiar with learners background knowledge and experiences Demonstrates concern for holistic development 4. Domain 4Curriculum Demonstrates mastery of the subject Communicates clear learning goals for the lessons that are appropriate for the learners Makes good use of allotted instructional time Selects teaching methods, learning activities, and instructional materials or resources appropriate to learners and aligned to the objectives of the lesson. 5. Domain 5Planning, Assessing and Reporting Communicates promptly and clearly to learners parents and superiors about the progress of the learners Develops and uses a variety of appropriate assessment strategies t monitor and evaluate learning Monitors regularly and provide feedback on learners; understanding of content 6. Domain 6Community Linkages Establishes learning environments that responds to the aspirations of the community 7. Domain 7Personal Growth and Professional Development Takes pride in the nobility of teaching as a profession

Builds professional links with colleagues to enrich teaching practice Reflects on the extent of the attainment of learning goals

Standards for Good Teaching


You and I and a couple million other people have all been in schools for a number of years, and we all have some pretty good ideas about the qualities we feel are important for good teaching. Not surprising, several agencies and organizations have looked into the characteristics of good teachers. One of those is the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC). The INTASC establishes guidelines for preparing, licensing, and certifying educators. Among other things, they promote 10 standards that should be part of every teacher's classroom practice or personality (after some principles I have listed articles that address the specific topics): Principle 1. The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students. Principle 2 The teacher understands how children learn and develop and can provide learning opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development (Effective LearningandHow Students Learn). Principle 3 The teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners (How Students LearnandTeaching Special Needs Students). Principle 4 The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students' development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and performance skills (Lesson MethodologiesandProblem Solving). Principle 5 The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation (What Is Cooperative Learning, and What Does It Do?andMotivating Your Students).

Principle 6 The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom (Lesson MethodologiesandLevels of Questions).

Principle 7 The teacher plans instruction based on knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals (Lesson Plans: Using ObjectivesandThe Question of Homework).

Principle 8 The teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of the learner (Categories of Evaluation).

Principle 9 The teacher is a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects of his or her choices and actions on others (students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community) and who actively seeks out opportunities to grow professionally.

Principle 10 The teacher fosters relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community to support students' learning and well-being (Special Projects, Special Events).

It's important to point out that your effectiveness as a teacher depends on much more than your knowledge of one or more subjects. In fact, your success will be driven by characteristics and dynamics that are as much a part of who you are as they are of your classroom behavior. Conversations with hundreds of teachers around the country indicate that good teachers are effective because they assume five interrelated roles: You as a person Student orientation Task orientation Classroom management Lifelong learning

Good teaching is one that is well planned and where activities are interrelated to each other Good teaching is one that provides learning experiences or situations that will ensure understanding, application and critical thinking. Good teaching is based on the theory of learning Good teaching utilizes prior knowledge and its applicable to new situations

Good teaching is governed by democratic principles Good teaching embeds a sound evaluation process

Teachers Competencies
Kiymet SELVI, Faculty of Education, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey.kselvi@anadolu.edu.tr According to the above author, the general framework regarding teacher competencies were Explained in nine different dimensions as:

1. Field competencies 2. Research competencies 3. Curriculum competencies 4. Lifelong learning competencies 5. social-cultural competencies 6. Emotional competencies 7. Communication competencies 8. Information and communication technologies competencies (ICT) 9. and environmental competencies.
Teachers competencies affect their values, behaviours, communication, aims and practices in school and also they support professional development and curricular studies. Thus, the discussion on teachers competencies to improve the teaching-learning process in school is of great importance. Keywords: Teachers competencies, curriculum, curriculum development, curriculum implementation. INTRODUCTION Teachers need to improve knowledge and skills to enhance, improve and explore their teaching practices. Many of the studies on competencies of teachers focus on the teaching role of teachers in the classroom rather than teachers competencies. Teachers competencies have been broadening with respect to reform studies in education, development of teacher education, scientific results of educational science and other fields. Kress pointed out that the previous era had required an education for stability, the coming era requires an education for instability. Kress ideas can explain why teachers professional development should be redefined for sustainability. The aims of education change very quickly depending on the demands of the era requiring more capability. These demands directly affect educational system. Teachers are responsible for operating educational system and they need strong and efficient professional competencies. Teachers competencies must be reviewed so Kiymet SELVI, Teachers Competencies states those teachers competencies should be redefined depending on the development

of the whole life of human and education. Competencies are defined as the set of knowledge, skills, and experience necessary for future, which manifests in activities (Katane et. al. 44). Gupta (4) define competencies as knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, motivations and beliefs people need in order to be successful in a job. The common understanding related to teachers competencies is divided into three main areas as a. field competencies b. pedagogical competencies and c. Cultural competencies. Teachers professional competencies can be composed of different dimensions other than the three main areas (Bulajeva 41; Bridge; Hansen 169; James et al. 113; Stoffels 544; Selvi, The English language 5). Selvi (The English language 4) carried out a research regarding the professional competencies of English Language Teachers. The Conventional Delphi Technique was applied in order to constitute the competencies of new teachers based on the teachers and teacher educators views. Delphi process was completed after third rounds collecting the responses from the experts and Delphi round continued until the group consensus was achieved. The results of this study indicated that teachers professional competencies were composed of four main subgroups such as 1. Curriculum Competencies, 2. Lifelong Learning Competencies, 3. Social-Cultural Competencies and 4. Emotional Competencies. The results showed that teachers competencies must be discussed from a different point of view. In this context, the literature about teachers competencies was analyzed and the new competency areas constituted as seen below concerning the teachers competencies were tried to redefine depending on different dimensions of teachers professional competencies.

Field Competencies Research Competencies Curriculum Competencies Lifelong Learning Competencies Social-Cultural Competencies Emotional Competencies Communication CompetenciesCultura. International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology, vol. VII, no. 1/2010, 169
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Competencies

EXPECTED OF TEACHERS
Professional Characteristics Expected of a Teacher
Gilbert DepEd M. Forbes QUEZON

Principals and the public want ideal characteristics from their teachers which ideally are primary components of well- performing schools. Accept it or not, but teachers are the heart of education given their gargantuan roles. To have good and better teachers equate to good and better quality learning experiences among learners even in the most unparallel situations. It could not be substituted by flashy school buildings and facilities equipped with state of the art equipments. The very reason why expensive private schools insure that they employ highly qualified teaching staff is to ensure that they are offering the best education for their clients. What more in our public schools, do children of poor fellow countrymen deserve quality education if not at par is at least comparable to their rich counterparts? In so doing, school principals, have seen ten major characteristics that their fellow teachers should posses. Many of these if not all are incorporated in the professional and personal characteristics of the Performance Appraisal System for Teachers.

Decisiveness. Acts immediately on needs, request in accordance with the prescribed rules and regulations and accepted norms of conduct and behavior. In this regard, he/she is not causing delay in any endeavour.

Honesty and Integrity. He/she demonstrates truthfulness, candidness, uprightness and freedom from deceit. Just a mere glance of him already commands an inspiration, respect and admiration.

Dedication and Commitment. His commitment and dedication to make learning and continuously strive for improvement is evident. He renders service above the regular functions and even beyond the regular time.

Initiative and Resourcefulness. Starts action, projects and performs task without being told and supervised. It does equate with strong sensitivity to make everything spec and span.

Courtesy. He shows polite and thoughtful behavior toward the public, clientele, and supervisor-subordinate relationship into work situations. This is evident most in a nonpopulist or non-popular leadership style of immediate superiors or principal.

Compassion. Integrates genuine concern for pupils and students, colleagues, office clientele, and supervisor-subordinate relationship into work situations. The Performance Appraisal System for Teachers calls it Human Relations.

Diligence. He isnt merely committed and dedicated but diligent in his/her dealings with the learners. For the fast and gifted learners, the ability to make learning highly informative, interesting and challenging; for the average learners equally interesting and challenging; and for the mentally challenged learners, encouraging, captivating, and fun. A diligent teacher doesnt simply surrenders to whatever kind of learner she might have.

Wisdom. A teacher, who is full of wit as a result of full understanding of the teaching learning process, indeed is a feather in the cap of the institution of learning she belongs. Wisdom is gained not only from continuing professional development but more importantly from daily experiences and dealings.

Stress Tolerance. stability of performance under pressure or opposition Fairness and Justice. conforms to usual principles of law, is just and unbiased

Frugality and Simplicity. Modestly frugal enough embracing the life of simplicity. As a teacher, he/she is wise enough to understand the golden purpose of delaying gratification. The thought of financially independent future while performing the respected responsibilities of a being a teacher borne out of love is among his/her priorities. Teachers as the bearer of knowledge have all the capacities to overcome all challenges that may be set them. As an author says, teacher affects eternity and some may just never know how

Standards for Good Teaching


You and I and a couple million other people have all been in schools for a number of years, and we all have some pretty good ideas about the qualities we feel are important for good teaching. Not surprising, several agencies and organizations have looked into the characteristics of good teachers. One of those is the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC). The INTASC establishes guidelines for preparing, licensing, and certifying educators. Among other things, they promote 10 standards that should be part of every teacher's classroom practice or personality (after some principles I have listed articles that address the specific topics): Principle 1. The teacher understands the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of the discipline(s) he or she teaches and can create learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students.

Principle 2 The teacher understands how children learn and develop and can provide learning opportunities that support their intellectual, social, and personal development (Effective LearningandHow Students Learn).

Principle 3 The teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners (How Students LearnandTeaching Special Needs Students).

Principle 4 The teacher understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies to encourage students' development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and performance skills (Lesson MethodologiesandProblem Solving).

Principle 5 The teacher uses an understanding of individual and group motivation and behavior to create a learning environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning, and self-motivation (What Is Cooperative Learning, and What Does It Do?andMotivating Your Students).

Principle 6 The teacher uses knowledge of effective verbal, nonverbal, and media communication techniques to foster active inquiry, collaboration, and supportive interaction in the classroom (Lesson MethodologiesandLevels of Questions).

Principle 7 The teacher plans instruction based on knowledge of subject matter, students, the community, and curriculum goals (Lesson Plans: Using ObjectivesandThe Question of Homework).

Principle 8 The teacher understands and uses formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and ensure the continuous intellectual, social, and physical development of the learner (Categories of Evaluation).

Principle 9 The teacher is a reflective practitioner who continually evaluates the effects of his or her choices and actions on others (students, parents, and other professionals in the learning community) and who actively seeks out opportunities to grow professionally.

Principle 10 The teacher fosters relationships with school colleagues, parents, and agencies in the larger community to support students' learning and well-being (Special Projects, Special Events).

It's important to point out that your effectiveness as a teacher depends on much more than your knowledge of one or more subjects. In fact, your success will be driven by characteristics and dynamics that are as much a part of who you are as they are of your classroom behaviour.

Conversations with hundreds of teachers around the country indicate that good teachers are effective because they assume five interrelated roles: You as a person Student orientation Task orientation Classroom management Lifelong learning

Good teaching is one that is well planned and where activities are interrelated to each other Good teaching is one that provides learning experiences or situations that will ensure understanding, application and critical thinking. Good teaching is based on the theory of learning Good teaching utilizes prior knowledge and its applicable to new situations Good teaching is governed by democratic principles Good teaching embeds a sound evaluation process

Teachers Competencies
Kiymet SELVI, Faculty of Education, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey.kselvi@anadolu.edu.tr According to the above author, the general framework regarding teacher competencies were explained in nine different dimensions as:

1. Field competencies 2. Research competencies 3. Curriculum competencies 4. Lifelong learning competencies 5. social-cultural competencies 6. Emotional competencies 7. Communication competencies 8. Information and communication technologies competencies (ICT)

9. and environmental competencies.


Teachers competencies affect their values, behaviours, communication, aims and practices in school and also they support professional development and curricular studies. Thus, the discussion on teachers competencies to improve the teaching-learning process in school is of great importance. Keywords: Teachers competencies, curriculum, curriculum development, curriculum implementation.

INTRODUCTION Teachers need to improve knowledge and skills to enhance, improve and explore their teaching practices. Many of the studies on competencies of teachers focus on the teaching role of teachers in the classroom rather than teachers competencies. Teachers competencies have been broadening with respect to reform studies in education, development of teacher education, scientific results of educational science and other fields. Kress pointed out that the previous era had required an education for stability, the coming era requires an education for instability. Kress ideas can explain why teachers professional development should be redefined for sustainability. The aims of education change very quickly depending on the demands of the era requiring more capability. These demands directly affect educational system. Teachers are responsible for operating educational system and they need strong and efficient professional competencies. Teachers competencies must be reviewed so Kiymet SELVI, Teachers Competencies states that teacher competencies should be redefined depending on the development of the whole life of human and education. Competencies are defined as the set of knowledge, skills, and experience necessary for future, which manifests in activities (Katane et. al. 44). Gupta (4) define competencies as knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, motivations and beliefs people need in order to be successful in a job. The common understanding related to teachers competencies is divided into three main areas as 1. field competencies 2. pedagogical competencies and 3. Cultural competencies. Teachers professional competencies can be composed of different dimensions other than the three main areas (Bulajeva 41; Bridge; Hansen 169; James et al. 113; Stoffels 544; Selvi, The English language 5). Selvi (The English language 4) carried out a research regarding the professional competencies of English Language Teachers. The Conventional Delphi Technique was applied in order to constitute the competencies of new teachers based on the teachers and teacher educators views. Delphi process was completed after third rounds collecting the responses from the experts and Delphi round continued until the group consensus was achieved. The results of this study indicated that teachers professional competencies were composed of four main subgroups such as 4. Curriculum Competencies, 5. Lifelong Learning Competencies,

6. Social-Cultural Competencies and 7. Emotional Competencies. The results showed that teachers competencies must be discussed from a different point of view. In this context, the literature about teachers competencies was analyzed and the new competency areas constituted as seen below concerning the teachers competencies were tried to redefine depending on different dimensions of teachers professional competencies. Field Competencies

Research Competencies Curriculum Competencies Lifelong Learning Competencies Social-Cultural Competencies Emotional Competencies Communication CompetenciesCultura. International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology, vol. VII, no. 1/2010, 169 Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Competencies

EXPECTED OF TEACHERS

Professional Characteristics Expected of a Teacher


Gilbert M. Forbes DepEd QUEZON Principals and the public want ideal characteristics from their teachers which ideally are primary components of well- performing schools. Accept it or not, but teachers are the heart of education given their gargantuan roles. To have good and better teachers equate to good and better quality learning experiences among learners even in the most unparallel situations. It could not be substituted by flashy school buildings and facilities equipped with state of the art equipments. The very reason why expensive private schools insure that they employ highly qualified teaching staff is to ensure that they are offering the best education for their clients. What more in our public schools, do children of poor fellow countrymen deserve quality education if not at par is at least comparable to their rich counterparts? In so doing, school principals, have seen ten major characteristics that their fellow teachers should

posses. Many of these if not all are incorporated in the professional and personal characteristics of the Performance Appraisal System for Teachers.

Decisiveness. Acts immediately on needs, request in accordance with the prescribed rules and regulations and accepted norms of conduct and behavior. In this regard, he/she is not causing delay in any endeavor. Honesty and Integrity. He/she demonstrates truthfulness, candidness, uprightness and freedom from deceit. Just a mere glance of him already commands an inspiration, respect and admiration. Dedication and Commitment. His commitment and dedication to make learning and continuously strive for improvement is evident. He renders service above the regular functions and even beyond the regular time. Initiative and Resourcefulness. Starts action, projects and performs task without being told and supervised. It does equate with strong sensitivity to make everything spec and span. Courtesy. He shows polite and thoughtful behavior toward the public, clientele, and supervisor-subordinate relationship into work situations. This is evident most in a nonpopulist or non-popular leadership style of immediate superiors or principal. Compassion. Integrates genuine concern for pupils and students, colleagues, office clientele, and supervisor-subordinate relationship into work situations. The Performance Appraisal System for Teachers calls it Human Relations. Diligence. He isnt merely committed and dedicated but diligent in his/her dealings with the learners. For the fast and gifted learners, the ability to make learning highly informative, interesting and challenging; for the average learners equally interesting and challenging; and for the mentally challenged learners, encouraging, captivating, and fun. A diligent teacher doesnt simply surrenders to whatever kind of learner she might have. Wisdom. A teacher, who is full of wit as a result of full understanding of the teaching learning process, indeed is a feather in the cap of the institution of learning she belongs. Wisdom is gained not only from continuing professional development but more importantly from daily experiences and dealings. Stress Tolerance. stability of performance under pressure or opposition Fairness and Justice. conforms to usual principles of law, is just and unbiased Frugality and Simplicity. Modestly frugal enough embracing the life of simplicity. As a teacher, he/she is wise enough to understand the golden purpose of delaying gratification. The thought of financially independent future while performing the respected responsibilities of a being a teacher borne out of love is among his/her priorities. Teachers as the bearer of knowledge have all the capacities to overcome all challenges that may beset them. As an author says, teacher affects eternity and some may just never know how.

CHAPTER IV- ROLES, DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITY OF TEACHERS a. Facilitator of Learning b. Trustee of Cultural Heritage c. Leader in Community movements for moral, social, educational, economic and civic betterment d. Role Model of the Teaching Profession e. A colleague and mentor to other teachers f. Confidant and Counsellor g. Role model for learning and continuing professional education/development ( cpe/cpd) h. Planner, assessor and reporter Roles of Teachers An anonymous author once wrote A good teacher is laike a candle which consumes itself to light the way for others 1. Observers: teachers observe what students do, to give them useful feedback as a group or individually 2. Assessor: Indicator of whether or not the students are getting the language correctly. The teacher offers feedback, corrects and grades students 3. Tutor: working on projects or presentations with individual or small groups, pointing them in the direction they have not yet thought of taking. More personal contact, to feel supported and helped. 4. Second mothers: teachers give care and love; they instruct and try to form a safe and pleasant environment for their students. Students know that if they need something they just need to ask them. 5. Role models: teachers lead, respect and guide their students to become a successful person. Students view their teacher as being wise, therefore they look up to them. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TEACHERS General duties: 1. Prepare lessons, making them as interesting as possible 2. Prepare homework, assignments and assessment

3. Research information to ensure the knowledge they impart is current 4. Mark homework and pieces of assessment 5. Identify the needs of individual students in their classes, and work to help each child develop his or her own potential. 6. Prepare resources for the classroom 7. Confer with students over their work 8. Assist children to learn, not judge their inability to learn 9. Identify emotional, intellectual, physical, etc issues which maybe hindering the student fro learning to his/ her best potential and research and recommend courses of action 10. Conduct parent-interviews 11. Provide a sounding board ( for both students and teachers) and allow for open discussion 12. Attend professional development sessions to improve his/her teaching methods and curriculum 13. Present a professional but caring persona at all times 14. Treat students with respect, and teach them to treat others with respect