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NANOTECHNOLOGY

~ANILKUMAR.R INTRODUCTION: There is a growing sense in the scientific and technical community that we are about to enter a golden new era !e are about to be able to build things that wor" on the smallest #ossible length scales$ atom by atom with the ultimate le%el of finesse These little nanothings and the technology that assembles and mani#ulates them && nanotechnology ' will re%olutioni(e our industries$ and our li%es E%erything we see around us is made of atoms$ the tiny elemental building bloc"s of matter )rom stone$ to co##er$ to bron(e$ iron$ steel$ and now silicon$ the ma*or technological ages of human"ind ha%e been defined by what these atoms can do in huge aggregates$ trillions of atoms at a time$ molded$ sha#ed$ and refined as macrosco#ic ob*ects E%en in our %aunted microelectronics of +,,,$ in our highest&tech silicon com#uter chi# the smallest feature is a mountain com#ared to the si(e of a single atom The resultant technology of our-.th century is fantastic$ but it #ales when com#ared to what will be #ossible when we learn to build things at the ultimate le%el of control$ one atom at a time Nature has #layed the game at this le%el for billions of years$ building stuff with atomic #recision E%ery li%ing thing is made of cells that are choc" full of nanomachines #roteins$ /NA$ 0NA$ etc & each *iggling around in the water of the cell$ rubbing u# against other molecules$ going about the business of life Each one is #erfect right down to the last atom The wor"ings are so e12uisite that changing the location or identity of any atom would cause damage O%er the #ast century we ha%e learned about the wor"ings of these biological nano machines to an incredible le%el of detail$ and the benefits of this "nowledge are beginning to be felt in medicine 3n coming decades we will learn to modify and ada#t this machinery to e1tend the 2uality and length of life 4iotechnology was the first nanotechnology$ and it has a long way yet to go 5owerful as it is$ Nature6s biotechnology cannot do e%erything 3t cannot ma"e things strong li"e steel or conduct electricity with the s#eed and efficiency of co##er or silicon )or this$ other nanotechnologies are being de%elo#ed Carbon nanotubes$for e1am#le$ are e1#ected to #roduce fibers +.. times stronger than steel at only +78th the weight They ha%e been shown to be true molecular wires$ and ha%e already been assembled into the first single
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molecule transistor e%er built 9e%eral decades from now we may see our current silicon&based microelectronics su##lanted by a carbon&based nano electronics of %astly greater #ower and sco#e

NTR (NANO TECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION):


The NT0 3nitiati%e will address fi%e acti%ities: & Long&term nano science and engineering research that will lead to fundamental understanding and to disco%eries of no%el #henomena$ #rocesses and tools for nanotechnology & 9ynthesis and #rocessing ;by design< of engineered$ nanometer&si(e$ material building bloc"s and system com#onents$ fully e1#loiting molecular self&assembly conce#ts This commitment will generate new classes of high #erformance materials$ bio&ins#ired systems$ #aradigm changes in de%ice design$ and efficient$affordable manufacturing of high #erformance #roducts No%el #ro#erties and #henomena will be enabled$ as control of structures of atoms$ molecules and clusters becomes #ossible= & Nanode%ice conce#ts including system architecture research to best e1#loit nano&deri%ed #ro#erties in o#erational systems$ and combining building&u# of molecular structures with ultra miniaturi(ation The new nanode%ices will cause orders of magnitude im#ro%ements in micro#rocessors and mass storage$ create tiny medical tools that minimi(e collateral damage= and enable uninhabited defense combat %ehicles in fully imaged battle fields There will be dramatic #aybac" to #rograms with this National #riority including information technology$ nano biotechnology and medical technology= & A##lication of nanostructured materials and systems to manufacturing$ #ower systems$ energy$ en%ironment$ national security$ and health Areas of interest include ad%anced dis#ersions$ catalysts$ se#aration methods$ and consolidated nanostructures$ as well as increase the #ace of "nowledge and technology transfer= & Educate and train a new generation of s"illed wor"ers in the multidisci#linary #ers#ecti%es necessary for ra#id #rogress in nanotechnology 5otential for NT0 im#act is forcing: & Nano science and engineering "nowledge is e1#loding worldwide because of the a%ailability of new in%estigati%e tools= maturity in the biology$ chemistry$ engineering$ materials and #hysics disci#lines$ and

interdisci#linary synergism= and financial su##ort dri%en by emerging technologies and their mar"ets & The nanotechnology re%olution will lead to fundamental brea"throughs in the way materials$ de%ices and systems are understood$ designed and manufactured 5otential brea"throughs include orders&or&magnitude increases in com#uter efficiency= emergence of entirely new #henomena in #hysics and chemistry= nanofabrication of three&dimensional molecular architectures= no%el #rocessing architectures such as 2uantum com#uting and cellular automata= re#air of human body with re#lacement #arts= and a %irtual #resence in s#ace= & Nanotechnology is creating a technology re%olution in the way materials$ de%ices and systems are manufactured and #erform 3n the last few years$ a##lying fundamental disco%eries has de%elo#ed multi&billion dollar #roduct lines These include: giant magnetoresistance multilayers >for com#uter memory?$ nanostructured coatings >in data storage and #hotogra#hic industry?$ nano#articles >colorants in #rinting and drug deli%ery in #harmaceutical field?$ su#erlattice confinement effects >for o#toelectronic de%ices and lasers?$ and nanostructured materials >nanocom#osites and nano#hase metals? @ohn Armstrong$ formerly Chief 9cientist of 34A$ wrote in +,,+$ ;3 belie%e nano science and nanotechnology will be central to the ne1t e#och of the information age$ and will be as re%olutionary as science and technology at the micron scale ha%e been since the early BC.s < Aore recently$ industry leaders including those at the 3!GN wor"sho# on @an -C&-,$ +,,,$ ha%e e1tended this %ision by concluding that nanoscience and technology will change the nature of almost e%ery human& made ob*ect in the ne1t century= & Nanoscience is an o##ortunity to energi(e the interdisci#linary connections between biology$ chemistry$ engineering$ materials$ mathematics$ and #hysics in education 3t will gi%e birth to new fields that are only en%isioned at this moment= & Euro#ean and 5acific countries ha%e de%elo#ed focussed #rograms in the science and technology of nanostructures that will #ro%ide world&wide critical mass to this initiati%e$ accelerate #rogress$ and guarantee commercial com#etition for the results NANOTECHNOLOGY ' A 0EDOLET3ON 3N THE AAF3NG: Abstract: An initiati%e$ ;Nanotechnology for the Twenty&)irst Century: Leading to a New 3ndustrial 0e%olution< The initiati%e will su##ort long term nanotechnology research and de%elo#ment$ which will lead to brea"throughs in information technology$ ad%anced manufacturing$ medicine and health$
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en%ironment and energy$ and national security The im#act of nanotechnology on the health$ wealth and li%es of #eo#le will be at least the e2ui%alent to the combined influences of microelectronics$ medical imaging$ com#uter&aided engineering and man&made #olymers de%elo#ed in this century Contents: + Nanotechnology /efinition - 0e%olution in the Aa"ing: /ri%ing )orces G Nanotechnology 3m#act >3nformation Technology$ Aedicine and Health$ Aaterials and Aanufacturing$ Aeronautics and 9#ace E1#loration$ En%ironment and Energy$ National 9ecurity$ Global Com#etiti%eness$ 9cience and Education? H 3n%estment O##ortunities I High&le%el 0ecognition of the 5otential 8 A National 3nitiati%e: Leading to a New 3ndustrial 0e%olution Attachment: 9e%eral e1am#les of nanotechnology a##lications +. Nanotechnology Def n t on Nanotechnology is concerned with materials and systems whose structures and com#onents e1hibit no%el and significantly im#ro%ed #hysical$ chemical and biological #ro#erties$ #henomena and #rocesses because of their small nano scale si(e 9tructural features in the range of about +.&, to +.&C m >+ to +.. nanometers? determine im#ortant changes as com#ared to the beha%ior of isolated molecules >+ nanometer? or of bul" materials )or com#arison$ +. nanometers are +... times smaller than the diameter of a human hair !e can e1#loit no%el #ro#erties and #henomena of nano&based entities as we gain control of structures and de%ices at the atomic$ molecular and su#er molecular le%els$ and as we learn how to efficiently manufacture and use these de%ices 0educing the dimensions of structures leads to entities with no%el #ro#erties$ such as carbon nano tubes$ 2uantum wires and dots$ thin films$ /NA based structures$ and laser emitters 9uch new forms of materials and de%ices herald a re%olutionary age for science and technology #ro%ided that we can disco%er and fully utili(e the underlying #rinci#les - Re!ol"t on n the #a$ ng: DRIVING FORCES 3t was not until the +,J.s that miniaturi(ation of instruments actually surfaced in de%elo#ments li"e scanning tunneling microsco#es$ force micro sco#es and near field microsco#es These instrument classes e1#loited micro fabrication technology to enable nanometer resolutionKa wide %ariety of the ;eyes< and ;fingers< re2uired for nanostructure measurement and
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mani#ulation 3n a #arallel de%elo#ment$ augmented com#utational ca#ability now enables so#histicated com#uter simulations of nano structures These new techni2ues ha%e s#ar"ed e1citement in nearly all #arts of the scientific community Traditional models and theories for most material #ro#erties and de%ice o#erations in%ol%e assum#tions leading to ;critical scale lengths< that are fre2uently larger than +.. nm !hen the dimensions of a material structure is under the res#ecti%e critical length scale$ then the models and theories are not able to describe the no%el #henomena 9cientists in all materials and technology disci#lines are in a%id #ursuit of the fabrication and measurement of nanostructures to see where and what "ind of interesting new #henomena occur )urther$ nanostructures offer a new #aradigm for materials manufacture by assembling >ideally utili(ing self&organi(ation and self&assembly? to create an entity rather than the laborious chiseling away from a larger structure @ohn Armstrong$ formerly Chief 9cientist of 34A$ wrote in +,,+$ ;3 belie%e nano science and nanotechnology will be central to the ne1t e#och of the information age$ and will be as re%olutionary as science and technology at the micron scale ha%e been since the early BC.s < G Nanotechnology 3m#act: The #otential benefits of nanotechnology are #er%asi%e: 3nformation Technology The 9emiconductor 3ndustry Association >93A? has de%elo#ed a roadma# for the continued enhancements in miniaturi(ation$ s#eed and #ower consum#tion reduction of information #rocessing de%ices Ksensors for signal ac2uisition$ logic de%ices for #rocessing$ storage de%ices for memory and dis#lays for %isuali(ation The roadma# #ro*ects the future to a##ro1imately -.+. and to . +&micron >+.. nm? structures$ *ust short of nanostructure de%ices There are se%eral reasons why it sto#s at +.. nm )irst$ it is not clear how to economically fabricate nanostructured electronics 9econd$ e%en if fabricated$ the #hysical7chemical #ro#erties of those nanostructures are un"nown= the #resent electronic de%ices are all based on models with critical scale lengths in the +..L nm range Third$ without "nown #ro#erties it is im#ossible to design a functional de%ice$ fabricate and assemble the de%ices into a wor"ing system 3ntegration of biocom#atible materials with fluidic$ o#tic$ mechanical and electronic com#onents$ all at micro to nano scale$ will enable de%elo#ment of in %i%o& im#lantable de%ices )or e1am#le$ remote$ non&in%asi%e sensing systems will allow us to detect the earliest stages of emerging disease$ whether caused by infection or tissue malfunction$ and #re%ent o%ert disease de%elo#ment 9uch early sensing will be cou#led to better means of inter%ention such as coated #articles to #ro%ide new routes for drug deli%ery$
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nano surgical a##roaches$ and im#lantable drug synthesis and deli%ery systems$ ma"ing #re%ention and thera#y less costly$ less traumatic for #atients$ and more effecti%e A##lications include: >a? 0a#id$ efficient genome se2uencing$ which will #ermit the characteri(ation of each indi%idualMs genetics$ thereby enabling a re%olution in diagnostics and thera#eutics= >b? 3ntracellular sensors$ which will allow for further understanding of the basic #ro#erties of li%ing >normal and diseased? cells= >c? New formulations and routes for drug deli%ery$ which will enormously broaden their thera#eutic #otential by effecting deli%ery of new ty#es of medicine to sites in the body that were #re%iously inaccessible= >d? Aore durable$ re*ection&resistant artificial organs will be de%elo#ed from new biocom#atible$ high #erformance materials based on their surface nanostructure= >e? 9ensing systems$ which will allow the detection of emerging disease in the li%ing body$ and will ultimately shift the focus of #atient care from disease treatment to early detection and7or #re%ention Aaterials and Aanufacturing Nanotechnology is fundamentally changing the way materials and de%ices will be #roduced in the future$ including ceramics$ metals$ #olymers$ and their com#osites The ability to synthesi(e nanoscale building bloc"s with #recisely controlled si(e and com#osition and then to assemble them into larger structures with uni2ue #ro#erties and functions will re%olutioni(e segments of materials manufacturing At #resent we #ercei%e only the ti# of the iceberg in terms of the benefits that nanostructuring can bring: lighter$ stronger$ and #rogrammable materials$ reductions in life&cycle costs through lower failure rates$ inno%ati%e de%ices based on new #rinci#les and architectures$ and use of molecular7cluster manufacturing Aolecular7cluster manufacturing ta"es ad%antage of assembly at the nanoscale le%el for a gi%en #ur#ose 9tructures not #re%iously obser%ed in the nature can be de%elo#ed Challenges include: synthesis of materials by design$ de%elo#ments of bio& and bio&ins#ired materials$ de%elo#ment of cost&effecti%e and scalable #roduction techni2ues$ and determination of the nanoscale initiators of materials failure A##lications include: >a? net&sha#e manufacturing of nanostructured metals and ceramics= >b? im#ro%ed #rinting brought about by nanometer&scale #articles that ha%e the best #ro#erties of both dyes and #igments= >c? nanoscale cemented and #lated carbides and
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nanocoatings for cutting tools$ electronic$ chemical and structural a##lications= and >d? nanofabrication on a chi# with high le%els of com#le1ity and functionality Aeronautics and 9#ace E1#loration The stringent fuel constraints for lifting #ayloads into earth orbit and beyond$ and the desire to send s#acecraft away from the sun >diminished solar #ower? for e1tended missions$ com#el continued reduction in si(e$ weight and #ower consum#tion of #ayloads Nanostructured materials are also critical to lightweight$ high&strength$ thermally stable materials for #lanes$ roc"ets$ s#ace station and #lanetary7solar e1#loratory #latforms The low gra%ity$ high %acuum s#ace en%ironment may hel# de%elo# nanostructures and assembled nanostructures that cannot be created on Earth A##lications include: >a? Low #ower$ radiation hard$ high #erformance com#uters= >b? Nanoinstrumentation for micros#acecraft= >c? A%ionics= and >d? Thermal barrier and wear resistant nanostructured coatings En%ironment and Energy Nanotechnology will ha%e #otentially significant im#acts on energy efficiency$ storage and #roduction 3t can can be used to monitor and remediate en%ironmental #roblems= im#ro%e control emissions from a wide range of sources$ and de%elo# new$ BgreenM #rocessing technologies that minimi(e the generation of undesirable by&#roducts The im#act on industrial control$ manufacturing and #rocessing will be im#ressi%e and result in sa%ing energy The re#lacement of carbon blac" in tires by nanometer&scale #articles of inorganic clays and #olymers is a new technology that is leading to the #roduction of en%ironmentally&friendly wear&resistant tires 5otential future brea"throughs also include use of nano robotics and intelligent systems for en%ironment and nuclear waste management National 9ecurity The /e#artment of /efense recogni(ed the im#ortance of nanostructures o%er a decade ago and has #layed a significant role in nurturing the field Critical defense a##lications include: Nanostructured electronics will #ro%ide more so#histicated %irtual reality systems that enable affordable$ effecti%e training Nanostructured materials hold the #romise for the high #erformance >lighter$ stronger? needed in military #latforms while simultaneously #ro%iding diminished failure rates and lower life&cycle costs Ad%ances in medicine and health enabled by nanoscience will #ro%ide badly needed chemical7biological7nuclear sensing$ #rotection and im#ro%ements in casualty care
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Changes are also #ossible in the design and weight reduction of nuclear wea#ons and systems used in non&#roliferation 9cience and Education The science$ engineering and technology of nanostructures will re2uire and enable ad%ances in a fabric of disci#lines: #hysics$ chemistry$ biology$ mathematics and engineering 3n their e%olution as disci#lines they all find themsel%es simultaneously ready to effecti%ely address nanostructures This #ro%ides an un#recedented o##ortunity to re%itali(e the connections between #hysics$ mathematics$ chemistry$ biology and engineering in education The dynamics of the interdisci#linary nanostructure efforts will re%itali(e educational connections between disci#lines and will gi%e birth to new fields that are only en%isioned at this moment This o##ortunity re2uires change in the laboratory and human resource infrastructure in uni%ersities$ and in the education of nanotechnology #rofessionals$ es#ecially for industry H In!e%t&ent O''o(t"n t e% Nanoscale science and engineering "nowledge is e1#loding worldwide because of the a%ailability of new in%estigati%e tools and interdisci#linary synergism$ and is dri%en by emerging technologies and their a##lications New e1#erimental and modeling tools ha%e made #ossible such disco%eries$ o#ening windows of research o##ortunities The number of re%olutionary disco%eries re#orted in nanotechnology can be e1#ected to accelerate in the ne1t decade$ and is li"ely to #rofoundly affect e1isting and emerging technologies in almost all industry sectors and a##lication areas$ including com#uting and communications$ #harmaceuticals and chemicals$ en%ironmental technologies$ energy conser%ation$ manufacturing and healthcare&related technologies The #romise of nanotechnology must be reali(ed through a balanced in%estment: Nanostructure 5ro#erties: de%elo# and e1tend our understanding of biological$ chemical$ electronic$ magnetic$ o#tical$ and structural #ro#erties in nanostructures 9ynthesis and 5rocessing: enable the atomic and molecular control of material building bloc"s$ and engineering that #ro%ides the means to assemble and utili(e these tailored building bloc"s for new #rocesses and de%ices in a wide %ariety of a##lications E1tend the traditional a##roaches to #atterning and microfabrication to include #arallel #rocessing with #ro1imal #robes$ stam#ing and embossing 5articular attention must be gi%en to the interface with bionanostructures and bioins#ired structures$ multifuctional and ada#ti%e nanostructures$ scaling a##roaches$ and affordability
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at commercial scales Aodeling and 9imulation: accelerate the a##lication of high #erformance com#utation to the #rediction of nanostructured #ro#erties and #henomena$ and materials by design I. An In t at !e: Leading to New 3ndustrial 0e%olution 0ole of Go%ernment in nano science and technology: Nanotechnology research is in an early stage and has se%eral #romising results 3t is clear that it can ha%e a substantial im#act on industry and on our standard of li%ing 4ut in%estments must be made in the basic science and technologies that will enable scientists and engineers to in%ent totally new technologies and enable industry to #roduce costcom#etiti%e #roducts Auch of the results on nanostructures and nano#rocesses are not yet fully measurable$ re#licable or understood$ and will re2uire many years to de%elo# corres#onding technologies & 9ynthesis and #rocessing ;by design< of engineered$ nanometer&si(e$ material building bloc"s and system com#onents$ fully e1#loiting self organi(ation conce#ts This commitment will generate new classes of high #erformance materials$ bio&ins#ired systems$ changes in de%ice design #aradigms$ and efficient$ affordable manufacturing of high #erformance #roducts No%el #ro#erties and #henomena will be enabled$ as control of organi(ational structures of atoms$ molecules and clusters becomes #ossible& Nanode%ice conce#ts including system architecture research to best e1#loit their #ro#erties in o#erational systems$ and combining building&u# of molecular structures with ultraminiaturi(ation The nanode%ices will cause #aradigm changes such as order&of&magnitude im#ro%ements in micro#rocessors and mass storage$ o%erall selecti%e drug and gene deli%ery systems$ use of tiny medical tools that minimi(e collateral damage= and uninhabited defense combat %ehicles in fully imaged battle field There will be dramatic #aybac" to #rograms with National #riority including information technology$ nanobiotechnology and medical technology= & A##lication of nanostructured materials and systems to manufacturing$ #ower systems$ energy$ en%ironment$ national security$ and health Areas of interest include ad%anced dis#ersions$ catalysts$ se#aration methods$ and consolidated nanostructures= 0esearch areas: & Nanoelectronics and information technology & Aulti&scale$ hierarchical modeling and simulation of nanostructures and nano#rocesses

& /e%elo#ment of e1#erimental methods and de%ices to measure %arious #ro#erties and #henomena at nanoscale= Combine measurement$ mani#ulation and manufacturing tools= & Connection to biology >biostructures N bio&ins#ired systems? & 9ynthesis$ assembly and #rocessing of nanostructured materials Bby designM & 9ystem architecture and de%ices & )ocus on fundamentals that are broadly enabling of many areas of technology and that hel# industry to de%elo# new com#etiti%e$ #rofitable #roducts that industry would not de%elo# on its own 5artnershi#s: & Among disci#lines >small grou# research? & Among institutions N ty#es of institutions >e g $ uni%ersities$ industry$ go%ernment labs?

CONCLU)ION:
Time$ change and rate of change will be the significant factors in sha#ing the future of nano science and technology The 3nformation 0e%olution will #ro%ide the #aradigm shift to stimulate this change The infrastructure that will encourage and ultimately su##ort the disco%ery$ de%elo#ment and a##lication of future Fentuc"y science and technology is now being #ut into #lace 3t re2uires im#ro%ement$ inno%ation and additional su##ort from all sectors of the economy The ob%ious starting #oint is continuous im#ro%ement of the education system$ #articularly in the areas of mathematics and science This needs to be followed by an em#hasis on attracting and nurturing technology #ioneers in Fentuc"y 9uccessful accom#lishment of these first two ste#s will strengthen nano science and technology industries and #re#are them to be& come com#etiti%e factors in the global economy of the -+st century The third #art of this forecast #resents those s#ecific technologies which 3 belie%e hold the greatest #otential for de%elo#ment within the economic framewor" of the Commonwealth The ma*or and #ro*ected strengths of nano scientific e1#ertise and de%elo#able technologies lie in the fields of telecommunications$ medical #roducts$ biotechnology$ ad%anced materials$ and en%ironmental remediation !hile it is im#ossible to accurately #redict s#ecific success or failure in any one of these cited fields and e2ually im#ossible to rule out the ad%ent of an entirely new area of ad%ancement unrelated to the cited fields$ it would a##ear li"ely to this obser%er that a concentration of economic and human effort in the fields noted offer an

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effecti%e use of the limited de%elo#mental resources a%ailable o%er the ne1t decade

0E)E0ENCE9:
@OHN 4 F0EA5LEY ;An introduction to Nano science and technologies<$ @ohn #early N sons ltd $ Grd edition$-... GOOGLE 9EA0CH 5AGE9:NANOTECHNOLOGY ~0AYALA AN3L FEAA0
AN3LO0AYALAPYAHOO COA

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