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Madhyahna Lila 10:48 a.m.3:36 p.m.

Sri Radhikas Utkantha, Abhisar and Milan Gaurachandrika madhyAhne saha-taiH sva-pArSada-gaNaiH saGkIrtayad-IdRzaM sAdvaitendu-gadAdharaH kila saha zrIlAvadhUta prabhuH ArAme mRdu-marutaiH ziziritair bhRGga-dvijair-nAdite svaM vRndA-vipinaM smaran bhramati yas taM gauram adhyemy ahaM At midday Sri Gaurasundar joins his priya bhaktas headed by Advaita Chandra, Gadadhar and Nityananda Avadhuta. While performing sankirtan, everyone proceeds to the Suradhuni Ganga. Yet as they wander through the beautiful garden groves on the Gangas banks, the cool breezes, the chirping birds and the buzzing bees stimulate Gaurangas thoughts of madhura Vrindavan. So lets meditate on him remembering Radha Krishnas madhyahna pastimes in this lovely setting. (Sri Vishwanath Chakravarti, rman-mahaprabhor aSTa-kAlIya-lIlA-smaraNa-maGgala-stotram, 6) sahAli-zrI rAdh-sahita-hari-lIlAM bahu-vidhaM smaran madhyAhnIyaM pulakitAnurAga-gadgada-vacaH bruvan vyaktaM taM ca svajana-gaNa-madhyAnukurute zacI-sUnur ajas taM bhaja mama manas tam bata sadM O mind! Please worship Mahabhava-rasamaya Sachinandan and his dearmost bhaktas as he remembers and re-enacts the many colorful lilas that Radha Krishna perform with the gopis at midday. But such absorption his voice falters and his body horripilates! (BhAvanA-sAra-saGgraha 4.1) Because Sriman Mahaprabhus Vrindavan lies hidden within NabadwipNabadwip is called Gupta Vrindavan. And here, as the Lord discovers newer and newer mellows while tasting Vrajamadhuri, his bhaktas also discover newer and newer relish which increases their fascination! So Nabadwip is Sri Krishnas pariziSTa-lIlA or continuing pastimes, where his desires to taste Vraja prema rasa reaches its apex. In the Gutika, Gaurangas Madhyahna lilas take place in Srivasa Thakurs six seasonal flower gardens. The Gangas forest banks here resemble the Yamuna pulina; and there are two sarovars that awaken Gaurasundars remembrance of Radha Kund and Shyama Kund. So while seated on a jeweled vedi under a huge madhavi vine with all of his bhaktas, Mahaprabhu enjoys hearing Svarupa Damodar sing about Radha Krishnas Radha Kund lilas. Yet, as his mind becomes tanmaya (merged) with the Vraja rasasometimes he gets up to re-enact these colorful pastimes! And the Lords avesha(mood) often varies. Sometimes he imagines himself to be Radha, at other times Krishna, and sometimes he may even act like a gopi. But perhaps the most intimate mellow of all is when he behaves like himself, Rasaraj Gauranga. Although the Gutika describes these events in Srivasa Thakurs flower garden, they can also happen

at the residence of Nityananda, Advaita, Gadadhar, Narahari or any other bhakta according to the time and the occasion. Sriman Mahaprabhu Ashta-kala lila descriptions are scarce. And perhaps many are unaware of them because the Lord himself desires to remain hidden (pracchanna). Yet, if one is inspired to search through the treasury of Gaudiya Vaishnava literature, many invaluable referency can be discovered. Sriman Mahaprabhus associates such as Vasu Ghosh, Narahari Sarkara, Nayanananda Mishra, Vamshivadana and others have written Gaura-Ashta-kala kirtan padas.* And the lilas that they describe often center on Gaurachandras affairs with Gadadhar Pandit. Yet, in the eyes of these poets, Radha Krishna pastimes continues on in the form of Gaura and Gadadhars amazing Nadiyavihara. Sri Lochan Dasa Thakur writes about this tattva as follows: jaya jaya gadAdhara gaurAGga sundara, eka Atm prakaTa bhAva dui kalevara vRndAvane rAdhA-kRSNa nava yuva dvandva, idAnIM prakaTa gadAdhara gauracandra mahAbhAva svarUpa rAdh vRndAvanezvarI, sei ei gadAdhara paNDita avatari rasarAja-maya mUrti vrajendra-nandana, sei ei gauracandra pUrNa prakaTana Glories, glories to Gadadhar and Gauranga sundarthey are one soul manifest in two separate bodies. Vrindavans Yugala Kishor, Radha Krishna, have now appeared as Gadadhar and Gaurachandra. Mahabhava svarupini Radha, who is Vrindavaneshwari, has come as Gadadhar Pandit, and Rasaraj Krishna, Vrajendranandan, has fully manifest as Sri Gaurachandra. As there are six seasons, Gaurangas madhyahna lilas each take place in a different rituvana, just as Radha Krishnas lilas shift from one kunja to the next at Radha Kund. For example, the Holi pastime unfolds in the spring forest, and the following kirtan pada reveals how the Vraja rasa continues in Nadiya: dekho dekho aparupa gaurAGgera lIlA ritu basante sakala priya gana mili, suradhuni tire colila eka dike gadadhara, saGge svarUpa damodara, vasu ghosha govinda adi meli gauri dAsa adi kori, candana picha-kari bhori gadadharera aGge deya pheli svarUpa nija gana sathe, abira loiyA hate, sagane phelaya gaura gaya gauri dAsa kheli kheli, gaurAGga jitalo boli, koratali diyA age dhaya rushiyA svarUpa koy, harilogaurAGga ray, jitalo amara gadadhara kakha-tali diyA keho, nAce gaya urdha bahu, ei dAsa mohana manohara A Nadiya vasi exclaims, Oh look! Just look at Gaurangas wonderful lilaits spring. and in the company of his priya bhaktas he is heading towards the Suradhuni Gangas picturesque banks to

begin Holi! The bhaktas form two groups: On one side, with Gadadhar, there are Svarupa Damodar, Vasu Ghosh, Govinda Ghosh and many others. Then Gauri Das, Abhiram, Sundarananda, Nityananda and others team with Gaurasundar. In other words, todays Holi sporting is reenacted just as Lalita, Sudevi, Rangadevi and Radhas other dearest sakhis join her to contest Krsnas group that includes Subala, Sridama, Sudama, Balaram and other sakhas. Gauri dasa (Subala) begins the rasa-ranga by spraying Gadadhar with chandan and gulala fluid from his pichakari! Then Svarupa Damodar (Lalita) leads Gadadhars group to bombard Gauranga with handful after handful of colored powder! But after a while, Gauri dasa emerges from the crowd clapping his hands to announce: Gauranga has won! 1. Radha Krishnas Midday Lila Sutra madhyAhnenyonya-saGgodita-vividha-vikArAdi-bhUSA-pramugdhau vAmyotkaNThAtilolau smara-makha-lalitAdy-Ali-narmApta-zAtau dolAraNyAmbu-vaMzI-hRti-rati-madhu-pAnArka-pUjAdi-lIlau rAdh-kRSNau sa-tRSNau parijana-ghaTayA sevyamAnau smarAmi During the thrill of yugala milan, Radha and Krishnas bodies become ornamented by ashtasattvika, sancari and other transcendental emotions! Radhas resisting tendency mixes with eagerness, and Krishnas impatience is irrepressiblehence Kandarpas yajna is successfully inaugurated! Later, Lalita and others appear to please the Divine Couple with their laughter and joking! Then a host of pastimes begin: Vamshi-harana(stealing the flute), Dola (Holi), Vana-vihara (forest sightseeing), Madhupana (drinking intoxicating honey), Rati keli (love-making), Jala-vihara (watersports), Surya puja, etc. Lets thus remember Radha and Krishnas midday pastimes as they are served by the gopis. (Sri Rupa Goswami, SmaraNa-maGgala, 6) Jhulana, Anga-vesh (dressing), Vana-bhojan (forest picnicking), Suka-pathana (the parrots poetic recital) and Pasa-khela are indirectly mentioned here by the term adi, which means et cetera. These events are also narrated within the Madhyahna period. Because Radha-Krishnas prema is nava-navayamana (ever-fresh and new)

each reunion is as exciting as their first meeting. Hence, their bodies are always decorated with newer and newer transcendental emotions. 1. Verse 2-8 As previously described, Vrajendra-nandana-priya (sri Radha) is seated at home. Yet the intense desire to meet Krsna tortures her! T hus, in seeking solace, she reveals, her mind to Visakha: O Sakhi! The strong waves in the ocean of Krsnas bodily sweetness totally submerges every beautiful womans high-mountain of patience! His joking words give pleasure to the ears, his body is more cooling than a million moons, and the fragrant scent from his nectar-lips flood the universe! Hence, the Son of Nanda Maharaj is forcefully attracting my five senses! Oh Vishakhe! Krsnas anga kanti is more beautiful than a nava jaladhara and his enchanting attire resembles lightning. Krsnas mohana murali enhances his beauty, and his face is brighter than the autumn-moon. Above his face rests a peacock feathered crown, and a jeweled-necklace tosses from his chest like a row of stars. Oh sakhi! Madana Mohan is enticing the thirst of my eyes! Oh Sakhi! Krsnas voice is deep like a rumbling-cloud, and his tinkling ornaments allure the ears. Krsnas joking has rapturous inner meaning, and his seductive flute steals the heart of Lakshmiwhat to speak of other women! Oh Vishakhe! Madana Mohan is stretching the captivation of my ears! Oh Sakhi! Krsnas bodily fragrance thwarts the aroma of musk to enslave all women! His body has eight highly scented lotuses that are more perfumed than any common lotus mixed with camphor. Besides, Krsnas body is anointed with the finest musk, camphor, chandan and aguru. Oh Vishakhe! Madana Mohan is steeping the thrill of my nostrils! Hey sakhi! Krsnas chest is broad and enticing as a sapphire shaft. His two strong arms bolt the door of the gopis hearts from Cupids inflicting arrows. Moreover, his body is soothing as the moonbeams, chandan, camphor and the lotus. Oh Vishakhe! Madana-mohana is luring the fascination of my chest! Hey sakhi! The sweet-nectar of Krsnas lips subverts the Vraja kaminis desire for any other taste. Krsnas adhara sudha rasa is unattainable, however, for one lacking heaps and heaps of pious assets. The prasadi pan that Krsna chews vilifies the sweetness of amrita. Oh Vishakhe! Madana Mohan is increasing the madness of my tongue! 1.

Verse 9-32 As Radhika reveals her heartache to Visakha, suddenly Tulasi Manjari returns. She is bringing Krsnas gunja mala and two prasadi champak flowers. Placing these divine articles in Lalitas hands, she begins to narrate the success of her mission. Lalita joyfully places Krsnas gunja-mala around Radhas neck, and his champak flowers over Radhas ears. These precious objects are highly-scented with his bodily aroma; they signify that Krsnas direct sanga follows! Touched by the flowers and the gunja-malaRadhikas eyes look like lotus petals, and she shivers in horripilationjust as when Krsna directly touches her! Because Radhika is stunned, she is unable to quickly start moving! But Radhas three friends, namely: sobriety, obstinacy and fine-judgement awaken her! Thus she jokingly speaks to Lalita and the others who are eager to take her to Krishna: O doe-eyed ones! If youre so anxious to departthen why wait for me? Just go and have a lookthe Krishna-stag is trapped within the noose of Shaibyas clever words! Oh beautiful-ones! The drunken Krishna-elephant has fallen into Chandravalis pit! So all of you padminis (femaleelephants) should surely go and rescue him! Radhika goes on: Oh sakhis! The wise never act rashly, knowing that haste leads to failure; rather, they carefully plan their moves to attain success. Hearing Radhas sarcasm, Lalita answers, Oh sakhi! Youre right, Krishna didnt go to your sanketa sthana (the place where he is scheduled to meet you). Rather, hes enjoying himself with Shaibya and her friends! So if we show our faces there our prestige will be charred to ashes! Lalitas words arouse Radhas awareness that Krishnas sanga is durlabha (rarely attained). Thus, as her mind begins reeling in turmoil, Radha contemplates: Hay! My step-sister envies me, my husband speaks harshly and Jatila is a sneak. Furthermore, in the daytime Krishna is always surrounded by his sakhas. With so many obstacles before mehow will I get the chance to meet him? Im unfortunate! As Vrishabhanu-nandinis anguish increase she suddenly hears an auspicious omen. An astrologer shouts: The bull is attainable by the mountain! Then another good sign presents itselfRadhas left eye, breast, hip and arm all begin twitching. Shortly after noticing these auspicious omens, however, Radhas elation subsides and her deep love re-awakens a doubt: Will Krishnas darshan really be possible today? But as her apprehension increasesuddenly Dhanishtha arrives. Thus Radha considers: Aho! The river of my desire to meet Krishna is sweeping forward in the form of Dhanishtha! Surely she has brought the news of my Prana-vallabha! Dhanishthas smiling face indicates that Krishna has sent her, hence numerous emotions surface to excite Radha! Nevertheless, she conceals her intention and address Dhanishtha: O sakhi! From where have you come?

From Vrindavan, Dhanishtha answers . Radha: Did you see the beauty of Madhava (the spring)? Dhanishtha replies, Yes, Madhava protects all the cows and the Vrajvasis. Radha: Can you tell me more about this beauty ? Dhanishtha: Oh sakhi Radha! How can I fully describe Madhavas charm (the spring or Krishna), for the entire forest is flourishing. The bees are attracted, the tilak flowers are blooming the kokilas call enchants the mind and every young girl is attacked by lusty desire! Dhanishtha continues: Although its impossible to fully describe Madhavas charm, Ill try my best to explain just a little: The forest decorated with innumerable flower buds that arouse romantic desires. Radhika then inquires: How did you find gotra-shreshtha, the best mountainGiriraja Govardhan (or the best manSri Krishna)? Dhanishtha replies, Sakhi Radhe! Govardhan is covered with colored stones and earthen pigments the flutes song can be heard from its valley. It shelters the frightened cows inflicted by Indras thunder-showers, and its crested peaks echo with chirping birds. Dhanishthas madhura description intoxicated Radhika and awaken her desire to hear more about her Prana-kanta. Thus casting aside all pretention, Radhika begins to openly discuss about Krishna. Radha inquires: Oh Dhanishthe! Where are you going? She answers, Im coming to see you. Radha: What for? Dhanishtha: To deliver a message. Radha: Whose message? Dhanishtha: Vraja-kula-chandras Radha: So whats the news? Dhanishtha: Just as the moon is eclipsed by Rahu, Krishna Chandras arch-enemy, Kandarpa raja, is overpowering him! Dhanishtha goes on: Krishna is helpless to combat Kandarpa because he is backed only by his shadowyet Kardarpa has many heavily-armed soldiers! And moreover, Kandarpa is jealous of Krishnas superior beauty. So hes striking with his strongest military commander, Spring! But how? you may ask. Cupids arrows shower with Springs newly blossomed flowers! Madana Raja surrounds Krishna with his soldiers like the honeybees, the kokilas and the cooling Malayan breezes that gently blow beside your sarasi kunda*! Thus Krishna is calling for your protection (he firmly believes that the kokilas, bees and Malayan breezes will no longer torture him, but act soothingly in your company). O Radhe! Krishna has protected you many times from danger, but now he is anxiously calling you to save him from Madana Rajas torture! Just consider, if you neglect himsurely youll suffer too for being ungrateful. Hey Radhe! If you dont believe me, if you think that Krishna is Madana-mohana, then hear my verdict: Oh sakhi! Only when he is with you is he Madana-mohanaotherwise he falls prey to Madanas tortureeven though Madana and the entire creation are enchanted by him!

1. Verse 33-39 Listen sakhi! After nicely dressing, Krishna now awaits your arrival while resting on the flowerbed. Casting all other thoughts aside, he vows to only talk about you! O Sumukhi Rai*! Although Krishna is a romantic hero, wicked Kandarpa Raja has shattered his patience! He is restlessly waiting within a flower-kunja filled with buzzing bees and cooing kokilas! Radhika is captivated, and Dhanishtha realises that she wants to hear more about Krishnas sweetness. Thus she continues: Oh chaste one! Who can describe the beauty of Krishnas form? His soft effulgence resembles a new rain-cloud, his silken cloth is golden-yellow, dolphin-earrings dangle from his ears and his entire body is smeared with kumkuma. Krishnas eyes resemble lotus petals, he is garlanded with a mala of golden Yuthi flowers and a peacock feathered crown rests above his head. Dhanishtha goes on: Oh sakhi Radhe! Just hear a little more about Krishnas mohana sundar rupa*! His youth forms a great ocean. Its water is his beauty, its high waves are his bodily luster and its whirlpools are his amorous desires for Kandarpa keli! Moreover, his flute-song acts as a hurricane to twirl the gopis minds as if they were blades of grass! Still Krishna anxiously awaits your arrival! Oh Shashimukhi* Rai! Just reward Krishnas craftiness with your craftiness, his youthful beauty will increase when you offer your beauty, Krishnas erotic desires will succeed when they join with yours, and his fine dress will receive its crowning touch when you touch it! O Sakhi! Your charm is rendered useless when directed elsewhere. O Radhe! Krishna is bewildered by love, his heart has melted, Kandarpas arrows pelt him, and he is fully surrendered to you. After fainting he suffers from exhaustion! Therefore, oh Krishna-priya! Please quickly go and save him! Vrishabhanu-nandini exhibits ecstatic symptoms as her ears drink Krishnas kathamrita. And because Radhas mind is excited, her body becomes paralysed! Hence patience is forced upon her, even though the desire awakens to act quickly. 1. Verse 39-53 Just then Kundalata arrives. She is eager to leave for Surya puja. So Radha holds her hand, and while twirling a lotus in her right hand, she departs. Dhanishtha and Tulasi preceed Radha who is flanked by Lalita and Vishakha and surrounded by all of the other sakhis. Following behind, Rupa Manjari carries the puja articles for worshiping Radha Krishnas charana padma, and leads the other dasis who carry the Surya puja paraphernalia. The poet Raya Shekhara* describes this scene in the following kirtan pada: tulasi vacana, saba sakhigane, deva pujibara tore

vidhi agocara, nana upahara, pujana bhajan bhore cini pheni kala, makhana rasala, rabari, kadamba tila puri puwa khaja, peda sora bhaja, rAdhik koriyachila amRta kelika, adi se laddukasaghrita mudga jhuri devata pujane, koriyA yatane, budi rosakora khiri agora candana, bhorilo bhajan, sugandhi phulera mala atula amula, karpura tambul, sajala sakala dala saGgini raGgini, rUpa taraGgini, bosiyA mandir majhe madana mohana, mohite yatana, korila raiko saje sabare satvara, korila zekhara, dekhiyA uchara bela jatila caraNakoriyA vandana colila sakala bala Receiving Tulasis news Rai prepares for Surya puja. She collects all sorts of incredible naivedya *: sugar, pheni, bananas, butter, rasala, rabari, puris, sesame candy, amrita keli, laddus, peda, cream, fried cream, khira, budi and mung dal strips fried in ghee. Then the puja articles such as aguru, chandan, fragrant malas and first class camphorized pan are carefully arranged in baskets. Rai Rangini* is surrounded by her sanginis* who have carefully dressed her lavanya-tarangini-rupa to enchant Madana-mohana. As noon approaches, Ray Shekhara quickly joins with Radhika sakhis. Then everyone offers pranams to Jatilas lotus feet and departs . While leaving the village Radha observes numerous auspicious omens: a chaste wife is carrying a yogurt pot and on the right are Nilakantha-birds, brahmins, deer cows with their calves and a bull. Coming to reservior, Rai sees a swarm of bumblebees darting over a blue lotus patch where two hummingbirds swiftly soar about. This induces her meditation of Krishnas lotus-face, his swiftly moving eyes and the elegant curling hairs that dangle over his forehead! The auspicious omens make Rais heart swell with pride and elation! Thus she enters the forest with a pace that mocks the pride of an intoxicated elephant. Her priya sanginis playfully taunt with laughter and jest ! Padma-locana Radha appears to the forest as Vasanta Lakshmi (the spring goddess). Her voice defeats a cooing kokila and her ruffling clothes sound more captivating than the humming bees and the call of a chataka. Radha sees the forest just like Krishna: as he is dark, the forest is densely shaded Krishna wears tilak on his forehead, yet the forest is filled with Tilaka flowers Krishna is surrounded by Arjuna, Vishala and many sakhas and the forest has many Arjuna and Keli kadamba trees; Krishna sports a peacock feathered crown, and the forest is filled with sporting peacocks; Krishna wears a garland of punnaga, Amala and champak flowers, yet the forest is filled with these flowers; Krishna wears gold and coral ornaments, and the forest has desire trees of gold and coral; Krishna has a bright tamal shyama effulgence and the forest is filled with tamal trees. Radha observes: The forest is filled with gunja-berries and Krishna wears a gunja-necklace; the forest is sheltered with large, shady kadamba trees and Krishna takes shelter of the kadamba to relieve his fatigue; the forest echoes with the rustling sound of the bamboo and Krishna plays a bamboo flute; the forest is overloaded with red Amra-fruits and Krishnas body is smeared with red

vermilion; the forests Madna trees increase its beauty, yet Krishnas charming, youthful personally resembles Madanas. Thus the forest reminds Radha of her Priya-kanta.* Wherever Radhika glances she sees something directly related to Krishna. Thus Cupids arrows pierce her heart with an overwelming sting! Radha observes: The forest is filled with gunja-berries and Krishna wears a gunja-necklace; the forest is sheltered with large, shady kadamba trees and Krishna takes shelter of the kadamba to relieve his fatigue; the forest echoes with the rustling sound of the bamboo and Krishna plays a bamboo flute; the forest is overloaded with red Amra-fruits and Krishnas body is smeared with red vermilion; the forests MadAna trees increase its beauty, yet Krishnas charming, youthful personally resembles Madanas. Thus the forest reminds Radha of her Priya-kanta. Wherever Radhika glances she sees something directly related to Krishna. Thus Cupids arrows pierce her heart with an overwelming sting! Yet observing Radhas enrapture, the sakhis compare the forest with her: Just as Radha is encircled by us, the forest is bordered with Jjinti trees; Radha wears a mallika garland that attracts the bumblebees, yet the forest has mallika flowers and bees everywhere; Radha has a sakhi named Vishakha, and the forest had many shakhas (branches); Radhika is inflicted by Madana, yet the forest has numerous blooming Madana, or Dhu tura flowers. The sakhis continue: Just as Radhika is manohara, the forest has Manohara flower latas; Radhika has a lovely form, and the forest has numerous shapely tree trunks; Radha has swelling kucha (breasts), and the forest has many Lakucha trees; Radha satisfies Krishnas go (senses), and the forest has fresh grass to satisfy the go (cows). The sakhis: Just as our Radha is a youthful kishori, the beautiful chirping birds keep the forest youthful; and as Jatila, Kutila and others make Radhika fearful with their nivarana, (hindering), the forest is pervaded with Nivarana, or Nisouda trees. While admiring the forests beauty, Radha thinks, Certainly there are many highly qualified Yutheshwaris roaming nearby with their sakhis. So why wouldnt they find Krishna? And if Krishna sees them, how could he resist them? Then Radha notices a stag sporting amongst a flock of deer in the kunjas to her right: on her left she sees a peacock mixing with many peahens. These sights vividly awaken her memory of Krishnas flirting proclivities! 1. Radhikas prema vibhranti Verse 54-66 Then Rai sees a tamal tree entwined by a golden Yuthi-lata; around its base is a gold-vedi. A peacock rests on a branch overhead opening its tail feathers. Thus Radha is hoodwinkedshe thinks that Krishna is embracing a sundari Vraja ram

Aho! Radhika is instantly bitten by the snake of loving envy and loses her discrimination! In rage her eyebrows wheel like Shivas bow. Then she blatantly exclaims, Ayi Dhanishthe! What is this? Dhanishtha: What? Where? Radhika: Just look before you! Dhanishtha: All I see is the forest. Radhika: Whats that? Dhanishtha: Just the forest creatures? Radhika: Oh cunning one! Are you blind? Cant you see that the king of all cheaters (Krishna Chandra) is dancing right before you? Radhika turns to Lalita and the others and exclaims, Oh sakhis! Just see that deceitful debauches pleasure-giving dance with his dearest nayika! Oh sakhis! This impudent dancers sweet words have deluded Dhanishtha to make her a deceiving dancer like himself! Now she is proudly supporting her master and trying to mislead us too. You sakhis can also witness: Over there is Krishnas kuranga *, named Suranga. Hes cheating his doe named Rangini to enjoy the other doe! Even though Ive caught him, he doesnt stophe is deceitful like Hari (who behaves the same with me)! This buck was trained by Krishnatherefore hes real kuranga (under-handed player)! And look at Krishnas peacock, tandavik, he shamelessly sports with other peahen right before us! Hes corrupt through Krishnas association! Dhanishtha smiles and replies Radhika: Oh chaste one! Youre the actual dancer for calling us to witness your strange confession which we have never seen before. Thus we are very proud of you! O Radhe! This reveals your amazing anuraga! Whether ones desired object is easy to achieve or not, still the attached person always worries about the obstacles that stand in the way. Dhanishtha adresses the sakhis: Oh friends! Come, lets go and tell Krishna all about Radhikas strange behavior ; Hell love to hear about it, for the talented surely appreciate others talents! After hearing Dhanishthas joking and witnessing the sakhis laughter, Radhika takes another look, and contemplates: Uh-oh! This isnt Krishna dancing with a beautiful young ramaniIts a tamal embraced by a golden Yuthi-creeper ! Thus Radha lowers her head in embarrassment. Seeing Radhas acute anxiousness for meeting Krishna, the sakhis quicken their pace. But the forest sights continue to increase Radhas madness for Krishna ; thus the sakhis joke with her. 1. Verse 67-89 Thereafter, Radha arrives at the flower kunja named Madana-rana-batika, and approaches the murti of Surya Deva. Radhika folds her hands and devoutly prays: Hey deva! Please bestow your grace so that I can

easily attain Govindas lotus feet! As Radhika gazes upon Surya deva, his eyes and face appear content; thus she surmises that he is pleased with her. Then Radhika offers pranams again and leaves the garden with her sakhis. Lalita requests Tulasi, Dhanishtha and some of Vrindas vanadevis to remain there with the Surya puja paraphernalia. The forest is filled with Krishnas bodily fragrance which resembles a blue lotus aroma mixed with musk. Radha thus veers with the desire to fly to him like an intoxicated honey-bee! But Radhikasundaris bodily fragrance defies the aroma of a lotus smeared with vermilion. So when it floats like the ambrosial Ganga waves of enter Madhusudans nostrils, he shivers in ecstasy and he soars to Radha like an intoxicated male bee! Perceiving Radhas fragrance Krishna surmises that she is still a long way away. Thus he sends Vrinda to bring her.

Following Nikunja Rajas order, Vrinda departs. But seeing her approaching, Radha thinks, Aha! Surely Krishna has sent Vrindashes my good personified!

Vrinda places two blue lotus flowers in Radhas hands which formerly decorated Krishnas ears. They are encircled by a swarm of honey-bees blinded by his bodily fragrance.

The indivaras touch and smell resemble Krishnas touch and smellhence Radha is overwhelmed! But because Vrinda is present, with great difficulty she tries to hide her symptoms and inquires: Oh Vrinde! From where are you coming? Vrinda: From Krishnas lotus feet. Radha: Where is He? Vrinda: He is in the forest beside your kunda. Radha: What is he doing there? Vrinda: Hes learning to dance. Radha: Who is his guru? Vrinda: Seeing your murti in every moving leaf, Krishna madly dances from one to the next (as if he were dancing with you)!

Oh Vrinde! Youre mistaken! That is nor my form inducing Krishnas dance. Hes a thirsty bee trapped by the strong bodily aroma of Padmas sakhi, Chandravali! And thats carried by the whirlwind called Shaibya! 84Vrinda replies, Radhe! Krishna destroyed Trinavarta (the whirlwind demon). But desiring your sanga, or Gauri, his sly words have blown that Shaibya wind (along with Chandravali) all the way to Gauri Tirtha! To conceal her intention, Radha changes the subject, replying: O Vrinde! Whats the use of such gossip? Were going to follow Jatilas order. Thus well bathe at Shyama Kund, perform Surya puja and go home. Then Radha inquires: Oh, by the way, where are you going?

Vrinda answers, Im coming to take shelter of your lotus feet. Radha: What for? Vrinda: To enhance your kingdom of fortune! Radha: How? Vrinda: Madhava* has advented to increase the forests opulences, and now only your merciful glance awaits! But outspoken Kundalata says, O Vrinde! Stop your sly canvassing! Fearing Krishnas atrocities, Jatila placed Radha under my protection. Therefore, Ill take her to bathe at Shyama Kund, and then we shall go to the Surya mandir. But if we see Krishna at Shyama Kund well bathe at Manasi Ganga instead. I have promised Jatila that we wont tread in the direction that carries Krishnas bodily odor. Vrinda exclaims, Hey Kundalate! Why go to Manasi Ganga fearing Krishna? If you want to bathe unseen in Shyama Kund, then just take my advice, oh chaste one! Krishna has become dizzy by Madanas torture- so he is resting in a kunja on Radha Kunds banks. So if you take the eastern path through the madhavi forest he wont notice. Then you can bathe undisturbed in Shyama Kunds pure waters which emerge from the footprints of Arishta-mardana. Lalita addresses Kundalata: Hey sakhi! Your cousin* is a weakling; so as you are an outspoken young womanwhy do you fear him? Radha replies, Oh sakhi! Kundalate! Well go to my kunda and enjoy the beauty of Madhava (spring). Then after bathing we shall returnwhat can Krishna do? Hey Vrinde! Quickly go and remove Krishna from our bathing area. That ghat is no place for the men to loiter. What would a cowherd like Govinda do there? 1. Verse 90-91 Vrinda replies, O Radhe! Im very meek, yet Krishna is a strong brute; so how can I forbid him? On the other hand, youre a young, robust womancertainly you can throw out that peacock feathered fellow! Kundalata then jokes: Oh Vrinde! Youre mistaken. Why would Chandi (Radha) chase away Pashupati (Krishna); for isnt Chandi Pashupatis better half? Chandi is Durga, and Pashupati is her husband Shiva. Chandi always sits on Pashupatis lap. Here Kundalata jests: If Chandi Radha) attains Pashupati (Krishna the cowherder) then certainly she wouldnt chase him away; rather, she would sit on his lap too! Verse 92-94 Vrinda retorts Kundalata with a pun: Hey sakhis! Just see, a well-behaved kunda-lata was enjoyed by a restless Madhusudan (bee). But now it wants to wrap itself around the punnaga tree. (Subhadras wife, Kundalata, has been enjoyed by Krishna, and now she wants to enjoy him again!) Seeing Radhas gravity collapsing with the sakhis jokes, Vrinda desires to inform Radha of

Krishnas anuraga. Thus she says, Oh Lalite! I have a question, can you answer? Isnt it the winds duty to act favorably to blow the raincloud towards the thirsty chataka bird?

Here the cloud refers to madhurya kadambini* Radha, the chataka bird is Sri Krishna and the favorable winds are the sakhis. Thus Vrinda wishes to speed up the sakhis in fulfilling their foremost duty. In other words, just as the wind acting on the cloud causes a heavy rainshowerand just as the chataka bird depends on the wind to satiate its thirstKrishna is anxiously hoping that Radhas prakhara sakhis* will drench him in Madhurya Kadambini Rais prema rasa! Verse 95-98 The sakhis answer: Vrinde! Because the wind always induces the raincloud to shower the chataka with ever-fresh nectar, could the chataka have any other shelter but the raincloud? Vrinda says, Oh sakhis! When the chatakas attention is fixed on the raincloud, then the wind will surely unite them. Sakhis! Even if the cloud becomes depleted, the winds constant effect replenishes its rasa. Thus the chataka always remains happy. But sakhis! Go ahead and bathe in Shyama Kund at Manasa Pavana Ghata; then worship Mitra. Ill stay here because I have some duties to perform. When entering Shyama Kund from the northwestern ghat (beside the Panca Pandava trees) the name Manasa Pavana can still be seen inscribed within the sandstone slabs. Verse 99 After the sakhis depart, Vrinda calls two sharikas, named Sukshmadhi and Shubha. Sukshmadhi is sent flying to watch Jatilas movements and Shubha is dispatched to Gauri Tirtha to spy on Chandravalis party. The parrots are sent because they can quickly return messages faster than anyone else. They can also spy without being noticed. 100-102Vrinda goes to a jeweled cottage where the seva paraphernalia is stored. Seeing everything in order, she praises her maidservants. The seva dasis have nicely arranged the required dresses, decorations, flowers and refreshments for the next ten pastimes: Holi, Jhulan, Madhupan, Vana-vihara, Rati-keli, Jala-keli, Vana-bhojan, Shayana, Shuka-Shari-pathana and Pasha-khela. As Vrinda instructed, each vana devi has arranged accordingly. Now she sends them to the select location where each pastime will unfold to decorate and prepare the scene. Verse 103-105 Then Vrinda leaves to inform the trees and other forest creatures about Radha Krishnas arrival; they should be ready to receive them at each lila-site. Thus eager to bathe in Radha Krishnas rasaamrita-sindhu churned by the full moon of their yugala milan, Vrinda hides in a nearby kunja. Meanwhile, Nandimukhi arrives to hide with Vrinda and the others. She is also very eager to see Radha Krishnas yugala milan.

Nandimukhi is Madhumangals sister, Sandipani Munis daughter, the grand daughter and disciple of Bhagavati Paurnamasi devi. Verse 106 Seeing Radha and the sakhis approaching between a row of bakula trees, Krishna is struck by amorous ecstasy! But still he is unsure because his excitement has misled him many times before. After Vrinda left, Krishna continued waiting in Vishakhas-sukhada kunja with his eyes fixed on the pathway. But due to over-anxiousness, several times Radhas sphurti appeared.. and he rushed to greet Srimati! Unfortunately, it was only a daydream! So this time Krishna begins contemplating: Are my eyes deceiving me again? Or is my luck really changing? Verse 107-109 Meanwhile, Radha sees Krishna and becomes wonder-struck! But because she previously mistook a tamal for Krishna (and became embarrassed when the sakhis teased her) Radha still cant believe her eyes! Radha and Krishna are both inebriated as limitless emotions surface from their mutual darshan ananda! They begin fantasizing: Krishna: Aha! Is this beauty herself taking on a devi-form? Or the Lakshmi of fresh youth? May be she is sweetness personified? Or a reservoir of bodily luster? Or a River of pleasure, or a wave of amrita? Who is coming to elate all of my senses with wonder? Verse 110 Krishna goes on: Aha! Shes the full moon for my thirsty chakora eyes, shes the Padmini (lotus) for the bee of my nose, shes the newly-blossomed mango for my kokila lips, the ruffling sound of her clothes allure my deer-like ears, and shes a river of amrita for my bodys drunken elephant which Cupid has tortured for so long? What a great fortune! The desire tree of my hankering is bearing fruit! When purva raga turns into sakshat darshan, Radha and Krishnas attraction for each others beauty is termed rupanuraga. There are many Mahajana padas depicting this exciting moment. The following sample is by Lochan Das Thakur: sakha he dhani ke koho baTe gorocan gaurI, navIna kizorI, nahite dekhinu ghATe kibA se dukUli, zaGkhe jhalamali, soru soru 'zazikalA majite udaya, zudhu sudhAmaya, dekhiyA hoinu bholA nahiyA uThite, nitamba tatite, poreche cikura rAzi kAliya adhara, kanaka cAdara, zaraNa loilo Asi cole nIla sArI, niGgari niGgari, parANa sahite mora sei hoite mora, hiyA nahe sthira, manmatha jhore bhora ei dAsa locana, kohiche vacana, shunaho nagara cAnda se ye vrishabhanurAjara nandini, nAma binodini radha Oh Priya-sakha Subala! Who is this golden navina kishori stealing my heart beside the Radha Kund ghat? There are thin, tinkling conchshell bracelets on her wrists that glisten like moonbeams!

My mind is going wild from all this gorgeous nectar! Her beautiful hair falls over her nitamba like a black snake brushing over a golden moon. Thus I take her shelter. But, Aha! As she moves towards me, wearing a blue sari shes squeezing the life from my heart! Thus my mind is whirling from Kamadevas fever! Lochan says, Listen, Oh Nagara Chand! This is Vrishabhanu raja nandiniher name is Vinodini Radha! 1. Verse 111 Meanwhile, Radha contemplates: Aha! Is this a tamal? Or a new raincloud? Or a dazzling sapphire pillar? Could it be a mountain of kajjal, a collection of blue lotus flowers, or all the Vraja sundaris eyes put together? Verse 112 Radha goes on: Aha! Is this Kandarpa? Na, for he lost his body. Could this be rasa Raja shringar rasa? Na, hes also formless. Then perhaps this is an ocean of amrita? Na, the ocean is boundless. Then may be this is a prema kalpataru? Na, na How could a desire tree move? This object is moving towards me! O sakhi! Please tell me, is this my Prana-priyatama Sri Krishna? Oh, how could I be so fortunate? Verse 113-115 Then Radha turns to Vishakha and exclaims, Oh sakhi! Is this the lotus for my thirsty honeybeeeyes? Has my Priya-kanta arrived? Please dont tease me, tell the truth! Seeing Radhas voice faltering and her body shivering with horripilation, Vishakha tenderly answers, O Sumukhi! The person standing before you is the Kasturi-tilak for your forehead, the marvellous pictures painted on your breasts, the dot of Kasturi for your chin and the black mascara for your eyes! He is the blue lotus for decorating for your ears, the crown-jewel for your head and your auspicious ray of good fortune! Oh sakhi Rai! Look! Your dearest Kanta is standing before youso quickly take his shelter! Thus overtaken by the mellows of shuddha prema awakening from their mutual darshanRadha and Krishna Both become stunned! Verse 116 As the result of Sri Rupa Goswamis mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu from Sri Chaitanya Devas lotus feet, the request of Sri Raghunath Das, the association of Sri Jiva and the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, the eighth chapter of Sri Govinda lilamrita ends. 1. Chapter Nine Madhyahna Lila 10:48 a.m.3:36p.m. Radha And Krishnas Transcendental Emotions, Their Sporting Debate While Picking Flowers, Followed By The Puja Of Five Devatas, Nine Planets And The Ten Directions. 1. Prema becomes a dancing guru to make Radha and Krishnas mind and body his pupils. Thus

Premas dance beginsas Vrinda, Kundalata and all of the sakhis become spectators! 2. With great zeal the Prema Guru decorates Radha and Krishna using the bhava-alankaras of capalya (restlessness), autsukya (eagerness) and harsha (elation)! Capalya, autsukya and harsha are vyabhichari bhavas. Capalya arises from attachment or resentment and causes one to act unrestrained without judgement. Autsukya is the impatience arising from the delay in attaining ones goal. This brings about hastiness, anxiousness, facial contortion and heavy breathing. Hara is the elation from seeing ones beloved. 3-4. Like a costume designer dressing a dancer before she goes on stage, prema ornaments Radha with udbhasvaras, beginning with jrimbha, all of the sattvik emotions headed by the suddipta expression, followed by seven ayatnajas beginning with shobha, ten types of svabhavaja beginning with vilasa, and three types of angaja beginning with bhava. 5. Finally, prema added the twenty-first and twenty-second charming ornaments named maugdhya and cakita, leaving her fully dressed and decorated. These are terms of rasa and alankara shastra. Because these numerous types of emotions are highly uncommon, this terminology is befitting to separate them from the emotions of our common world. UdbhAsvaras are described in Ujjvala-nilamanis AnubhAva-prakaraNa as the symptoms that reveal enflamed passion. There are six types: 1) nIvi-sraMsana (loosening of the waist belt) 2) uttarIya-sraMsana (looseing of the upper sash) 3) dhammilla-sraMsana (loosening of the hair) 4) gAtra-moTana (stretching) 5) jRmbhA (yawning) 6) ghrANa-phullatA (heavy breathing) The eight types of sattvik bhavas are 1) jaDim (paralysis), 2) gharmodgama (sweating), 3) romAJca (standing of the hairs), 4) svara-bhaGga (faltering of the voice), 5) kampa (shivering), 6) vaivarNya (discoloring of the body), 7) nayanAzru (heavy tears), 8 ) acaitanya (fainting). These eight symptoms awaken in five progressive stages: 1) dhUmAyita (smoking), when easily controllable 2) jvalita (kindling), when controlling them becomes difficult 3) dIpta (enflamed) when three, four or five of these symptoms awaken, making then impossible to control. 4) uddIpta (raging) when five, six, seven or eight of these symptoms display to create incredible wonder. 5) sUddIpta (super-enflamed) when all of the sattvika bhavas combine with mahabhava to reach a supreme pitch.

Ujjvala-nIlamaNis mentions twenty types of bhava-alankaras, they are divided into three groups: a) Ayatnaja: 1) zobhA (refined beauty); 2) kAnti (luster arising from kama); 3) dIpti (youthful luster); 4) mAdhurya (sweetness); 5) pragalbhatA (prowess in Kandarpa keli); 6) audArya (compassion); 7) dhairya (patience); b) SvabhAvaja: 8 ) vilAsa (ones stance, movement, facial expressions and eye-gestures upon seeing the beloved); 9) lIlA (imitating the dress or the behavior of ones beloved); 10) vicchitti (scant-dressing); 11) vibhrama (misdressing); 12) kilakiJcita (pride, desire, shrieking, smiling, jealousy, fear and anger that simultaneously arise from the hearts elation upon seeing the beloved); 13) moTTAyita (the desire for union upon seeing or remembering the beloved); 14) kuTTamita (the nayikas external anger to cover her ecstasy when touched by the beloved); 15) vivvoka or bibboka (prideful neglect of the beloved); 16) lalita (the unique stance, bodily curve, facial expression and movement of the eyes upon seeing the beloved) 17) vikRti (pride, envy or shyness that are expressed through silence). c) AGgaja: 18 ) bhAva (the first outward sing of erotic interest); 19) hAva (the bending postures of dancing of the eyebrows that indicate desires for rati); 20) helA (the direct and clear indication of hAva). Verse 5 also mentions the mugdha and cakita bhava alankaras. Maugdhya is when a nayaka or nayika coquettishly asks questions about matters that are already known. A nayikas pretentious fear is called cakita. 6-7 Meanwhile, just as he decorated Radha, the Prema-nritya-guru also ornaments Krishnas mind and body with the same symptoms! Although Radha and Krishna are both totally enthralled with suddipta sattvika bhavas. Krishnas bhava alankaras slightly differ. For example, he doesnt exhibit the kilakinchita or kuttamita alankaras. And in place of Radhas nivi-bandhana sramsana etc, Krishnas pitambara loosens, his peacock feathers fall to the ground and he even drops his murali! veNuH karAn nipatitaH skhalitaM zikhaNDaM bhraSTaM ca pIta-vasanaM vraja-rAja-sUnoH yasyAH kaTAkSa-zara-ghAta-vimUrcchitasya tAM rAdhikAM paricarAmi kadA rasena

The flute has fallen from his hand, and the peacock crown slipped from his head. The yellow cloth has loosened from the waist of the son of the king of Braja, who has fallen into a faint after being pierced by a sidelong glance from Srimati Radharani. Oh, when will I serve her with delight? (RAdhA-rasa-sudhA-nidhi, 39) 1. 8-9 Illumined like two dancers on a stageRadha Krishnas prema dalliance thrills Lalita and all of the others watching the spectacle! Radha and Krishnas bodies, as in various dancing poses, express newer and newer emotion that awaken beaming pride and joy! Aho! The sakhis are spellbound, and with great feeling they surrender their mind, body and soul to the Divine Couple! But they also horripilate as tears pour from their eyes! Rati (bhava, prema) causes sattvika emotions. Even when bhaktas of our world (having rati) hear narrations such as these, similar emotions can happen (to some extent). If such symptoms dont take place, one must learn to lament for ones lack of appreciation and earnestly pray for rati to awaken. Yet only by following the moods of these fortunate gopis will such divine emotion be possible. In Krishna-bhavanamrita, Srila Chakravartipada described another days noon-milan as follows: With surprise, Krishna appears amidst the gopis like the full moon rising over a lily patch! The gopis try to conceal their elationbut their weak attempts fail! The swelling ocean of Krishnas madhurya awakens their Ananga-tarangas (waves of erotic desire)! So hoping to cover them they display artificial anger. Yet this instantly crumblesjust as the oceans incoming tide sweeps away a sand wall! Hence, the gopis amorous desires only double! But then their eyes turn into boats which sail over the madhurya sindhu of Krishnas body! Aho! They lose composure! Becoming caught within the whirlpool of each bodily limb their eyes sink downwardsjust as a boat capsizes in the oceans fierce under-tow! So if somebody says that the gopis eyes now stare at the ground due to shynessthey are unaware of this tattva. 1. 10 Radhikas sweeping bodily madhurya illumines the dancing stage, and Krishnas eyes dance with her! And seeing Krishnas captivationRadhas joy ever increase! Then she pelts him with the lotus of her sidelong glance to increase his fascination! The gopis lotus eyes dance within this spectacle! 11 Stunned by Krishna, Radhas gait totters. As her face is slightly covered with a blue orana, Radhas peeking awry glances deliver excessive pleasure to Krishna! This pose is called the vilasa alankara. 12 The sancari bhava of autsukya (eagerness), acting like a sakhi, pulls Radha forwardthe sakhi of lajja (shyness) pulls her backthe sakhi of vamata (resistance) deceptively pulls her towards homeand the sakhi of avahittha (concealment) leads her to the east for picking flowers! Seeing Radha moving in various ways captivates Krishna ! Radhas eagerness for Krishnas ananga sanga first pulls her towards him as the manjaris pull her to meet Krishna.* But because Lallita and the other sakhis are present, Radhas shyness awakens to

pull her back! Next Radhas resisting vama tendency pulls her towards home (as though she intends to spite the sakhis for creating the situation). But after regaining composure, the sakhi of concealment saves Radhas prestige as she moves towards the flower-kunjas displaying the mood: Ha! We didnt come into the forest to see you! Were here to pick flowers for Surya Puja! Thus, Rai Vinodinis restlessness delivers unending delight to Nagara Raja Sri Krishna. This verse invokes meditation. 13 As these four sakhis continue to pull in different directionsRadha is unable to proceed forward, neither can she remain still! 14 Radhas shyness causes her neck, waist and knees to bend with an enchanting contour. The she arches her dancing lata-like eyebrows that rival Cupids bow! As Radha is thrilled by Krishnas enjoyment (in seeing her), she fondles Lalitas hand for support. This pose is known as the lalita alankara. 15 The superb dance of Radhas emotions induce Krishnas mind to flutter hence his body takes to dancing and he arrives standing just before her! 16 Rasika Cudamani says, Hey Priye! Your ornaments became misplaced in your hurried attempt to meet me? Aha! Your appearance make me restless! Come, Ill re-dress you properly! Thus Krishna makes his move to touch Radha and caught off-guard, Radha lowers her head in hesitation as her eyes flicker! Thus she shows the vibhrama alankara. Vibhrama (or vicchitti) is when a nayikas amorous intoxication causes her to mis-dress (or forget to properly dress) in her frantic endeavor to meet her beloved. Kusuma Cayana Vinoda (Amusing flower-picking pastime) I 17 Although eager of Krishnas sangaRadha holds on to her lajja (shyness), vamata (resistance) and avahittha (concealment). Then ignoring Krishna, she proudly moved ahead to pick flowers showing obstinance. Seeing Radhas behavior, Krishna comes holding his hands to block the path. Although Radha is pleased, her resisting anger awakens. Seeing Krishna premandha (love-blind), and knowing that the eyes of all the sakhis are upon her, Radhas bama nature takes over. So to conceal the intensity of her erotic symptoms (such as hela) she walks right past Krishna, leaving him standing with his arms outstretched to embrace her! This is Radhas renowned vivoka alankara. But seeing his first attempt failing, Nagarendra rushes to block the path! Prema-rangini Rai fully enjoys Krishnas endeavorsyet still her pretentious anger allows her to remain in control of the situation.

18 Radhas exotic, forlorn eyes mix with the redness of anger and fill with tears! Her lips tremble owing to the pressure of Eros, her eyebrows arch and a delicate smile reveals her hearts intention. As Radhas renowned kila kincita bhava surfaces, Krishna relishes a million times more than his direct sangama with her! Radhas lancing eyebrows are more furious than someone having been repeatedly cheated. Her dry pouting mixes with tears, as if to shriek: What calamity! The redness of her eyes display anger and their restlessness convey fear. Radhas taunting expression is filled with pride and her fidgety tantalizing lips show an undeniable willingness for rati! 19-20 Strolling over to a punnaga tree, Radha raises her arms over her head in an outstretched pose to pick flowers. This taunts Krishnashowing her desire to be embraced! But two things happen by Radhas soft touch: The punnagas flowers suddenly blossom with gaiety and Krishnas body shivers in horripilation! Another term for romanca (horripilation) is utkalika; exceptionally beautiful flowers are also called utkalika. Radhas tantalizing pose is like a magic wand which commands both the moving and the non-moving objectswhat to speak of Bhagavan Sri Krishna. Kusuma Cayana Vinoda (Amusing flower-picking pastime) II 21 Radha and Krishna studied the Kama-shastras from the Guru named Tarunya Bhatta. Although both students have amassed amazing talentsKrishna still wishes to debate with Radha. This shouldnt sound strange, however, because in this field students even argue with their Gurus; so debates amongst classmates arent uncommon. Desiring to match wits with his Prana-Priyatama, Krishna initiates a prema kalaha. 22-23Krishna: Whos picking my flowers? Radha: No one. Krishna : Who are you? Radha: Dont you know? Krishna: No. Radha: Then take leave. Krishna: I am a pushpapa (honey-bee), where should I go? Radha: Go to your lady bee. Krishna: Oh hey! Youre my bhramari (lady bee). Radha: How is that possible? Krishna: Because your heart craves the flower, certainly youre a honey-bee! Madhusudan answers, Aha! Youre a parama sundari, chaste and elite so why are you stealing the punnaga trees Sumana flower? (Why do you steal the minds of handsome men?) This must be your craftiness for discarding shyness you always freely roam in these forests!

Krishna-bhavanamritas version runs as follows: As Krishnas bodily fragrance enters Radha and the sakhis nostrils, their patience collapses! Then Krishna exclaims, Hey forest-pilferers! Who are you? This stuns the gopis like a magic spell! Hearing no reply, Krishna feigns anger, his eyes roll and he scoffs: Oh hey delirious forest plunderers! These gardens are dear as my home. And I see youre looting their riches! But now Ive caught you so I must take action! Just tell me who you are? Radha and the Vraja sundaris reply: Were no one. But these voices altered by erotic emotion, shyness, restlessness and alarmcompletely mesmerize Krishna! Their sweet sound is so soul-stirring that if a poet were to search for a suitable analogy he would become a brahma-jnani! In other words, after negating the madhura call of the kokila, and every other captivating sound in the universe by saying not this, not this, he would attain enlightenment! The gopis reply converts Krishnas mind into ears. Then Kamadevas arrows sting Krishnas heart! But to conceal his enrapture he speaks harshlywhich only advertises his captivation twofold! Krishna: Oh hey moon-faced ones! Youre standing before me saying Were no one...chi chi! How could a non-entity answer Were no one? But I seeyoure all aparupa sundari ramanis. And besides stealing the flowers, youve stolen my very atma! Aha! I wont let you get away with this neither in the day, nor in the night! For Ive spent many sleepless nights pondering how to catch you mind-thieves. Fortuately, by a turn of good luck, Ive finally caught you! So hey you mad, young women! Now I shall deliver your befitting punishmentjust brace yourselves! 24 Krishna retorts: Hey Sundari! If you say This is everyones forest, and everyone has equal rights here.. and weve come to worship Mitra (the sun or the friend), then Ill reply: The blooming punnaga wont touch the Malati (the Vraja sundaris), for theyve destroyed all of its flowers. Besides, I think that by repeatedly uttering syllables beginning with P, such as punnaga, puja and pushpa (that reveal your teeth) you are actually petitioning me for sanga vilasa! Aha! I understand the real meaning of your words, youre saying: This forest isnt my husband Abhimanyus house, and youre my mitra (friend). Thus weve come to perform your puja (seva), and although were anxious for your sanga, why are you neglecting us? In Krishna-bhavanamrita, Srimati Radharani indirectly admits Krishnas assertion: Hey Dhrishta Raja! (king of the frauds) We daily worship our ishta deva, Mitra, who destroys the darkness and bestows joy to the world. By the touch of the suns rays (your hands) all of the Padminis (Vraja kishoris) become enlivened! So our search for flowers (you) is only befitting; why are you becoming angry? Krishna answers, Hey Sumukhi Radhe! If youve come to worship Mitra (your friend, me) I wont become angry. But I know that beautiful women often tell lies, so I cant trust you. Are your flowers really meant for decorating Our flower-bed? If so, just promiseand I shall overlook all of your aparadhas. Then you can witness my sadhu-behavior. Radhika replies, Aha! Everyone in Vraja Mandal know that were notorious thieves and that youre a great sadhu! So why waste your time informing us. Personally Ive never heard of such an innocent, pure, self-contented and truly honest person as you anywhere in the entire world! Springing to the defence, Krishna retorts: Hey Garvini (proud one)! Your praises are meant to carry the opposite meaning. Hence youre calling Vrindavans Ishwar a thief! So what sort of

audacity causes you, a mere cowherd-girl, to utter such daring statements before me? Does this pride stem from your new youth, or from your wealthy beauty? Has it arisen from your chastity or perhaps from your numerous other talents or qualities? Just tell me? 25 Krishna addresses Srimati: O bright-faced One! Because youre bewildered, you dont know whats going on. Listen to me: This Punnga (Purushottama) is sometimes united with the Malativine (the gopis) and sometimes not. Everything depends on the favorable winds. Krishna chides that the lata (Radha) depends on the wind (the sakhis) to unite with the punnaga (Himself. Since your sakhis arrange Our milan- theyre at fault for not doing so. But these words carry a subtle warning: If your sakhis dont hurry up and perform their duty, then the unfavorable winds (Chandravalis sakhis) may arrive to cause a storm. 26 Krishna: Hey Sundari! Everyone knows that Maharaj Kandarpa owns this forest ; and Maharaj gladly entrusts me to protect it. But youre arrogantly taunting the forest-ranger by plundering the forests beauty with your two golden Jugs of youth ; so Ill teach you a lesson! Aha! Ill steal these two golden jugs to vanquish your pride ! Here is the purport of a dhira lalita nayaka. 27 Krishna adds: If you say: Oh hey forest ranger, I humbly pray, Please let me pick the flowers, then Ill answer: How is that possible, for Im a brahmachari I never speak with women? Furthermore, if a boy meets a young girl in a secluded place, how can he maintain his patience? Uhoh! Now I understandyoure trying to seduce me with your feminine charms! But thats impossiblefor Im always surrounded by my sakhas ! Hey Sundari! Give up your tricks and give me straight answers! I can see that every limb of your body is a mind-stealing chori, and youre always surrounded by a fierce gang of choris who plunder Madana Chakravartis opulences. So what can I do? If I dont embrace you immediately, Madana Maharaj will martyr me ! 29-30 Krishna: Accha! If you say: Were daily picking flowers in this forest, yet weve never seen a forest-ranger like you before, neither have we heard the name of Kandarpa Chakravarti (even in dreams); why are you upset ? Then I will answer: Oh naive one! Youre right! Because Maharaj Kandarpa is notorious, from such confidence I never bothered to come here ; I herd my cows elsewhere. Hence I missed seeing you, and you were able to plunder the forest. Krishnas chivalry continues, as If he were saying: Good, good! At last youre talking straight forward so Ill give you a straight answer, listen : Madana Chakravartis stamina (and Mine) are renowned. Thus I thought: No one would dare loot our forest? So I never took the trouble to check. But when I heard that our entire property is being ransacked, I came to investigate. Ha! What a stroke of luckIve caught you and your gang red-handed! Now Ill have to bind you (embrace you) and take you away to Kandarpa Rajas palace (the nikunja keli mandir). Because youre

saying: Ive never heard the name of Madana Chakravarti today I shall introduce youand this will uncover all of your pride! 31-32 Its good that Ive caught you! So in the kings interest (and Mine too) I shall pinch you with my nails! Then Ill take you to the court to show the king whose name you claim to have never heard! Krishna: If you say: We thought this forest belongs to everyone, and we didnt know that there is a forest ranger, Oh Karunamaya! Please be merciful and forgive us this time? Ill say: Hey Sundari! What are you suggesting? I dont have the power to release you! Up till now, Rasika Muraris refined, well chosen word-play is spoken simply to avert Rai Vinodinis exhibition from her vivvoka alankara. But as Radhas lips quiver under the pressure of Cupids onslaught, she realizes her precarious situation and changes her tactics. Radhas new innocent facial expression inspires Krishna to utter this verse. Actually, all along, our quick-witted Rasika kala-guru has been directing the conversation from both sides hoping to control the situation and skillfully lead Radha to the flower-bed. 33 Krishna: All of the forests citizens, both, mobile and immobile, are upset by your conduct (which is unheard of). Thus theyve complained to Kandarpa Maharaj. And becoming furious, Maharaj has sent me to arrest you; your punishment will be sentenced according to the shastras. Krishna is Dharma Raja, he always abides by the scriptural injunction. However, there are different shlokas for different folks; here Radhas punishment will strictly follow the rites of the Kama-sutra composed by Vatsyayana Muni. Krishna often quotes from this shastra in Krishna-bhavanamrita. 34 Hey Sundari! You might say that Vrindavan is very small (only 32 miles wide), raja Ananga has no body, and the opulence of this area is the mere grass that grows here. But if you ask: Who are Ananga Rajas subjects? Then I shall reply: All of the beautiful chaste women in the world are his subjects! Madhura Vrindavan is 16 krosha (32 miles) wide, and it includes twelve forest, namely: Bhadravana, Bhandira vana, Kamyavana, Madhuvana, Belavana, Lohavana, talavana, Khadiravana, Bahulavana, Kumuda vana, Gokula Mahavana and the five krosha Vrindavan. 35-38 Krishna: Radhe! Your body is the thief which steals every beautiful object within the forest! The new grass and the lotus beauty were uprooted by the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet; and their nails extract the gleam of a mirror! Your gait captures the charming movement of the intoxicated elephants and the swans. Your hips purloin the elegance of the golden banana trees and the trunks of the elephants; and your knees loot the wealth of Vrindavans golden treasure chest. Your beautiful nitamba and its upper portion have seized Kandarpas chariot and cushioned seat! Your waist pillages the thin waist of the lions and its navel depleat Vrindavans amrita sarovar! The thin line of hair running to your navel spites the sleekness of the black serpents, your tummy curbs the curvature of the Banyan leaves and your chest ransacks the symmetry of Cupids bedstead!

Your raised breasts smuggle the beauty of the lotus, the bael fruits, the palm fruits and the temples of the elephants! Your arms graft the grace of the lotus-stems and Kandarpas noose! Their palms reap the redness of the ashok flowers, and their fingers pluck Rati-patis potency in the blooming champaks petals! The gleam of your chin reduce the radiance of lightning, and in the fine hairs falling over your cheeks capture the charm of all the swarming bees! Your teeth eclipse the elegance of a row of pearls, and your bodily luster extorts the color of gold, gorochana and haritala. Your nose captures the curvature of the parrots beaks, and your voice stifles the gaiety of the cooing kokilas! Your dance sweeps away the pride of the peacocks, and your eyeballs encircle the restlessness of the bees. Your tapered eyes catch the minnows, their thirsty look captures the chakoras, the loving glance snag the does and their darting movements encage the hummingbirds! Furthermore, your gorgeous eyes defeat the blue lotus, your teeth whist away the whiteness of the kunda flowers and the raktotpalas redness were robbed by the bottoms of your feet! Your eyebrows have seized Kandarpas bow, and when they alien with your glances they snatch Kandarpas arrows too! Your lips depleat the bright-red color of the Jaba (bandhuli) flowers, and while you chew pan your teeth glean the glitter of the pomegranate seeds. Your neck consumes the conchshells contours, and the three lines on your tummy capture the charm of the Yamunas waves! Who could list all of the other forest denizenstheyre uncountableand theyve all been stripped of their opulences by your tanu rupa chori (the bandit of your magnificent bodily limbs) Aha! Now they aimlessly wander in search of you! Moreover, although your eyes and eyebrows stole Kandarpas bow and arrowsyoure attacking me with these weapons! So even after looting Kandarpas raja singhasancould Maharaj let you go? Hay, hay! That splendor, that madhurya and that dignity that the forest citizens once possessed was unmatched! But today their hearts are downtrodden because no one recognizes their supremacy any longer. For those who see your lovely limbs despise all other forms of beauty! 39-40 Rasa-rangini Rai enjoys Krishnas crafty speechas a nectar-pour for the ears. But to conceal her ecstatic emotions, she softly smiles and answers, What sundari ramani would listen to the exaggerated rambling of a lusty guy? Im leaving. While ignoring Krishna with her mugdha vivvoka alankara, Radha quickly moves ahead in a haughty pace. But Krishna dashes forward to grab the border of her orana, saying: Oh cunning one! After shunting me, where do you think youre going? Pretentious neglect of ones desirable object is called vivvoka here Radhas mugdha vivvoka is an exceptional display of the same. Hence Rasikendra* exclaims, Hey Chori! Im Kandarpa Maharajs deputy officerhow dare you ignore me! 41-42 With the touch of Krishnas hand, Radhas body flushes with an array of ecstatic symptoms! Thus cocking her head, she casts a sharp glance meant to divert Krishnas attention! Aho! Who can fully describe Radhas drishti madhurya? Like a bumblebee, it soars on its resisting, crooked course to

land upon Krishnas mukharavinda! As tears surface, Radhas eyes turn angry red as he pulls on her garment! But then a mysterious silver-smile slidders through all of the other emotions to dunk Krishna within an ananda sagara! Sri Yadunandana Thakur says nana bhave (in various ways), meaning that hava, bhava, hela, cakita, lalita, kuttamita and other bhava alankaras also mix with Radhas sweet glance. 43-45 Radha is blinded with desire as she pulls her orana out from Krishnas grasp! Then, as her stinging glance showers him with Kandarpas arrows, she replies, Hey Krishna! Youre calling us thieves, but are you the real sadhu? Your bodily sweetness steals the charm of every beautiful object within the spiritual and the material worlds! Radha: What more can I say, the kumaris who bathed baked in the Yamuna testify to your saintly character and dharma-nishtha! Why did they have to pray to you for their clothes with their hands folded above their heads? The Bhagavatas Tenth Canto, Chapter 22, relates this story. The Vraja gopa-kumaris worshipped Goddess Katyayani to attain Krishna as their husband. And being satisfied by their desire, he awarded his darshan on the last day of their vrata. Yet because Krishnas kanta bhava is unattainable with shyness and modesty, he mercifully stole their clothes to remove their last remaining obstacle. 46-50 Radha goes on: Hey Krishna! There are many young girls suitable for marriage in Vraja, and youre a dashing Raja-putra, having many virtuous qualities. Hence we understand that your marriage was postponed because youre a lampat! And thats why no girl wants to marry you! So from frustration you wear the brahmachari-guise, although your mind is always restless as when a horse sees a mare. Thus we honor you as pseudo-brahmachari.: Hey Krishna! If youre really a brahmachari, why do you curiously glance at the young married girls.. and why do you play your vamshi to allure them? So isnt your brahmachari dress meant only for self-indulgence? Otherwise, why would you initiate yourself with a mantra that destroys every young womans sati-dharma*? We know what youre up to! Be careful! Keep your distance! And dont try to brush again us while you smile like a carefree lusty elephant! 51 Radhika continues: What a spoof! You never planted a single flower, vine or tree-sapling within this forestyet you claim to be its proprietor! Moreover, your cows uproot and destroy the grass, the flowers, the vines and everything else growing hereyet you claim to be the forests protector. 52 Because my sakhi, Vrinda, maintains this forest, it is renowned as Vrindavan. But after my rajaabhisheka when I was crowned Vrindavaneshwari, Vrinda gave her kingdom to me. And everyone knows this. But hay, hay! Still you and your wicked accomplice, Kandarpa Raja, claim ownership! This is humiliating !

Upon Sri Rupas request, Srila Jiva Goswami compiled Sri-Madhava-mahotsava, which exclusively describes Srimati Radharanis raja abhisheka lila. There in nine chapters, Radhas mahaishvarya is exhibited as Sri Paurnamasi devi bathes Radharani in the most spectacular abhisheka ever performed within madhura Vrindavan. All of the Vrajavasis attend, as well as the residents of heaven, who present Radha with numerous special gifts. This book is exciting, filled with rasa, and the reader finds Sri Jiva Goswami at his best therein. 53 Radha goes on, Within this matchless abode is my kunda and its forest banks. Here my singhasan reigns in the pleasure kunja named Kama Sharmada. In chapter 7, shloka 32, Kama Sharmada Kunja is described within Lalitananda-kunja. This bower is the nucleus of the thousand petalled lotus-courtyard named Anangambuja. 54 In this lonely quarter is my throne named Kanta Varta sudhadhuk, where I relish kanta kathamrita from the lips of my sakhis; this place is inaccessible to men. The word kanta-varta has two meanings: pleasant stories, and the kathamrita of Radhas kanta, Sri Krishna. While sitting upon her raja singhasan, Srimati openly discusses Krishna kathamrita with Lalita, Vishakha and all the other sakhis where no on can overhear them. 55-56 Anyway, we came here to pick flowers for Surya Puja. So who are you to stop us? What a spoof! Youre declaring others property to be your own; it appears that your sweetheart, Lajja (modesty), has completely abandoned you! Hey brahmachari! This flower garden is a nice spot for the ladies; but what is your business here? You can run along now and join your animals with the other pashu-pala. Radhika adds sarcasm with a grin to insinuate that pashu-palas and raja-kumaris dont mix. Since Krishna is a cowherds son, its befitting that he join his own clan. Thus Srimati says, You wont gain anything here with the ladies. Youd profit more to go searching after fresh grass to feed your cows. 57 Krishnas smile is slightly crooked yet cooling, and as it aligns with his restless chakora eyes, he enjoys Radhas moon-face which is illuminated by frolicsome gestures; such yugala darshan delights the sakhis chakora eyes. Unlike the skys fading moon, Radhas mukha chandra always refreshes Krishna with graceful moonbeam smiles. And its the playground for her restless doe-like eyes. So when Radhika adds her joking facial expressions, Krishnas chakora eyes discover newer and newer delight! Aho! Seeing Krishnas enrapture the sakhis become spellbound! 58

Radhas neck and shoulders contort (as if fearing Krishnas touch). Then she garlands him with the dark mala of her lotus eyes! But to show neglect, Radha starts to leave while uttering prideful indistinct rebuke. Radha admonishes him with such tart words as: lampat (debauch), avidagdha (unsmart), nirlajja (immodest), dhrishta (deceiver), dhurta (sly one) and kamukira krida-mriga (lusty wantonstag). 59-60 Viewing the dancing acharya of Radhikas body in motion, Krishnas desire to touch it become irrepressible! Thus his restless catch hold of Radhas kanchuli. But Radhas arching eyebrows suddenly become bows and they release the fiery arrows of her glance to shatter Krishnas patience! Then she repeatedly strikes him with her lotus flower! Just as soldiers use armour to protect themselves Krishnas gravity acts as his protecting shield in his chivalrous joking battle with Radha. But now Radhas sweet piercing glance strips his gravity! 61 Everyone knows that Krishna is the Universal shelter, yet he can no longer contain his ecstasy a Radha bops him with her lila kamala (playful lotus)! Thus he shakes and perspires as tears and goose-bumps adorn his body with the outbreak of suddipta sattvika emotions!

62-64 Radha is excited by Krishnas touch too. But looking down, she notices that her kanchuli has snapped...and the sash around her waist has fallen! Now Radhas lower garment remains clinging to her nitamba parvata only by the moisture of her perspiration! Seeing the sakhis smiling, Radha becomes nervous and brushes away Krishnas hand! Then stepping asideRadha quickly re-ties her sash but still she remains bewildered. Krishna becomes over-zealous to inaugurate Kandarpas yajna. So just as kumbhas are established in puja, he moves towards Radha and places his hands above her pitcher-like breasts that are lustrous with perspiration. When beginning a puja, mango leaves are placed over a kumbha (water pot) to invoke auspiciousnessthus Krishna places his leaf-like hand over above Radhas breasts to inaugurate his ujjvala kandarpa yajna. 65 Radha quickly obstructs Krishnas hand and clasps her sash! Then while pensively looking at Krishna from the reddish corner of her left eyeher other eyes darts towards her smiling sakhis! Radhas left eye portrays thirsty anuraga, while her right exposes perplexed embarrassment. 66 Although Radha is flushing with joy and eagerness within, her bama-nature causes her to swoon, to

block Krishnas hands and to curse him with faltering indistinct rebuke! Radha: Oh-re, chi chi! You rude brutestop torturing the defenseless, young gopis?.Stop this at once! Lest Lalita will take revenge! But while pushing Krishna away, Radha enjoys clasping his hands even tighter than before. 67 Aho! Radha and Krishnas hands swiftly meet, and their bracelets tinklejust as the wind unites two beautiful lotus flowers encircled by swarming bumblebees. The sweet, ruffling sound of Radhas clothes and the tinkling resonance of her bracelets form the wealth of samadhi. 68 Then Lalita steps in to stop Krishna so Kundalata exclaims, Hey Shyama! Its time to perform Panca Deva-puja! Lets return to Krishna-bhavanamrita to sample a lucid description of Lalitash rage: Continuing from their previous quarrel, Krishna tells Radha: Today Im going to curb your haughtiness! Now just watch the prowess of my arms! Seeing Giridhari coming to grab her, Radha flees! But Lalita steps in, holds Radha behind her, and faces Krishna to shriek: Hey lampat! Watch out! Youre coming before Lalita! How dare you touch our chaste Maharani! For your own safety Im warning you: Get lost! Krishna retorts: Hey Lalite! Seeing your audacious spunk, I can only guess that you want to wrestle with me in the Prakama-samara (battle of Kandarpa)! So today Im going to tightly squeeze you within my strong armsand let your sakhis witness! Aha! Hey nasty one! Then you wont dare to be defiant before me! Lalita screams: Hey stri-cora! Youre able to exploit the timid ladiesbut Im Lalita! And I dont fear you in the least! With my undaunted prowess I shall save all of the sakhis from your lusty attack! Aha! Ill catch your flower arrows and turn them back on you! If youre so tough, why are you shaking? Krishna glances towards Radha and says, Hey Priye! Just see, Lalita is uttering whatever comes to her mouth! If you share the same opinionthen watch out! You wont get a chance to escape my wrath today! Aha! First Ill bite Lalitas lips so that she wont dare flap them anymore! Then Im coming to get you! For I have no other recourse maunam sammati lakshanam (your silence is your sign of approval). Radha rebuffs: Hey Shathendra (Lord of the deceivers)! Dont you know who I am? What type of nonsense are you speaking? Throughout Nanda-Vraja can you find a woman more chaste than I? Everyone knows of my atanu dharma, especially my sakhis, and amongst them Lalitaji is the bestfor she can even conquer you with her pragalbhata! Krishna replies, Radhe! Your declaring Im a dharmavati and a sati is sheer boasting. And I see you store these two high mountains of pride within your kucha yugala. So today Im going to thrash these mountains to destroy your pride! (Thus the chandra vadana sakhis softly smile like moonbeams.)

Then Krishna dashes to bravely place his hand on Radhas breast! But Kandarpa strikes with his arrows! So Radha Krishnas hairs stand erectand their bodies tremble from head to foot! Aho! Radha is stunned! And the sakhis shriek: Hey you audacious Nagara! What have you started? Now the bees of vama Radhikas bracelets rustle as her lotus-hands struggle to chase away your hand ! Meanwhile, as Radha anxiously tries to remove Krishnas right hand, his left hand brushes away the orana covering her head! Then an indescribable madhuryamrita-wave fills every direction! While submerging within Radhas shimmering effulgence, Shyamasundar becomes wonder struckand forgets about kissing her. Noticing that Radhas hair is astrewn Nagara Raja enters samadhi: Aha! How amazing! Why hasnt this dazzling moon removed the darkness resting over it? As Radharanis fine strands of hair brush over her forehead, Krishna thinks, Hmm, this purna chandra fails to conquer the darkness which is trying to cover it. But how could a defeated object remain so bright? Hmm, has the moon become friends with the darkness? Na, thats impossible, if that were so, why would the darkness rest above the moon? But seeing Radhas beautiful eyes, Krishna says, Uh, have two minnows suddenly appeared on the moons surface? And did they cling to the moon as it rise from the kshira samudra (the ocean of milk)? Noticing that Radhas eyes are closed (due to shyness) Krishna declares: Oh! I must be mistakenminnows are always darting about so could these be blue lilies? Na, thats impossible ; a lily never closes in the moons presence. Are these hummingbirds? Na, they arent flying. Thus pondering Radhas rupa madhuri, Krishna repeatedly congratulates his eyes fortune. But due to such absorption, and due to Radharanis golden anga kantiKrishna becomes Gauranga! Meanwhile, having not felt the touch of Krishnas kiss, Radha begins to wonder: Whats Krishna been doing all this time ? So out of curiosity she slightly opens her eyes. But then Krishnas eyes eagerly rush to drink the anuraga madhu escaping from Radhas eyelidsand an amazing thing happens: His mind totters, his body becomes stunned and the on looking sakhis turn jubilant! Thus Radha takes advantage and removes herself from Krishnas embrace. Now one might guess: He is the sting of Radhas madhurya astra innoculated Krishna? and as Radhas dexterous hands quickly retie her blouse and waist sash tightly in place, who wouldnt be fascinated? It appears that she is preparing her armament for combating Krishna in Madanas intense battle. Panca Deva Puja (The Worship of Five Devatas) Seeing Krishna placing his hand on Radhas breast, Kundalata introduces an amusing lila by saying: Hey Krishna! The puja kumbhas are set! But to succeed in Kandarpas yajna you must satisfy the five devatas. 69-70 Rasikendra answers, Hey Kundalate! You can be the acharya for my Kandarpa-yajna. Please instruct me what articles are required and where the puja is to take place. Kundalata replies, Hey Madhava! Im not the acharya of this puja. But since youre my dear Cousin, Ill tell you all of the secrets that I heard from Nandimukhi, listen: Kundalata realises that if she claims to be the puja-acharya, Radhas sakhis will flare up and rebuke her! Chi-chi! theyd say, Youre supporting your Priya Devara (dear cousin) in seducing our priya sakhi! Why dont you go and perform this puja with him? So to avoid conflict, Kundalata shifts the attention to someone else, by stating: Ive heard all about these matters from

Nandimukhi. 71-72To remove the sacrifices obstacles one must worship Ganesha. So imagine Radhikas left breast as the temple of Ganesha, place your left lotus-hand on it (as an offering of red-lotus), and utter the mantra: zrI-ganeSAya tubhyaM namaH. Next, place your right lotus-hand on Radhas other breast which resembles a Shiva-linga, and utter: Namah Shivaya. Then move this hand above Radhas frowning eyebrows and recite the mantra: hrIM candikAyai namaH. Because of her vama prema, Radhas scolding eyebrows frown in disapproval from moment to moment. Thus owing to their intensity, they are compared to the residence of the vehement devi, Chandi. 73 Although Radha will try to block your hands, you must place one hand on her chin and the other at the base of her veni. Then, while uttering the mantra asmai viSNave namaH, you can offer your lotus lips to hers! Vishnu is the maintainer. Just as Vishnu maintains every living entity, the taste of Radhas lips are Krishnas means of subsistence. 74Hereafter (even if Radha offers resistance) you must recite the mantra sUryAya namaH and forcibly press your kunda flower teeth and Bandhuli flower to her reddish lips. Because Radhas bright lips shine like the sun, they relieve Krishnas darkness of distress. Hence Kundalata prescribes the Surya puja of Radhas red lips. As all five devatas are satisfied with lotus flower offerings, Krishna uses his lotus-mouth and lotus-hands to maintain the shastra vidhi. Although, because Surya is especially fond of kunda and bandhuli (red hibiscus) flowers, Krishna uses his teeth and red lips. 75-76 Krishna tries to perform the puja but Radharani rebukes Kundalata and begins striking Krishna with a lotus flower! Seeing Radha angry, Krishna addresses Lalilta and others: Oh sakhis! Im eager to worship Ganesha, Shiva, Chandi, Surya and Vishnu to remove the obstacles for my Kandarpa-yajna why is Radha upset? Praneshwari Radhas sudha-rasamaya reprimanding words delight not only Krishna, but the sakhis and manjaris, too. Radha addresses Kundavalli, Aha! Youre the deceiving ill-adviser for that shameless Nagara! I seeyou perform such debased puja yourself with him; then you become his manager to initiate these unmentionable acts with all the chaste Vraja tarunis! Chi, chi! We know what youre up to. So be forewarned, your despicable conduct will only humiliate yourself. 77-78 Some of the sakhis support Radha by frowning their eyebrows and offering rebukebut Vishakha forbids them, and signals Kundalata to step behind and tie Radha and Krishnas garments together. Then Vishakha exclaims, Hey Krishna! The shastras say that a husband and wife should perform

dharma together. And in Kandarpas yajna you and Radha are an equal match. So as Radha is an ideal dharmavati were tying you together. Radha is angry because youre starting the puja without following the proper rites. The ashta sakhis are sama sneha sometimes they play on Radhas side and sometimes they favor Krishna. Here Vishakha Sundari sides with Krishna to add more fun to the puja. As Vishakha covers her smile and pretends to be grave, she utters this shloka while glancing towards Radha from the corner of her eye. Vishakha knows Radhas intentions, thus she plays against her vama-nature to quickly fulfill Radhas inner desires. 79But Radhas lips quiver as she lances Vishakha with a sharp glance! And seeing Radhikas attention fixed on Vishakha, Kundalatla secretly slips behind and ties Radhas clothes to Krishnas. Radhas eyes convey anger, as if to say: Oh-re swindling Vishakhe! Have you sold your atma to this Prema-Lampatas crooked smiles? Accha! Just wait! Ill pay (revenge) your misdeed with premium interest! Nava Graha Puja (The worship of Nine Planets) 80 Kundalata then steps forward to please Krishna, saying: Hey Madhava! If you want to succeed in this auspicious yajna, just worship nine planetsthere is no need to follow any other injunction. Kundalata wishes to state: The Panca Devata Puja was a flop! Oh well, without wasting any further time lets begin the worship of Nine planets before this shubha lagna (auspicious moment) departs. If they are properly worshipped one attains sarva siddhi (all perfection). 81-82 Krishna answers, Oh Kundalate! Hoe does one worship the nine planets? Please instruct me! Using eye gestures, Kundalata directs Krishnas attention to Radhas various bodily limbs, saying Madhava, the nine planets are Radhas lips, two eyes, two cheeks, two breasts, forehead and face. Their puja is called Nava-graha-puja So if you want to satisfy them, just offer your bandhuli flower lips. (In other words, kiss Radha in these nine places!) Vatsyayana Munis KAma-shastra lists nine places of a ramanis body fit for kissing ; these are the nava graha according to Rasa-acharya Kundalata. When a sundari ramani is kissed in these nine places she experiences paramananda and succumbs to the desire of vilasa. In Jyotisha-shastra the nine planets are the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu. If these planets align favorably ones desires become completely fulfilled. Thus Kundalata jokes with Krishna: If you kiss Radha in these nine places youll attain sarva siddhi ! 83-87 Radha retorts: Hey acary Kundalate! You can teach your disciple (Krishna) all of these secrets using your own body. Then fearing Krishna, Radha starts to flee but as her clothes are tied to histhe knot only becomes tighter ! Looking over her shoulder, Radha sees that she is tied, and joyfully contemplates: Aha! My desire

is fulfilled. Yet outwardly, she angrily chastises Kundalata, Lalita and Vishakha. Then while trying to unite herself, Radha exclaims, In Krishnas sinister dancing assembly Vishakha is the honorable guest, Lalita divides the audience, and Kundalata is the buffoon who invokes the audiences laughter! Chi, Chi! Although Krishna isnt married, he considers all of the others wives his own! Even Krishnas sakhi, modesty, has foresaken him! What disgrace! When dharma is foresaken, life is destroyed at the root! Morever, our intention in coming to pick flowers has become spoiled. Thus how can we remain here ? Krishna tries to stop Radha from unloosening the knot; then he begins to kiss her in nine places. But blocking Krishnas advances, Radha tries even harder to unloosen herself! Although Radha offers a good resistance, Catura Cudamani goes all out to initiate his nava graha puja at any cost! Dhani-mani Radha is thrilled beyond control, and thus to control her ecstatic emotions, she shrieks and directs her attention to unloosening the knot! 88-89 As the tussle goes on, Lalita proudly steps in, and while feigning anger, rebukes Krishna! Then she unties the knot. Lalita teases: Krishna! If you marry Radha. How will you be able to meet with all the other Vraja sundaris? So why dont you tie yourself to your cousin Kundalata instead. During a Vedic wedding ceremony the bride and grooms garments are tied together. 90, 91 Radha frees herself and slips away. But while restlessly moving her eyebrows and sweetly smiling, she says, Hey Krishna! Your puja acharya, Kundalata, has taken you for a foolbut shes a nitwit too! The first duty is to worship the Dik-palas. So your puja is full of blunders! Dik Pala Puja (The Worship of the Ten Directional Deities) 92 Kundalata retorts: Hey Dumbbell! Im not deluded, the shastras say that first the Nava-grahas are worshippedand then the Dik-pala puja follows! 93-98 Krishna inquires: Hey Kundalate! Please tell me where the Dik-palas reside? Directing her eyes to the surrounding sakhis, Kundalata says, Hey Madhava! Look! The ten directional devatas have entered the murtis of Lalita and the other sakhis to benedict your Kandarpa-yajna. Now listen, Ill tell you which deva-murti each sakhi represents. Vishakha represents Shankara, LalitaIndra, SudeviAgni, TungavidyaYamaraja, Chitra, Nairirta; RangadeviVaruna, IndulekhaVayu, ChampakalataKubera, Rupa ManjariBrahma, and Ananga ManjariAnanta. Shastra states that the ten directions are protected by ten devatas. And each direction is named after its presiding deity as follows: The north east is named after Ishana (Shiva); the east, Indra;

the south-east, Agni; the south, Yamaraja; the south-west, Nairirta; the west, Varuna; the north-west, Vayu; the north, Kubera; the sky, Brahma; and the lower regions, Ananta. As Kundalata sees the sakhis standing in all directions, she jokingly ascribes that they have each assumed the shakti of those dik pala devatas. So she exclaims, Hey Krishna, just look! In the north east Vishakha assumes Ishanis shakti for becoming your better half! Lalita stands in the east like Indras wife, Shaci, to shower you with rati rasa. In Agnis south-east direction stands Sudevi whose enflaming prema will melt you like butter! Assuming Yamas shakti, Tungavidya can conquer your rati-prowess in the south! The shakti of Kandarpas destroyer, Nairirta, now rests with Chitra in the north-east! Rangadevi is ready to drown you within Varunas thrilling wave of shringar rasa in the west! In the north-west, Indulekha, will fulfill your desires with Vayus speed of the wind! And Champakalata waits in the north to offer the jewel of madhura prema from Kuberas treasure chest! Thus rasamayi Kundalata increase everyones bliss with her joking; then she instrusts Krishna, You can begin with the Dik-pala-puja. 99 Hearing Kundalatas bold statements, Lalita and the other sakhis become angry and rebuke her: Hey Pamari (sinful girl)! Hey nirlajje (immodest one)! Why dont you let your dear cousin worship your murti? Meanwhile, as the sakhis chastise Kundalata, Krishna eagerly comes to begin the Dik-pala puja with them! Irrepressible waves of bliss rise from the heart, soft smiles mix with pretentious anger, nose-rings dangle and earrings dance with rolling eye gestures. Thus the sakhis shower their rasamaya rebuke! This pancamrita is not only relished by Krishna, but by their Praneshwari Radha, too! 100Seeing Krishna approaching them to perform puja (as Kundalata instructed), the sakhis brace themselves in fear! And when Krishna goes to someone else they remain alert! The sakhis arent afraid of Krishnas attack; but if they neglect to show resistance or to chase him away, their fellow sakhis will tease them. This is the embarrassment they are protecting themselves from. 101-103 As Krishna attempts to kiss them, each sakhi flees! Someone seeks anothers shelter, someone pulls a sakhi, while someone diverts Krishna by teasing. One sakhi humbly requests Krishna to desist, another pridefully scorns with fiery sarcasm, an another rushes to safety, leaving Krishna standing with the orana he has pulled from her body! How amazing! Although the sakhi upset the puja by escapingstill Krishna attains the yajnas result upon seeing their smiling dry-pouting, their faces illuminated with amour and their anger-tainted reddish eyes! Although Krishnas puja fails, he gains the fruitsparamananda! In Cupids game, loves challenge is equally thrilling (if not more) than its sweet conclusion. 104

Although Lalita and the others flee to safety stand behind the Radha forttheir chakora eyes go on drinking the sweetness of Krishnas moon-facefor this is the nature of a premavati. Rasa-tarangini Tika: After the sakhis fled in various directions, one by one they return to stand behind Radha with a relieved consciousnessas if reaching the security of a fortress. But the sakhis move isnt unintentionalit is their tit-for-tat to Radha for suggesting the Dik-pala-puja! For they know that by standing behind the Radha chandra (like a cluster of stars) the Rasa-thirsty Nagara wont attack them; he will make his move to plunder the moons loveliness! 105 Seeing the sakhis smiling lotus-faces taunting behind the fort of Vrishabhanu Raja-nandini, Madhusudan moves in to relish their madhu. In the mid-summer the Bhanu (sun) reaches the Vrisha-rashi (the astrological sign of Taurus, the bull). Then the suns scorching rays cause the lotus to bloom like never before; and the bees interest for the lotus also becomes acute. Similarly, the padmini sakhis become very jubilant standing beside the dazzling effulgence of Vrishabhanu-nandini. Hence Madhusudans greed to touch them becomes overwhelming! 106 But as Krishna leaps to enter Radhas fortressshe shrieks with anger! Aho! Krishna is jolted! Then he meekly stares at Kundalatas face. Radhas sudden high-pitched shriek catches Krishna off-guard! (It was done in jest). Thus Krishna thinks, Why did Radha do that? At first she was alluringthen she lashes me? Thus wonderstruck, Krishna gazes towards Kundalata; his expression implies, Whats going on? 107 As a result of Rupa Goswamis mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Caitaya Devas lotus feet, the request of Sri Raghunath Das, the association of Sri Jiva and the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, Govinda-llmtas ninth chapter ends. Krishna-bhavanamritas narration Unlike Chandravali who submissively responds to Krishnas romantic desires, Radha Thakurani is a strong-minded vama-nayika. Thus when Krishna makes advances she becomes rebellious! And when supported by Lalita, Radhas stamina to rebuff Krishna becomes almost insurmountable. Because Radha knows him as Bahu-vallabha (having many girlfriends)she plays hard to getand this increases Krishnas fascination far beyond expectation. Hence, amongst his many consorts, Radha remains intriguing and rare. But sometimes Radhas vama-tendency goes too far, and Krishna laments. Although Krishna-bhavanamritas narration weaves in and around Govinda-lilamritas dialogue, now Srila Vishwanath will break away from his tight reign on it to introduce a fascinating new lila. This concerns Krishnas frustration with Radhas vama tendency. Herein, Catura-cudamani masterminds a plan meant to outwit Radha and her obstinant sakhis. The story runs as follows: Continuing from Radha Krishna previous love-skirmish, Vishakha suggests that Kundalata go with Krishna to examine his talents in Kandarpa puja. Then, if Krishna passes the test, Radha can accept

him as her purohit (acharya) in Ananga-sadhana. But Krishna says, Radhe! Whats the need for Kundalata? Your own sakhi, Vishakha, is hightly qualified in Anangas dharma. So let her test the mantras that I learned from Batsyana Munis Kama-shastra Paddhati. But remember, shastra warns that we must go to a secluded place, otherwise the mantras lose their potency. Kundalata says, Hey Radhe! Krishnas right, why dont you allow Vishakha to go ahead with the test. Radha answers with a sigh (covering her smile): Hey sakhi Vishakhe! Kundalatas determination seems fixed, and shes not giving in so why dont you go to a secluded place and examine Krishnas mantras. (Hearing Radhas statements all of the sakhis laugh!) But Vishakha answers, Hey Radhe! Krishna is your protector; could there be anyone else? And you are separated only because you conceal the fact. Hay, hay! With every step Krishnas lifespan is decreasing. Therefore, stop wasting time and quickly accept your protector who stands before you! Thus your happiness will also increase. Hey Rangini Radhe! Were here to assist you; although, by your disagreeable behavior Krishna has only suffered. Hey sakhi! Whats the need of our help? Now just enlighten the punnaga tree by showering your karunamrita! As Vishakha concludes her advice, Nandimukhi suddenly arrives with Vrinda. Then she places a letter in Krishnas hand, saying: Oh Krishnaji! Oh Vraja-yuvaraj! All glories to you! Krishna opens the letter and silently begins reading. And his expression shows that he is happy to get the news. But after pondering the message, he slowly walks away and disappears into the forest. Seeing Krishnas demise, Radhas face turns pale with sorrow. Yet outwardly she pretends to be happy before her sakhisas if to feign: Ah, what a relief! Krishna wont disturb us anymore. After a moment, however, melancholy sets in. Then Radha and the sakhis approach Nandimukhi and meekly inquire: Hey Nandi, who sent that letter? Nandi: Radhe, honorable Paurnamasi devi. Srimati: What for? Nandi: I dont know, sakhi. Srimati: Nandimukhi, are you telling the truth? Nandi: O Radhe! Bhagavati has requested Krishna to meet with another Vraja sundari. Srimati: Sakhi, stop teasing me. Nandi: Ayi Radhe! I swear, Im telling the truth! Srimati: Sakhi Nandimukhi! How can that be true? Im confident, Krishna wouldnt leave me to meet with some other damsel. Nandi: Oh! Krishna has a plan to cheat you! His shrewdness is such. He wants you to believe that he is with another gopi! Hearing Nandimukhis verdict, Radha looks toward Lalita in despair. Lalita understands Radhas heartache, and sympathises: Hey Shyama-priye! Dont be doubtful! As the bee is attracted to the blooming Malati, it forgets about all the other flowers, as one experiences the taste of amritathe search for other elixirs desist, and similarly, after attaining you, Krishna could never be allured by another woman! Lalita continues: Hey Radhe! Nandimukhi is always telling lies, ever since her birth. Her tongue will be the Kali-yuga acharya. In other words, Kali will become her disciple to promote irreligion in the next age. Hey sakhi! Krishnas leaving to tease is false, that letter is false, and your fear is based on Nandimukhi answers, Hey Lalite! Devi Paurnamasi is directly Truth personified, and worshipped by everyone in Vraja. She is the fountainhead of religion, the very meaning of the Vedas

and the mother of Sandipani Muni. As Im her disciple, how can you conclude so easily that I mince the truth? Lalita answers, Hey Nandi! In the name of Paurnamasi, just tell us the facts. Nandimukhi replies, Oh sakhi! What can I say, Bhagavati forbade me to tell anyone. But since youre taking her name in faith, how can I remain silent? Sakhi Radhe! If I break my pledge to Paurnamasi and tell you the truth, will you promise to believe me? (Radhika promises) Nandimukhi goes on: O Radhe! Yesterday Krishna went for taking Bhagavati Paurnamasis darshan and feelingly prayed: Oh saintly one! Youre the leading acharya of all mystic mantras and potions. Hey Maha-yogini! Radha always sits above a high mountain of resistance. Please tell me how I can enchant her sakhis and remove Radha from her vama-parvata to enjoy vilasa with her? Hey Devi! Except for Radha, no one can deliver such wonder in Anangas pleasure, not even the combined efforts of a hundred million gopis! Hey Yogeshwari, Radha is the fertile soil where all my desires take birth. Radha is my kalpa-latika and Radha is my bodily ornament! Hey Bhagavati! A lifeless object doesnt look well when dressed with expensive ornaments, and Radha is my life! In other words, without Radha, my heart is lifeless! Furthermore, Radha is my Vaijayanti-mala, and the emblem of all my attractiveness. I reign as the Shreshtha jagat-purusha* only because Radha stands beside me. Hearing Krishnas heartrending request, Paurnamasi mentally pledged to fulfill it; yet externally she tried to dissuade him, saying: How is that possible? Indeed, this task is very difficult. Srimati Radhika is supremely chaste, a jewel of shyness and belonging to a very high status. So how can I place her (as a play-deer) in the lap of a wanton romantic such as you? Then Krishna went home after hearing Paurnamasis verdict. But last night, Paurnamasi consulted the ancient shastras of yore, and early this morning came to visit me, saying: Hey Nandimukhi! Can you deliver this letter to Krishnaji? Following Bhagavatis order, I swiftly came here and gave him the message. I dont know anything else. Radha exclaims, Hey sakhis! Who knows what type of siddha mantra Paurnamasi gave Krishna? He went to chant it in some secluded place! So hey dear ones! We should flee at once and perform Surya Puja at home today! Lets offer our pranams to Krishna from a great distance. Hearing Radhas statement, Nandimukhi smiles, and says Oh Rai Kishori! Why needlessly worry? When just a drop of Krishnas madhurya makes you completely forget about your sati-vrata- why should Krishna have to chant mystic mantras to topple your resistance? Radhika informs everyone: Oh hey sakhis! Just see the merit of Paurnamasis outlandish sannyasadharma! All night she goes through the Kama-shastras to uncover mystic spells to suit Krishnas fancy. Then after losing all good sense, Nandimukhi executes Bhagavatis orders like a faithful pada-dasi! And look at Kundalata! As shes Krishnas cousin, shes merged with his interests like a brahma jnani. Hence, she always remains intoxicated with Krishnas nidhuvana lila. Now I understand, Paurnmasi has sent Kundalata and Nandimukhi to convert all of the chaste Vraja kishoris to the sannyasa order of brahma jnana like herself! As the conversation continuessuddenly Rupa Manjarii arrives to tell Srimati: The moon (Sri Krishna) is rising in a nearby kunja!

Vrishabhanu-nandini then looks, notices Krishna Chandra, and contemplates: Uh-oh! Owing to the mantras power, Krishnas beauty is increasing at every moment with newer and newer virility! Then she informs the sakhis: Look! Here comes Krishnahe wants to put us under his spellso what can we do? Hey Lalite! When Krishnas moon-like effulgence destroys our patience from a distancewhats going to happen when he arrives within our midst? Oh no! Krishna has attained mystic siddhi for fulfilling his sarva kama! So hey Lalite! Plese tell me where to hide? If he catches me now, surely Hell steal my intelligence! Who knows what will happen as the mantras spell awakens? Thus speaking in fear and anxiety, Radha hunches her back and scurries to a nearby Ashoka-kunja for shelter. But the sound of her own anklebells cause Srimati to think that Krishna is closely following behind! Then Radhika ducks behind a kadamba trees branchesand looking back again and again her glances appear like a barrage of arrows! From a distance Krishna sees kunkum-kanti-ramani shiromani Radha. But instead of following her, he decides to approach the others first, and says, Hey sakhis! Wheres Radhika? Lalita answers, Oh Madhava! She went home. Krishna retorts: Hey Lalite! Your days of cheating me are overfor Ive become mantra siddha! Now I understand all of your tricks! Nandimukhi steps over to Lalita and whispers into her ear: Oh sakhi! Now that Krishna is clairvoyant by the mantras power, wed better tell him the truth; otherwise we may suffer! So lets cooperate and show where Radha is by our eye-gestures. On the other hand, if Radha becomes angry with us for telling, theres nothing to fear because she cant do anything to us. Complying with Nandimukhi advice, Lalita hints with her eyes and Krishna quickly enters a vyanjula kunja to discover Radha. Krishna exclaims, Hey Sundari! What are you doing? Aha! Are you chanting a mantra for alluring me to this lonely place? Certainly that must be the case because Ive been forcefully attracted! All right, I surrender, you may do whatever you like with me! Hey Sundari! Youve become so powerful by your japa that if you strongly crush me within your embrace, or bite me with your teethI wont be able to stop you! Hearing these words, Radhika presents her first charity her eyebrows arch, ever new amrita streams from her smile and she rebukes Krishna in a faltering voice: Hey cunning fellow! Youre the one who uses such mantras to spread irreligion! And now you want to destroy a chaste womans religious principles! As Radha slips out of reach, Krishna is stunned by her vacanamrita and hasyamrita yet Radhas adharamrita madhu remains unattainable! Thus Krishna grabs Radhas hands, and she exclaims, Na, na! You shouldnt do this! Krishna touches Radhas breasts and she bends over to reproach him! Then Krishna forcibly kisses Radhas lips, and she shrieks! But as Radha remains in oppositionKrishna forcefully carries her away to the keli mandir. Thus her neck twists, her hips shake and she kicks her feet, saying: Na, na, na! Seeing this sight one might guess that a streak of lightning is dancing within a thick dark cloud, or that Kandarpa Raja is flexing his champak flower-bow to produce a twanging sound! Next Madhava places Radha on the flower-bed, and Kandarpas battle begins! Radha and Krishna confront each other like two stout wrestlers, yet their expansive madhurya creates wonder! Aho! As the Divine Couples rati keli prowess progresses lightbeams of premamrita floods in ten directions! (Srila Chakravartipada mentions: Radhika is the kama of Krishna prema. Although prema and kama are quite different in our worldstill the rasika bhaktas know that the parama nirmala prema

of the Vraja-kaminis is kama). Meanwhile, as Radha Madhavas Ananga Vilasa continues within the Manjula Vyanjula kunja, Lalita and the other sakhis happily remain conversing in another flower garden. But Vrinda and Nandimukhi attain their desire to view the wonderful spectacle of Radha Govindas nikunja keli! After Ananga Vilasa, Krishnas desire awakens to dress Radha exactly like himself. Thus he orders the manjaris to rub krishna-aguru and black kasturi (deer musk) all over Ananga-rangini Rais body. Then the manjaris dress Radhika with Krishnas pitambara and decorate her body with Krishnas ornaments. And finally, they tuck Krishnas flute into Radhas waist-sash. But Radha redresses Krishna as he previously appeared, and goes to sit on a tiger skin placed over Kusha grass. Then maintaining silence, Radha begins chanting on a rudra-mala, and Krishna sits beside her on another asana. Meanwhile, from outside the kunja mandir the jingling of nupura and kinkini malas are heard as the sakhis approach. Krishna signals the manjaris to keep all matters a secret. But upon arriving, the sakhis become struck with wonder, and begin conversing: Oh sakhi! Which province have we entered? Here we find two Krishnas, not one! Another sakhi replies, Look! Both are the same tamal Shyama color! Both have peacock feathers in their hair and both sport flower malas and wear Pitambara attire! Aho! Theyre Both stealing our patience! As the sakhis bewilderment increases they ask the manjaris: One of these Krishnas is certainly our sakhi Radhabut which one is she were unable to discern; can you tell us? The manjaris reply: Weve just arrivedso we dont know either; were afraid to ask them! Then Vrinda slowly begins speaking: Hey Lalite! I think that the Krishna chanting with the rudra mala seated on the tiger skin must be real to enjoy nitya vilasa with Radha, he has made her exactly like himself using his mantras! Vishakha says, Vrinde! Bhagavati Paurnamasi is the root of our problem. Just see! This lusty debauch made Radha just like himself! And who will be next, I dont know? Chitra replies, Hey Vrinde! Listen, when we return home and meet Jatila, she will ask: Where is my bauma? Then what will we say? Oh no! What a catastrophe! Nandimukhi says, Hey Citre! Dont worry, surely Krishna will change Radha back to normal before its time to go home. But as Krishna continues his mantra-chanting, I dont think that its safe to leave Radha sitting beside him; who knows what mischief lurks in Krishnas mind? So lets take back our priya sakhi elsewhere. Taking Nandimukhis advice, the sakhis believe that the Krishna chanting with the rudra-mala must be real. Thus they speak in unison: Hey Kalanidhi Krishna! Hey Kalabati Radhe! We can understand who is who? Now its time to change your costumes. they address Krishna: Hey Radhe! Why did you dress yourself like a lusty Nagara? Just give up this nonsence! Krishna can remain sitting on the tiger-skin chanting mantrasbut lets go out of here immediately! Hay! Hay! How inauspicious it has been to leave home today! Feigning shyness, Krishna imitates Radhas voice and replies, Oh Lalite! Im embarrassed to tell you what happened today! But if you come with me to a secluded place, Ill reveal everything by whispering into your ear. Oh sakhi Lalite, I cant trust anyone except you! When the sakhis hear Radhas voice coming from Krishnas lips, they assume: Oh, this must be our priya sakhi Radha, and thus they come to surround Krishna. But after taking Krishna outside, they begin touching him. One sakhi feels his hand and says, Oh! This hand is just like Krishnas.

Someone touches his feet and replies, Oh! These feet are like Krishnas! Someone else says, This face feels just like Krishnas, too! Thus everyone comes to the same conclusion. So the sakhis frankly question: O Radhe! All your limbs exactly resemble Krishnasonly your voice remains unchanged. Please tell us what happened? As the sakhis touch Krishnas body they are overcome by erotic desires, yet due to shyness, no one questions about the matter. Inwardly, however, each sakhi begins contemplating: How amazing! Even though this is Srimati dressed like Krishnastill Cupid is attacking me! Krishna continues imitating Radhas voice and answers, Hey sakhi! Krishna puts me in a trance with his mantras. Then what happened next, I dont know? After being unconscious for a long time, I suddenly awoke! But when Krishna set beside me and performed achaman. He took a few drops of water in his hand, recited some mantras and rubbed the water over my entire body. Even though I repeatedly forbade him, he didnt listen to me. I was astonishedmy body became just like his! But luckily my mouth was closed when he cast his mantra-water over mehence my voice hasnt changed. And what happened next Im embarrassed to sayyet without telling anyoneIm unable to remain patient! So what can I do? The sakhis reply: O Radhe! Were your intimate friends, why are you embarrassed to tell us? But Krishna is silent (still pretending to be Radha). So believing that Radha is feeling uneasy, the sakhis all leave one by one, until only Lalita remains. But as they meet together outside the sakhis arent disappointed. They consider: If Radha doesnt want to tell us, thats all right, later we can hear about the entire matter from Lalita. The sakhis reply: O Radhe! Were your intimate friends, why are you embarrassed to tell us? But Krishna is silent (still pretending to be Radha). So believing that Radha is feeling uneasy, the sakhis all leave one by one, until only Lalita remains. But as they meet together outside the sakhis arent disappointed. They consider: If Radha doesnt want to tell us, thats all right, later we can hear about the entire matter from Lalita. After a while Krishna forms a pact with Lalita and she comes outside to address Vishakha, Oh sakhi! If youre curious to know what happened, come quickly! You can be well informed, too ! But as Vishakha enters the nikunja mandir, Lalita closes the door, and Krishna enacts a similar drama! Thus Vishakha returns to induce Champakalata, who induces Chitra ; then Chitra engages Tungavidya, and so on. Thereafter, as the sakhis notice their love-marks inflicted by Krishna, they feel embarrassed. But because everyone is equally marked, the sakhis are only partially jiltedfor no one can tease the other. Meanwhile, in the other kunja, Radha still remains dressed like Krishna, as Nandimukhi, Kundalata and Vrinda sit beside her. But when Lalita and the other sakhis return, Kundalata takes one look at their appearance, and exclaims, Hey sakhis! Welcome, welcome! Hey chaste ones! Where have you been, and from where did you incure these interesting symptoms? I see that your eye-mascara is smeared, your hair is astrewn, your lips are pale and there are marks on your breasts! Yet your keliparayana Madhava is still seated here in meditationso who has graced you with these amusing symptoms ? Nandimukhi changes the subject, saying: Hey Lalite! Lets forget about the pastbut what about

Radha ; what is her present situation? Does she still look like Krishnaand where is she? Lalita anwers: Our sakhi Radha is in the nikunja mandir, and she still resembles Krishna; due to embarrassment she wont come out. But after thinking over the matter, she has privately told us a remedy: If Nandimukhi and Kundalata feelingly embrace me, my embarrassing features will change. Nandimukhi has a great wealth of tapasya, and Kundalata is the very image of chastity. So their strong embrace will be the best medicineand no other will suffice. The warmth of Nandis great tapasya and Kundas strong vow of chastity will break the mystic mantras spelland my disgusting lampata* appearance will disappear! Nandimukhi replies, Hey Lalite! As you and the other sakhis are more chaste than millions of pious women; what potency could your embraces lack? So why should Radha need our help? Ill bet that youre mincing the truth. Vrinda comments: Hey Nandimukhi! These naive Vraja kishoris dont possess a pinch of tapasya, and their renowned chastity has been rendered imaginary (as a flower in the sky) by youthful Vrajendra-nandana! But Kundalata says, Hey Vrinde! As youre the devi of this forest, you must know about its medicinal herbs. So why dont you quickly go and relieve Radha? (the sakhis all smile) Then Lalita interrupts: Why is everybody needlessly arguing? Here is Sri Krishna himself, sitting on this asana and observing silence. Why not ask him? After all, since he is the one who put Radha under a spell, he can surely cure her, too! Thus all of the sakhis surround Radha (who still pretends to be Krishna), and while pretending to be fooled, and feigning shyness, Lalita says, Oh hey mantrajna cudamani (king of the spell-casters)! As youve attained your desired siddhi, whats the need to remain silent? Please answer a question. But then Radhas meditation breaks, her eyes open and she looks about! Feigning surprise, she gravely inquires: Oh sakhis! Where did you go? And with wandering eyes, Radha inquires further: Hey sakhis! Where is your mischievous friend (Krishna), and who has dressed me like this? After thus speaking, Radha brushes away the peacock feather crown from her head. Lalita exclaims, Oh sakhi! Youre our Radha! Hay! Weve been unnecessarily shy before you!Ohey! Theres a fake Radha pretending to be Krishna in the kunja over there; she has bewildered us! But now we understandshe isnt Radha. Luckily we escaped unharmed! (All of the sakhis pretend to be surprised) Seeing their behavior, Vrinda smiles and says, Hey sakhis! Youd better look more carefullyis this effulgent murti your priya sakhi, or your Priya-sakha? Nandimukhi jests: Hey sakhis! Previously there were two Madhavas, now were seeing two Radhas! So Oho! We can understand that youve suffered a great difficulty, so were feeling sorry. Springing to the defence, Vishakha replies, Radhe! The only difficulty we feel is from Nandimukhi baseless assertion! Hey tapasvi Nandi! Those who are disciplined never wish to see others sufferfor this is their dharma. So you must be desiring the appearance of Kali-yuga. Then the tapasya-performers will only cheat the people in the name of religion! Feeling relieved, the sakhis remove Radhas dark make-up along with Krishnas ornaments and redress her. But when Krishna swiftly returns; he is still imitating Radhas voice. Thus while covering his face with a chador, arching his eyebrows, and feigning shyness just like Radha Krishna glances at Padma-mukhi Rai! Pointing to her, Krishna says, Hey sakhis! This sly Nagara has dressed himself just like me but

Im amazed to see that Hes fooling all of you! Hey sakhis! Why are you sitting beside this clever magician? Come with me, and dont be naive! Hey blind ones! Do you want to remain the object of everyones joking? Hey foolish ones! Come escape with me! If we can hind in some distant cave, that will be auspicious! Otherwise, you may all end up like me! Vrinda replies, Oh sakhis! Were all witnessing Giridharis strong display of maya! Youve found one Radha Yet still another comes to introduce herself. Hey innocent ones! I think you should believe the newly arrived Radha. So take her and flee to a carve for shelterand reject this imitation Mohini Radha. Then everyone laughs, even Vrindavans kalpa latika Sri Radha laughs. The reason is that she finally fulfills her ambitionhaving pulled the wool over the sakhis eyes, she has tricked them into performing Krishnas rati dharma! But Kundalata says, Hey Lalite! Now I see- we have only one last recourse: Let Nandimukhi go and bring Paurnamasi, she can tell us who is the real Radha. Lalita answers, Oh sakhi Kundalate! Paurnamasi is the source of our troubles, so why would she tell us the truth? Rather, wouldnt she trap us within her maya even more? So lets just offer pranams to her from a distance. ! Thus, as the news of Krishnas rati keli with the sakhis accidentally slips from the sakhis own mouthsKrishna, Radha, Vrinda, Nandimukhi and Kundalatla all laugh and declare: Oh Saraswati! Now youve directly appeared on the sakhis lips to disclose the truth. Oh devi! We offer you our pranama! As the sakhis churn Vrindavans prema sindhu, Krishna enjoys the nectar surfacing from its depths. Thus Krishnas joking and the madhu from his delicate smile intoxicates all of the gopis. Lilas such as this one verify that Radha Krishnas daily affairs arent fixed to one pattern. Rather, within the Ashta-kala anything can happen. In his Camatkara Candrika, Srila Chakravartipada presents four more very unusual pastimes that are simply camatkara (amazing). Hence, when sampling the diversity of the Goswamis lila kavya we find that Radha Govindas madhyahna milan can happen in numerous ways. Perhaps the lila of picking flowers is the most common. But in Sri Rupas Dana keli-kaumudi and Sri Raghunaths Dana keli-cintamani we see that Radha can meet Krishna while going to deliver ghee at Bhaguri Munis yajna at Govinda Kund. On another occasion, a meeting takes place at Manas Ganga when Govinda induces Radha and her sakhis to enjoy a boat crurse on the lake. And if Jatila should keep Radha locked up at home, Krishna sends Subala to search for his lost calf. But when Subala begs Jatila for a drink to quench his thirst, she asks Radharani to fetch water from the well. Then Subala goes and secretly exchanges clothes with herand Radha escapes dressed like Subala while clasping a baby-calf to her chest! The previous Rasa-analysis described the events leading up to Radha Krishnas midday milan from Krishnahnika-kaumudi. So lets return to that narration and see what happens next: Aho! Rasika Vilasi Nikunja Nagara steps our from hiding! And he stuns the Vraja kishoris who are like bright illuminations of lightning! As Krishnas patience was looted by overhearing their tender, rasamaya katha, he is eager for keli vilasa! Thus slowly striding over to the gopis, twirling his golden necklace (as though he were twirling their minds), he sweetly exclaims, O hey pretty faced ones! Are you well? Have you arrived without difficulty? As I am your dear friendjust tell me what I can do for you? Dont be shy, Im eager to receive your order. Ohey youthful ones! As the

proprietor for this sacred forest, I consider you my noble guests. Aha! Im lucky to have your auspicious company. So now I shall perform your befitting puja; and dont be shyfor you will be faultless in accepting it. Then a gopi sarcastically answers. Aha! We see, youre the famous gentleman, Vrajendra-nandana! And certainly youre vamsha-pavana (the peoples saviour)! So hey Vraja-kula-chandra, were unfit to receive your puja. But another sakhi says, If someone has many great qualities, we shouldnt condemn him for a single fault. So why not accept this Guna-nidhis puja? As Radha overhears the enchanting arguments that chide and support her Priyatama, she mentally congratulates these two sakhis for increasing Krishnas pleasure. But then a sakhi challenges: Hey Govinda! Youre lacking good sense! Everyone knows that this forest belongs to the deer, the birds and to everyone in general. So why do you proudly claim that its yours? Krishna answers, Although everyone uses the forest, the first inhabitant is entitled to claim ownership, and this is a well known fact. Yet as youre all fir for my devi-puja (Kandarpa keli), I am not in the mood to argue with you. Seeing the debate reaching a stalemate, Padma-locana Radha congratulates both parties. And with irrespressible happiness, she smiles, and pridelessly exclaims, Look here sakhis! Just take my advice: Lets give up our dry arguing. After all, he is one, and we are many, so why be unfair or jealous? This fortunate Vraja-yuva Raja is certainly our manya-patra (worthy of our respect). Krishna answers, Hey Sumukhi Radhe, Im telling the truthyou and I are non different! And I am very proud of this, Oh Auspicious one! Hearing Krishnas words, Radha contemplates: Oh! Because I said Krishna is our manya patra he must be speaking these sweet words? Krishnas submissive entreaties dissolve the pride and secretiveness lurking within the Vraja sundaris prema, just as bubbles floating on a river dissolve on its onward course. Thus Vana-vihara begins. Here Kavi Karnapura depicts Radha as a dakshina nayika, which is a rare side of her personality. In Ujjvala-nilamami, this is called bhava viparyai, when a nayika acts contrary to her nature to surprise her beloved. Ujjvala-nilamani lists 365 different types of nayikas. Because Radha is Krishnas mula prakriti, the Source of all his consorts, she can intrigue him in any of these ways. Chapter Ten Madhyahna Lila Narma Vilasa, Vamshi Churi and Nikunja Keli (Witty debates, Stealing the Flute and Nikunja Prema Keli) 1-6 After Kundalatas Kandarpa yajna failed (due to many impediments) Krishna becomes dejected. Thus Kundalata, pretending to commiserate, offers him solace: Hey Krishna! Because youre Pashupati (Shiva) your activities have destroyed Kandarpa. Hence, with Kandarpas demise, your yajna turned into a fiasco. Thus the dik-pala yajna devis, the sakhis, are unfavorable. So youve lost claim to the fruits of the sacrifice! Oh Krishna! As youre submissive to love, now your only recourse is to revert to your Pashupati-dharma. In other words, just as Pashupati Shiva gave half of his body to Parvati, you can surrender yourself to your dear ones! Hearing this advice, Krishna answers, Hey Kundalate! You are right! Now I remember, because I

give everyone happiness Im known as Shiva in the Puranas. Therefore, as Shiva gave himself, Ill do the same. But Ill give my entire body to my Preyasi Radha! Thus my submission in love, my rasika nature and my virtue as a great donor will be celebrated even more than the so-called Shiva! Noticing Radha alert and fearful from the corner of his eye, Krishna slips behind her. Then raising his arms to embrace her, he says, Hey Gauri Ai, ai (come, come)! Im Chandra-shekhara! Just embrace me! Thus speaking Krishna catches Radha on the run! When Krishna declares Im Chandra-shekhara, he means, from head to toe, I am shining with the moon-like skill of shringar rasa! So just embrace your limbs with mine! 7 Radha slightly smiles, rebukes Krishna with a faltering shriek and somehow manages to escape Krishnas grasp! Then standing before him she shows jealous anger! Radha: Aha! What a calamity! Because you dont have a pinch of decencyyoure thinking that were all the same! Jatila is on her wayso watch out! Are you a heartless tiger wishing to prey on defenceless young women? Hey you intoxicated brute! Let go, Im greatly offended! Using such tart prema vani Radharani rebukes Krishna. 8 But coincidentally, a swarm of bees flock to Radhas fragrant mouth....and hearing their steady drone frightens her! Thus Radhas eyes restlessly move about as she loses composure to embrace her Prana Govinda for support! Padmini Rais vag-vilasa (sweet, argumentative words) are filled with madhu. Hence a swarm of bees discard their interest for the flowers and soar to her mouth! Although Radha isnt afraid of the bees, she feigns fear (showing the cakita-alankara) to fulfill her inner desires. 9 Seeing the sakhis smiling, Radha feels embarrassed and lowers her head. But as she tries to separate herself from Krishna, he squeezes tighter so she is unable to escape! Thus Krishna appears like a nava jaladhara embracing a saudamini! When the nayika refutes and gives opposition by shunning the nayakas advancesthis is called her vama disposition. Radha is Krishnas vamya manohara vinodini (resisting mind-stealing enchantress). Although Dhani-mani Radha controls Krishna with her vama-nature, she is not one to disallow him a sporting chance to touch her. Thus Radhas cakita alankara* awakens As Radhas pretentious fear awakens, Krishna takes full advantage as the sakhis look on with broad smiles! 10-11 Radhas body, mind and speech are jolted by the uncontrollable devis of emotion residing within her. With the sudden advent of envy, shame, joy and resistance, Radhas behavior becomes an interesting spectacle for all! Thus she cries, laughs, cures, pleads, scolds and blasphemes Krishna, as regret and meekness also awaken! Then Radha pulls herself loose from Krishnas firm grip, giving joy to him and to the sakhis, too!

Radha pleads: Aha! Just take my headbut please, dont caste me into an ocean of shame ! She blasphemes: Even the lowest type of lusty brute doesnt torture a helpless frightened ladyis this the act of a cruel hunter? A ruthless dacoit has discretion about when and where to plunderbut even such judgement is lacking in you ! Then Radha swears: Aha! Finding a chance to take advantage, your shrewdness has reached a pinnacle! So if you dont repentyoure going to suffer ! Then Radha regrets: Hay! How inauspicious it was to leave home, why did I come to bathe in this Arishta Kund anyway? Ive surely learned my lesson! Next, Radha meekly implores: I fall at your feet, please dont torment me any more ! This anubhava come from Krishnapada Das Baba, the commentator of Govinda-lilamrita-rasa. 12-13 Radha Krishnas embracing causes the sakhis to trembleas many other ecstatic emotions overtake them! And seeing them overjoyed in ecstasy, Vrinda addresses Nandimukhi while hiding behind the forest-foliage: Hey Nandi! Radhas happiness makes the sakhis happy. Just see! Although Krishna is embracing Radha the sakhis feel the same ecstasy ! The transcendental symptoms awakening in Radhas body are equally felt by the sakhis, even without directly touching Krishna. 14-15 Vrinda continues: And look! In Krishnas separation the Vraja sundaris were anxious, and upon seeing him they wish to touch himbut when Krishna touches them they become jealously angered! Indeed their behavior is difficult to fathom. Nandi replies, The Vraja Devis behavior isnt astonishingrather, its divine because their bodies and mind always attuned for giving Krishna pleasure. Rasa-tarangini Tika: Because Krishnas happiness is their happiness, the gopis experience its fulness. Thus they experience Krishnas emotions too. 16 Nandimukhi goes on: And look! As Radha and the sakhis pleasure is synonymousthe sakhis are one with Radha. Krishna is like the moon for the lilies of Vraja (the gopis). Yet Srimati Radhika is the essence of Krishnas pleasure-potency, likened to a prema kalpa-lata (desire-creeper of prema). The sakhis are the leaves, flowers and new buds on the Radha creeper, and therefore non-different. Hence, when the Radha creepers is nourished by the shower of Krishnas lilamrita rasathe leaves, flowers and buds naturally experience bliss a hundred times more than the creeper itself! So this isnt surprising. Radha is Prema-mayi (prema personified), and hence, as the counter-whole of the Supreme Divinity, she has her own limitless madhurya. But the sakhis are the topmost relishers of all because their focus is not only on Sri Krishna, or on Sri Radha, but on Sri-Sri Radha Krishna combined. Hence the Supreme source of Prema and Anada is at their very fingertips; and this forms the highest relish of all. 17

Nandimukhi continues: Hey Vrinde! Just as the All-pervading Supreme Lord cannot relish pleasure without his Hladini Shakti, Radha-Krishnas combined form of premananda fails to be nourished without the sakhis help. Therefore, how could a rasika bhakta resist the temptation to take their shelter? 18 Nandimukhi goes on, Radha is a blooming kanchana lata and Krishna is a flowering tamal is there a conscious living entity who wouldnt be happy to see their beautiful milan? Hey Vrinde! Just see, our Prema-kalpa lata Sri Radha is embracing Sri Krishnas tamal Shyamasundar madhura body! Amongst the young or the aged, the men or the women, the pious or the impiousor anyone else for that matterwho wouldnt be attracted? This shloka brings to mind Sri Paurnamasis statement in Vidagdha-madhava : Hey beautiful-eyed Vrinde! If Krishna hadnt advented in Mathura, and if Radhika hadnt come eitherthen this whole creationwhat to speak of Cupids flower arrows, would have all been rendered useless! 19 Because their hearts have melted from their shuddha prema, the Vraja sundaris act for Krishnas pleasure alone. So even their vama resisting tendencies are meant to please him. Rasika Shekhara is charmed by the gopis resisting challenges because this is their nature, it isnt born from any other cause. 19Because their hearts have melted from their shuddha prema, the Vraja sundaris act for Krishnas pleasure alone. So even their vama resisting tendencies are meant to please him. Rasa-tarangini Tika: Because Rasika Shekhara is charmed by the gopis resisting challengesthis is their nature, it isnt born from any other cause. 20 Although Krishnas strong embraces and his touching her breast dunks Radhika in a wave of pleasureshe admonishes him and implore, 21 Hey shameless Lalite! After joining with Krishnas sly messenger, Kundalata, have you petitioned that deceptive kala-guru with the whisk of your eye? Hay! Youre simply a callous spectator of his nefarious dancing performance! Aha! Now everything is clearKundalata is Krishnas immodest messenger who can get away with anything! And Lalita has sided with her in a plot to destroy my sati-dharma! Thus theyve brought me from home under the guise of performing Surya Puja. Then theyve tractfully arranged that I bathe in Shyama Kund and pick flowers where that audacious Nagara stands ready to ambush me! Ayi! Lalite! A look at your indifference and cunning eye-gestures reveals everything! 22 I see Lalite! Although youre prakhara (tough) you were melted by Krishnas soft embrace! Hence youve become gentlebut now Hes become tough like you were!

Radha: Lalite! You were never so mridvi (soft-natured), and Krishna was never so forceful. Certainly Krishna succeeded during his dik-pala-puja, because when he embraced you, he squeezed out your toughness. 23 Although Lalita enjoys watching Krishna touch Radha, she angrily reproaches Radhas assertion. Thus pridefully smiling, she tackles Krishna with strong rebuke: Hey you unabashed lascivious destroying monarch of womens chastity! Whats going on? As Radhas resisting barrier weakensLalita springs to the defence! Armed with her dangling earrings, lancing eye-brows and smiling rasamaya joking, Lalita assaults Krishna with a pretentious loud uproar: Krishna, youre not a Yuvarajyoure the Nirlajja Raja (king of immodesty)! Having thrown your pride, shame, respectibility and dharma to the wind, you want to equally scandalize us! Youd better watch out! Were seeing your lack of experience! So well teach you about the power of a chaste womans wrath! 24 Krishna declares: Hey Lalite! Why dont you ask your priya sakhi Radha whats happening; for it was she who forcefully clasped me to her chest! Krishna pleads innocent, Hey Lalite! After all, it was Radha who embraced me first when she became frightened by the bees! Hence the word atma-sat, meaning embracing with ones soul is significant. Radhas affection for Krishna is called madhu-sneha. In her possessive loving mood, Radha thinks, Krishna is mine! Hence it is natural that she embrace Krishna to her heart for, after all, he belongs to her. 25 Lalita answers, Hey Krishna! Our Radha is like a blooming madhavi lata, and youre the Purusha Shreshtha likened to a punnaga tree. Hence its natural that the madhavi embrace the punnaga; but rememberthe punnaga never embraces the madhavi. Thus we find no fault in our priya sakhis behavior; she has only performed her duty. Lalitas rasamaya statement (hinting that it was Radhas desire to embrace Krishna) embarrasses Radha. 26 Krishna says, Oh Lalite! Ive donated my body to Radha, and she embraced me. So if you reply, Whats the harm in this? I will answer: The shastras say that a gift must never be neglected, otherwise a serious offense arises. Therefore Im unable to reclaim my body! Hey Lalite! Your logic doesnt apply here. I didnt embrace Radha under the pretext of being a punnaga tree. Rather, Ive assumed my auspicious Shiva dharma. When I generously gave my body to my priyatama, she enthusiastically accepted. Look, this generosity should never be ignored! You know that a donor never has the right to reclaim his gift. So why do you want me to incur the sin of a miser? 27Krishnas logic arouses Lalitas rage; thus she points to her chest and shrieks: Krishna! My name

is Lalita! Im angry, fierce and powerful! So hey lampat! If you dont give up your debauchery and immediately let this reputed chaste lady go, Ill cut you to pieces! Hey Madhusudan! Youre nothing more than a lusty bee! So if you want to display your benevolence as a great donor, let your cousin Kundavalli stand as your beneficiary. Seeing no way to thwart Catura-cudamanis logic, Rangini Lalita becomes defiant and loudly retorts: Ayi! You dont know about Lalitas fierce determination! When you will beg for mercy, Lalita wont give in. So youd better put aside your daring attempt to entice our priya sakhi! Because youre lusty as a bee, you may land upon the kunda flower-latas. So just go and fulfill your desires with your cousin, Kundalata. 28 Lalita continues: Krishna! Even the wind cant touch my priya sakhi when Im here! So step aside, or else brace yourself for my attack! 29 When Lalita blisters with fiery rage, the other sakhis support her as she stands ready for the offensive! Lalitas valor incites Krishnas ecstasy, and thus trembling, horripilation, tears and other sattvika emotions overtake him! Such indomitable characters as Lalita add chivalry to Radha Krishnas lila rasa. If Lalita should decide that Madhava wont be allowed to enjoy Srimati Krishna becomes helpless. He must first somehow secure her blessings, then Radha will be approachable, otherwise not. The winds strong force subdues everyone. Yet Lalita boldly declares: Even the wind is afraid to show its might before me; rather, out of fear, it gently blows to serve my priya sakhi! Seeing Krishnas neglectful grin, rasa prakhara Lalita gathers the other sakhis together and stands like a stout wrestler ready for a bout! She removes her orana, tightens her sash, and with rolling eyes and jingling bracelets, shouts her challenge: Come on! Lalitas robust charm reminds Krishna of a pragalbha nayika who powerfully conquers him in Kandarpa keli. Hence, out of sheer ecstasy, Krishna loses his composure! 30 Krishnas hand shakes in his zeal for Radhas soft touchthus as his murali falls to the ground, he doesnt notice. But after escaping Krishnas embrace, Radha quickly retrieves the flute! Thus the sakhis consider: Oh, Krishna has dropped his flute and abandoned Radha in fear of Lalita! Rahus Amusing Pastime 31-32 As Radha slips out of Krishnas grasp, she carefully hides the flute under her garment. Then Vishakha comes to divert Krishnas attention by saying: Hey Shyama! Your hands are like Rahu! But youre mistaken, this isnt the moon (Chandravali)its the Radha star! So you may look without touching! But Radhas sakhis are like stars tooso dont touch them either! 33-34 Vishakha goes on: Now Ill mention some of the other stars: my name is Vishakha, and being Radhas match, Im also called Tara. Here is Lalita, known as Anuradha. Dhanishtha is called Jyeshtha, and Chitra Bharani. Oh, and there is Indulekha, yet she is unfit for touching too. So as

Rahu only covers the moon, I suggest that you approach Chandravali! According to Jyotisha-shastra* there are 27 prominent stars. Amongst them, Chitra is the fourteenth and Vishakha the sixteenth. The Vishakha star is also called Radha. Next is Anuradha. Anu means behind; because Lalita always stands behind Radha she is called Anuradha. The next star is Jyeshtha. Jyeshtha means older; Dhanishtha is likened with the Jyeshtha-star because she is older than the other sakhis. Although Rangadevi, Sudevi, Tungavidya and Champakalata are watching, Vishakha doesnt mention them yet. 35-36 Krishna answers, Hey Vishakhe! Because you always give me pleasure, youre Shankari, Shivas auspicious better half. But Lalita is the real Indra because her words terrify me like a thunderbolt! Oh well, Vishakhe, listen! Because Rahu can easily attain the moon (Chandravali), and because Rahu has enjoyed her many timesnow this rasa-thirsty Rahu is mad after the precious Bhanu Sri (the beautiful sun called Vrishabhanu-nandini)! 37 Moreover, Oh Vishakhe! Although every stars brightness increase by Rahus contact, Rahu wants to sample the unrivalled charm of the moonbeams (Indulekha), too! 38-39 Thus speaking, Krishna tries to embrace Indulekha! But seeing him coming, Indulekha becomes frightened and flees to safety! Then while smiling and raising her eyebrows, she chastises Krishna: oh hey you disgusting Rahu! Indulekha is unfit for you! Go and enjoy Chandravali, or some other star! 40 Taking Indulekhas advice, Krishna slips behind Lalita to grab her! But Lalita exclaims Without enjoying Vishakha first, Anuradha is never attainable! Krishna is always eager to embrace Lalita. But he must first gather the courage and wait for the opportune moment to succeed. Therefore, upon receiving Indulekhas incentive, and seeing Lalita standing off-guard, Krishna springs to tightly embrace her! Although Lalita enjoys Krishnas touch, she hints to give Vishakha the same pleasure, saying: What a crime! Youve broken the rules! Dont you know that Vishakha comes first, then Anuradhafor this is the Jyotisha-shastra vidhi. 41 Following Lalitas advice, Krishna grabs Vishakha, who retorts: Hay! Vishakha was enjoyed along with Radha because were non-different! Oh well, hey Dhrishta raja! Youre trying to enjoy in the improper sequence again! So before satisfying the senior star Jyeshtha (Dhanishtha) why have you approached me for the second time? Radha star is also called Vishakha, hence they are the same. And amongst Radhas sakhis, Vishakha is nearly her second replicafor Radha and Vishakha were born on the same day, they are the same height, and they have the same complexion and vama-madhya natures. Vishakha says, Hey Krishna! Youre behaving just like a wanton play-stag in the hands of the taruni ramanis! Arent you ashamed? Chi, chi! Your intelligence has been stolen by Lalitas dancing eye-gestures! Aha! And now youre even making a pass at me! This proves that youre off-course

again! Dont you know that Jyeshtha follows Anuradha? So youd better try to make Dhanishtha happy. 42 Thus Krishna secretly slips behind Dhanishtha to embrace her! Although elated, Dhanishtha rebukes: Hey Dhrishta! Without enjoying Chitra first, your attempts with the others will only fail! Pleasure, pride and loving anger mix with Dhanishthas words: Look, Krishna! By breaking the injunctions youll never attain desired goal. Without first approaching the fourteenth star (Chitra), who is standing before us, your desire for Sarva Bhoga will never fructify. 43 When Krishna suddenly grabs Chitra, she retorts: Hey Lampat! Get lost! The stars cannot be enjoyed in whatever way you like; there is a process to be followed !

44 Tungavidya jests: Oh Citre! We cant say that Rahu has broken the vidhi. After all, owing to his drunken, curving course sometimes he attacks planets by surprise ! Tungavidya is a dakshina-prakhara nayika* ; thus she sides with Krishna to add spicing to the rasa. If everyone simply opposed Krishna, it would be a one-sided contest. The following example from Ujjvala-nilamani illustrates how she serves Radha when she is Kalahantarita (remorsing after neglecting Krishna): Hey thin-wasted Radhe! There is a rumor spreading in the sakhi-samaja* that you never neglect Tungavidyas advice. So after hearing about this, Krishna desired to test my reputation and firmly took my shelter. Oh love-lorn Radhe! Please listen, or else Ill lose my reputation. Just consider: your beloved has fallen at your feet to repent! So, please direct your auspicious eyes toward Krishna and forgive him ! 45 But Chitra argues: Hey Tungavidye! Youre a Libra, so if Rahu attacks me, youll be next! Libra is the seventh house of the zodiac next to Virgo (the sixth), So Chitras logic is: Since Im a Virgo (virgin maid), Krishna will attack you next. So youd better be careful of what you say! 46 But when Krishna touches Tungavidya, she declares: Hey Rahu! Rangadevi is the actual Libra. So why have you neglected her? Here Tungavidya cleverly directs Krishnas attention to Rangadevi, empasising the double meaning of the word tulya: Hey Dhrishta Nagara! Rangadevi is your tulya (equal match) in Kandarpa Kelitherefore shes the actual Tulya (Libra)! 47 When Krishna fondles Rangadevi she exclaims, Hey Rahu! Because you enjoy the Virgo, why dont you attack Champakalata, shes a Pisces!

Intoxicated by Gopijana-vallabhas embrace, Rangadevi says, Oh hey wanton Rahu, enjoyer of the Virgo (virgin-kumaris)! When you enjoyed the Virgo (Chitra) why didnt you enjoy the pisces (Champakalata) who was staring you in the face? Aha, youve messed up your Rahu dharma again! On the circle of twelve Astrological signs, Virgo is the sixth house, and Pisces the twelfth; they are opposite. Thus Chitra and Champakalata stand face to face. 48 As Krishna embraces Champakalata, she exclaims, Hey swindler! Why dont you go to the Aquarius (Sudevi)! Your fight is taking a crooked course! 49 When Krishna caresses Sudevi, she says, Hey Madhusudan! This lively Kanchana Lata will fulfill all of your desires! She notices that the sakhi named Kanchanalata is smiling. Thus to revenge her, she suggests: Hey Madhusudan! The rasika sakhis described you as Rahu, but actually you resemble a thirsty bee, So only the flowering latas can satisfy your fancy. Why dont you sample the pollen of this kanchana lata? 50 But when Krishna fondles Kanchanalata, she exclaims, Hey Krishna chakora! Why did you come to me? If you want to attain shanti dont waste your time with the othersjust directly approach Chandra-mukhi Rai. Kanchanalata answers with a smile. Hey Krishna! Sudevi is mistaken. Youre not a rasika bhramara (thirsty bee); rather, youre a chakora bird. So I wont be able to satisfy you either. As only the full moon quenches the chakoras thirst, youd better approach Chandra-mukhi Raishe can satisfy all of your desires. In Vrindavan Chakravartis Govinda-lilamrita commentary he now raises the argument: The Vedas, Puranas, Bhagavata and Gita all affirm that Bhagavan Sri Krishna is sac-cid-ananda, param ishvara and the Cause of all causes; why is he dancing like a puppet in the hands of the Vraja sundaris? Vrindavan Chakravarti answers, As Krishna is sac-cid-ananda, so are his gopis. Therefore, when they address him: Hey Dhrishta (oh impudent one)! Hey Kamuka (Oh lusty one)! Such words bring joy to the rasa abhijna bhaktas; but persons uninformed about the divinity of these affairs fail to relish this rasa. Furthermore, such people may also doubt: Weve never heard of such love affairs in Rama lila or in the pastimes of other Avataras? But here Sri Krishnas shringar rasa is superior to all other forms of material or spiritual conjugal love. Therefore, only Krishnas direct associates, or the fortunate devotees receiving their mercy, are eligible to understand and relish it. Chapter 9 and 10 vividly reveal Krishnas dhira lalita personality, where he is completely subjugated by those having no trace of reverence or regard for his opulences. For these proud gopis consider themselves more than Krishnas equal matches; and hence, they dont even slightly hesitate to shriek when he steps out of line! Krishna loves this behavior. In fact, it enslaves him! Because the gopis play hard to get, it forces Krishna to become a premera bihari (courting romantic). He must take a subordinate position if he desires to succeed. Hence, the gopis challenging spirit evokes Krishnas vidagdha naturehis clever, shrewd and witty disposition. The gopis themselves are

parama vidagdha* and therefore, loves sporting contest becomes a supreme mach of wits. This is rasa. 51 So before she notices, Krishna rushes to grab Radha; he is bent on kissing her! But Radha turns her head and exclaims, Hey you cheat! If you want to kiss someone, leave other peoples wives alone and kiss your priya vamshi instead! Vamshi Harana Lila (The Pastime of Stealing the Flute) 52 Hearing Rai, Krishna stops to consider: Hay! My flute has fallen from my hand, where did it go? Thus Krishna becomes bewildered and looks towards Kundalata. 53 Kundalatas roaming eyes indicate that Radha has taken it. But understanding the hint, Radha slips the flute to Tulasi. 54 Tulasi carefully hides the flute and stands behind Lalita and Vishakha. Then Krishna comes before Radhika, desiring to make a search, and says, 55 Hey mana-chori! Mind thief! My mind is always nishkam - free from lust, and therefore pure and so cannot be seen. But youve pierced it with the kama arrows shot from the bow of your arching eyebrows! So if you could do that, it is not at all surprising that you could take my flute, which is quite visible! 56 So I shall lock you in my embrace and search your apparel. Then I shall take you to the kunja prison house where Ill hand you over to Kandarpa Maharaj ! Aha! Kandarpa Maharaj can judge what is an appropriate punishment for you! After you have been squeezed, bitten and pinched enough, you will learn your lesson! 57 Radhas fortitude is deeply severed by Krishnas joking, so she gives him a disdainful look and starts to slip away. But Krishna grabs her to search for his flute! Hearing about her Prana-vallabhas intentions strongly awakens Radhas erotic desires, so to conceal her mood she feigns indifference and even disdain, as if to say, Dont you dare touch me! Dont you dare touch me! But Rasika Shekhara takes it as a challenge, and after she has moved only two or three steps, he pounces! 58 Krishna says, Hey chori! You are wasting your time trying to break from my hold! I wont let go until you give me back my flute! 59

Lalita aligns her sharp eyes with her frowning brows, slightly smiles due to pride, and then blasts Krishna: 60 You unchaste brute! You destroyer of sati-vratas- a womans vow of chastity! Get lost! Radha has just bathed to purify herself for Surya puja! So dont you dare pollute her with your touch! There is an alternative way of understanding this verse. If one breaks the word sati-vrata-dhvasana as sati-vrata-dhvaAsa na, then there is a negative added to the command, Go, go! If Krishna is understood as the sun (ravi) and if the words kuru mApavitram (dont pollute her with your touch) are understood as an entreaty, then the meaning stands as, Hey destroyer of sati-vrata! Dont leave us! As the sun provides light and gives happiness, so do you! Radha has bathed and stands ready to perform your puja. Please touch her, for will make her doubly pure! 61 Lalita goes on, You drunken scoundrel! Shaibya stole your flute at Kusuma Sarovar when you became intoxicated by her kisses! And Tulasi saw everything so if you dont believe me, you can ask her. 62 Just see! When a criminal misbehaves, a sadhu gets blamed. The proof is that Shaibya stole the flute and our honest Radha has been blamed as the culprit! 63 But then Lalita hints with her eyes that Tulasi has the flute. But as Krishna shifts his attention to Tulasi, Radha slips from his clutches, just as lightning escapes out from a cloud! 64 Understanding Lalitas hint, Tulasi secretly hands the flute to Rupa Manjari. Meanwhile, as she starts to leave, Krishna forcefully molests Tulasi; thus her hairs stand erect and her body trembles! 65 Covering her face with her hands, Tulasi meekly cries, Oh merciful one! Let me go, I am unworthy of you! I swear to you, I am your dasi. 66 I dont have the flute. I know you are eager to find it, but I saw Shaibya holding it today! Then Tulasis eyes silently hint to Krishna that Rupa Manjari has the flute. 67 Then Madhusudan releases Tulasi and approaches Rupa, recognizing the scent of his flute on her body. But she slips the flute to Lalita and pretends to be innocent! 68 Before Rupa notices, however, Krishna swiftly embraces her and searches within her kanchuli, exclaiming: You thief! Where have you hidden my flute?

69 As Rupa tries to obstruct Krishnas hand, she declares, Yes, Im the thief, and you have proven it by not finding your flute! Oh well, you were lucky for today youve fulfilled your ambition to fondle my breasts and to embrace me! So now you can go and call the gopis with that! The manjaris determination is fixed. They always try to avoid personal sambhoga pleasure with Krishna, even though Sri Rupas statement here confirms that Krishna is always eager to enjoy her. Rupa implies that Krishna has not found the flute, which was his ostensible purpose in putting his hands inside her clothes, but now that she has gotten away from him and he is left empty-handed, with what will he call his gopis? 70 Rupa continues: Youre just eager to pollute all of us chaste housewives with your embraces! Thus youve hidden your vamshi somewhere else and now youve come here pretending to search for it! Yadunandanas words (fond of embracing others wives) has many meanings. In the Bhagavatas Tenth Canto, for example, the words bAhu-prasAra-parirambha (embracing with the arms, 10.29.46) denotes touching all parts of the body, kissing and joking, etc. 71 Then Rupa Manjari hints to Krishna with her glance that now Lalita has the flute. When Krishna goes to Lalita, Rupa Manjari escapes from his embrace and Lalita, seeing Krishna approaching, fearfully gives the flute to Kundavalli. 72 Lalita turns furious seeing Krishna approaching her and shrieks, Keep your distance. Stop where you are! What are you coming to me for? I dont have your mohana vamshi! Look, Im warning you, if you behave too lustily, you will have to suffer the consequences! Watch out! Im not Rupa Manjari who simply offers trivial reproof. Be forewarned! If you don't find the flute with me, then I shall tear you apart! Ill blast you with rebuke, rip off your clothes and then pour ghol, buttermilk, over your head. This Lalita will stop at nothing! 73 Lalita continues: Hey cheat! If Radhas sakhis dont care a fig for a pile of chintamani gems, and would not even touch them with their feet, why would they covet or steal your insignificant vamshi? 74 If that dry, hard piece of wood, filled with innumerable flaws, which constantly maddened the three worlds with its magic spell has slipped out of the hands of its master, then thats good news for everyone! 75 So let it go! Now the young ramanis can braid their hair and perform their household duties in peace, the deer can joyfully graze on the fresh grass with their husbands, and the Yamuna can flow to the ocean in its natural course because that disturbing vamshi wont stun them anymore!

76 You lost your murali because you made the naked gopa kumaris suffer when you stole their clothes. Isnt it befitting that those who give distress to others meet with distress themselves? 77 Oho! What a pity! That eighteen-inch flute was your most valuable possession....that dry, hollow piece of bamboo filled with holes! Hay, hay! Who could have taken it? 78 Meanwhile, as Krishna is momentarily immobile, listening to Lalitas jeering sarcasm, Kundalata passes the flute back to Radha. Then approaching Krishna, who pretends to be dejected, she says, 79 Hay, hay! Who stole your flute? Oh well, what can be done? Hey Krishna, what is the loss if an old piece of bamboo worth less than half a farthing goes missing? Let it go. Why are you so sad? But since youre the Prince of Vrindavan, I fell uneasy seeing all of these Vraja kishoris playfully taunting you! 80 Hey Kundalate! Krishna answers, Youre uninformed about my priya vamshi, and thus you ridicule its distinction. But this isnt surprising since you never heard its sweet call as the Vraja sundaris do. 81 What more can I say? This vamshi effortlessly fulfills all of my most impossible desires as soon as they arise, just as Narayans desires are fulfilled by his own chit potency. 82 Therefore this flute is the omnipotent fulfiller of all my wishes, and only Sri Radhika and her sakhis know all its powers in full. Krishna gravely answers Kundalata, who mocks the vamshi as nothing more than a trivial piece of bamboo. Because she is Krishnas cousin, the vamshi never acts to dismantle her calm demeanor and marital vows. Only the gopis know about its qualities because its sweet song aims directly at them. 83 Lalita interrupts, saying: How could we not know your flute, that expert antagonist who is our arch-enemy. She is your wife and knows all about fulfilling your lusty desires? 84 Although the sundari Vraja ramanis are filled with nectar and many virtuous qualities, this naughty vamshi binds the strong elephant of their hearts! But not only us, all beautiful women are attracted even Lakshmi, Parvati and Suryas wife Samjna. So hey Krishna! Your murali is fascinating indeedher attributes are notorious! As Krishna becomes overwhelmed in praising his flutes glories, Lalitas jealous pride is triggered when he says, Radha and the other sakhis know about these qualities. Thus finding a loophole in

Krishnas speech, she begins chiding. 85 Krishna retorts: Aha! Haughty Lalita is a thorny fort of crooked words! Certainly this deceiving damsel has stolen my flute. Thats why shes slandering its glories, and mine too! 86 Thus speaking, Krishna tries to catch hold of Lalitas garment! But she steps back, grins, arches her eyebrows and loudly shrieks: 87 Hey Krishna! Im Lalita, just remember that! You know about our dealings in the past! So now Ill leave, taking all of the sakhis with me! Today your deceptive tricks wont succeed! Today you wont get the chance to touch all of these pretty gopis under the excuse of searching for your flute! 88 Thus Lalita starts to depart, but Krishna grabs her orana exclaiming: Without returning my flute, I wont let you go so easily! 89 Ha Lalite! If you didnt steal my flutethen why are you trying to run away? You may leave or do whatever you like only after showing me that you dont have it on your person! Lalite! When youre so anxious to run away, certainly youre the vamshi chori! So without allowing a search, I wont let you go! Alright, since I dont touch women, you can remove all of your garments yourself! Then if you can prove yourself innocent you may go home, stay here, or do whatever you likeI wont have any further objection. 90 Lalita forcibly pulls her garment from Krishnas hand, casts a crooked glance and angrily scoffs: Hey lusty brute! You can search the body of your cousin, Kundalata! 91 We didnt take your vamshi, or see it either! Alright, if you insist on using force then just tell us the price, you may extract your remuneration from Kundalata! But if thats insufficient to repay your loss, get you another flute just like it. 92 Hey Krishna! Weve got two friends, namely, Malli and Bhringi, who are Pulinda women residing near Govardhan. If we ask them theyll make a new flute and bring it to you. Pulindas are a low-class tribal community. Such women have gross features and are uncivilized. Radharani often jokes with Krishna that her friend Bhringi or Malli can stand in for her in the sporting matches where physical contact is required.

93 Then Krishna replies, Oh Lalite! Are you saying that Malli and Bhringi are your sakhis? Have they stolen my flute and thus subjugated all of the other forest tribal women? Krishna pauses for a moment to contemplate, and then feelingly answers, The Pulinda women are very fortunate because of their attraction for me. They search throughout the forest and gather the kunkum that falls from my feet onto the grass. They smear it on their faces and breasts to relieve their lusty desires. These girls also collect gunja berries and colored earthen pigments from Govardhan and present them to me. Thus they are my dasis. Oh Lalite! Since when have they become your sakhis? Although Krishna answers Lalitas teasing words with an air of light joking, there is also a serious mood contained herein that reveals Krishnas magnanimity. If anyone renders service to Krishna with feeling, no matter how inferior or untouchable they may be, still Krishna considers: I am theirs, and they are mine. This is Krishnas firm resolution and subordination to love. The gopis themselves described the Pulinda womens attraction to Krishna in the Gop-gta p ?rn??h?? pulindya urug~ ?ya-pad~ ?bja-r~ ?ga ?r?-ku ?kumena dayit~ ?-stana-man??d??itena tad-dar ?ana-smara-rujas tr??n??a-r ?s??itena limpantya ~ ?nana-kuces??u jahus tad-~ ?dhim The Pulinda girls have been freed from the pains of love and completely fulfilled, for when overcome by erotic desire on seeing Krishna, they coated their faces and breasts with the saffron powder from his glorious feet, which had adorned the breasts of his beloved and then been smeared on the grasses. (S.B. 10.21.17) 94 So much for that, O Lalite! As youve reproached me and stolen my murali. Ill have to bind and punish you. If anyone thinks they can save you, let them just try! Lalite, your haughty pride has reached the brink of tolerability! Without fearing me in the least youve snatched my priya murali! And to top it off, you think you can slander me with impunity! Aho! Its time to dish out the medicine you so richly deserve! 95 After hearing Krishnas challenge, Vishakha pulls Lalita back, and stands before Krishna to gently offer a suggestion: 96 Hey Krishna! If someone loses a dear object, it is best that they approach someone whose job it is to find lost things, like a detective. Then surely youll succeed. But you wont achieve your objective by acting in this ugly and aggressive manner. Just when the situation is about to get out of hand, clever Vishakha ushers in a new rasa-taranga wave of flavor. Acting as a mediator, she pulls Lalita back and keeps Krishna at bay. Everything is done with cool equipoise. Look, Krishna, youre not one to act heedlessly; youre the talented and highly qualified Vraja yuvaraj. What advice could I possibly give to you? But, as a friendly wellwisher, just consider my suggestion: Try to remember for a moment where you dropped your vamshi. Perhaps, with a detectives help your objective could be reached.

In ancient India, there were often village shamans or ojhas who through mystic powers were engaged to find lost valuables or animals. The word used here is naoddezaka, One who shows where lost things are. 97 Champakalata comments: Oh Vishakhe! Who would stoop to become Krishnas detective? Certainly theyd be greedy for heavy remuneration. But why would Krishna spend so much to recover a worthless piece of bamboo? 98 Tungavidya replies, Oh Champakalate! You dont know whats at stake. Listen to my verdict: This vamshi is Krishnas all-in-all (sarvasva-dhana). So what would Krishna not offer in return for it? Hed give a fortune! 99 However, try to understand what will happen. When the thief is caught by the detectives good council first Krishna will reclaim his flute but the detectives reward will be plundered from the thiefs personal property. This is the usual policy! 100 Vishakha says, Oh Krishnaji! Being the flutes owner, please tell us how youll punish the thief and reward the detective? Im asking for your own welfare. 101 Krishna answers, Vishakhe! Whoever recovers my flute will receive the flower and jeweled garlands on my body, a piece of karamarda fruit, plus a magnet and many other amenities. Rasa-tarangini Tika: These words all have a double meaning. Here our vidagdha Madhava is saying that he will embrace, kiss, mar the breasts and give all types of other conjugal pleasure (suratasukha) to the damsel who supplies information leading to the arrest of the culprit! The jewel and flower garlands will be given with an embrace. The words kara-marda mean rubbing with the hands, and a magnet is called cumbaka-maNi, meaning a kissing jewel. 102 Next Ill punish the offender by tying her in the ropes of my embrace and escorting her to the nikunja-jail house. And once we arrive, Ill plunder the jewel of her youth from her two jugs after confiscating all her clothes and ornaments! 103 Vishakha answers, Oh Gopendra-nandana! Your reward and sentence are most befitting. So as youre not the least bit miserly, surely youll get your flute back. 104 But only Kundavalli knows where your flute is. This is the information that Ive gathered. Thus you can reward Kundalata! To sidestep Krishnas amusing charity, and the scorn of her co-sakhis, Vishakha Sundari transfers the reward to Kundalata. 105 Then she playfully teases Kundavalli, Oh sakhi! Your fortune is awaiting! Just tell your cousin where the flute is and collect your reward! 106

After thus joking, Vishakha whispers something in Kundalatas ear, but Radha understands her intent and slips the flute back to Tulasi. The sakhis main seva is to unite Radha Madhava. Thus Vishakha whispers to Kundavalli: Tell your cousin that Radha has the flute! But Rai Vinodini understands and secretly gives the flute to Tulasi. 107 As Krishna eagerly awaits Kundalatas answer, she addresses Vishakha, Oh sakhi! I swear, I dont know who took the vamshi. 108 But dont forget, Im not an outsider but Krishnas relative. So whatever belongs to him, belongs to me too! So if I knew who stole the vamshi, I would frankly tell Krishna. I dont require any reward. Kundalata knows that if she tells Krishna that Radha has the flute, she will become a laughing-stock and subject to Krishnas outlandish remuneration. So she plays ignorant to dodge the trap Vishakha has laid for her. 109 Sakhi Vishakhe! Undoubtedly you know who stole the flute. So why dont you just tell us where it is? Then youll collect the jackpot of Krishnas reward! Just cooperate and surely the murali will return to its prabhu. 110 Vishakhe! You can accept the prize, or trace out where the flute is, the choice is up to you. But dont worry, Ill remain in between to act as arbiter. Thus Kundalata offers Vishakha tit-for-tat and turns the tables on her. 111 Meanwhile, Kundalatas eyes hint to Krishna that Radha has the flute, so he eagerly approaches her. But she stuns him with a sharp glance! Thus Kundalata says, 112 Krishna, Because your vamshi is filled with shyama rasa it has turned the entire world shyama (black)! So whoever hears the flutes alluring song is overcome by your shringar rasa! And look! Now that Shyama Kandarpa rasa has taken shelter of Radhas chin as a black dot of kasturi! After out-manoeuvring Vishakha, pride overwhelms Kundalata. And when she informs Hari about the vamshi-hara - stealer of the flute, Sri Radha, Krishna comes to grab her! But the intoxicating bliss of Rai Choris paralysing eye-gestures stop him in his tracks! Seeing Shyamas stupor, Kundalata continues to dominate with clever wordplay: The vamshi has shown its quality of shyama rasa as the bindu dot on Radhas chin! These words are spoken to dispell Krishnas fascination. After Radha is bathed and dressed, the sakhis always decorate her chin with a kasturi bindu that symbolises her Shyama anuraga. 113 Kundalata continues: Radha subjugated the vamshi and extracted its Shyama rasa; that is the black bindu on her chin. But in the stupor of acquiring the flute, she forgot to hide the bindu and has

hidden only the vamshi! 114 You are lucky, Krishna, because Radha forgot to remove the vamshis mark, and so youve caught her! But first do one thing, remove the bindu with your lips. Then you can punish the thief and reward the detective. 115 Kundalata: As weve proven that the vamshi is with Radha, I dont care if you reclaim it or not. But Vishakha is demanding her reward. Wouldnt it be fair to give it her in my presence? 116 Krishna exclaims, First Ill remove the vamshis mark from Radhas chin, and clear my debt with Vishakha. Then Ill escort Radhika to the nikunja jail-house, recover my flute and give her the punishment she merits! 117 Thus Krishna approaches Priyaji to begin kissing her, but Lalita boldly rushes between them and reprimands the intoxicated nagara! Feigning anger, Lalita exclaims with a triumphant smile, 118 What a disaster! Rai hasnt performed Surya puja yet, and youre about to contaminate her! Aha! Clear out! Have you no respect for Vedic dharma and social custom? Whether the sakhis create a favorable or unfavorable breeze, the high waves created in Krishnas lila rasa sindhu give pleasure to everyone. Thus, Lalita Sundari skilfully strikes Krishna with a rebuke that has a double meaning. Outwardly her message conveys the idea: Stand back! Our priya sakhi wants to worship the god Mitra (i.e., Surya), so dont dare pollute her lips before the puja begins! Chi! chi! Your rude behavior will destroy any hope of getting the deitys grace ! But the actual message is: Radha wants to worship her mitra (i.e., her friend, Krishna) in the Kandarpa yajna. So before the main puja begins in the nikunjas, you can inaugurate the auspicious adhivasa mahotsava - the preparatory rites for a large sacrifice with your lips. And thus all impediments to your prema dharma will cease! 119 Hearing Lalita, Krishna replies, Radhe! You cant blame my teeth, for theyre not the aparadhi. Rather, because youve openly displayed this bindu, the fault lies with you ! Catura cudamani knows that if he enters the tornado of Lalitas arguments his desires will be foiled. Thus he turns his attention to Radha, moves in closer, and utter this verse. 120 Krishna forcefully kisses Radhas lips and removes her kasturi-bindu saying: Hey Shashi-mukhi! Although this bindu looked beautiful on your chin, when it saw its dark friend approaching, it leaped to safety within the fort of my teeth in fear of you . Before Radha can show anger and her kuttamita-bhava, Krishna quickly tries to cover up for his boldness with a witty excuse: Radhe! I said that my teeth arent to blame. And heres the reason: As your bindu and I are of the same color, it recognizes me as its true friend. Thus when I approached, it leaped to merge back in me! Look, as the word dashana (teeth) becomes damshana (destroy) by adding the chandra binduwith your chandra bindus help my teeth have taken up

their damshana-dharma (the business of biting you) ! 121 Kundalata says, Hey Radhe! As youre a leading poet, you can compose verses in the bindu cyutaka meter (causing the bindu to fall). But your rival, Krishna, composes in the bindodgama style (to recover the bindu). Thus as your face kisses the kasturi-binduKrishna kisses your face. Kundalata composes a pun using a trick of Sanskrit alankara. She says, Oh Rai! Youre a clever poet, just like Krishna. So as youve turned the vamshi (flute) into a vashi (captor) by removing the chandra bindu, Krishna converted his dashana (teeth) to damshana (a destroyer) by accepting the bindu! (This word-jugglery centers around the chandra-bindus placement) 122 Kundalata continues: Radhe! When a talented person displays his genius, people knowing those arts become elated. Therefore, you can decorate Krishna with your jewel-mala (bite Krishna with your teeth)! Radhe! When two distinguished persons meet, its customary that they honor each other with garlands. So as Krishna has garlanded you with his mani-mala, its your duty to garland him with your crystal row of teeth! 123 Radhika replies, Hey Kundalate! Because youre captivated by your cousins illustrious qualities, why dont you worship his bright lips with your white kunda flower teeth? Narma pandit Sri Radhika replies, Kundalate! All of the Vraja-padminis are turned off by the icy winds blowing from your cousins mouth. But its the kunda flowers that bloom in the winter. And because youre like a kunda flower, you can enjoy his shrewd remarks. So just offer your teeth (that are white as the kunda flowers) to the bright sun of Krishnas lips. 124-125 Kundalata feigns anger and says, Hey Krishna! Radha is Mukharas pretty grand-daughter thus she is also mukhara (always bickering). And Lalita is prakhara (hot-tempered). So as youre gentle and shy, how will you recover your vamshi from them? If you want your flute backI think that its time to start getting tough! Just consider all of these gopis are pragalbha (out spoken), kutila (crooked) and they far outnumber you. But youre soft-natured and stand alone. And besides, your murali was your only support, but that was plundered. So as youve still got your clothes and ornaments, perhaps you should flee back to the cow-pastureslest these shrewd gopis might even steal those too! Seeing that Krishna isnt making progress in debating with the gopis, Kundalata wishes to speed things up. Hence, she feigns anger and advises Krishna to use forceotherwise he might lose the chance to enjoy Radha. 126-130 Kundalata continues: Aha! These gopa-ramanis are lusty for a paramour, theyve lost discrimination between vice and virtueand just see, they think that Im the same! My cousin is

still a boy, and Im a chaste wife of pure character. Aha! Lets stop gossiping with these proud gopis who only slander our reputation. Oh Krishnaji! You can reward Vishakha as you promised, but leave me out of this entanglement, Im going home! Taking Kundalatas advice, Krishna smiles and addresses Vishakha: Hey Sadhvi (chaste one)! Come come! Here are your jewels! (Krishna embraces Vishakha) Then the sakhis all encircle Krishna and begin to raise an uproar! With this opportunity Radha silently tiptoes to the nikunja mandir and hides. Rasavati Radha scurries from the conflict under the pretext of hiding; her actual intention is to privately meet with her Prana-vallabha. 131-134 Then Tulasi slips away with the flute to the kunja where Radha is hiding. But Vrinda takes the vamshi and conceals it in her blouse, saying: Hey vamshike! Although you belong to a small dynasty, you are glorious for instigating this wonderful pastime! Meanwhile, Vishakha turns restless seeing the sakhis smiling faces and roaming eyes, so with great difficulty she breaks loose from Krishnas tight embrace! Then in a faltering voice she angrily chastises him: Hey Shatha Raja! (King of the cheaters) Were not your relatives, nor your helperswere outsiders so its ludicrous for us to accept your charity! Why dont you reward your cousin; after all, shes the one who suggested it ! Seeing Vishakhas precarious situation, the sakhis are unable to check their smiles as their eyes fully enjoy the amusement. Then Vishakha struggles to free herself and curses Krishna: Hey you lusty brute! Uh, uh! How painful! Let me go ! 135-136 Vishakha exclaims, Hey Kundalate! Although youre the most outspoken why are you bewildered? You shouldnt avoid your cousins charity so stop trying to pollute us ! Vishakha argues: Since Kundalata is Krishnas relative, she is entitled to enjoy his gifts. But if the gopis do so theyll incur the sin of usurping anothers property. 137 Kundalata answers, Vishakhe! As a benevolent donor, Krishna gives charity to the best brahmin girls. So when he has selected you as the benefactor Im unable to forbid him; for this would be a sin. Here the word dvija has two meanings: A brahmin, and teeth. Because the gopis are vaishyas, Kundalata means to say: Oh Vishakhe! You are a sudashana sundari (a beautiful girl having lovely teeth)so Krishna has selected you !

138 Kundalata continues: Vishakhe! Just consider, if Krishnas gift is offered with love, why should it be forcefully rejected? Rather, its your duty to return double affection !

When Krishna kisses and embraces you, you should reciprocate with more hugs and kisses. 139 Chitra says, Oh Vishakhe! This is your giftso why do you reject it as someone elses? In fact, youve become rich by such charity. But if this wealth doesnt interest you, just quickly donate it to Kundalata ! Hey Vishakhe! As youve become rich by Krishnas charity, you may donate a portion of it to Kundalata. Remember, ones piety increases by giving, not by squandering ! 140 Kundalata replies, Citre! Look, Krishna is freely distributing his wealth. So if you dont accept itWhats the donors loss? Krishnas wealth can remain with him ! Krishna, why waste you time with these misers? It would be wiser to exchange gifts with Radha. 141 Thus Krishnas eyes restlessly search for Radharani. But when he does not see her, he retorts: Hey Lalite! Youre a number one imposter for hiding vamshi-chori Rai! You should bring her here at once, lest you have to suffer the consequences ! 142 Lalita answers, Im not a witness, and who knows where she is? Radha is the befitting partner to share your kingdom. Im going home. 143 Then a sakhi answers, Radha went home. Another replies, She left to perform Surya Puja. Yet another says, Because youve contaminated Radha, she went to bathe in Manasa Ganga. 144 As the sakhis joking continues, Krishna looks at Kundalata. Then she hints with her eyes that Radha is in the kunja nearby. Thus Krishna goes there. Nikunja Keli 145-147 When Krishna enters the nikunja mandir, Kundalata shuts all of its doors with the sakhis help. Then they wait outside. Seeing Krishna approaching, Radha tries to escapebut he catches her before she can reach the door! Then Krishna carries her to the bed! Just as an intoxicated elephant plunges within a river to escape a blazing forest-fire, Krishna relieves his blazing kama upon the Suratarangini Ganges of Srimati Radhika ! Sura-tarangini are the waves in the heavenly Ganges which is called the Mandakini. Surata-rangini means Radharani, the playful inducer of Kandarpa Keli. 148-149 Entering his vilasa sindhu, Krishna attempts to unloosen Radhas kanchuli and waist-beltbut

Radha obstructs and all of the bracelets on her wrists loudly resound! Then Krishna tries to say vamshi me dehi (give me my flute), but owing to his maudlin state, his voice falters da-da-da-dehi! Radha attempts to answer: vamshi mayi nasti (I dont have the vamshi), but she is also choked with Cupids intoxication, and utters ma-mama-ma-ma! As Krishna loots the jewel of Radhas youth, she anxiously obstructs! But at last Kandarpas general Dharshtya (boldness) chases away Radhas sakhis of patience, shyness and resistance ! As the vilasa keli festival escalates both Radha and Krishna combat each other with robust force! Radhas impassioned shrieking resemble the nectarean shrill of a kokila! And in the playful tussle nail-scratches and bites appear on their bodies! Let Radha and Madavas nikunja keli be glorified! To glorify the pastime means to discuss it, to sing about it and to meditate on it. This is the means to overcome material lust and attain Radha Krishna prema. 150 As the result of Sri Rupas mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhus lotus feet, the request of Sri Raghunath Das, the association of Sri Jiva and the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, Govinda-llmtas tenth chapter ends. Chapter Eleven Madhyahna-Lila 10:48 a.m.3:36 p.m. The sakhis describe Sri Radhikas Rupa Madhuri 1-3 Thereafter, Vrinda joins Nandimukhi, still hiding the vamshi within her blouse. The two of them join the others and exclaim, Oh sakhis! Where is our Vrindavan Ishwar and Vrindavan ishwari? We have an important message for them. The sakhis reply: Radha and Krishna went to settle their dispute before Madana Raja. What do you want to say? You can tell us; but if its a private message, you may directly approach Sri Krishnas vilasa mandir. Vrinda replies, Youre all Radhas intimate friends, and thus one with her interests. Certainly she wouldnt keep any secrets from you. So lets all go to the nikunja mandir together, then Ill speak. Rasa-tarangini Tika: Vrinda devi, Nandimukhi and the manjaris have been viewing Radha Krishnas rati keli lila. And afterwards Vrinda goes to call Lalita, Vishakha and the other sakhis under this plea. 4 Knowing that Sri Yugala Kishor vilasa keli has concluded, the sakhis eagerly approach them. Thus by opening the nikunja mandirs windows, or by peeking through the foliage, they relish premas aftermath !

5 At first Radha repeatedly urges Krishna to re-dress her, and Krishna follows the order. But then Srimati protests: What are you doing? Although Radha refutes him, still Krishna dresses her, and then she dresses him! 6 After completing the shringar, Krishna writes a message on a white lotus petal using red kunkum. Then he tucks it in his turban and says, Priye! Come on, lets go outside now. 7 Radha feels shy to go before her sakhis, and hesitates. But Krishnas eyes bloom like lotus petals as he holds Priya-manis hand to escort her outsideas if she were a convicted criminal! Radha doesnt want to face the sakhis because they will tease her. Although Krishna understands Radhas fear, he wants to enjoy the situation. Thus with a beaming smile, Rasikendra* pulls herjust as a constable escorts a convicted person from the courthouse to the jail. 8-13 Seeing their priya sakhi Rai squinting with bashfulness and Priya Keshavas eyes broadening with bliss, the sakhis surround them to address Radha: Hey bold one! Where did you go after leaving us? We looked and looked but couldnt find you anywhereand when did you meet this dashing fellow? Oh no! Its a good thing that Krishna wasnt able to defeat you! Radha is embarrassed, and when Krishna displays the love marks she made the sakhis giggle! Thus Radha is infuriated and starts to leave! Seeing Krishna smiling, Radhas lips quiver, her eyebrows frown, and she points her finger to rebuke him as her voice falters with anger! Next Radha turns to the snickering sakhis and speaks in a chastising gesture: Hey sakhis! When I attempt to go home you pull me back! If I try to hide, you show Krishna where I am. Then when Krishna appears in our midst, you tease me! How can I remain in your association? When you sent this restless, intoxicated Shreshtha Kamuka to seize me, I fearfully ran to this kunja and hid. Luckily, the red and white lotus and the thorny vines proved to be my actual friends, for they protected me! Here the word bhujanga has two meanings: a black snake or a lusty man. Srimatis words imply both as she sarcstically addresses the sakhis, Oh sakhis! Youre all great friends! As I entered this secluded kunja for shelter, you showed that bhujanga where I hid! But I was lucky, after squatting within this thorny thicket, the sharp thorns acted as friends to protect me! They kept that Shreshtha kamuka at a distance! (This is Radhas explanation for the bruise marks on her body.) 14-17 Kundalata answers, Radhe! Youre certainly telling the truth because Krishnas scratches reveal that you successfully kept him away! Oh sakhi Rai! Its befitting that your thorn-sakhis mar Krishna with nail-marks and bruises. But were surprised that they would mar you even more! Because Krishna is the Rati-pati of the gopa sundaris it isnt surprising that Chandravali (your moon-like nail-marks) appear on his chest! But we know that you envy Chandravali, so why are these same marks decorating your chest too? This is amazing! Lalita defends Radha by saying: Oh chaste Kundalate! Why would the thorny twigs and branches fail to mar a chaste woman running in feat of that whimsical debauch?

Lalita doubts Radhas version, yet if she does not offer support to Priyaji, she will be humiliated. Hence Lalita counter-acts the arrows of Kundalatas joking. 18-20 Krishna is eager to witness Radhas exotic beauty that arises with her conflicting emotions. He also hankers to hear about each of Radhas bodily limbs. Thus the sakhis begin their descriptions. The sakhis blend the shikharini of their poetry with the camphor of Radhas madhurya to please Krishna. Although Radhas sharp glance forbids if Sri Govindas madhura smile and blooming mukharavinda sprinkles the sakhis with nectar! Hence, they smile too as they begin describing cancala locana Rais beauty. Shikharini (rasala) is a delicious beverage made from milk, yogurt, ghee, honey, black pepper, sugar and cardamom. The sakhis poetry is similarly refreshing, but when it mixes with the camphor of Radhas anga madhuri Krishna relishes paramananda! Although Radhas eyes repeatedly forbid the sakhis, they dont stop. And why should they? They know that Radhas happiness is found in Krishnas pleasure. 21-25 The sakhis begin by describing a kunda-lata (a kunda flowervine), although Radha is the object of praise. Lalita says, Hey sakhis! Just see! This Kundalata shows all the signs of having been enjoyed by a bee (Sri Madhusudan)! Oh sakhis! In our world there is only one moon to illumine all of the Shiva-lingas. But Radhas Shiva-linga-yugala reflect many moons (nail marks). So could they be wishing to defeat the splendor of all the other lingas? Showing her smiling teeth, Vishakha answers with elation: Radhas two Shiva-lingas discard the skys defective, limited, waning moon to decorate themselves with the full moons of Krishnas nail marks. 26-27 Vishakhas words delight thin-waisted Champakalata, thus she speaks to please Krishna: When Govindas lotus feet danced upon the Kaliya Naga did his lotus-hands wish to compete by dancing upon Radhas naga-ranga breasts? Seeing Krishnas footprints upon Kaliyas hoods, Krishnas lotus-hands became jealous and thought: Well leave our marks on a better stage! Thus they begin dancing upon Sri Radhikas two naga-rangas! 28-29 The best ramani, Chitra Devi, says, This enchanting golden lata wrapped itself around a black tamal. Thus the tamals branches marred these two ripe bael fruits! Chitra contemplates: These indescribable objects have no comparison, so Champakalatas version has failedNaga-ranga fruits arent so large, nor are they so pointed. Thus she compares Radhas breasts with bael fruits. Krishna is compared with a tamal, and his hands and fingers are like branches and twigs. So as he embraces Hema-lata Radhika, the amorous moods of Kandarpa act like

strong winds which blow the tamals branches and twigs to scratch the ripened bael. 30-31 The topmost poet, Tungavidya, speaks to delight the assembly and embarrass Radha: Aha! How enchanting is the forest of Radhas body! Here roams an intoxicated elephant whose temples are like a raised vedi. Krishnas fingernails are the stick which drive the elephant. Thus these lovely temples display hundreds of marks left by the driving-stick. Aho! When these marks combine with kasturi decoration theyre simply gorgeous!

Tungavidyas jubilation captures everyones attention as she directs her roaming eyes towards Radhas raised kucha yugala to exclaim: Radhas body is like a forest wonderland that pleases all of Krishnas senses. Within this paradise roams Kamadevas uncontrollable pet-elephant. But Krishnas hands are like the rod that drive the elephant, and his fingernails are the rods whisk. As the whist falls upon the elephants temples (Radhas breasts) numerous marks appear. So to care for these, the elephant (Sri Krishna) places kunkum on his whisk. Aho! Now these raised temples look spectacular, covered with kunkum and kasturi designs! 32-33 Indulekhas teeth shine like beautiful moons as she speaks, The mad Krishna-elephant sports within the Subra-ratangini Ganga of Radhas bodily limbs! So just see, Radhas blooming lotusbreasts were marred by the elephants trunk! (Krishnas roaming hand) Receiving Krishnas cue, Indulekha takes her turn and speaks with elation: Tungavidyas description was great; yet my mind isnt satisfied. Indeed, its difficult to compare the unlimited glories of these objects. We started with naga-rangasi, then bael-fruits and next the temples of an elephantwhich are all fixed objects. But in the lilas flowing course Sri Radhikas beautiful kucha yugala sometimes go up, or downand sometimes they come forward, or go back. So I think they resemble two blooming lotus bobbing within the Suradhuni Ganga waves of Radhas body! 34-35 Although Radha tries to check Rangadevi with an eye-wink, still she pours nectar over Krishnas ears by saying: Aha! The Creator has molded two fine golden jugs in a secluded place go hide his jewel of youth. And after completion they were placed over Radhas chest. Hay! Hay! The tunnelburrowing thief of Krishnas fingernails has marred these svarna kumbhas to plunder the Creators precious tarunya ratna! Indulekhas previous example describes Radha Krishnas most confidential rati lila, viparita vilasa. So as this exciting scene comes to Krishnas mind his ananda is boundless! But Srimati turns red with embarrassment! So when Krishna motions to Rangadevi to continue on, Radha tries to stop her. Thus her face flushes with a bouquet of numerous emotions as her earrings elegantly dance and the pearl hanging from her nose bobs. What type of secret treasure has the Creator hidden within the two golden vessels of Radhas breasts? Krishna is mad to find out! Hence, just as a thief burrows an underground tunnel to enter a bank-vault, Krishnas restless fingernails anxiously make their attempt to plunder Srimati Radharanis priceless tarunya ratna! Their nipples seal these svarna kumbhas to protect their hidden treasure.

36-37 Following Rangadevi, Sudevi speaks to enliven Giridhari and joke with Shashimukhi Rai: Hey sakhis! Look, look! Were two golden pomegranates pecked by a parrot so that they look more charming than ever? Surely these ripe fruits are very dear to the forest kokila! 38-39 After the ashta-sakhis speaks, the sakhi named Chandramukhi takes her turn: These golden pomegranates arent of this world, theyre divine! Thus its seeds are within the pomegranates flowers. And look! A flock of bees have stung the flowers! In the sakhi samaja no one transgresses the proper etiquette. So after Radhas leading sakhis finish speaking, the others take turns. Here Chandramukhi adds an interesting fact to Sudevis description. Look! she says, These fantastic, golden pomegranates flowers are Radhas bright lips. Because Radhikas teeth are red from chewing pan, they look like pomegranate seeds, and Krishnas toothmarks are like bee-stings. 40-41 Nari Shiromani Sri Dhanishtha says, After kissing Radhas eyes, the black kajjal from their borders rubbed onto Krishnas lips. Now Radhas teeth are greedy as a parrot to taste these black berries! A jambu fruit is a kind of blackberry. Krishnas lips resemble jambu fruits when Srimatis eyemascara rub onto them. 42-43 The sakhi named Kanchana lata ignores Radhas restriction: after getting Krishnas wink of approval she says, Uh! Just see Radhas navel, fine romavali, two breasts and face! These splendid objects would bewilder anyones intelligence! One might guess that the dark stem rising from this amrita sarovar gave birth to two golden lotuses. Yet due to the moons presence the lotuses always remain tightly closed! The thin line of black hairs that begin from a womans navel and extend to her breasts is a refined form of beauty, and is called a romavali. And the deeper ones navel, the more attractive one looks. Because Radhas navel is very deep, it is likened to an amrita sarovar. The romavali extending from it looks like a lotus-stem displaying two full-sized padma kalika. But owing to the dazzling effulgence of Radhas mukha chandra these padma kalika always stay firmly closed. Kanchanalatas statement: These fascinating objects can bewilder everyone, subtly hint: Hey Raja-nandini Radhe! Why are you becoming angry with Krishnas eyes; after all, who wouldnt be captivated? 44-45The doe-eyed gopi named Madhavi speaks with a smile: Radhas navel is the homa-kunda (sacrificial pit) for Kandarpas yajna. The three lines on her tummy are the ropes surrounding the fire, her tummy is the altar, her romavali is the ladle, and Radhas breasts are the golden kumbhas that hold the sacrificial water. Kandarpa himself is the yajna purohit (priest), his asana is Radhas nitamba, and Radhas neck is the pujas conchshell. Thus Radhas body is the yajna-shala (sacrificial arena) for Sri Krishnas sarva kama.

After hearing Kanchanalatas version, Madhavi smiles and remarks: Krishna isnt looking at Radhas madhura anga out of wonder alonefor this is Kandarpa rajas yajna arena! Hence Krishna is zealous to inspect it! A noteworthy point about the conchshell mentioned here is that once the yajna begins, it will resound to startle Krishna! In other words, Radhas sudden erotic shriek at the peak of rati keli completely enslaves him! So this conchshells glories far surpass Krishnas Pancajanya! 46-47 The sakhi named Vasanti glances towards Dhani-mani Vrishabhanu-nandini and exclaims, Aho! Radhas body is the storehouse for all of Kandarpas weapons! Radhikas long tapered eyebrows are bows, her romavali is a sword, her lovely eyes are arrows and her arms are like ropes that bind Krishna. Morever, Radhas neck is a conchshell, her nitamba is a chakra, her cheeks are golden shields and her nails are claws ! As Vasanti-sakhis prema-saturated eyes gaze upon Sri Radhikas anga madhuri, her voice becomes choked by tivra ananda! She says, Theres no one more fortunate than our Vrishbhanu Raja nandini. Because Cupid is jealous of Krishnas Supreme beauty, he has created many unique arsenals to revenge his defeat to Madana Mohan! Just see how Krishnas crafty eyes show fear as they peek towards Radhas bodily ornament. As he first glances towards this one, then that one, his body is trembling ! 48-49 Vasantis description enlivens Vrinda, who adds: Radhikas sundar body is an amritamaya Ganga and the sporting grounds for the Krishna-elephant! Look, Radhas arms resemble lotus-stems, her breasts chakravakasand her navel, face, hands and feet are the various lotuses growing from the water. Radhas curly, black hair looks like a swarm of bees, her madhura smiles are lilies, her eyes are blue lotuses, and her romavali is the moss flowing with the rivers current ! If Radhika-sundaris madhura body werent a shuddha prema suradhuni, why would the intoxicated elephant of Krishnas mind constantly play within its waves ? These descriptions form a paramananda dhama! But those who consider them imaginary or exaggerated will miss a great source of benefit. With such rasamaya poetic seva the sakhis increase the pleasure waves within Radha Govindas prema keli sindhu. Therefore, their words reach the peak of prayojana tattva (lifes goal). Each of these Vraja sundaris is served by Saraswati herself. Thus by hearing or reciting these pastimes with shraddha ones attraction awakens. This leads to increased meditation, dhruvanusmriti, samadhi and at last maha-siddhi. Because these topics are the condensed essence from Sri Vrindavans Goswami-community, one is very fortunate to relish them. 50 Receiving Krishnas cue, the ashta sakhis headed by Lalita continue, to describe Radhas anga madhuri. Lalita exclaims, 51 The soles of Radharanis lotus feet have the marks of a conchshell, half moon, barely, lotus, elephant, chariot, plough, rod, arrow, flag, bow, svastika, fish and a club. These marks are protected by Srimatis red alta and anklebells, and with their auspicious influence she reigns as the Vishva Raja Lakshmi (the universal goddess of fortune).

There are 19 symbols on Radharanis soles. This verse mentions only 14, and hints about the others which are a mountain, a vedi, a lata, an earring and an umbrella. Padma Purana (Patala Khanda, chapter 12) describes that on Radhas left sole (under her big toe) there is a barley symbol, below that is a chakra, further down is an umbrella, and below that is a bracelet. Extending from the middle of the sole to the gap between her big tow and the next toe is a curved line of fortune, Under Radhas middle toe is a lotus-symbol, below that is a flag, and under her small toe is a rod for controlling elephants. On the extreme back portion of the sole is a halfmoon and above that is a lata and a flower. On the sole of Radhas right foot (under her big toe) is a conchshell symbol, under her second and middle toe is a mountain, and below her small toe is a vedi; below the vedi is an earring. At the base of Radhas heel is a fish, above the fish is a chariot, and on both sides of the chariot are a mace and a rope. These rare and auspicious charana chihnas are possible with Srimati Radharani alone, and they indicate that she is the Vishva-Raja-Lakshmi (Supreme Goddess of the Universe). But these symbols also reveal that in rati keli she can even defeat Sri Krishna, who conquers the Jagata Vijayi, Kandarpa. 52-53 Vishakha says, The effulgence of Radhas lotus feet defeat the beauty of a soft, red lotuspetal. Yet the new lotus petals have a faultthey take birth from the mud. They also fade at night and cry like the chakravaka. So what can compare with Sri Radhikas charana kamala? Champakalata says, Aha! The Chandravali (many moons) of Radhas toe nails are amazing! Although Chandravali (sakhi) is very dear to Krishna he forgets all about her as the flawless crimson chandravali of Radha toenails fully enliven his lily-like heart! When Radhas toenails can make Krishna completely forget the second-most sundari ramani in the creation, who can imagine their glories, charm and stunning madhurya? But as Sri Krishna stares upon them with unblinking eyesHis fascination reveals why. 54 Chitra exclaims, Why did Radhas ankles hide? When the king of new youth took charge of Radhas bodily empire, the powerful dacoits of Radhas breasts and large nitamba attacked Radhas waist! They stole all of its thickness! But then these dacoits considered: Hay! Perhaps Radhas tummy will scream to the king for protection? Thus they bound it with the ropes (three lines) known as tribali! Rasa-tarangini Tika: The smaller a womans ankles, the better she looks. Radha ankles have disappeared inside her feet. And this verse tells why: As Radhas breasts and buttocks stole all of the weight from her waist, Radhas ankles hid in fear? Radhas waist is thin as a fist; its elegance is enhanced by three lines. The manjaris sometimes fear that Srimatis waist might snap owing to the pressure of her large breasts. Thus they carefully hold her waist as she gracefully moves like a golden swan gliding over the water. 55 Tungavidya exclaims, Aha! Radhas thighs outshine the beautiful curve of the banana tree so it became stunned due to embarrassment! But did the Creator mould these two pillars supporting

Radhas bodily summer-house to relieve the Krishna-elephants scorching Kandarpa-fever? 56 Indulekha questions: After hearing Cupids prayer, did the Creator offer him the two golden pillars of Radhas thighs for binding elephants? Yes, it appears to be so, because with their sturdy chain of beauty Cupid binds the elephant of Krishnas mind! 57 Rangadevi replies, Vrishabhanu-nandinis knees arent kneestheyre Kandarpas golden treasure-chests! Thus Kandarpa is joyful because after stealing the jewels of Krishnas eyes and heart he hid them in these two chests! 58 Sudevi says, Radhas beautiful thighs are the playground for Krishnas palms; theyre simply incomparable! If someone says that they resemble an elephants trunk, the elephant will be embarrassed. If one tries to compare them with the graceful shape of the banana tree, it will also be ashamed because its midsection is only composed of watery fibers. The sakhis arent speaking simply to please Krishna with well-chosen poetry. As they describe each limb of Radhas body, Krishnas heart dives deeper into the amrita-sagara of Radhas angamadhuri! And moreover, specific lilas of Krishnas past enjoyment with Srimati also come to mind. Thus Hes reeling in ecstasy! Here Krishnas arm is compared with an elephants trunk; his palms are likened with the trunks snout. Thus, as a baby-elephant playfully moves its snout back and forth to curiously fondle the objects that delight its senses, Krishnas palms fondle Srimatis beautiful thighs. But to compare Radhas thighs with an elephants trunk isnt befitting because it is hard and coarse. Similarly, although the trunk of a banana tree is well-formed, its inside portion is wet and fibrous. Radhas soft thighs, however, delight Krishnas senses because they are soft, sweet-smelling and the most well-formed of all. Shloka 55 describes the rear portion of Radhas thighs called the jangha. This verse describes the front portion called the uru. 59 After hearing the ashta-sakhis descriptions, Chandramukhi says, When Krishna wanders by the side of Govardhan he is unable to enjoy the Yamunas wonderful bank (and his pastimes there). But while strolling along the Yamunas banks he is unable to relish Govardhans splendor. So as Krishnas eyes focus on the beautiful Yamuna of Radhas veni dangling between her Govardhannitamba-parvata his mind becomes completely satisfied! Krishnas topmost lila is Rasa, and beside Govardhan he performs Vasanti-Rasa; yet Sharata-Rasa takes place beside the Yamuna. So Krishna sometimes laments that he is unable to relish both of these Rasa lilas together. But the beautiful sight of Radhas Yamuna-veni falling between her elegantly raised Govardhan-nitamba satiates this desire! 60 Kanchanalata Sakhi adds: Could the poets be mistaken? Is Radhas nitamba really like the Yamunas banks? Surely, for the Yamuna of Radhas veni flows there. Besides, Radhas kinkini-

mala of jingling bells frolic here too like a flock of warbling swans. Hence, the male and female dancers of Krishnas mind and mentality constantly perform Maha-Rasa dancing at this special place! Seeing that Krishnas eyes arent moving from Radhas nitamba, Kancana lata smiles to confirm Chandramukhis analogy with more detail. 61 Madhavi says, Radhas thin waist made friends with the elephant-killer (thon) assume its shape. But this was done out of fear, anger and sorrow when its weight was plundered by the three rogues of Radhas breasts, thighs and buttocks during her puberty! As Rasika Shekharas eyes next gaze over Radhas tummy, Madhavi considers: Krishnas mind must surely be remembering the strong vigor of Radhas waist during their rati keli pastime. Thus she says, Are you wondering how this thin waist can display such power? Listen to the reason, Radhas waist considered: This nitamba has made friends with the elephants body, these thighs made friends with the elephants trunk, and these breasts made friends with the elephants temples to steal all of my weight! So Id better make friends with someone who can destroy an elephant. Otherwise the king of youth might flee this kingdom! Thus thinking, Radhas waist teamed up with the lion to gain its strength to attack! 62-66 Vasanti says, Once Radhas breasts and nitamba were poor, so they formed a treaty and stole the weight from Radhas waist. But being greedy, these breasts and nitamba constantly bicker over who shall claim the most. Thus, to stop this quarrel and to end further disputes, the Creator set up three boundary lines (trivali) on Radhas tummy. But was it fear which prompted the Creator to bind Radhikas waist with three strings (trivali)? He must have thought that it would break from the thinness of separation from her friend, childhood. Vrinda Devi adds: What that? Are a swarm of bees soaring between an amrita sarovra and two large golden lotuses? Oh, Im mistaking, its the fine line of hairs (romavali) adorning Radhas tummy! Aho! The peepal leaves are shaking, and the golden lotus petals are paralysed by the defeating beauty of Radhas belly! Thus, the romavali appears like Radhas victory tilak painted with black deer musk. Lalita says, Radhika Devis palms are enchanting with their auspicious marks of a waterpot, a lotus, a garland, a fan, a moonbeam, an earring, an umbrella, a binding pillar for sacrificial animals, a conchshell, a bael tree, a vedi, an asana, a flower, a lata, a chamara and a svastika. It appears that all of these auspicious objects adorn Radhas hands to assist in her Priya-Keshavas seva. This verse doesnt mention that Radhas palms also carry the marks of an arrow, a mace, a bomb, an elephant, a bull, an elephant goad, a lightning bolt, a cart and a rice husk. Perhaps these werent mentioned because they are only indirectly useful in this Krishna seva. 67 Vishakha exclaims with a sigh, Aha! What can compare with Radhas lovely hands? If the Creator had made a lotus attached with champak petals that taper into fine jewel moontipsthis might have been a suitable comparison.

Radhas palms resemble a red lotus, and her fingers are like champak flower petals with crystal moon-nails that resemble Kamadevas magic wand. 68 Champakalata adds: Radhas sharp finger-nails are like Kamadevas moistened chisels that paint numerous golden pictures upon the sapphire door of Krishnas chest. Champakalatas words enliven Krishna but embarrass Radha. Vishakha described the shape of Radhas hand and Champakalata described its qualities. Could Radhas fine fingertips act like Kandarpas chisels? Why not, as Kandarpa is the devata of beauty, all of his paraphernalia arouse amour just as Radhas fingers do. 69 When Radha lower her face, placing her hands over her head, Chitra Sundari takes one look and exclaims, Radhas palms are like two lotuses. Her arms are their stems and her armpits are their pods. But Radhas arms also serve as Kandarpas ropes because they envelop tamal Shyamasundar when his restless hands fondle her bael fruit breasts! Chitra smilingly remarks: Someone could say that Radhas arms resemble golden lotus-stems, but when using refined judgement we find that only a svarna-lata can produce such beautiful bael-fruits. Morover, its the golden lata which embraces the Shyama-tamal, not the lotus stem. 70 Tungavidya says, I think that the Creator made a wonderful golden jewel-boat named Radha to help Krishna cross over the Kama-samudra. Radhas romavali is the rubber, and her arms are cups for scooping the water our of the boat. 71 Rangadevi says, Radhas two sides are the daughters of beauty and the brides of Krishnas sides are the two sons of madhurya (sweetness). But these brides and grooms have married their oppositesKrishnas right side went to Radhas left, and vice-versa. 72 Sudevi smiles and questions: Is this a golden slab inscribed with the black letters of Cupids victory? Could it be Madanas sword placed over a golden vedi? Or perhaps its a golden quiver holding Kamadevas snake rope? Oh! Its Radhas beautiful veni resting over her back! When Radha turns to look at the sakhis behind her, Sudevi points to Radhas gorgeous veni peeking through her orana and speaks this verse to Krishna showing a gesture of amazement! 73 Chandramukhi says, The poets say that Radhas shoulders naturally curve down because Giridhari always places his strong arms there. But I think that they just appear low because Radhas head poises erect with pride. After all, shes superior to every Vraja sundari, Queen of Dvaraka, and Lakshmi of Vaikunthawhat to speak of other beautiful women. 74 Madhavi says, Aho! The Creator ecstatically placed three Lakshmis (as three lines) on Radhas neck to fulfill Krishnas pleasure: The saundarya lakshmi (goddess of beauty), the kavya lakshmi

(goddess of poetry) and the sangita lakshmi (goddess of singing). 75 But Basanti exclaims, Na, na! The Creator placed these three lines to form a border for stopping the quarrel between Radhas nose and breasts. These two were always bickering over who will be the most prominent! 76 Vrinda Devi says, Which poet can describe Radhas voice? When hearing it, the kokilas flee into the forest, amritas taste becomes bitter and the vina becomes stunned! As for the beauty of Radhas neck, even the conchshells retreat to the ocean when seeing it! 77 Dhanishtha says, The kasturi dot on Radhas chin not only defies the beauty of a bumblebee basking on a golden lotus in the morning sun, but a kokila resting in the window of a svarna mandir. I overheard Krishna saying this, as his fingers raised Radhas chin to kiss her!

78 Lalita says, Radhas lips are called bandhujiva being the life of her Prana-bandhu, Sri Krishna. They are also called bimbadhara for reflecting Krishnas love for her. So when the bandhujiva flower (red jaba) and the bimba fruit are directly Radhas lips, what else can compare with them? Poets compare Radhas lips with the bright, red jaba flower, also known as bandhujiva (hibiscus) for their softness and color. They are also compared with bimba fruit on account of their glossy red surface. But Lalita Sundari uncovers a deeper meaning. She says that Radhas adhara-sudha-rasa, the nectar-like liquid of her lips, is Krishnas panca-prana, or five life airs, in other words, it keeps him alive! Pratibimba means reflection, and the bimba fruit. Radhas glossy red lips act as a mirror to reflect her Prana-bandhus love. In other words, when Rasika-shekhara comes to taste Radhas lips, his own murti is reflected in them. 79 Lalita continues: Radhas lips are famous because they sustain the purnananda rasamrita murti, Sri Vrajendra-nandana, so whats the need to mention their other glories? 80 Vishakha exclaims, Radhas teeth look like pomegranate seeds and they defeat their enemies, the white kunda flowers. But when the Creator saw their brightness he quickly covered them with her lips; otherwise, the universe would have turned white by their dazzling effulgence! Although Radhas teeth are brightly white, they resemble pomegranate seeds when she chews pan. But the next shloka tells another reason. 81 Champakalata adds: Radhas teeth resemble kunda flowers and sparkle like diamonds, yet theyre like parrots too because they relish Krishnas bimba lips. Hence they look like ripe pomegranate seeds. Parrots love bimba fruits. But when Radhas parrot-like teeth relish Krishnas bimba lips, their redness reflect on Srimatis teeth to make them look like pomegranate seeds.

82 Chitra says, Radhas ruby-red tongue is like a spoon that serves Krishna the confections of her songs, poetry, witty words and joking! R When Radhas tongue shyly covers her teeth, the sakhis notice, and describe its glories in three shlokas. Chitra says, Accha! Why did Radhas tongue suddenly show itself and then hide? Surely its a ruby serving-spoon. For Radhas tongue serves Krishna with numerous confections like her sangitamrita, kavyamrita, vakyamrita and adharamrita (nectar-like singing, poetry, words and kisses). So just as a serving-spoon is placed back into the sweets after servingRadhas tongue now hides within her mouth. 83 Tungavidya says, Krishnas fame appears from Radhas mouth like a taunting dance girl! So is her red apron Radhas tongue? Rangadevi says, When the Creator saw that the young boy and the young girl of Sri Krishnas name and fame were eager to perform jhulan, he made the swing of Radhas tongue and covered it with a crimson sheet. Rangadevi says, Look! The young couple of Krishnas name and fame always swing on Radhas tongue; sometimes they glide gently and sometimes they glide swiftly. Yet even when Radhas mouth closes, this madhura jhulana gently swings back and forth! 85 Sudevi exclaims, Radhika-sundaris voice is pure nectar for Krishnas ears for every syllable she utters outrival the waves in a nectar ocean. As Radhas voice fills with laughter, joke and wit even the kokilas and the bees can learn how to sing! 86 Then Chandramukhi adds: Radhas voice is like the beverage called Rasala her prema is the ghee, her humor is the sugar, her charm is the madhu, her smile is the camphor and her pretentious jealousy is the black pepper. Thus when these ingredients combineKrishna relishes supreme delight! 87 Madhavi says, Aha! Is this a river of amrita? It certainly gives shelter to Krishnas swan-like mind. Is it a nectar moonbeam? It certainly satiates Krishnas thirsty chakora eyes. Perhaps its a fluffy white cloud stuffed with amrita, for it certainly enlivens the chataka of Krishnas eyes. Oh, now I seeits the nectar wave of Radhas smile! Rai Vinodini understands Sudevi and Chandramukhis intention, and softly smiles to convey: Aha! You two crafty ones wont be able to make me speak too easily! 88 Vasanti comments: Krishnas madhura qualities grow like a wish-fulfilling creeper in the garden of Radhas heart, and their flowers now blossom as her sweet smiles!

89 Dhanishtha exclaims, Radhas face is an amrita sarovar from where five delightful rivers of song, laughter, joking, smiles and fragrances constantly flow. But these rivers merge with Krishnas ananda sagara!

90 Vrinda says, Radhas face defeats the grandeur of Mount Sumerus peak, for five celestial rivers flow from it. The Suradhuni of her smile, the Devanadi of her charm, the Sura-tarangini of her words, the Jahnavi of her songs and the Mandakini of her voice all flow to merge with Krishnas amrita sagara! Vrinda informs Dhanishtha: Your siddhanta is sundar, but remember, a sarovar rests on level ground. But Radhas face is higly situated, so we shouldnt just compare it with a sarovar. Rather, according to its color and exaltedness its like Mount Sumerus golden peak. But hay! This analogy is unbefitting too because there isnt one single Ganga flowing from there. But our sakhi Rais wonderful Maha-Sumeru-face is the source of five Gangas. And they dont flow into an ordinary ocean eitherthey merge into Krishnas amrita sagara! 91 Lalita says, When starting a journey its auspicious to see a humming bird flying over a lotus. So to bless the traveller of Krishnas eyes, the Creator made Radhas mukharavinda. Then he secretly bound the two restless hummingbirds of Radhas eyes to the golden post of her nose! As the sakhis take turns describing Radhas beauty, her face displays all sorts of numerous expressionsone after another. Thus Krishna constantly glances at Radhas face to enjoy these bhavas. Then he turns to encourage the sakhi who will speak next. So Krishnas eyes are always moving. But his gazing never fails to look at Radha first. So after studying Krishnas habits, Lalita Sundari utters this verse. 92 Vishakha comments: The Creator made the wonderful full moon of Radhas face to satisfy Krishnas chakora eyes. Then he placed two deer over the moon for Radhas eyes. But as these deer were fidgety he bound them to her ears with ropes! Lalite! Your example isnt correct. Krishnas eyes arent travellers, theyre chakorasand our priya sakhis face is a purna chandra! Look! Those chakoras are constantly drinking the moons nectar. The moon is called Mriganka because it has the mark of a deer. Thus its befitting that our sakhi Radha be harina nayana. 93 Champakalata comments: The moon is pained for its spots, and its often eclipsed by Rahu. Besides, its rays fade the lotus. So just tell me, what can compare with the ever-bright spotless beauty of Radhas face?

While Champakalata smiles and shakes her head her earrings and nose-ring elegantly dangle. Then she exclaims, Na, na! The moon fades in the daytime, its devoured by Rahu, and it wanes during the Krishna-paksha (dark moon fortnight). But our Radhas moon-face never fadeswhat to speak of the Krishna-paksha (the nights when she meets Krishna)! Then her face beams brighter than ever! 94 Chitra says, Radhas lovely cheeks outmatch a golden mirror! Theyre like two lakes of nectar effulgence on a planet of gold! And herein dangle the two lotus buds of Radhas earrings. Radhas kasturi designs are the lakes moss, and kasturi dolphins swim about too. Thus Radhas cheeks steal Krishnas attention and quench his thirst! Lotus, moss and fish are the wealth of a sarovar, and its water relieves ones thirst. Thus the two lakes of Radhas cheeks are decorated with kasturi-dolphins and her lotus-like earrings brush against them. But most importantly they quench Krishnas thirstfor theyre so lovely that he cant resist the urge to kiss them. 95 Tungavidya says, When the Creator made the amrita sarovar of Radhas face, two lovely blue lotuses bloomed there. These are Radhas eyes that are meant to nourish Krishnas bumblebee eyes. So to refreshen the blue lotuses the Creator placed two full moons beside them as Radhas cheeks. 96 Aha, look! says Indulekha, There is a parrot in the cage of Radhikas forehead! Being eager to relish Radhas bimba lips, his beak reveals itself as Radhikas nose! 97 Rangadevi comments: But look! Radhas nose resembles Kandarpas amazing arrow, and theres a pearl hanging from its tip. Although the arrow remains cocked within Radhas arching bow-like eyebrows, still it slices through the shield of Krishnas patience to pierce his heart! 98 Sudevi adds: Radhas nose curves like a sesame flower, but its actually a quiver where the hunter Rati-pati stocks his arrows. So as Radha smiles, these arrows smite the deer of Krishnas mind! Sudevi and Rangadevi portray Krishna like a flapping deer wounded from the repeated pelting of a hunters arrow. But these arrows are drawn from the quiver of Radhas nose and shot from her arching eyebrow-bows! Although Radhas nose-pearl dangles from them, still these arrows pierce their target; this is amazing! 99 Madhavi says, The pearl bobbing from Radhas nose has become red and black, like a gunja berry. Someone might say that its reflecting the redness of her lips and the darkness of her kajjal. But I dont thing so. Because Radhas heart is Shyama-colored from her constant thought of him, and because its red from Krishna anuraga too, these colors reflect on the pearl as Radhas life airs pass through her nose!

R These are two types of gunja-berriesone white and the other red. Both types have a black spotted portion. This verse applies to the latter species. As Radhas nose pearl oscillates with her breathing it takes on the redness of its closest neighbor, her lips. But the blackness from her eye kajjal also reflects on the upper portion. This gives the pearl a gunja berry appearance. Krishna wears a necklace strung from these beads. 100Vasanti exclaims, The Creator collected the essence of every beautiful object in the universe to make Radhas eyes. But when the leftover portions fell to the ground they became the bumblebees, the chakoras, the lotuses and their finest species, the indivara. 101 Vrinda comments: Hey Sumukhi Rai! Your anjana eyes behave like khanjana. Theyre the bhanjana for the lotus, the ganjana for the fishyet the ranjana for Sri Krishna! Similar, delightfully sounding words, used in repetition are called anuprasa. To give an example, these words have been left in. Using plain English the verse reads as follows: Oh Sumukhi Rai! Your eyes are bordered with mascara and theyre restless like hummingbirds. Their beauty defeats the pride of the lotuses and the darting minnows. Still theyre always pleasing to Krishna. 102 Dhanishtha says, Radhas eyes are two minnows swimming in her faces amrita sarovar. But theyre fond of dancing too. Therefore the Creator wedded then with the dancing acharyas of Krishnas dolphin earrings. But later, fearing that these two minnows would escape their sarovar, the Creator made the two nets of Radhas ears. Owing to shyness, Radha very rarely looks directly into Krishnas eyes. Instead, her restless glance focuses on his dancing makara kundala (dolphin earrings). As Dhanishtha observes this amusing behavior, she quickly utters this verse to add flavor to the rasa. 103 Vrinda exclaims, The bee-like pupils of Radhas lotus eyes are prajapatis that create countless mental impressions that swarm out from her glances! In each shloka the sakhis include a pinch of sporting humor to arouse Rai Ranginis various moods which will delight Krishna. Here Vrinda states: Just as Brahma sits on the padma-asana sprouting from Garbhodakashayi Vishnus navel to populate the universe with a myraid of variegated living entitiesthe Prajapati bee-like pupils of Radhas lotus eyes created uncountable fascinating moods to enchant Sri Krishna! 104 Lalita says, Radhas eyebrows curve like an aparajita lata; her eyes are the vines two dark, blooming flowers. 105 Vishakha questions: Is this the moon silver that Rahu dissected with his lancing teeth? Na, na, its Radhikas beautiful forehead resting between her hair and eyebrows! 106 Champakalata exclaims, Radhikas forehead looks gorgeous between her eyebrows and curling

locks, like a golden madhavi leaf encircled by restless bumblebees. So it outshines a new moonsilver. 107 Chitra says, Aho! Did the Creator write on Radhas foreheadGunamani Krishna is Radhas vallabha and Krishna is Radhas anuraga balli? The kasturi, kunkum and chandan designs resting there certainly appear to reveal this. Here Chitra-sundari gives the purport of Radhikas kama-yantra tilak, and the kasturi and chandan designs adorning her forehead. 108Seeing Radhas beautiful vermilion-tilak and the vermilion-line in her hair-part (peeking through her crimson veil) Tungavidya questions: Is this Cupids copper arghya-bowl, that he uses during puja as his hands display various mudras covered by a red cloth? 109 Rangadevi adds: Radhas curling hair is like a dense forest where the mad baby-elephant of Krishnas mind wanders. The sindura falling from the elephants temples forms the red pathway parting Radhas hair. Pet elephants are decorated with sindura. But as a sudden gust of wind blows the veil covering Radhas head, Rangadevi sees her beautiful part and feelingly utters this verse. 110 Sudevi exclaims, Look, Radhas bright moon-face and dark hair gave up their enmity to reside peacefully together. Yet theyre still afraid of eachother. So to protect themselves Radhas curling hair set up a phalanx of curling locks, and her moon-silver forehead increased its effulgence. 111 Madhavi says, Arent the curling hairs falling over Radhikas forehead like a swarm of bees that sip the madhu from her mukharavinda? But when Madana Mrigari noticed he uses them as a net to capture Krishnas deer-like mind! 112 Vasanti exclaims, As Radhika meditates upon Krishna, uncountable creepers sprout from her mind. But owing to her Krishna consciousness they turned black. Then as Radhika sprinkled them with her premamrita they grew longer and longer. These black creepers are her lovely hair. Anuragas color is red. Hence Radhas infinite thoughts were red. But due to her constant absorption in Krishna they turned black. Then becoming moistened by her premamrita, they grew into long, fine black hairs. 113 Vrinda Devi says, Radhas hair is like a black chamara which defeats the elegance of a peacocks tail feathers, yet they display the majesty of Vishnus opulences. Moreover, this glossy hair protects the devatas to form the residence of Shivas better half! The word kesha (hair) also means Vishnu. So just as Vishnu maintains the universe, the amritalike qualities of Radhikas hair nourish Krishnas joy. Hence the sakhis joy is found there too. 114

Dhanishtha inquires: After Radhika Devi enjoyed Krishnas beautiful shyama effulgence with her mind and eyes, did she tie it with her hair bun? 115 Lalita says, As Radha lowers her hand, her veni braid appears like the Triveni (the place where the three rivers Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati meet in Prayag.): the red jewels shine like the Saraswati, the white garlands appear like the Ganga and her veni itself is the Yamuna.

116 Rupa Manjari says, After Radha enjoys vilasa with Krishna, her ruffled, curling hair makes the deer scorn their beautiful tails and shamefully run to the mountains! Even the peacocks flee, cursing their elegant tail feathers. Seeing Rai-vinodinis composure returning, Rasika Shekhara desires to enjoy the charm of her arching eyebrows again. So he winks to Rupa Manjari and she describes Srimatis hair after rati keli. Why are the peacocks and the deer fleeing? Perhaps someone might spit on their tails after having the darshan of Rais beautiful opened locks during this sweet moment! Radhas Guna Madhuri 117 Lalita exclaims, Radhas body is smothered in fragrances. Her navel, eyebrows, hair and eyes smell like a blue lotus dipped in kasturi and aguru. Her breasts, ears, face, nose and feet smell like all the other lotus-species sprinkled with camphor. And Radhas armpits, nitamba and nails smell like a ketaki flower dipped in chandan. As Krishna relishes the sakhis description of Radhas beautiful body, his desire awakens to hear about her qualities too. Thus he questions: Hey Lalite! Does your priya sakhi only possess a madhura rupa? Understanding Krishnas mind, Lalita begins describing Radhikas guna madhurya.* This verse describes her anga saurabha (bodily fragrance). 118 Vishakha Sundari says, Radhikas limbs are ornamented with all sweetness and beauty to satisfy Krishna. Therefore she is her only comparison. The qualities of the moon, the lily, the lotus, its stem, or even gold only fade in her presence! 119 Champakalata adds, As Krishnas madhurya is incomparable, so is Radhas. So only Radha and Krishnas beauty can be said to match each others. 120 Chitra exclaims, Hey sakhi! As Krishna is a connoisseur, how could he fail to be attracted by Radhikas irresistable prema, qualities, beauty, personality and youthfor these attributes are all unrivalled? 121 Tungavidya declares, She is so faithful to her beloved, and yet everyone says she is an unfaithful

wife. She loves so deeply, and yet she is dependent on others who interfere with that love. Her anguish to meet Krishna is so great, and yet she is rarely able to be with him. These three daggers pierce my heart and slice its very roots. Tungavidya says, The sakhis grieve for three reasons: 1) Radhas chastity is desired, praised and worshipped by the most chaste women in the universe, yet our priya sakhi is scandalized as a kalankini. 2) Radhas ever-increasing maha-prema is so powerful, and yet so many impediments arise to torture her! 3) Radhas anuraga is insurmountable, yet she suffers incredible pain in Krishnas viraha! I cant fathom why Radha must suffer these three afflictions. These three reveal the greatness of Radhas love. 122 Rangadevi questions, Whos the source of Krishna prema? The answer can only be Sri Radhika. Who is Krishnas dearmost, filled with unequalled virtue? The answer is Radhika and no one else. Only Radha, who is crooked with her curling hair, restless with her roaming eyes and hard-hearted with her firm breasts, can fulfill Krishnas desiresand no one but she. 123 Sudevi says, Radhika is Vrindavans blooming madhavi lata whose shelter is the punnaga (Purushottama Sri Krishna). Her body is decorated with nice leaves of tilak for the pleasure of the Rasika honeybee, Sri Madhusudan. In the springtime the newly blooming madhavi cling to the punnaga with their overloaded, fragrant flowers and newly budding leaves; then it allures the bumblebee. Similarly, our madhavi nayika, Srimati Radhika, captures Madhusudans attention as the sakhis paint interesting designs of kasturi on her breasts, her cheeks, her forehead and other parts of her body. As she thus stands ready to combat Krishna for Springs Holi-battle, her captivating charm forms an unforgettable picture. Ujjvala-nilamani describes a madhavi nayika as the fortunate gopi who binds Krishnas mind so that he never leaves her and submissively carries out her orders. (Ujjvala-nilamani 5.94) 124 Madhavi says, Our Radhika was never initiated, nor did she take any lessons from a shiksha guru. Even so, she has become the acharya from whom the doe-eyed Vraja sundaris learn all the arts of satisfying the heroic artist himself, Krishna, arts that are the source of amazement to every other attractive damsel in the three worlds.

125 Vasanti says, Even though Radha has rejected her husband and abandoned her religious duty as a faithful wife as though it were of no more significance than a blade of grass, shes celebrated as a maha sati- great chaste woman of spotless character. Thus Radha is the Creators unique masterpiece. 126 Dhanishtha exclaims, Whether in wakefulness, dreams or sleepwhether in body, mind or

wordsRadhas senses are fully fixed on Krishna! She knows nothing else. 127 Vrinda says, Radhikas playful dancing eyes steal the wealth of Krishnas patience! They easily defeat the beauty of the minnows, the deer, the chakoras, the hummingbirds, the bees, Cupids arrows and the blue lotuses. The moment Radhas dancing eyes fall on him his mind is seizedhe becomes atma haracompletely forgetful of oneself! Just see, Look! Radhas eyes are swifter than a minnow, softer than a deers, thirstier than a chakora, fidgetier than a hummingbird, stronger than Kandarpas arrows, and more soothing than a blue lotus. Hence they forcefully attract Krishnas honeybee eyes! 128 Lalita exclaims, Hey Krishnamayi Radhe! Why are the chakoras flying away? Why are the chatakas returning to the forest? Any why are the padminis hiding in the water? They all appear to be embarrassed as they bow their heads in shame. 129 Oh, now I see! Because the chakora, chataka and lotus are renowned for their fixed determination, theyve lost their vanity seeing your steadfast Krishna bhakti. Lalita Sundari first asks the question, then she answers it herself. The chakoras were steeped with pride, thinking, Aha! Were fixed on the moon! The chatakas vanity dictated, Oh! Were one with the clouds! And the lotuses were conceited: We cant live without the sun! But Oh Radhe! Your Krishna anuraga topples everyones pride! 130 Vishakha says, Of all sundari ramanis, the Divine Energies known as Gih (Saraswati), Bhuh (Bhumi) and Lila (the lila shakti) are the best due to their superior qualities. Greater than them, however, is Lakshmi, yet due to their prema the Vraja sundaris outmatch her. Amongst the Vraja gopis, the yutheshwaris are the best, and Chandravali is topmost amongst them. But above her is Radha, for she is the object of Krishnas constant desire!

131 Vishakha continues, After making an effort, Chandravali can subjugate Krishna with her love, beauty and qualities. But Radhas amazing quality is that she easily makes Krishna forget Chandravali! So whats the need to mention others? 132Who says that Gunamani Radha is devoid of the slightest flaw? That is not true: Just see, there is deviousness in her hair, inflexibility in her breasts, and impatience in her eyes! Rasa-tarangini Tika: This kind of statement is called a vyAja-stuti, whereby one makes a pretence of fault-finding while really glorifying someone. (It can also work the other way.) Although deviousness, inflexibility and impatience are faults, when these attributes are applied to her hair, breasts and eyes, they become virtues. Sri Radhika has them in the right places to further increase her assets. Her hair is not straight, but wavy and curled in places. Her breasts are firm and her eyes dart here and there in an attractive manner as she searches for Krishna everywhere. 133

Hey sakhi Champakalate! says Tungavidya, Our chakori lochana Radha always drinks the moonbeams from Krishnas mukha chandra! But her face is a padma because Madhusudans bumblebee eyes are always anxious to relish its madhu! Shyama-sohagini (fortunate one) Rai and Shyamaundara smile and look at each others faces as they enjoy Vishakhas skill in describing Chandravalis inferiority. So here Tungavidya enjoys their mutual darshan madhuri. Sri Yugala Kishors eyes arent going elsewhere, and why should they?... theyve both found their hearts refuge! 134 Rangadevi states, Even if Radha is undecorated, but in Krishnas presence, she gives joy to the sakhis as various bhavalankaras ornament her body. But without Krishna, Radhas jewels and ornaments arent pleasingfor she becomes morose, and so do the sakhis ! Radhas ornaments are superb and unmatched; why havent the sakhis described them? Rangadevi tells the reason: When Radha exhibits her wonderful bhavalankars - physical reactions arising from transcendental emotions upon seeing Krishnaordinary gold and jewels appear insignificant !

135 Sudevi smiles and says, Radhika is truly worthy of the title Krishnamayi she sees Krishnas sphurti in front, on all sides, in her mind, in her eyes, in her cheeks, in her breasts and even reflected within the jewel of her locket! 136 Indulekha says, Kamadeva was defeated by Krishnas beauty and became sad, unable to avenge Krishnas superiority. Thus seeing innocent Radhika attracted to Krishna, Kamadeva now tortures him behind his back! 137 Vrinda exclaims, How amazing! If Krishna touches Radha, then Radhas shivering, perspiring, horripilation and ecstatic tears appear on the sakhis too! And when Krishna kisses Radhas lips, the sakhis become madly intoxicated!

138 Madhavi says, When considering all of their qualitiesKrishna is the topmost male, and Radhika is the topmost female. So does the Creator not deserve credit for his artistic talents, which so flourish when they come together in yugala milan? 139 Radha is a generous donor, says Kundalata. Although she accepted the garlands of Krishnas embraces and nail-marks, she returned the favor manyfold to offer a pearl necklace, her toothmarks. So when Krishna kisses Radhas lips and bites her, the sakhis relish Radha Krishnas prasad with

their eyes, as a garland placed around their necks! Here Kundalata reminds everyone of Sri Yugala Kishors prema keli (See 146). This is called rasodgarawhen previous pastimes are recalled for relishing. Kundalata is saying, Youve told all about Radhas qualities, but you left one out: Radha is maha-vadanya, supremely merciful. Just see, Krishna offered Radha his flower garland nail marks, but then Radha decorated him with her priceless pearl mala toothmarks! And after she kissed Krishna, their adhara rasa- the nectar of their lips, was freely distributed to the sakhis as maha-maha prasad! Thus the sakhis are garlanded with those same love-marks! 140 Dhanishtha says, In Krishnas company Radhas beauty increasesher body and eyemovements display new intrigue, her hearts thrill is ever-fresh, and Radha herself is a new person. 141 Madhavi exclaims, Padmini Radhas aroma fills the ten directions; she is coated with the pollen of softness and beauty. So could the Madhusudan-bhramara ever abandon her to pursue a mere ketaki flower (some other nayika)? 142 Vasanti says, Because the madhavi bloom in madhava, spring, they complement each other. Similarly, our Madhavi and Madhava are most joyful together! Thus the Creator is an expert matchmaker. 143 Lalita Sundari exclaims, Seeing Radhas exquisite form, the Creator desired to make more beautiful women like her. But after collecting his best ingredients and employing his finest artistic abilityhe became depressed; not one of them could match Radha! Thus ashamed, he thought: 144 The lotus and the moon are in no way comparable either ! Hence, just as one crosses out a misspelled word, the creator splotched the lotus with swarms of bees, and scribbled a deer-spot over the moon ! As the group leader, Lalita chides Vasanti: Why praise the Creators skill? Radhas splendor far exceeds his most refined creativity! So when beholding our Rai Vinodinis uncommon features, he became struck with wonder and concluded: Shes of another world ! Thus embarrassed, he tried to duplicate this marvel! But after failing again and again, and becoming frustrated, he decided to spite his most beautiful masterpiece, the lotus and the moon! 145 Lalita continues: Let it be knownSri Radhika Devis qualities are endless, and therefore impossible to fully describe. We are only baffled in our attempts to do so! Even Saraswati fails because such words dont exist within her storehouse of knowledge. 146 After the sakhis smilingly describe Radhikas form and qualities she becomes happy. But owing to her shyness and vama nature Radha goes on looking at Krishna with crooked, sidelong glances. And by seeing her various moods, and by hearing about her wonderful beauty and qualities, Krishna becomes completely satisfied.

This chapters scene is very madhura. After rati keli, Radha and Krishna lie fatigued on the flower bed. The sakhis and manjaris enter the keli mandir with frolic and joking. Then, as the Divine Couple musingly take rest, the sakhis surround them on the flower bed and describe Radhas beauty to delight Krishna. 147 As the result of Sri Rupas mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhus lotus feet, at the request of Sri Raghunath Das, in the association of Sri Jiva and the the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, here ends the eleventh chapter of Govinda-lilamrita. Chapter Twelve Madhyahna Lila 10:48 a.m.3.36p.m. Vana Vihara (Wandering Through Radha Kunds Six Seasonal Nikunjas) 1 Vrinda Devi addresses Radha and Krishna: Oh, hey Vraja-kanana-ishvara and Vraja-kananaishvari! The six seasons have a request to make at your lotus feet. Please hear them along with your sakhis. 2 She then recited the six seasons prayer: O Radha Krishna! Were your dasis and we have decorated the forest for your pleasureso now just have a look! If you enjoy yourselves here our labour will have borne fruit, for it is a servants greatest reward to have his master admire his handiwork. As you will recall, Vrinda, Nandimukhi and Kundalata hid behind the foliage to watch Radha Govindas rati keli. Afterwards, Vrinda called the sakhis to narrate Sri Radhika Devis rupa guna madhuri. Now she introduces the next pastime, namely vana-vihara, or sightseeing in the forest. There are countless kunjas at Radha Kund where the six seasons display their wonders. Vrinda is the guide who will take everyone to watch as new lilas unfold in each of the seasonal kunjas. These pastimes will be the topics of the remaining Madhyahna Lila chapters. 3 Vrinda continued, Praneshwar and Praneshwari! All of the mobile and immobile forest residents are in these different playgrounds, waiting for you. Just hear what they have to say, 4 We will be graced to see your splendid Yugala milan within our midst! So please fulfill our desire and allow us to serve you. 5 At that moment, Madhumangal arrives with Subala and addresses Krishna: Hey Priya-sakha! All your subjects here in Vrindavan have been left penniless by Radha. 6 She has looted all of the forests inner wealth of saundarya and madhurya (beauty and sweetness) with her bodily luster! Whats more, she and her sakhis have also stolen all of its external wealth,

the fruits and flowers! In chapter 6, Batu Madhumangal and Subala accompanied Krishna when he left the other sakhas to search for Radharani. Then they followed Krishna up to Vishakhas bower at Radha Kund, where they remained while Krishna enjoyed with Radha and the sakhis. But now Batu and Subala have returned to help Krishna. Madhu thus opens with his usual joking in order to instigate a new prema kandala (love-quarrel). 7 Then Nandimukhi arrives, exclaiming: Hey Radha Krishna! All glories to you and all your friends! Bhagavati Paurnamasi Devi sends you hundreds of blessings. She also has some advice for you, please listen: O hey Radhe Shyama! Vrindavans sovereign monarch, Sri Smara Chakravarti Maharaj, who wields a fierce scepter, has crowned both of you equally to rule his kingdom! Moreover, he has assigned the kokilas and the bumblebees to be your attendants. Nandimukhis sudden appearance at the all-knowing Paurnamasis behest comes just in time to defuse Madhus attempts to get Radha and Krishna quarreling. Paurnamasis blessings provide a charming metaphor for the Vraja rasa. Smara Chakravarti is Kamadeva; Vrindavan is his ultimate realm, because Radha Krishnas prema dalliance is the supreme manifestation of conjugal love. Paurnamasi furthermore states that he has granted Radha and Krishna equal dominion over this forest. Hence the Vrindavan kingdom is not Krishnas alone, nor is it Radhas. It is theirs to enjoy equally and they should not fight over such trivial matters. 9 [Nandimukhi continues] Paurnamasi says that you should not quarrel amongst yourselves. Bickering will only disturb your conjugal pleasure. And later youll have to bear Kandarpa Rajas revenge. So please take my advice to peacefully enjoy the forest kingdom along with the fruits of your prema. Paurnamasi has heard about your rough behavior in the Vamshi-harana, Nava-graha and Dik-pala puja lilas. Thus she declares that by such behavior you will be deprived of the spoils of your kingdom, i.e., your prema vilasa. Then youll have to suffer Kandarpa rajas retaliation, i.e., the torture of separation! 10 [Nandimukhi] Paurnamasi further told me that if the two of you start quarreling again, I should consult with Vrinda and determine who is starting the trouble. Then I should go and present her with the facts. And with those words, Nandimukhi virtually guarantees that they will start bickering again! 11 Krishna replies, Nandimukhi! You know Radhas behavior very well, so how will our madhura milana be possible? Dishonest Radha has plundered the forests wealth with her gang of sakhis, and theyve even stolen my flute! 12 Kundalata interjects, Alright! Both of you proudly went before Kandarpa Maharaj to settle your

differences, what happened there? Can you tell us truthfully what his verdict was? Kundalata tries her hand at calming the incipient argument by refering to the authority of Smara Chakravarti: Oho! Do you mean to say that your dispute still remains unsettled, even after going to Kandarpa Maharaj (i.e., after rati keli)? Alright, just tell us what happened. Lets see if we can offer a solution. Although Kundalata has enjoyed peeking into the keli mandir to watch Radha Krishnas rati keli, here she plays the naive in order to elicit Krishnas testimony, knowing that this will shower both her and the sakhis with bliss! 13 Krishna answered, When I took Radha before Kandarpa Maharaj, I said, You should punish this girl for looting the forest! But first, you can collect what she stole and return it to me. 14Then Kandarpa Raja asked Radha for her version and she replied: Na, na! Krishna and his friends have uprooted all the fruits and flowers themselves with their herds of roaming cows! We, on the other hand, preserve the forests beauty with our golden effulgence. 15 Kandarpa is a softy and so he was swayed by her lies and took her side. I saw this myself, because even though she is guilty, he refused to cast judgment on her. So now I am submitting the case to all of you. Krishna asserts: Aho! Kandarpa Maharaj showed favoritism to the Vraja-tarunis by not casting his verdict, although he knew very well what had happened. Instead, he suggested that I return to the scene of the crime and reinvestigate the facts. Now just tell us, Kundalate, whats your opinion? 16 Kundalata asks, Krishna! If Kandarpa Raja is partial towards Radha, then why did he fine her her tarunya ratna, leaving her speechless? Its Kundalatas desire to relish some of the details about Radhas skill in rati keli. Although Krishna has been keeping silent on these matters, Kundalata isnt one to give in so easily. Thus she prods him with a loaded question while gazing at Radhas bruise-marks. 17 Krishna replies, Understanding the Maharajs hint, I decided to take the matter into my own hands and asked her for my stolen goods on the way here, but she would not give them. So I tried to to punish her, but aho! She retaliated and it was I who received the greater punishment. Krishna showers the rasa. Taking Maharajs cue, I demanded my flute (or Radhas kisses and embraces), but she flatly refused! So, to retrieve my property, I enveloped her in my arms. But she, being a pragalbha ramani- a dominating love-partner, could not tolerate my requests! At first I thought Id teach her a lesson, but to my surprise she defeated me! Just see the evidence! And Krishna shows everyone the numerous bruises on his chest. I wasnt able to do anything! And Radha only received a few scratches as I tried to protect myself! 18 When Radha hears Krishnas testimony, her voice falters. Then she raises her eyebrows and lances

him with a sharp glance! Nevertheless, Krishna takes great pleasure in watching her, as does Kundalata as she is struck by Radhas lila kamala- the blue lotus that Radha twirls in her hand! Radhas perturbed elegance induces Krishnas samadhi. The sakhis and Kundalata know this; thus they repeatedly act in ways to raise Radhas frowning brow and trigger her crooked glances. Radhas eye-movements are Kandarpas most powerful weapon. Theyre like flower arrows. And when she releases them from her arching eyebrow-bow, Krishna becomes stunned! Although there are many poets who search for words to describe this madhura scenes impact, who can succeed? It would be best to simply try and hold this sweet picture within the mind for as long as possible. 19 Then Krishna removes the letter he has tucked into his turban and places it in Nandimukhis hand. She begins reading it, mumbling to herself, but as everyone is curious to hear the message, she reads it aloud, 20 Greetings! Madana Sarvabhauma- Cupid, the all-powerful lord of love, hereby makes it known to Nandimukhi, Kundalata, Vrinda and all of the assembled sakhis that Radha stole the forests beauty! This wealth of beauty must be returned. And then all of you should settle Radha and Madhavas dispute over the murali. In shloka 6 of chapter 11, Krishna wrote this letter with moistened kunkum on a white lotus petal after having vilasa with Radha. He takes this occasion to broadcast the message. 21 The sakhis are puzzled to hear the news and start asking Radha whether it is true. Finally Vishakha comes out from the group and says, I dont understand. Didnt Radha testify to Kandarpa Raja that she hadnt stolen anything from the forest residents and that, on the contrary, she helps to enrich its beauty by her effulgence? 22 Lalita exclaims, O Vishakhe! Dont be foolish! Whats the need of mentioning all that? Vrindavans forest is simply the reflection of Radhikas mohini murati! What is Lalitas logic? When an object is stamped by the mark of its owner, everyone can easily identify whose property it is. Similarly, as the forests beauty is simply Radhas reflection, this proves that it is hers. So even if Krishna complains to the Maharaj, what can he do? 23 [Lalita continues] So if some unscrupulous person tries to defame us before the Maharaj, what can he do? As the forest is ours, well maintain it, and well enjoy its fruits and flowers! 24 But if you say that we should execute the Maharajs order, then Ill reply: Just go and take a look at this forest! You will see that it is nourished by our Vrindavan-ishvari as if it were her own sakhi! Someone might say, Whether the Maharaj understands or not, still you should follow his order. Then, later, you can approach him and thoroughly explain the situation. To this proposal, I shall reply: Whats the need to do so? If he simply opens his eyes he will see that everything belongs to

Radha! 25 Lalita goes on: That Vamshi was initiated with a mantra to destroy the Vraja kishoris sati-dharmachastity! Luckily we have never seen it. And if we ever do, we will certainly throw it in the Yamuna let it be carried off to the sea! Concerning Radhas second offense, the matter of the stolen flute, Lalita cleverly dismisses the issue to avoid any inconvenience to Radha. 26 Hey Krishna! exclaims Nandimukhi. Radha says, Ive returned the forests wealth!so why dont you investigate to see if thats true? Then you can look into the matter of your stolen Vamshi. 27 But being eager to inaugurate Vana-vihara, Lalita pulls Radha forward saying: Come on! Ill show everyone how your beauty maintains the forest! Lalita-ji places Radha at the front with a procession of sakhi and manjaris who follow. Then she says, O Vrinde, Nandi and Kunda! Lets have a look at the forestIll show you what Im talking about! 2 8But as Krishna and the others proceed onAho! The trees, the latas, the flowers, the leaves, the birds and the deer all become enveloped by Radhas golden effulgence! These objects are distinguishable only by their variegated shapes! s Radha leads the way, everyone clearly witnesses her divine potency! Thus we are reminded of Sri Vraja lilas amazing aprakrita feature. 29 Nandimukhi exclaims, Aho! Vrishabhanu-nandini is right! Her amazing anga-kanti nourishes the whole forest its creating a festival for our eyes! Rasa-tarangini Tika: As Nandimukhi looks to Krishna her glance implies, So what can you say now? 30 Krishna retorts: Hey Nandi! When Radha goes home she takes the forests beauty with her! But when she return she replaces its wealth, fearing Madana Raja. My guess is that Radha knows some sort of magic spell! Catura-cudamani Krishna isnt one to admit defeat. No matter how crookedly he behaves, still his words ring cira-satyaever true. As Radha proves her point and the sakhis beam with pride, Krishna quickly dismisses her victory and strikes from a different angle. Aha! This is nothing but magic, he retorts. The forests beauty only remains when Radha is here, but when she goes home, she takes all of its opulent beauty with her! Although Krishna speaks with a joking connotation, there is a sincerity in his words that reveal a

heart-rending fact about the prema dhama, Vrindavan. As soon as Radha leaves the forest, it cries in separation for her, just as Krishna does! Hence, when she returns, it isnt surprising that Vrindavans forest splendor reawakens with new joy. 31But when Madhumangal sees the smiling sakhis bubbling in the intoxication of Radhas glories, he quickly escorts Krishna to the front. Aho! Krishnas shyama-anga kanti merges with Radhas golden effulgenceand the whole forest turns emerald-green! 32Then Madhu ecstatically declares: Aha sakhis! Just behold the wonderful combination of Radha Govindas luster! Their bodily colors have merged to escape Kandarpa Rajas affliction! Batu is intolerant of the sakhis pride, so he tries to smother their haughty smiles with Krishnas effulgence! But neither party winsits a draw! Radhas golden kanti and Krishnas shyama kanti merge and everything turn emerald green! Then Batu cuts a light-hearted joke: O sakhi! Look! Today Radha and Krishna have conceived of a plan to fool Cupid. Theyve turned green to become unrecognisable! So now Kandarpa wont be able to torture our Yugala Kishor! Thus everyone continues along while enjoying the forests beauty. 33 Kavishwari Tungavidya smiles and says, Oh, I think that we are the reflection of Radha Krishnas prema! Look! Their divine qualities have decorated all of us! 34 Then the vana-palika Sri Vrinda, waves her hand to say something, but a flute-sound is heard! Apparently a sudden gust of wind entered the vamsi she conceals to produce the sound. 35 As the noise astonishes everyone Kundalata and the sakhis approach Vrindaand find Krishnas flute! Oh, Vrinda is the vamshi-chauri- the flute thief! everyone exclaims. Then she is escorted before Krishna. 36 Radhika says: O sakhi Kundalate! Just see how your cousin unduly troubled us after hiding his flute with Vrinda! And if you dont believe mejust ask Vrinda where she got it! But inform her that if she doesnt tell the truth, shell be punished ! Sucatura Radhika knows that Vrinda will admit that she gave her the flute. So before Vrinda gets the chance to speak, Radha places the blame on Krishna. 37 Vrinda replies: O Vrinde! The old she-monkey, Kakkhati, forcefully snatched the vamsi from Shaibyas hand. Then she gave it to me when I was hiding with Nandimukhi in the kunja! Vrinda is also cleverness personified. She considers: If I tell the truth, a new prema-kandala will start. Then it will be hard to sort things out once the arguing commences! Thus Vrinda presents a story that matches Lalitas white lie when she said that Krishnas flute was stolen by Shaibya at Kusuma Sarovara. But Vrinda then adds a little spicing of her own: When I saw Shaibya escaping with the flute, I instructed Kakkhati to recover it. O Krishna! I kept the vamshi only because I wanted to return it to you! 38

Kundalata places the flute in Krishnas hand....and after bearing its separation, his happiness returns. Thus Krishna begins to play it. 39 The venus sweet call awakens erotic desires within every womans mind. Although their chastity may be compared to a bamboo shoot, Krishnas venu acts like the ghuna insect, which converts it to sawdust! The venu moves the non-moving objects and stuns the mobile creatureseven the six seasons appear at once, and the three worlds become drenched in the blissful shower of nectar! When the ghuna insect, a kind of termite, bores into a piece of bamboo, it eats the whole inside portion, but leaves the outside of the bamboo be fresh and unmarred. Similarly, when Murali Manoharas enchanting flute-song enters the gopis ears, it devastates their mind and hearts with the uncontrollable urge to meet him! Externally, however, they remain as beautiful, or even more beautiful, as the love for Krishna transforms their every feature. 40 Krishnas murali dhvani acts like Kandarpas arrows to enmadden even the most patient of chaste women! And what to speak of womeneven men lose their composure! But this shouldnt seem amazing, because Krishna is the very form of Cupid himself! 41 Even the mountains melt upon hearing Krishnas Venu-dhvani! As the birds and the deer see the mountain turn to liquid and streaming in all directions, they rush to drink this amrita! But when they themselves hear the flutes vibration they become stunned and unable to drink! 42 Aho! As the vamshi-dhvani drifts over the sarovars, the water solidifies to become hard as stone! Thus the feet of the swans get stuck, so they are unable to mate with the geese. The swans cannot eat the lotus stems, nor can they feed them to their beloved geesethis is another wonder! Vana Vihara 43-44 As Vrinda leads the way, she shows Radha Govinda Vrindavans six seasonal forest beauty: Oh hey Kishora and Kishori! Just see! Vrindavan assumes sakhi bhava ; its showing loving symptoms like your sakhis! Thus the forest displays the same sattvika bhavas: the moving creatures are paralysed, the immobile objects tremble, the stones perspire, the birds voices falter and the newly blossoming flowers horripilate! 45 The forest dresses and decorates herself with spring flowers like madhavi and bakula, the summers mallika and ketaki, the varsha seasons yuthi and kadamba, the autumns jati, padma and blue jhinti, the hemantas lodhra and amlana, and the winters badhuli. Vrinda: The forest decorates herself with all of these blooming flowers just as an excited love-lorn damsel does to greet her beloved! Hence with your arrival she puts on her best outfit! 46 Vrinda goes on: Hey Radha Madhava! For your Yugala puja the forest displays a loving conjugal mood. Just seethe madhavi vines bloom within the mango trees, the mallika latas with the

shirisha, the yuthikas with the kadamba, the jati with the sapta-parna, the lodhra with the pali, and the kunda flowers bloom in the priyangu vines! Vrindavans trees and latas assume a mithuni-bhava to offer their fruits and flowers for Radha Govindas puja. Mithuni bhava means an erotic mood meant to arouse Radha Krishnas lovemaking desire. The trees and the latas intertwine as if they were amorously embracing. Vrindavan is conscious and ever-anxious to witness Radha Krishnas prema keli just as the sakhis are. And afterwards she will offer a flower dress and her fruits. 47 Vrindavans birds all perform your guna kirtan. The bees sing with the kokilas, the svarna chataka sing with dhumyatakas, the dahukas call with the peacocks, the cranes resound with the parrots and the bharadvajas sing with the harita birds. Vrinda continues: The trees and the latas are obsessed with your mithuni-bhava. But look at the birdsyour prema conquers them in a different way! Theyve even lost sight of their mates to lovingly sing your glories with another bird species. This reveals that when prema awakens one even loses sight of gender, caste and creed! 48 Amongst the trees, some branches have new buds, new leaves, or new flowers, and other branches have golden leaves. Some of the branches are loaded with ripe fruits, unripened fruits, or halfripened fruits. Thus they serve you with their six seasonal opulences! The trees can show all of their yearly phases at once. And on some trees different types of fruits or leaves can be seen on their various branches. 49 Vrindatavis body has been decorated by her friends, the Lakshmis of the six seasons, each having covered her with the beauties that are her own. Now she carries all the articles of service and like a loving friend has come enthusiastically before you to offer them. 50 With your arrival, Vrindatavi dances in paramananda in the guise of trees and latas tossing in the wind, flinging the pollen of her flowers like a waving dancers cloth. 51 As it is customary to cover the ground with an opulent cloth when greeting an honored dignitary, Vrindatavi covers the pathway with multicolored flowers to welcome you on your arrival! The Vrindatavi offers Radha and Krishna a welcoming festival filled with pomp. The puja articles are now described all the way to shloka 66. These include all the customary elements of deity worship: an asana, padya, arghya, achamaniya, pushpa, tulasi, malas, anulepana, abharana, madhuparka, snana, vastra, incense, lamp, naivedya, pan, pushpanjali, arati, pranama, nritya-gita, prayer, submissive entreaties, an umbrella and a fan. This verse describes the asana. 52 [Vrinda continues:] How does Vrindatavi offer padya to wash your lotus feet? When your effulgent moon-faces reflect on the moonstone vedis, their water flows to bathe your feet after mixing with

shyama-dhana (dark paddy), grass tips, aparajita flowers and lotuses. chandrakanta is a precious white stone that sheds water during the full moon. Such water is the finest for bathing the feet of the Divine Couple. Aparajita flowers, lotuses, durva grass and shyama dhana give the water scent and make it more refreshing. We can visualize the scene as Radha and Krishna approach a moonstone vedi to sit down for a brief rest. 53 [Vrinda continues:] Vrindatavi then offers arghya with flowers, durva-grass and barley-sprouts. It provides achamaniya with the water from the reservoirs, filled with the jatiphala and labanga flowers that have fallen from the trees. After the padya offering in puja, arghya is offered from a shankha, or water conchshell. This is followed by achamaniya, or mouthwash. Lavanga (cloves) and jatiphala (nutmeg) are spices that freshen the water to provide a first class achamaniya. 54 [Vrinda continues:] Vrindatavi next offers its flower madhu for madhuparka. The breezes carry the fragrant flowers aroma and join with fine droplets from the clouds to give water for your bath. During a maha abhisheka, a large bowl with many holes called a sahasra-dhAra is used. This bowl is placed high above the vigraha, and when water is poured into it, numerous fine streams of water bathe it. When the wind carries the cool, flower scented droplets from the clouds, they produce the same effect as they fall over Radha Govindas heads. 55 Because your bodily luster outmatches gold and emeralds mirrors, the Vrindavan forest will dress you with all of its beautiful flowers, which will reflect upon your images. After snana, the the next item to be offered is vastra (clothing). Yet Radha Krishnas bodies resemble gold and emerald mirrors; so all of the beautiful forest flowers reflect on them like pushpavastra and pushpa-alankara (flower dress and ornaments). 56 This forest produces chandan, musk, aguru and kunkum. The gentle wind carries these fragrant substances to anoint you bodies as an anulepana. An anulepana is a scented ointment for rubbing over the body. After the vastra, it is the next item offered in the pujas sequence. 57 Vrinda continues: The forest decorates your bodies with clusters of bakula flowers, offers an Ekavali-necklace of mallika, a gostana necklace of yuthikas, ear decorations made of malati, a crown of amlana, a chain of kunda for the hips, and other assorted flowers for your other flower ornaments alankara. 58 From its vast array of flowers, tulasi, manjaris, and leaves, this forest also offers you many garlands.

59 The swarms of bumblebees appear to be the smoke of an incense offering; the swaying champak clusters resemble a twirling lamp, and the many varieties of abundant fruits provide your naivedya. 60 Then, with the waving vines of pan leaves, the forest offers you tambula, spiced by the camphor from banana trees, cloves and cardamom. After the deity has been given his meal (bhojana), it is customary to offer pan leaves in which there is a tasty mixture of spices as a mouth refresher. 61 Vrinda Devi continues: The trees then shower bakula, sephalika and other flowers on the two of you while the shukas and sharis call out jaya! jaya! 62 Oh, and just see, this atavi is offering your arati! The champak flowers swaying from their branches are the lamps, the chirping birds provide music and the buzzing madhukaras sing. 63 As Vrindavans trees are overloaded with fruits, flowers and new leaves, they naturally bend over to offer pranama to your lotus feet. Their branches gracefully sway back and forth in the breezes. 64 As for the birds, says Vrinda, They offer prayers with their chirping, the bees provide a band music, the kokilas sing in the fifth note, the shukas and sharis discuss your lila katha and the peacocks dance for you! 65 Aha! Just hear about how this atavi provides your perfume: The flower vines form a canopy, and as the wind blows through them the flowers madhu-pollen falls in fragrant droplets. The flower latas climb in a vast network of twisting branches to form an umbrella which shades Sri Yugala Kishor from the midday sun. But these latas have limitless clusters of multicolored flowers that soothe all of the senses. Thus, as the wind blows, their nectar pollen falls in perfumed droplets upon a soft carpet of flowers, which makes a comfortable sitting-place. 66 The forest performs chamara fanning with the vines and the large banana leaves that sway in the wind. Thus it offers your maha-puja with all the above-named articles beginning with the asana. 67 O Mukunda! The wind is an expert weaver, and to block the sun it shifts the bees back and forth like weaving needles. Thus they make a canopy with their pollen. 68 O hey Maharaj and Maharani! O Sri Yugala Kishor! Look, here is the forest named Vasanta-kanta which displays the king of seasons, Spring. The bower wants to serve you with all of its opulences. The Vasanta Vana (The Spring Forest) 69As Krishna enjoys the wonderful forest beauty, he becomes overwhelmed! Thus he addresses his prana-priya Radhika: O hey Kunda-danti- One having teeth as white as the kunda flowers! Look, the madhu thirsty madhukaras - honey-makers - have lost their taste for the kunda flowers and have

gone soaring into the mango trees as they eagerly search for new pollen. The kunda flower blooms in the winter, but the first sign of springs arrival is the bees shifting their attention to the mango orchards where honey oozes from the tree-trunks, and pollen abounds within the newly budding flowers. Here Krishna addresses Radha as kunda-danti, one whose teeth are white as a kunda flower. O Priye, says Krishna, The kundas are now fading, but your beautiful teeth remain brilliant through every season! 71 Hey Kalakanthi- One having a beautiful voice! Krishna says, Everyone knows that before singing, one should clear the throat by eating something astringent. It seems that the kokilas are preparing to break their vow of silence, for they have flown with their wives into the mango trees, which are just starting to bud. Here is another sign of springs arrival. One hardly hears a peep from the kokilas most of the year, but at the winters end, just when the mango trees start sprouting buds, they begin their sweet calls. These buds are the kokilas favorite food. Here Krishna feelingly addresses Radhika as kala-kaNThi because the newly resounding kokilas remind him of her voice. 72 [Krishna continues:] O Radhe! The blooming madhavi, yuthika, mallika and champak flower vines beautifully embraces the bokula, tamala and punnaga along with the tilaka, deva-vallabha, mango, banjula and naga-keshara trees. Just see the latas play! says Krishna, Theyre springs svadhina kanta (captivating mistresses). All of Vrindavans trees such as the bakula, champak, tamala, mango and naga-keshara appear to be joyfully smiling with the latas fresh, blooming flowers. As the latas and the trees embrace to kiss, their unrestricted prema is only befitting this gorgeous season! 73 O, and look here, Chandramukhi! says Govinda, Hey Sudanti! The nava-mallika vines embrace the punnaga trees, the fine labanga lata embraces the bokula, the kubja lata embrace the kovidara, the ketaki embrace the champak, the svarna-yuthi embrace the ashoka, the roses embrace the kimshuka, the madhavis embrace the mango and the white thous and lotus stemsled flower vine embrace the naga-keshara trees! Sudanti means one having lovely teeth. And Radharani shows them with broad smiles when Krishna points his finger to the various forest sights. 74This forest is filled with liberated madhavi latas; so the garland makers take their shelter. And moreover, munis and sages desiring sayujya, salokya, sarupya and sarshti liberation also take shelter, hoping to serve you someday like the Vraja sundaris. Rasa-tarangini Tika: Krishna tells Radha: Oh Priyatame! Even madhura Vrindavans trees and creepers have deep feelings for us; thus they invoke our pleasure. Great rishis and munis desire to become trees and creepers here, and thus they are granted birth in this land as a reward. The words of Lord Brahma and of Yadu-kula-shiromani Sri Uddhava in the Bhagavatas Tenth Canto are fit

for contemplation. Both of them prayed to take birth as a blade of grass in Vrindavan to attain the dust of the lotus feet of its residents, especially the gopis. tad bh ?ri-bh~ ?gyam iha janma kim apy at??avy~ ?m '? yad gokule 'pi katam ~ ? ?ghri-rajo-'bhis??ekam yaj-j?vitam '? tu nikhilam '? bhagav~ ?n mukundas tv ady~ ?pi yat-pada-rajah?? ?ruti-mr??gyam eva Lord Brahma says, It would be the greatest fortune if I could take any birth at all in this land of Gokula, where I would be blessed by a shower of dust from the lotus feet of any one of its residents. These associates of Lord Mukunda have made him the very life of their lives, and the dust of his feet is what the Upanishads are in constant search of. (SB 10.14.34) ~ ?s~ ?m aho caran??a-ren??u-jus??m aham '? sy~ ?m '? vr??nd~ ?vane kim api gulma-lataus??adh?n~ ?m y~ ? dustyajam '? sva-janam ~ ?rya-patham '? ca hitv~ ? bhejur mukunda-padav?m '? ?rutibhir vimr??gy~ ?m Uddhava says, Ah, would that I could become one of Vrindavan's herbs and plants which are regularly sprinkled with the dust of the gopis feet, for the gopis abandoned both their families and their religious principles, both of which are extremely difficult to give up, in order to worship Mukunda, the ultimate objective of all the Vedic literatures. (SB 10.47.61) All of Vrindavans trees and creepers are liberated; thus they can bestow liberation to others. Therefore, intelligent sadhakas pray even to the trees, the creepers and the dust for Radha Krishna prema. 75 Krishna continues: This forest is the factory for Kandarpas arrowsall of the trees and vines produce them. Hence the bees are the inspectors, for they buzz from flower to flower to test, saying: Aha! This pushpa bana is first-class! And oh! This ones so-so. Madanas five arrows (pushpa bana) are the aravinda (pink-lotus), the ashok, the Chitra, the Nava mallika and the Nilotpala (blue lotus). And these awaken kama for the aprakrita navina madana, Sri Madana Mohanji. But here Krishna mentions that all of Vrindavans flowers produces Madanas effect of sanmohana (allurement), unmadana (intoxication), shoshana (sucking), tapana (fever) and stambhana (paralysis). 76 Krishna jokes: Oh Priye! Just look at this bhramara and bhramari! Theyve entered a flower together to make love! But as the love-thirsty bhramaris shadow reflects on the soft petals, she mistakes that another bhramari is embracing her beloved bhramara. Thus she turns jealously angry! Radharani often becomes bewildered upon seeing her reflection on Krishnas body; she mistakes it for another ramani and becomes manini! But as she chases Krishna away by striking him with her lila kamala, his fascination soars! Because Radhas amusing facial contortions deliver supreme bliss, Krishna points to the bhramaris behavior to enjoy her reaction. This will surely awaken the

memory of her nirhetu mana. 77 Oh Priye! Oh Kamala-mukhi! exclaims Krishna, Look at the banana trees! Their red blossoms are lips, their teeth are its newly budding bananas and the madhu dripping on the ground are tears. Aha! Are they shivering in ecstasy and broadly smiling due to our arrival? This scene reminds Krishna of his first meeting with Radha. As a magdha nayika* she couldnt check the intense thrill of seeing him! Thus, while timidly smiling, she revealed her shining teeth as her body trembled and tears of ecstasy rushed from her eyes! Premas language is such! Krishna shows Radhika Devi examples of her behavior by directing her attention to the forests beauty. 78 Oh Prana-priye! Look at that young bhramara! Hes sweetly posing while performing Hallishaka dancing with the bhramaris soaring in the flower latas. But now hes taking a special bhramari to hide with him in the lotuspatch! One mans dancing in the midst of many women is called Hallishaka nritya, as Krishna does during the Rasa lila. And seeing a bhramara fleeing with a special bhramari, Krishna reminds Radha of her exalted position when he left the Rasa-mandala and thousands of Vraja sundaris to enjoy with her alone. Before entering the next forest, lets relish Sri Jayadevas famous Vrindavan spring description from Gita-govinda. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his priya bhaktas enjoy singing these verses during Nabadwips Holi lila. Gita-govinda, Vasanta Raga Radhikas sakhi speaks these verses to her as they watch Krishnas spring frolic from behind the foliage. lalita-lavaGga-latA-parizIlana-komala-malaya-samIre madhukara-nikara-karambita-kokila-kUjita-kuJja-kuTIre viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante Hey sakhi! With springs fresh influence the lalita lavanga latas toss in the gentle breeze. The madhura madhukara are buzzing and the kokilas sing as the kunja kutir fills with their sweet mirth. This rasamaya season tortures those separated from their lovers. But just see, Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis! unmada-madana-manoratha-pathika-vadhU-jana-janita-vilApe ali-kula-saGkula-kusuma-samUha-nirAkula-bakula-kalApe viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante During Vasanta every premavati sundari taruni becomes forlorn when lamenting her lovers viraha, and the bees are busy extracting pollen from the blooming Bakula flowers. This rasamaya season

tortures those separated from their lovers. But look, sakhi! Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis! mRgamada-saurabha-rabhasa-vazaMvada-nava-dala-mAla-tamAle yuva-jana-hRdaya-vidAraNa manasija-nakha-ruci-kiMzuka-jAle viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante (3) The new tamal leaves spread the fragrance of musk, and the blooming palasha flowers, like Cupids fingernails, are tearing the heart of every young girl. This rasamaya season tortures those separated from their lovers. Oh sakhi, look! Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis. madana-mahIpati-kanaka-daNDa-ruci-kezara-kusuma-vikAze milita-zili-mukha-pATala-paTala-kRta-smara-tUNa-vilAse viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante (4) The blooming nagakeshara are Madanas golden umbrella, and the patali flowers encircled by bees from his quiver. This rasamaya season tortures those separated from their lovers. Oh sakhi, look! Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis. vigalita-lajjita-jagad-avalokana-taruNa-karuNa-kRta-hAse virahi-nikRntana-kunta-mukhAkRti-ketaka-danturitAze viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante (5) Seeing the worlds modesty disappearing, the lemon trees smile with their new buds. The beautiful ketaki flowers bloom everywhere, but they are spears which stab the young girls afflicted by romantic desires. This rasamaya season tortures those separated from their lovers. Oh sakhi, just see! Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis. mAdhavikA-parimala-lalite nava-mAlati-jAti-sugandhau muni-manasAm api mohana-kArINi taruNa-karaNa-bandhau viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante The delicate fragrance of the madhavi and nava-mallika enliven the atmosphere. This season steals the minds of the munis and sages, but it is the genuine friend of all the young lovers. This rasamaya season tortures those separated from their lovers. Oh sakhi, look! Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis. sphurad-atimukta-latA-parirambhana-mukulita-pulakita-cUte vRndAvana-vIpine parIsara-parigata-yamunA-jala-pUte viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante

Owing to the madhavis tender embrace, the mango trees horripilate in ecstasy with their newly budding mangoes. And the Yamuna mist moistens the forest. This rasamaya season tortures those separated from their lovers. Oh sakhi, look! Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis. zrI-jayadeva-bhaNitam idam udayati hari-caraNa-smRti-sAram sarasa-vasanta-samaya-vana-varNanam anugata-madana-vikAram viharati harir iha sarasa-vasante nRtyati yuvatI-janena samaM sakhi virahi-janasya durante Spring follows Ananga, for it incites amorous desire. Sri Jayadeva says: This rasa- filled description of Vrindavans spring awakens meditation on lifes essenceSri Govindas lotus feet. This rasamaya season tortures those separated from their lovers. Just see, Oh sakhi! Krishna is dancing and enjoying love exchanges with the fortunate Vraja yuvatis. The Grishma Vana (The Summer Forest) 79-80 Madhumangal sees the summer forest ahead, and exclaims, Hey Vraja-kanana Ishwara and Vrajakanana Ishwari! Lets have a look at the enchanting summer forest. This bower wants to serve you with its profuse opulences and beauty! 81-82 The birds are offering an auspicious welcome: The tittibhas resound like dundubhi-drums, the gura-gura sing like a bheri, the crickets hum like the jhanja, the kokilas sweetly coo like a vina, and the chash birds call like a dindima drum. The sharikas recite your glories, the bees are buzzing and the vines are dancing. Just see! Everyone is joyful to see you! The enchanting summer forest eagerly wants to dress you in roses, offer shirish flower earrings and mallika ornaments. In the hot season pushpa-shringar and pushpa-alankara are the ideal prema seva; theyre cooling, comfortable, fragrant and make Sri Yugala Kishor appear more exotic than ever. 83 Madhumangal goes on: Look! The orchards are overloaded with Pilu, Kari, Amlaki, Piyala, Jackfruits, bael, Baici, Jalaka, mango and palm fruits. Im very happy to see their eagerness to serve you! 84 The earth reflects the sunrays in the bright surya-kanta jewels. So the trees offer shade and fan with their leaves to relieve your fatigue. Although the surya-kanta mani look beautiful reflecting in the sunshine, theyre too hot to walk on. Thus the trees spread their branches to shade the path where Radha and Madhava traverse. As the wind blows the branches back and forth their leaves perform chamara seva. 85

Aha! Look at the banana treestheyre like a mother with seven children. And they affectionately caress their offspring with their leaves. Are they breastfeeding them with the madhu seeping from their red flowers? Banana trees grow from the base of a larger one, like children of the main tree. So as a mothers arms caress her children to put them to sleep, the larger trees leaves comfort the smaller trees with shade. And the madhu dripping from the larger treess flower is like a mother breast-feeding her hungry children. 86 Batu exclaims, Hey Priya-sakha! Just look at the kokila whos poking his long beak inside the ripe mango! This reminds the sakhis of when you kiss Radhathus theyre giggling! But Srimati lowering her head in shyness. 87 Look! A mallika lata is embracing a tamal beside that beautiful lake. The mallika flowers are like the tamals smiling face, and the darting bees appear like the tamals eyebrows. Oh sakha! This reminds me of your Rasa dance with the gopis! 88 As Radha and Krishna enjoy Batus description, Vrinda offers a bunch of shirish flowers. But when they decorate each others ears with them, a sweet, delicate smile appears on their faces. As Krishna leans to place the shirish flowers over Priyajis ears, and she leans to decorate his ears, their chests rub. Thus they shiver in bliss! 89 But Krishna tosses flower pollen in Radhas curling hair. So she raises her arm to throw pollen over his peacock crown! Was there a need for these actions? The ecstasy from touching was unsatiated! Thus they satisfy their urge for more madhura contact. When raising her arms, Rai Vinodini exposes her breasts to submerge Krishna within an ananda-sindhu! 90 But Krishna touches Radhas breast and jokingly says, Hey Priye! When the summer-heat destroys the coolness, did it flee to the stone-fortress of your kucha yugala? Chatura Krishna makes a successful advance with this quick-witted analogy. The summer defeats the coolness and sends its fleeing to the mountains. So Krishna says, Oh Priye! Surely the coolness now happily resides within the stronghold of your svarna-kucha-sumeru. 91 Oh, and look here, Priye! says Krishna, The moonstone basins around the trees are shedding water upon seeing your moon-face! Although the birds bathe with their wives there, and drink the water to relieve the summer heat, they enjoy making love above the basins. There are basins around each tree to hold water around their trunks: they also provide a resting seat under the trees shade. But Krishna says, Oh Prana-priye! Just see, your moon-face is making the

chandra-kanta-mani basins over flow! So how the young birds are mating above them! Why did Krishna say this? There are three motives: To show affection, to divert everyones attention for a chance to kiss Radha, and to incite her mood for vilasa. In the Gutika, Vrinda now arrives to say: Oh hey Radhe-Shyama! The Grishma-Lakshmi has made a phula-bangla for your comfort. Please accept her seva and make her happy. Thus Radha, Krishna and all of the sakhis follow Vrinda to enter the phula bangla that the vana devis decorated. And with their help, Vrinda offers everyone a thin, white dress and decorates them with flower ornaments. Then she anoints their bodies with catuh sama. As Radha and Krishna sit on the flower-singhasan, the sakhis seat themselves around them. The manjaris string mallika flowers, fan with chamaras, or pull the huge flower-fan which sways overhead. Meanwhile, Vrinda brings a syringe that squirts fine streams of cool, scented rose-water. The vana devis also use syringes to enliven everyone with rose-water mist. As Radha and the sakhis become wet, their thin, white outfits cling to their bodies to offer Krishna a wonderful netrotsava! Aho! His ananda becomes boundless! Later Vrinda returns with the vana devis to re-dress and decorate everyone with new outfits and ornaments. Then she serves sliced fruits and drinks and offers pan. As Sri Yugala Kishor take a brief rest, the manjaris massage their feet. The Varsha Vana (The Monsoon Forest) 92 Thereafter Subala exclaims, Oh Radha Krishna! Were approaching the Varsha-forest. Look! The peacocks are opening their tailfeathers and are dancing in prema-ananda! When peacocks see a dark cloud they love to dance. So as Radha and Krishna near the Varshaharsha-forest, the peacocks mistake them for a lightning-lit monsoon cloud and display their premanritya. 93 And look here! says Subala, The yuthika flowers are proudly smiling as they allure the restless bees from the laps of the mallikajust as a sundari ramani seduces a mans loyalty to his wife! A ganika is a prostitute; yet the yuthika flowers are also called ganika because their fragrance is so strong that the pollen-thirsty bees forget all of the other flowers. Thus they directly soar to the ganika. But Subalas statement also hints that Srimati Radharani outmatches Chandravali or any other yutheshwari. Thus the sakhis smile as they contemplate Radhas superiority. 94 [Subala]: Aha! How enchanting is this atavi with its swarming bees, rainshowers and dense foliage. The bees lurk in the yuthika latas, and thick, ominous clouds lurk overhead. The dark forest reminds Srimati of Shyamasundar. 95 [Subala]: Look! The sky is cloudy, the earth is saturated with water and the arjuna and kadamba trees are blooming. 96The kokilas are shrillingand so are the dahukas and the chatakas. The frogs are croaking 97and the swans, cranes, peacocks and waterfowls all call sonorously ! Rasa-tarangini Tika: One might ask: Why are we hearing the Vasanta-priya kokilas in the rainy

season? Dont they just shrill in the spring ? No, Radha Thakuranis voice is so sweet that the always try to imitate it. Thus, in Madhura-Vrindavan the kokilas always resound. 98 [Subala]: Aho! The monsoon-forest wants to serve you like a sakhi! The dark clouds are her dress, the flying cranes are her pearl necklace and a rainbow forms her ornaments. 99 The Varsha Lakshmi offers a kadamba mala which brushes your lotus feet, malas of giri-mallika to put in the braids, ketaki crowns, and yuthi, rangana, arjuna and other assorted flowers for your other flowers ornaments. Here is the Varshas kusuma seva, Krishna loves to wear a long kadamba-garland that reaches his charana kamala; it sways back and forth as he walks. Giri-mallika malas are ideal for hair braidsbeing soft and fragrant, they contrast with Radhas dark, wavy locks. And for crowns, ketaki flowers are the best. First the crowns design is molded with banyan leaves, then the ketaki flowers are sewn on them. The Varsha has made other assorted ornaments from yuthi. rangana and arjuna. She hangs them over the tree branches as she awaits your arrival. 100 [Subala]: The Varsha Lakshmi offers ripe palm-fruits resembling Radhas curly hair, and ripe dates that will remind you of Radhas red fingers. 101Except for Sri Krishna, who can perform such beautiful pastimes? And except for Sri Vrindavan, where can such lilas take place? After thus contemplating, the dahuka birds call ko vA, ko vA (Who and where? Who and where?) 102 [Subala]: Krishna is the bestower of divine rasa he showers the world with the best dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura prema. So who would leave the Krishna meghas shelter for an ordinary cloud that rains only two months of the year? Thus the frogs croak ke-ko, ke-ko (who and where? who and where) to decry the varsha seasons clouds. 103 And look there, Krishna! Madhu seeps from the trees like raindrops, the bees swarm like a dark cloud and the kadamba-forest itself appears like a dark cloud. The dense foliage, the dark forest, the hummingbirds and the ominous clouds all awaken erotic desires in Radha and Krishnas hearts. 104 [Subala]: Aha! Just see! A peacock is making love with his dearest peahen. But as a flock of peahens approaches, he cleverly opens his tail feathers to hide his sweetheart while dancing before them!

105 Thus Nava-jaladhara Shyama and Prema-saudamini Rai embrace as they stroll through the Varsha harsha forest. Their madhura darshan showers prema rasa and satiates the chataka like eyes of the

sakhis what to speak of the whole world! Srila Kaviraj Goswami thus hints that Sri Yugala Kishors rati keli takes place within this kadambakanana; and this completely satiates the sakhis chataka eyes! 106 As the result of Sri Rupas mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhus lotus feet, at the request of Sri Raghunath Das, in the association of Sri Jiva and by the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, here ends the twelfth chapter of Govinda-llmta. The Gaudiya Mahajanas present Radha Krishnas Vana-vihara in a number of ways. Usually, a specific lila unfolds in each seasonal forest, as follows:

1) SpringHoli 2) SummerPhula Bangla, Jala Keli 3) MonsoonJhulan 4) AutumnRasa 5) HemantaMadhu-pana 6) Winterforest picnicking

In most versions, Radha Krishnas midday pastimes center at Radha Kund; thus Govinda-lilamritas six season vana vihara unfold in the various kunjas there. But in Krishnanika-kaumudi, Srila Kavi Karnapura describes these lilas happening beside the Yamuna. Here is a sample of his version: As we remember, Radha was acting like a dakshina nayika as she sweetly advised: Oh sakhis! Lets not argue any more with Krishnaafter all, hes our manya-patra! Radhas non-resisting attitude surprises Krishna! So he becomes even more submissive: Oh Priyatame! Just order me, how can I serve you? When the sakhis hear Krishnas entreaty, their pride and concealment vanishes like bubbles and foam within a river. Thus Vana-vihara begins without a trace of duplicity. But while wandering with his preyasis amongst the flower-latas and shady trees, Krishna stops to pick flowers and coming to a Bakula-forest, Krishna collects Bakula flowers and directs his attention to making flower ornaments. Then, after skillfully making a few Bakula-malas, bracelets and waist-decorations, he offers them to the gopis with sincere devotion. Employing his dexterous fingers, Shyamasundar separates the ketaki flower clusters and carefully makes a Ketaki-wreath to decorate the gopis hair. After collecting the madhu from the mango trees Krishna mixes it with red Naga-Keshara pollen to paint tilak on the Vraja sundaris foreheads. Then making a delicate mallika mala, he places it over the gopis large shapely breasts. Praiseworthy Shyamasundar takes the ketaki flower petals and presses them into the holes of his

flute to mold them... these circular petal-designs become Cakra-shalakas for decorating the gopis ears. But the gopikas also keenly desire to decorate Krishnaji with pushpa alankara. As they begin picking flowers, however, Kamadeva becomes the main supporter to assist them. Srimati Radhika approaches a Naga-Keshara tree and tries to pick its flowers but they are slightly out of reach. So Shyamasundar seizes the chance to embrace Srimati under the pretext of lifting her. But Radha doesnt appreciate Krishnas act of courtesyrather, she retorts: Uh! You cunning peacock feathered brute! Let me go, let me go! Im not interested in these flowers! But as Krishna releases Srimati, the branch suddenly springs back to leave her dangling in mid-air! When Srimati is thus surprised and overwhelmed, her facial expression makes the sakhis blush, and they even break into laughter to tease her! ** * * There is a story about Rupa Goswami that relates to this lila and carries an instructive moral. Thus we shall briefly interrupt Krishnahnika-kaumudis narration to insert it: Once, at midday, Rupa was absorbed in bhajan at his favorite spot in Vraja, kadamba-khandi. As his attention focused on Radha Krishnas pastimes, he entered his meditation to serve as Sri Rupa Manjari. Rupas sphurti was similar to the precious Krishnahnika-kaumudi narration: Radha was eager to pick flowers from a branch just a little too far out of reach. Krishna came and raised Srimati, but she rebuked him! Then Krishna released her, and Srimati went sailing upwards with the branches! As Rupa Manjari watched Radharani dangling in mid-air with a surprised look on her face, she couldnt help but laugh! Meanwhile, as Rupa sat in samadhi, a neighboring Vaishnava came to offer his dandavats. The Vaishnava had a bodily defect, however: He limped in funny way because one of his legs was deformed. So as Rupas attention was fixed on Srimatis plight, he continued laughing and missed seeing the prostrated Vaishnava. Thus the lame sadhu felt sad. Why is Rupa Goswami laughing at me?, he thought. Does he consider my limping to be funny? Rupa deep meditation did not break, however; so as Lalita and the other sakhis laugh, Rupa manjari claps along with their amusement! Yet the sadhu cannot understand what is happening, and considers: First Rupa Goswami laughed at me, but now hes even clapping to tease me! I cant tolerate such behavior! Thus the lame Vaishnava returned to his kutir, feeling very depressed. A short while later, however, Rupas meditation collapsed. Yet after repeatedly trying to fix his mind again on Radharanis lotus feet, he couldnt. Whats gone wrong today? thought Rupa. Why am I unable to enter the lila as usual? Thus he consulted Sanatan Goswami. After thinking the matter over for a moment, Sanatan answered: Rupa, perhaps you have offended someone; otherwise why wouldnt your bhajan go smoothly? Rupa replied: I cant remember disappointing anyone. As youve instructed, I try to respect everyone. Sanatan answered: Why dont you do one thing? Prepare a feast and invite all of the Vaishnavas in the surrounding area. Lets see if anyone declines your invitation? Following Sanatans advice, Rupa arranged for Vaishnava-seva. And as the invitations went out, everyone cameexcept the lame sadhu. After the Vaishnavas were sumptuously fed, everyone returned, feeling content. Then Rupa inquired from the sadhu who invited the Vaishnavas, Did everyone come? No, replied the Baba, one Vaishnava remains, that lame fellow. Thus Rupa immediately went

to visit the lame sadhu. and arriving in front of his kutir, Rupa carefully offered prostrated dandavats. Then he exclaimed: Baba! Have I offended you in any way? Overwhelmed by seeing Rupas humility, the lame sadhu replied: You are the Mukuta-mani of Caurashi Krosha Vraja Mandal! How could you upset me? But something does appear strange, I cant understand. Yesterday at noon when I offered my dandavats, you laughed at me. This hurt my feelings. Rupa paused to reflect. Oho! I remember, he said, I was meditating then. I must have missed seeing you. Rupa went on to tell the sadhu about what happened during his lila smaran, and why he laughed and clapped his hands. Thus astonished, the sadhu repented: Aha! I thought that you were at fault, but now I understand the actual situation it is I who am the aparadhi! Thus the sadhu fell at Rupas feet and begged forgiveness. The moral of the story is: vaiSNavera kriy mudr vijJeho nA bujhaya Even learned person can misunderstand a Vaishnavas activities and behavior. ** * * Returning to Krishnahnika-kaumudis Vrindavan vana vihara Using his glossy fingernail, Krishna draws a picture of a large pomegranate. But Radhas glossy teeth sparkle as she shrieks! (Radhas bhava-shabalya awakens when she is reminded of her shapely breasts). When Priya-Keshava presses a red leaf to his lips, Praneshwari Rai displays the shringar bhava vikara of hela and covers her moon-face! Then Prana Govinda eagerly rushes to embrace a forestlatas blossoming flowersbut Yuvati-ratna-shiromani Radha feigns anger and crosses her hands to cover her breasts! Then a sakhi collects various colored leaves and flowers to skillfully fashion Krishnas Makaraearrings. Another gopi collects an assortment of white, yellow, green and red leaves that are glossy like jewels. She uses them to make a vamshi. One fortunate sakhi picks the best champak flowers to fashion Krishnas crown. Then she gathers Naga-Keshara flowers which resemble Kamadevas vina; they are strung together to make Krishnas kanchi (waist ornament). Bringing his Vana-vihara to a close, Krishna enters the summer forest with his taruni ramanis. The blooming shirish, Kuraca and rose flowers are abundant; their divine fragrance fills the air. So Krishna goes to sit under a shady tree to take rest. As the strong scent of rose and shirish flowers lingers in the breeze, Krishna thinks, Aha! This fragrant breeze is performing chamara sevaits relieving the fatigue of my beloved gopis who are tired from wandering in the forest. While seated under the shady trees, Krishna and the gopis look towards the KalindiAho! Its banks are lined with jeweled ghats to fulfill the purport of the Keli-tantras; here is the ideal setting for Krishnas keli rahasya pastimes! Thus Krishna and the gopis desire awakens to enjoy Jala keli. This Krishnahnika-kaumudi description offers diversity to Radha Krishnas ashta-kala schedule because these pastimes unfold on the Yamunas banks. In Govinda-lIlAmRta and KRSNabhAvanAmRta, however, the middays Jala keli unfolds at Radha Kund. Thus sadhakas will find a great scope for performing manasi sevafor the lilas setting can always vary.

Chapter Thirteen Continued Madhyahna Pastimes 10:48 a.m.3:36 p.m. A description of Sharad, Hemanta and Shita forests, debates between the Shukas and the Sharis, and Radha Krishnas narma keli 1-2 Thereafter, Krishna comes to the Sharata-sukhada-kunja, and tells Radha: O Priye! This forest resembles a girls beauty at puberty. Her monsoon childhood has passed and now her adolescent beauty awakens in the autumn forest. The sight of the Varsha and Sharatas forest beauty reminds Krishna of Kishori-mani Srimati Radharanis vaya-sandhi, or puberty. Thus he says to her, O Priye! A girls features become most captivating when she becomes a nava kishori. Thus this forest reminds me of you. 3 Krishna continues: Priye! Just observe the honeybees behavior. They leave the flowerless yuthika latas in search of new flowers, just as a lusty man forgets an aging woman to enjoy with a pretty young girl. 4 O Prana-priye! Look how this atavi displays autumns opulences! The red gunja berries are ripening, peacock feathers lay scattered everywhere, and the white kasha flowers decorate the ground. As the sky is devoid of rainclouds, the peacocks are silentyet the swans call melodiously. When the soft, white Kasha flowers fall on the ground they make an ideal flower bed (keli-talpa). Krishna mentions this and autumns other romantic sights to incite Srimatis desire for vilasa. 5 Hey Sumukhi! When I searched each gopi for my flutethey excitedly fled as I tried to touch them! But as a bee soars from flower to flower on the shephalika vinesthe flowers fall from his touch. 6 Kundalata says, Hey Vrindavaneshwar and Vrindavaneshwari! Just see how your sakhi (the sharat season) wonderfully decorates the forest! 7 Oh Yugala Kishor! Look! Sharat Lakshmi is personally coming to serve you! The hummingbirds are her restless eyes, the lotus flowers are her face, the darting bees are her curling hair, the playful chakravakas are her breasts, the white clouds are her dress, the raktotpala (red lotus) are her lips, the calling cranes form her moon-necklace and the nilotpala (blue lotus) are her earrings! 8 Sharat-Lakshmi offers you Ranganaand Jati flower ornaments, lily hair decorations and red and blue lotus ear-decorations, and then she spreads her Shephalika flowers over the nikunja grihas floor to make your flower bed. 9 Just see! Kandarpa Rajas Autumn elephant is approaching! His elixir is the Chatima trees

fragrance, hes covered with a blanket of white clouds, the Kasha flowers are his whisks, the lusty bulls, bees and birds call like his ringing necklace, the cooing cranes form his waist-bells and the singing swans are his anklebells. When a king goes travelling, his elephant is attractively decorated with an expensive blanket, whisks, and sweet, ringing bells, Kundalata sees the forests beauty as Kandarpa Rajas intoxicated gaja Raja. Thus she speaks to incite Radha Shyamas desire for vilasa keli! After all, their prema lila does resemble a Gaja Rajas love affairs with his many mates. 11 Kundalata continues, Vishnu is massaged by Padma (Lakshmi) and he is the shelter of the paramahamsas who wields a chakra. Similarly, the autumn forest is the padma (lotus)s abode, it has sporting chakravaka-birds and it gives shelter to the hamsas (swans). Kundalata hints that because the forest resembles Vishnus body, surely it will fulfill your inner desires. The Shukas and the Sharis Debate 12 Meanwhile Radha, Krishna, Madhumangal, Paurnamasi, Vrinda, Kundavalli and all of the sakhis come to sit beneath a shady tree filled with amrita phala. But seated on the branches above, the shukas and sharis are having a sporting debate. 13 The shukas say: We are dvijas, and having graduated from our studies with our guru, were are qualified acharyas. But if we eat the fruits on trees that have been touched by women well become fallen! 14 Krishna gave us this forest because he likes us. So, dasikas, why dont you go fly off somewhere else? The twice-born are called dvija. Brahmins take their second birth with a purificatory samskaras, and birds are born first from the womb and then from the egg. The shukas ranga-katha (playful words) can be understood as follows: After studying the Vedas, our only business is to narrate Sri Krishnas glories. So were the best of the brahmachari dvijas. But if we eat the ladies remnants, well lose our spiritual potency. 15 The sharikas reply, O shukas! Are you adverse to the queen? For our Radha is Vrindavaneshwari! The Puranas clearly state: Vrindavan belongs to Radha! The sharis say: Were not offenders; it is you who are the miscreants! Everyone knows that Vrindavan belongs to Radha. And this isnt rumor, its stated right in the Matsya Purana rukmiNI dvAravatyAH tu rAdhA vRndAvane vane 16-17 The shukas answer: O sharis! The Shrutis declare that Vrindavan is Krishnas. But remember, the Smritis authority must be backed by Shruti. So youll have to acknowledge that Vrindavan belongs

to Krishna. And the people also declare that Krishna is the Lord of this land. So Shruti and Smriti agree to make the world joyful. The Shrutis are the Vedas. If a Puranic (i.e. Smriti) siddhanta doesnt match the Vedas, the Vedas conclusion is accepted as final. Thus the shukas remind the sharis, The Vedas declare that Vrindavan is Krishnas vana. So your evidence is unacceptable. 18 The sharikas find the shukas words intolerable and retort: Hey shukas! Your version only applies to ownership, but ours takes a more important consideration this forest is Radhas because it is a reflection of her. Ownership is established in two ways: 1) through proprietorship, and 2) by an object being an integral part of oneself. For example, if someone works for the government, he belongs to the government. Yet no one can argue that his body does not belong to him. Similary, because the Vrindavan forest is illuminated by Radhikas anga kanti, it is non-different from her, and therefore hers. 19 Hey shukas! All the cowherd boys outwardly look very nice like a ripe makhala fruit, but inside theyre just as bitter! That is because they are full of deception and trickery. Having established Radhas superiority and rendered the shukas speechless with their argument, the sharikas decide to press on by slighting Krishna and the other cowherds by comparing them to the makhala fruit (mahAkAla in Sanskrit). A makhala looks delectable, but after tasting it, one immediately spits it out because its very bitter. Thus the sharikas instigate another prema-kalaha (love quarrel) with their comparison. 20 The shukas retort: O sharis! Although the gopis are sweet on the inside, theyre covered by an outer layer of orneriness, and then by tough shell of manajust like the hard layers covering the sweet coconut meat. That is the shape of rasa where they are concerned. 21 But where Krishna is concerned, he is the same inside and out, without any flaw or wasted elements. Hes sweet inside and out, like a bunch of grapes. 22 The sharikas answer with a grin: Oh rey shukas! Your master may be rasamaya within, but his dishonest, pert behavior is coarse like sugarcane bark. So just as sugarcane juice isnt available until the cane is squeezed by a machine, your rasika Krishna doesnt supply any rasa until he has been run through the mill of the gopis mana! No wonder he is called achyuta! 23 The sharikas continue: Heres another example: Black sesame seeds are very hard, yet when they are machine pressed they produce a refreshing oil. Similarly, Krishna has a hard shell of rascaldom, but the gopis mana squeezes out his affection! The word sneha means both oil and affection.

24 The shukas try another approach: Your gopis are like the red hibiscus (jabA) flowernice looking on the outside, but lacking any fragrance. On the other hand, our Krishna is like the blue lotus he is both sweet to look at and sweet-smelling too. The shukas declare: O sharis! Your quick speech comes out like popcorn. But why talk so many words with so little substance? Look, when flowers are fragrant, bees come automaticallyjust as a topnotch nayika allures her nayaka by her special qualities. But your gopis are only pretty to look at, and they really have no inner qualities. 25 The sharikas retort: No, no! Our Ishwari Radha is like a manjishtha lata the same color inside and out! But, hey shukas! Your Krishna is like a crystal he turns whatever color comes before him. Now the sharis jokingly imply that Krishna has no moral fiber (caritra-hIna), each one of them collaring one of the shukas and saying, Why are you praising someone who never remains the samebut changes according to circumstances, like a mirror reflecting whatever object comes near? Your Krishna acts subordinate to whichever sundari ramani he happens to be with. He lacks fixed prema for any one preyasi. So how can anyone show respect to such a fallen kamuka? 26 Another shuka exclaims, The fire of Krishnas strength burned all the insect -like demons to a crisp! And besides, he lifted Govardhan hill. So who is his equal? Krishna is vIra-rasa personified! exclaims the shuka. Could the weak-hearted Vraja gopis ever possess such prowess? He effortlessly destroyed the biggest demonsAghasura, Bakasura, Keshi and many othersjust as a fire turns insects to ashes! 27 A shari answers, Aha! By Vraja Raja Nandas worship Narayan became pleased. Thus Krishna was able to destroy the devatasenemies like Putana, Bakasura, and the rest! Actually Krishna didnt do anything; only the confused people give him the credit. As for Giriraja Govardhan, he became pleased by the Vrajavasis bhoga offering. Hence he lifted himself into the air on his own accord. Krishna just stood underneath and raised his hand. Nevertheless, the whole world praises him as Giridhari! Thus the shari minces the shukas praises to reveal the Vrajavasis actual mentality. They dismiss Krishnas aishvarya as unreal due to their intimate mood as being his superior or equal. 29 A shuka continues: Oh sharike! Lets glorify Jaga-mohana Sri Krishna! After all, he protects the entire universe. His beauty steals the patience of uncountable sundari ramanis; and he stuns even Lakshmi. Krishna lifted Govardhan as if it were a ball, his qualities are unlimited, he enchants everyone, and his fame spreads everywhere! 30 But the sharis reply in unison: Hey shuka! Dont forget, our Radhika is the Jaga-Mohanas mana

mohini for her beauty, prema, behavior, singing, dancing and poetry render her as such. 31 A shuka says, The bee is attracted to the blooming mallika only for drinking its honey; it never touches other parts of the vine. Similarly, when Krishna jokes with Radha, embraces her, kisses her, or shows other loving behavior, Sri Radha reciprocates by serving his lotus feet. But our Krishna never massages Radhas feet Hes only anxious to kiss her lips! 32 A shari replies, Hey shuka! Vrishabhanu-nandini prays to get Krishnabut when he comes, her mana scorches him like the summers heat! So although Radha wants to perform Krishnas pritiseva he treats her as his Ishwari instead! Shes always anxious for Krishnas sanga, yet when he arrives she melts him with the fiery rays of her mana surya! Then your Krishna worships our Swamini; he even falls at her feet and begs for mercy! Whats more, Krishna meditates on Radha every dayjust as a bhakta worships his Lord! Havent you seen this behavior? 33 Listen, shuka! replies the shari, Although Krishnas flute-song stops the rivers, enchants the world and makes the kula-kaminis abandon their chastitythe vamshi lost her sadhu-like qualities and turned corrupt by the bad association she keeps! Oh shuka! Youre declaring Krishna as Vishva-mohana; yet if Hes filled with good qualitieswhy dont they show? I think his so-called merits are actually faults. Krishna is just a great magician, and his wiked flute proves everything! When Krishna plays it, the chaste women lose their religious principles. Just look! Although the flute was a sadhu, shes become a criminal by Krishnas influence! 34 Hey shari! Who can describe the wonder of Krishnas vamshi-amrita? the shuka replies, It showers the ears of all the vishva-naris to serve their chastity to their husbands! Then their deep anuraga awakens for the Jagat-pati Sri Krishna! The sharis invalid fault-finding arouses the shukas resentment. Thus he springs to the vamshis defence: When an inpudent lady gets the opportunity to speak, theres no end to her meaningless jibbering! Accha! Are you fir to understand the vamshis maha-mahima (great attributes)? She grinds to dust everyones worldly attachment. And for the Vraja-ratunis her song showers nectar, awards new life and dispells all suffering! Then she invokes prema for their Eternal lover, Sri Krishna. The realisation of the vamshis supremely pure potency comes only after accumulating great heaps of piety. 35 Next, the prema-enmaddened shukas and sharis join with their own groups to joyfully question each other. To show pride for Krishna, the shukas discard talking with the sharikas. 36 One shuka addresses another: Just tell me, who held Giri Govardhan on one hand to curb the mountain-like pride of deva Raja Indra? And who danced upon the stage of the Kaliya Naga's

serpentine hoods? The other shuka replies, Our Sri Krishna ! 37 Then a shari questions another: Hey sharii! Jest tell us, which Sundari-ramani effortlessly holds Giridhari over her stana-parvataas if he were a play-lotus? And which slim, serpentine damsel constantly dances within the mind of Kaliya-damana Sri Krishna? The other shari replies, Theres no one but our Sri Radhika! 38 One shuka asks another: How do the madhavi flowers nourish the bees with their pollen? And how are the brahma-nishtha munis attracted to Vrindavans prema rasa? The other shuka replies, By Madhavas grace alone! 39 A sharika says, How are the madhavi flowers able to allure the bees? Another shari answers, Because Bama-Radha allures Krishna. 40 A shari speaks, Which Rascal steals the kumaris clothes to enjoy seeing them naked? Who destroys the piety of young chaste women? And who kills women and bulls without thinging twice? Another shari answers, Thats Krishna! The shari challenges: Krishna stole the gopis garments to demoralise them! By killing Putana he incurred the sin of woman-slaughter! And by killing Vrishasura (a bull, the symbol of religion) Krishna is guilty of promoting irreligion! So why is your friend so audacious? 41, 42 A shuka replies, Who killed a mother to make his mother happy? Who killed a calf to protect his calves? Who killed a dhenu to protect his dhenus? And who killed a bull, yet herds bulls too? Then who stole the kumaris chastity to render them chaste? Another shuka answers, Our Sri Krishna. The shukas spring to Krishnas defence: By killing the false mother Putana, Krishna pleased mother Yashoda. Yet although Putana tried to kill him, Krksna mercifully awarded her the position of his mother in her next life, Similarly, to protect his dhenus Krishna killed Dhenukasura. And by destroying the disturbing Vrishasura, Krishnas vrisha (piety) increased! Because the gopis are Krishnas hladini shakti, they are his nitya kantas (eternal consorts). So parakiya rasa is like an imaginary seal which adds more excitement to Krishnas madhurya lilas. Hence, when Krishna stole the gopis clothes to test them, they proved to be parama satis. By abandoning their worldly chastity, they fully surrendered to the Jagat Pati, Sri Krishna. 43, 44) Thus Radha, Krishna and their sakhas and sakhis drink the parrots kathamrita through the cups of their ears. Then Lalita offers the sharis a grape garden, Subala offers a pomegranate grove to the shukas and everyone goes on enjoying the autumn forests scenery. The Hemanta Vana (The Dewy Seasons Forest) 45-46 Thereafter, Nandimukhi says, O hey Vrindavaneshwara and Vrindavaneshwari! Lets take darshan of the bower called Hemanta-shanta! This nikunja wants to offer its fruits and flowers unto your lotus feet. Aha! This atavi please all of the senses! The blooming Jhinti and Kuruvaka flowers

fragrance soothe the nose, the sweet calls of the maddened Tittira-, Kikhi, and Lava-birds join with the buzzling bees to enchant the ears, the ripe Nagaranga-fruits will delight your heart, and the cooling dew mixing with the breeze will enliven your bodies! 47 Hey Krishna! exclaims Nandimukhi, The Hemanta-season reminds us of your body. Look! As youre surrounded by your sakhas, the forest is filled with Jhinti flowers, as your bodily luster is amlana (bright), this season has blossoming Amlana flowers, and as your body strengthens the stamina of Kandarpas bow, so does the Hemanta-vana. As your beauty increases by the gopis loving sanga, the forest is enhanced with blossoming gopi-latas. And as your bodily charm enchants Kandarpa, so do the flower arrows of this season. Moreover, as Shukadeva Goswami narrates your pastimes in the Bhagavata, the shukas constantly discuss your pastimes here in mahananda! 48, 49) Meanwhile, Krishna uses another example to describe the Hemantas beauty, addressing Radhika in jubilation: Hey Priye, look! This forest resembles an eloquent dancing maiden. The ripened ricepaddy are her multi-colored dress, the shukas sweet voices are her poetic recital, and hey Sumukhi! Look! The large ripe oranges resemble her breasts. Here Krishna cleverly describes both the Hemanta forest and Nandimukhi. In ancient times, when beginning a play, a dancing girl dressed in saffron would come on the stage to recite the dramas Mangala-acharana. The Hemanta Lakshmi appears as such a damsel; the sweet call of the shukas resemble her voice. But on the other hand, Nandimukhi, who is a saffron-clad brahmacharini, also resembles a dancing actress as she describes the Hemanta-forests beauty. 50 Krishna continues: Hey Sadhvi! During Hemanta the sun fears the cold, so it takes shelter of your fort-like breasts to preserve its heat. Thus your chakravaka-breasts are relieved from their pain of separation. Although chakravakas are separated at night-time, now owing to the suns heat, they remain happy together both day and night. Unlike ordinary chakravakas, Shyama Mohini Rais chakravaka-stana-yugala always perch together. Ass Krishna jokes in this way, he brings a smile to all of Radhas sakhis! 51 Hey Priye! The fires heat flees in the cold season to seek shelter in well water, in the hollows of trees and in mountain caves. 52 Aho! In an unseen way, the witch of winter cold drinks the fires blood and the suns heat! 53 Krishna goes on: And listen, O Prana-priye! As in winter the young men tightly embrace their sweethearts all night, they are made comfortable by their warm breasts. So with the mornings arrival they eagerly worship Surya Deva that the nights be lengthened. Thus the sun mercifully fulfills their desire to rise late. Why is the nights duration longer in the winter? Our Dhira-Lalita Krishna has a rasika explanation for everything. Here he reminds Radha of his pleasure with her during the cold season. 54 Aha! Just look at those ripe oranges! exclaims Krishna, Their wonderful shape remind me of the gopis raised breasts as they danced with me during the Rasa!

While proceeding along, Krishna enthusiastically look towards the large, ripening oranges, and then towards the gopis breasts as he jokingly utters this shloka. The Shishira Vana (The Winter Forest) 55-56 Then Vrinda eagerly says, O Vrindavaneshwara and Vrindavaneshwari! Just look at the wonderful bower ahead! Hey Radhe! Hey Krishna! This forest is called Shishira-ruchira. Here we see that all of the animals are shivering. Yet in some places there is still a trace of warmth under the tall trees. So as the sun now travels in the southern sky its gentle rays filter into the kunja. Rasa-tarangini Tika: Because the suns rays are soft and pleasing in the winter, this time is ideal for a forest picnic. Vrindavans winter isnt too cold its brisk and refreshing. Thus the forest animals shiver from their ecstatic feelings for Radha and Krishna, not from the cold. The suns putra, Yamaraja resides in the south. So owing to the winter cold, the sun flees to join Yamaraja in an effort to defeat the winters influence. 57 Vrinda continues: Aho! How can I describe the forests beauty? Shishra Lakshmi is coming to greet us, wearing a red gagara of Bandhukaand Java flowers, a Dona flower kanchuli, a white uttariya of kunda flowers and she offers sweet praises with her chirping Bharadvaja and Haritabirds! The Vraja gopis wear a three-piece outfit consisting of a gagara (lower garment), a kanchuli (blouse) and an uttariya (chador). The Shishira Lakshmi is similarly dressed in floral attire. There is a presiding devi for each season. Here the Shishira Lakshmi actually does appear to join Radha Krishnas Vana-vihara lila. 58 And look! says Vrinda, Because of the trees thick foliage, the sunrays fall beneath them only during early morning and late afternoon. Still, the vedis made of surya-kanta gemstones keep these area warm. Thus it is delightful to see the deer chewing grass as they sit under the trees. But their hairs stand erect and tears flow from their moist eyes upon seeing your arrival! 59 Aha! How amazing! The winters chilling dew defeats the suns strength. Thus Surya Devas pranakanta, the lotus, is withering. So other than Sri Bhagavan, the master of the universe, who isnt subdued by times influence? 60 I see! continues Vrinda, Fearing the cold, Surya hides his wealth (his warmth) within the sturby fortress of the gopis breasts! But hey Krishna! These gopis swiftly offer you the suns wealth for your enjoyment. So someone might question: Isnt it improper to re-offer charity? But in this case there are no hard rulesfor the gopis excessive prema transgresses all regulative principles! 61 Hearing Vrindas statement, and seeing the Shishira-kunjas beauty, Bakaripu becomes happy and sweetly addresses Priyaji: 62 Hey Sundari! Look! The bees now forsake the withering lotus and eagerly swarm to the kunda

flowers. So heres the clear sign of winters arrival. 63 Hey Sundari! The bees are rescuing Lakshmi from her withering padma mandir and escort her to the kunda flower garden for shelter. So the lotus splendor is transfered to the kunda. Trouble has no end for fickle-minded women. Because Lakshmi resides on a lotus she is called Kamala. But Lakshmi has a reputation for being restless (cancala). Thus Krishna says, Just look! Because Lakshmi is chanchala, the cold has shrivelled her abode! So the bees escort her to the kunda vanas shelter. But just see the Kundas ananda upon obtaining Lakshmi; their beauty becomes unrivalled! 64 Hey Priye! exclaims Krishna, The cold is Rahus general for defeating the sun. But because it isnt able to score a complete victory, the cold attacks the suns dearest friend, the lotus. Radhika asks, Why does the cold destroy the lotus? Krishna answers, Praneshwari! The jealous attacks even the friends of their enemies! So when Rahu was unable to eclipse the sun, he sent the cold to torture the Surya bandhu! 65 Hey Priyatame! Just look at those ripe badari fruits. They remind me of the gopis kucha yugala rising from the water when I stole their clothes at the Yamuna ! 66 Meanwhile, Vrinda offers Krishna two soft, red Java flowers which are white in the center. But Krishnas hand shakes and his body horripilates as he carefully places these flowers beside Radhas ears. Then Radha decorates Krishnas ears with kunda flowers. Krishna horripilates as his chest rubs against Srimatis. And her hand trembles for the same reason. 67 Vrinda places a white kunda mala in Radhas hands. But her palms color the mala red, like a red lotus-garland. Then Radha jubilantly garlands Krishna, and the mala turns blue like indivara-mala. Thereafter, Krishna and Radha horripilate as Krishna removes the garland to carefully place it over Srimatis chest! Aho! The kunda mala now appears like a champak flowergarland! When an object makes other objects its same hue, it is called abhirupata. Today, Radha Shyamas dazzling effulgences cause a manohara abhirupata lila; thus the white mala takes on three different shades ! Govinda-lilamritas vana vihara thus concludes. So here is a brief excerpt of Krishnas six seasonal Keli Vinoda from Kavi Karnapuras Arya-zatakam: 1) In the spring, Dhira Lalita Madhava sports with his beloved gopis in the mango forests which are filled with newly budding fruits, cooing kokilas and swarms of buzzing bees. Thus he is dressed in floral apparel and floral ornaments. 2) In the summer, Nagara Raja Krishna enjoys massaging Ramani mani Radhas breasts as he and

Radha comfortably lie on a pushpa-talpa within a flower mandir. Then from all directions thin streams of fragrant rose water streams from syringes to moisten their limbs and ward off the summer heat. 3) In Varsha, Sri Vrindavan Chandra continues to enjoy rati vilasa with mahabhava svarupa, Radha Thakurani. Shes the Nikunja-griha-mani as her dazzling anga kanti illumines the nikunja bhavana! And shes Krishnas paryanka-mani because her shiny breasts sway like a jeweled pendulum as she sports over his chest! 4) The autumn awakens the vision of Vraja-nava kishor and Kishoris love-sporting activities on the Yamunas banks. Their bodies are refreshed by fragrant lilies, lotuses, white lotuses and other flowers. 5) In the Hemanta season, our Rasika Kala Guru forgets everything else as he joyfuly takes shelter of Radas warm breasts to escape the cold! 6) During the winter nights, Radhas Prana-vallabha covers his body with her orana and reveals his desire to enact the niguda rasa keli utsava. Arya Shatakam is a short opus of 119 verses which explain Sri Krishnas dhira-lalita personality, whose only business is love sporting with his preyasis. Srila Kavi Karnapura thus openly reveals a very intimate portrait of Krishnas amorous proclivities. Hence, Gaudiya Vaishnavas take to kamanuga raganuga bhakti as Sri Rupa Goswami prescribes in Bhakti-rassmrita-sindhu. Radha Krishnas Narma Keli (Sporting Debates) I 68 Vishakha exclaims with a smile: Look, how amazing! This soft kunda creeper is flowering and it alone is attracting all the lusty bees, which are hovering all around and competing to drink its nectar! The word pushpini when applied to women means the fertile period in a the menstrual cycle. In other words, Vishakha is insinuating that Kundalata is in heat. 69 Chitra Sakhi adds, O chaste Vishakhe! Its not amazing that many bees are attracted to this one kundalata, who loves them all so much. After all, weve heard that the Pracheta sages were similarly attracted to the ramani named Varkshi. Chitra adds spicing to Vishakhas kathamrita. Aha! Its not surprising that Subhadras wife (Kundalata) is attracted to many men; this reminds us of Varkshi and all of the Pracetas! Varkshi was the daughter of the sage Kandu and the Apsara Pramlocha, who had been sent by the gods to seduce him. Varkshi, who was also known as Marisha, received the name Varkshi because she had been brought up by the trees (vriksha). When the Prachetas came out of the ocean after performing penances there for a long time, they were dismayed to see the earth overgrown with trees, and so

with the fire of their mystic anger, they began to burn them all down. The god of vegetation, Soma, came to earth to pacify the angry sages and offered them Varkshis hand in marriage. She then later gave birth to the prajapati Daksha. (See Bhagavatam 6.4.1-15) Sri Vrindavan Chakravarti here comments on the suggestion that Kundalata had many lovers as follows: These joking comments are meant to support the lila, but they are not to be taken literally. The gopis are Krishnas eternal consorts, and thus they never have sangama with their so-called husbands, nor do they experience a monthly menstrual period. na jtu vraja-devn patibhi saha sagama In Ujjvala-nilamani (3.32), it is said: The gopis never have sangama with their husbands. But when they leave home to meet Krishna, Yogamaya creates their duplicate form to sleep with their husbands. Hence their husbands always remain with them, and they never become jealous of Krishna. 70 Kundalata replies, Sakhi Chitre! How amazing! Look! All these lady bees have lost their composure and left their own bandhujiva flowers to kiss a very special new bandhujiva hundreds of times over. Kundalata pretends not to understand Vishakha and Chitras accusation, but instead strikes back with this verse. Thus directing everyones attention to the bees, and a special bandhujiva flower, Kundalata hints that its the gopis, and not she, who are unchaste. The word bandhu-jva literally means ones jivana-pati (lifes husband), but there is also a flower of that name, also known as bandhuli. Krishnas lips are red like the bandhuli flowers. Hence, all of the Vraja alis are mad to taste their honey! 71 Chitra replies, Aha! These bees are interested in lifes essence! They are extremely pure. And look, theyre the same color as Krishna. Their only sustenance is honey and they sing their song in the fifth note. So is it any wonder that they would go where the purest honey can be found? The gopis are Krishnas anga-kanti-svarUpiNIsas inseparable from him as the moon from its rays. Theyre supremely pure because they are only interested in lifes essence, prema. And their sweet singing far surpasses the sounds of the bees. Hence, Sri Madhusudan is completely subjugated by them! 72 Krishna then teased his prana priya: Hey Radhe! Lakshmi gave up her pride because of your unequalled virtues, but she still failed to follow in your footsteps! So what can be said about the attempts of other women? Hearing this, Radha began to converse with Hari. Rasa-tarangini Tika: Vrindavan Chakravarti quotes the following verse from the Bhagavatam to support Krishnas statement

n~ ?yam '? ?riyo ' ?ga u nit~ ?nta-rateh?? pras~ ?dah?? svar-yos??it~ ?m '? nalina-gandha-ruc~ ?m '? kuto 'ny~ ?h?? r~ ?sotsave 'sya bhuja-dan??d??a-gr??h?ta-kan ??t??halabdh~ ? ?is??m '? ya udag~ ?d vraja-vallabh?n~ ?m Dear one! No one has received blessings of such intense love, not even Lakshmi or the heavenly damsels with their pleasing lotus perfume, what to speak of others! These women of Vraja attained the very limits of perfection when Krishna placed his pillar-like arms around their necks during the circle dance (SB 10.47.60). At this point, Radha and Krishna start a back and forth conversation that Krishnadas Kaviraj has written in progressively longer meters, following the Chando-manjari. The first verses have only four syllables. 73-78 Radha answers, Hey Madhava! Lakshmis your wife! Krishna replies, Because youre Lakshmi! Radha: Since when are the gopis goddesses of fortune? Krishna: Because the lover of the gopis is the husband of Lakshmi, too! Radha: Lakshmi proved her love for you by becoming your woman! Krishna: Truly she became my woman, for she is incarnate in you! Lakshmi once descended from Vaikuntha. She performed rigid austerities in Bhauma Vrindavans Belavana to attain Vrajendra-nandana. Krishna answers, Radhe! Lakshmi didnt descend to attain me, rather she wanted to become like you. But her pride was shattered when she failed! 79-80 Radha: O your Venus call even attracts the deer! Krishna: Yes! Because the deers eyes resemble yours, theyre dear to me ! Radha dismisses her own glories to chide Krishna further: Ha! Who knows if Lakshmi succeeded or not? But one thing is for sureyou certainly dont have a shortage of sweethearts. Even the deer come running upon hearing the Venus call! When Im unable to see you I call the deer, and gaze into their eyes. Then I feel ecstasy as they remind me of you! 81-82Radha: Suryas daughter, Yamuna, has your black complexion: so shes your kanta! Krishna: O, heres your sakhi Vishakhabecause shes like you, shes my kanta! Accha! If the deer soothe your eyes, then what about the Yamuna? She is called Krishna because she is the same color as you. Although her eyes, nose, hands and feet are different from mine, still youre attracted to her? Unlike most rivers, the Yamuna hasnt any shakhas, tributaries, thus she is called Vishakha. Similarly, amongst Radhas sakhis, Vishakha resembles Radhika, thus she is very dear to Krishna.

83-86Radha: Look, the bees are your kanta since they cling to the mala adorning your chest! Krishna: They resemble your curly locks, therefore they are always dear to me! Radha: Hey Krishna! Youre thin-waisted, and your delicate body is soft like a blue lotus so how could you lift Govardhan for a whole week? Yes, I held only one Govardhan for a mere week! exclaims Krishna, but hey Priye! Thin-waisted as you are, how do you gracefully hold two Sumeru-mountains above your chest for all times? Seeing her attempts to prove Krishnas unchastity failing, Radhika changes the subject. As she rubs her hand across Krishnas chest, she utters this verse. Krishnas words bring to mind a passage from Surata-kathAmRta, where Sri Vishwanath Chakravartipada offers a peek into Radha and Krishnas intimate conversation after rati keli. The part related to the present topic runs as follows: Krishna says, Hey Radhe! Your sakhis are infatuated with pride, seeing your incomparable stana parvata. Hence, they consider my great feat of raising Giriraja Govardhan as insignificant, and address me: Hey Krishna! Giriraja is a cognisant devata; so he raised himself over your left hand for a week to remove the Vraja-vasis distress. Hence, those who are unaware of the facts address you as Giridhari and this makes you proud. But wheres the evidence of your strength? Our priya sakhi Radha, however, always holds two large mountains over her chest very easily yet she humbly introduces herself as a meek young girl! Then (using both hands) Radhika raises her breasts to taunt Krishna, and exclaims; Hey Nagara! Look, look! Could these newly formed lotus-buds ever be mistaken for mountains? So its unbefitting that you torture them with your sapphire-stone chest! Srimati continues: Hey Prana-vallabha! Im an innocent and chaste kumari; and your Kaustubha is very restless! But I dont need it. So why doesnt your chest reclaim it? Krishna replies, Ha Praneshwari! Look, look! Im telling the truththis Kaustubha was frightened by your hard stana yugala thus it takes shelter of my chest! But its sad that your stana yugala arent merciful! Without considering the Kaustubhas plight they continue to inflict torture! (This hints at Srimatis viparita vilasa) Radha replies with a delicate smile: Hey Rasamaya! My stana yugala are great because they tolerate your sharp pinches! So why should they feel proud for chasing away your Kaustubha? Actually, from time immemorial theyve withstood all of your affliction yet theyve never attacked anyone! Krishna answers, Hey Praneshwari! Look! Your huge kucha-kumbha defy an elephant temples shape. Hence, when theyre pinched by my nails their might increases a hundredfold just as a drunken elephant stampedes by a whip lash! Radha exclaims, Hey you mad elephant of Vrindavans forests! Then she motions with her eyes, Aha! My padma kalika yugala are cruel, no doubt; hence they repeatedly torture you! But youve always forgiven them by your mercy. And moreover, fearing their distress you console them with caresses! Krishna answers, Hey Priye! As your stana yugala resemble lilies. They naturally increase my ananda. Lets see how their beauty increases with a hundred more nail marks! 87-88 Radha says, Oho! As the moonrays dont exist without the moon, your chest is adorned with

chandravali nailmarks because youre unable to live without her! Krishna: Because youre chandra-vadana, the rays from your face always shine within my heart; so they shine outside, too! 89Radha: Seeing the honey-filled latas alluring many bees fives you pleasure! As everyone moves along, Radhika notices the bees enjoying a latas honey, and insinuates: Krishna enjoys like this! Hes like an unchaste bee moving from one flower to the next! 90-91 Krishna: Aha Priye! Because this latas leaves resemble your lips, and its flowers resemble your madhura smiles how can I not be attracted? Radha: Hey Nanda-kumara! Kumari Lalita is a pandit in Kandarpas battlejust as Parvati is to Shiva! After hearing Radhas statement about the lata, Lalita hints to Krishna: Radha is jealous because she wants you to enjoy her as the bee enjoys the lata! Hence, Radhika turns back on Lalita. 92-93 Krishna: Hey soft-spoken Radhe! Lalita is only expert in quarrelling, but flees when the stage is set for Kandarpas battle! Krishna continues: Hey Radhe! The black kasturi-decorations on your golden breasts are simply enchanting- like bees swarming over the golden lotus! As Radha, Krishna and the sakhis near a reservoir, Krishna notices the bees soaring over a golden lotus patch. Thus, he exclaims, These bees create the splendor of Chitra and Madana-lekha. This carries two meanings: Chitra and Madana-lekha are two famous Apsaras. But madana lekha citras means the attractive pictures painted on Radhas breasts which arouse Krishnas erotic desires. When Radhika directed her attention to Lalita, her vilasa vibhrama alankara arose. Thus her blouse loosened to expose the kasturi designs on her breasts. Then Krishnas desire for vilasa switched from Lalita back to Radha. 94-96 Radha: Hey Krishna! Your fancy words and quick style of speaking resemble sharp swords that cut the Vraja tarunis to ribbons, both inside and out! Krishna: Hey Radhe! The kokilas sing in the fifth note to awaken the young gopis erotic desires. This is their fault, so why blame me? Radha: O Krishna! Your dear vamshi is a renowned scholar of the shastras concerning irreligion! The proof is its despicable behaviorfor it degrades all of the chaste women in the three worlds! Radha: Ha-rey! Dhrishta-churamane! All of your activities are saintly; youre not guilty of the slightest fault! And your crooked murali exposes the evidence; shes the best pandit of the papacharana paddhati*! For every young religious womans principles are ground to dust by her! 97 Krishna: O Radhe! My vamshi destroys the faults of all women. Doesnt shastra declare that one

should fix ones mind and intelligence on me, and strive to satisfy my senses? you gopis are the best examples. 98-99 Radha: Hey Krishna! The gopa-kumaris who performed Katyayani devis vrata are all slimfigured; but youre like the king of mad elephants. So how will they endure your torture? Krishna: Hey Radhe! Although the bees are intoxicated, still the yuthika flowers provide their shelter. Similarly, a wanton ramani tolerates a lusty mans advances, even if he happens to be drunk! Krishna smiles and says, Ill bet that you enjoy my touchjust as the soft jasmine petals enjoy the bees! 100 Radha: Hey Shyama! Let the black snakes roam on the earths surfacethey remind us of your stunning romavali? Radha: Do you think twice about our happiness, or distress? When we escape to meet you at night there are snakes on the pathway! But let them remain there for they remind us of the attractive hairs extending from your navel! 101 Krishna: O Radhe! The Veni that dangles over your back is like an elegant black snake slithering over your golden Govardhan-nitamba! Hey Premamayi!, exclaims Krishna, Whatever reminds me of you is certainly my dearest property! Hence the golden valleys of Govardhan and the snakes crawling there are all dear because they resemble your curving buttocks and snake-like Veni! 102 Radha asks, O Giridhari! Why are these lovely chakora-birds discarding the moon to joyfully fly in the daytime? Radha: O Prana-vallabha! The chakoras nishtha for the moon appears to be waning. But whats causing their joy? Like you, are they now interested in Chandravali? ..before Radha can finish speaking, Krishna answers, 103-104 Aha Priye! Seeing the waning moon, these chakora birds now ecstatically assemble to drink the moonbeams of your bright face! Then Radha and Krishna jokingly questions each other to uncover the sakhis qualities; although these praises embarrass them. Radha Krishnas Narma Keli (Sporting Debates) I Qualities of the sakhis Both Krishna and the sakhis love to tease Raja Nandini Radha. And although she becomes

embarrassed, still the portrait of Radhas red face and angry disposition intrigue Krishna and bring smiles to the sakhis faces. So now Radha desires to pay off old scores. Nagarendra agrees. Thus Radha and Krishna direct their attention to the sakhis as their joking riddles begin. 105 Krishna questions: O Radhe! Whos an expert debater and a tough contender, who yet shies away from Kandarpas battle? And who obstructs the romance of other ramanis eager for vilasa with me? Sri Radhika replies, Its Lalita! Krishna asserts that Lalita intervenes when he attempts to enjoy Radha. And when Radha becomes manini, Lalita instructs her to neglect him even after Radhas mana subsides. 106 Krishna: Hey Priye! Who feigns disinterest for Kandarpas sporting, yet strives to enchant me by decorating her breasts with kunkum, kasturi, aguru and other perfume? Radha answers, Thats Vishakha! Krishna subtly hints: When Vishakha worships me during viparita vilasa, the kunkum, kasturi and aguru from her breasts fall onto my chest with her droplets of perspiration! 107-108 Krishna questions: O Radhike! Which lata abandons her husband, sways with the wind, and at last enhances her beauty by embracing a black tamal? Radhika replies, The gopi named Champakalata! Krishna inquires: Who gives pleasure by her expertise in every form of shringar? And whos intolerant in the face of mana owing to her soft nature? Radhika replies, Its Chitra! The word shringar means dressing and decorating, and rati keli. Both meanings apply here. 109 Krishna: Which pandit of the Kama shastras makes me her disciple to teach the art of love not only by speaking, but by demonstrating with her own body? Radha answers, Thats Tungavidya! Tungavidya means the pinnacle of knowledge. Here, however, the specific department of Tungavidyas wisdom is disclosed. As a dakshina prakhara gopi she isnt shy, nor does she offer resistance. Tangavidya eagerly reciprocates all of Krishnas advances. Moreover, her amorous stamina outmatches even Krishnas; thus he respects her as his rati guru. Vrindavan Chakravarti says, if someone protests, asking how any of the gopis can be considered Krishnas guru, the following verse from the Puranas is evidence that they can sahy gurava iy bhujiy bndhav striya satya vadmi te prtha gopya ki me bhavanti na The gopis are my helpers, gurus, disciples, mistresses, friends, wivesI tell you truthfully, Arjuna, what are the gopis not to me? 110

Krishna asks, Whos passionate while rising, pure and expert in all of the arts, yet crooked? And who excites erotic desires at once? Radhika answers, Thats Indulekha! : Here Indulekha qualities are compared with the moons. When the moon rises it takes on a reddish hue. But when Indulekha appears before Krishna, her kunkum-smeared body turns red with anuraga. The moon shows many different kalas (phases), and Indulekha knows all of the kalas (arts) of shringar rasa. As the full moon rises over the ocean, romantic desires awaken. Yet seeing Indulekhas mohini murati, waves of kama rise within Krishnas mind. 111 Krishna inquires: Who gives me paramananda by her superb dancing poses upon the ranga-bhumi Radhika replies, Thats Rangadevi ! Rangadevis dancing is wonderful. Yet Krishna hints that he becomes enslaved when she rushes to embrace him with a swift dancing step! 112-113 Krishna inquires: When winning in Pasha-khela, who refuses my kiss-reward? And upon losing, who neglects giving me a kiss ? Radhika answers, Its Sudevi ! Krishna says, O hey Chandra-vadane Radhe! Just think for a moment, then answer me this: Who are happy on seeing others happiness and distressed on seeing their distress? Who are neither elated by personal happiness nor held up by their own distress? And who serve the objects of their love here in Vrindavan with the same steadfast love as Vaishnavas serving the Lord? Radhika answers, Oh! You are surely talking about my dearest sakhis, Lalita, Vishakha and the others! Vrindavan Chakravarti points out that the reference to devotees indicates that these qualities are present to a greater or lesser degree in all Vaishnavas, from Narada and Prahlada to present-day mahatmas like Sanatan Goswami and other followers of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. 114 Thus joking with the gopis (who are skilled in the 64 arts) Krishna kisses their lips and fondles their breasts as a maudlin kokila relishes the mango buds and ripened forest fruits! Thus, while throwing flower petals upon one another, everyone proceeds to Lalita-ananda-da kunja. Rasikendra jokes with Radha as follows: Ah Priye! What happened? O-oh! Why are your breasts so swollen today? Thus speaking, Krishna attempts to remove Nagari-manis kanchuli (blouse) to have a look! But she shrieks and feigns pain! So Nagarendra exclaims, Uh! Just what I thought, pus has formed to increase the swelling! Hence, youre feeling pain at the slightest touch! O Priye! Dont worry, Ill remove the puss! Thus speaking, Krishna tries to pinch Radhas stana yugala! But Krishna then exclaims, Uh-oh! The flowerss pollen blew onto your lips. So wont the bees mistakes them for a flower and sting you? Let me brush the pollen away! (Krishna carresses Radhas lips). Uh, sorry! he says, The pollen fell inside; what can I do? Thus speaking, Rasikendra kisses Radhika!

Shyamasundars thirst to enjoy the gopis ever-increase! So running to the flower latas He plucks some flowers and quickly returns before Priya-ji. Krishna places flowers above Radhas breasts, beside her ears and tucks them in her veil. Then Rai Vinodini picks an array of flowers to decorate Shyamasundar. But as she places them in Krishnas chura her breasts rub over his chest to excite him! The Radha, Krishna and the sakhis pick flowers to shower them over one another. Thus the procession arrives at Lalitas forest-bower. In these pastimes the sadhaka dasis personal seva, her instructions from the sakhis, and the beauty of Radha Kunds transcendental setting can all be meditated upon. Krishna-bhavanamrita relates similar pastimes. When Krishna makes some flower ornaments and attempts to decorate Radha, she cautiously steps aside, fearing that he might touch her breasts. Krishna surmises Radha, caution and exclaims, Im innocently placing these decorations on your body. Why are you afraid? Look, my mind is totally peaceful! Then Krishna swiftly places his hand on Radhas breast to exclaim: Just see! Although Im touching you my hands arent trembling, nor are my hairs standing erect! Isnt this amazing? In another example, Govinda attempts to kiss Radha. When Vrinda places a lotus in Govindas hand, he kisses it, saying: O kamala! Your wonderful fragrance conquers the whole world! But this arouses Radhas jealousy. Thus Krishna says, O Priyatame! The lotus flowers are fortunate because their fragrance and beauty slightly resemble your mukharavinda, why are you needlessly upset? Although the air give the evidence it wont harm to make a test. Thus Krishna kisses Radhas lips and exclaims with wonder: Priyatame! Your anger is just; Im a great fool to make a comparison! Then Krishna swiftly kisses Radha again, and overwhelmingly declares: Aha Radhe! The fragrance of your lips is ever-increasing and indescribable within the three worldsto compare its fragrance with an insignificant lotus is simply absurd! Seeing Krishnas amusement, Lalita smiled and says, Hey Krishna! After accepting the bees dharma to get intoxicated by the flower, why hesitate to drink its madhu? Krishna replies, Lalite! Im not fearing that the nectar supply will end. When a madhura stream flows from a limitless amrita sarovar, who can drink it all? Thus Krishna continues to kiss Radhas lips, and exclaims, Look, Lalite! This amrita simply becomes better and better! In Krishna-bhavanamrita, Radha Krishnas Madhyahna Yogapitha lila now begins (after vana vihara). The site is Vishakha Devis Ananda Sukhada Kunja. As Radha Govinda sit on the jeweled singhasan, Lalitaji stands in the eastern petal (in the first whorl of the thousandlotus stemsled lotus). She holds a lila kamala to brush away the bees from Sri Yugala Kishors faces. In the north eastern petal is Tungavidya and Indulekha is in the south-east; both play the vina. In the northern and southern petals Chitra and Vishakha twirl chamaras. Sri Rangadevi and Sudevi stand in the northwest and south west to wipe Radha Govindas tears with their veils. And in the west, Champakalata offers pan. The formation of the morning and night-time Yogapitha-milan slightly differs. 115As the result of Sri Rupa Goswamis mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Devas lotus feet, at the request of Sri Raghunath Das, in the association of Sri Jiva, and with the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, here ends the thirteenth chapter of Govinda-lilamrita.

Chapter Fourteen Continued Madhyahna Pastimes 10:48 a.m.3:36 p.m. Radhas Prema Vaicittya, Vasanta Holi, Jhulana and Madhu-pana. 1-3 Thereafter, a bumblebee, allured by the sakhis divine fragrance, attempts to land on their lotusfaces, but they chase him away! Then, buzzing loudly, he soars about Sri Radhikas vadana kamala, intoxicated by its sweet odor! Radhika tries to ward the bee off with sharp glances, with angry shouts accompanied by the jangling of her bangles as she waves her lotus hands; but none of this stops the bee, who is mad after her fragrant mukharavinda! So Radhika pulls on Krishnas chador to cover her face, and hides behind him! Meanwhile, the restless bee flies off to a lotus patch, and the sakhis exclaim: Sakhi Radhe! Dont be frightenedweve chased away that naughty madhusUdana! He has gone off to be in the padmAli. The smiling sakhis present a teasing statement to deliberately confuses Radha. Madhusdana is a frequently used name of Krishna, but it can also mean bee. PadmAli means either the group of lotus flowers, i.e., the lotus garden, or Padmas friend, i.e., Chandra-vali. 4-5 Hearing this, the Goddess of Love, Radha, only thinks, Krishna has gone to Padmas sakhi, Chandravali! Thus blinded by excessive love, she fails to see him standing before her! Krishna cues the sakhis not to expose him, and they obey. Thus, in order to enjoy Radhas astonishing behavior, they side with Krishna. This mood is called prema-vaicittya, or separation in union. Although Radhika is still clutching her Prana Govinda, she imagines that Krishna has stood her up to be with Chandravali! 6-7 Confused by prema vaichittya, Radha thinks that her beloved has gone to another woman and so approaches Dhanishtha to let out her anger: O Dhanishthe! You director of deceitful scenarios! Where has your star actor gone? Dhanishtha replies with a grin, Sakhi Radhe! Your Prana-kanta went to the lotus garden to pick flowers for you! Radha retorts, You misleader! If he has gone to Padmas friend and then comes back here with her, then what will happen? Dhanishtha answers, If she comes here, her face will surely turn pale when she sees your effulgent beauty! Radharani is angry because she assumes that Dhanishtha has helped Krishna unite with Chandravali. 8 Radha exclaims, Hey Dhanishthe! It is no fault of yours! I am the fool for trusting the words of a false duti like you! So even after hearing that Krishna had gone into the woods with Shaibya, I made

the mistake of coming here to meet him! Thus downtrodden, Radha meekly curses herself: Damn! All of the fault rests with me. Its my bad luck! Because I dont have any good sense I allow myself to be deceived by under-handed cheaters like Dhanishtha! Even after hearing that the Lampata Raja met Shaibya at Kusuma Sarovar, I still let myself fall into this trap! Hay! Hay! Its all my fault! 9 Radha lowers her head and grieves. What a calamity! Dhanishtha is dear as life, yet shes cheated me! And Krishna forsakes me to enjoy Chandravali at my favorite nikunja vana! Hay! Hes become the ramana of my enemy! Could my eyes bear to see this? O no! I think that death would be more auspicious! 10 Hay rey! This is too painful! That great cheater keeps Chandravali hidden at my kunda kanana. Then he brings me, speaks false words, and deserts me to join her! Who can tolerate such humiliation? Ayi! I considered Krishna my one and only Prana-vallabha, the prana of my pranabut now hes enjoying prema vilasa with Chandravali at my dearest holy tirtha, Radha Kund! Oh no! He tricked me into coming here, only to make me a laughing-stock before Her! That Shatherdra first employed Dhanistha to allure me, then feigned interest towards me, and now he snickers with Chandravali as they hide together behind the forest-foliage! Aha! If I see then now my life will leave my body! 11 Lalita answers, Sakhi Radhe! Ive witnessed Krishnas cheating many times in the past. But youre naive and fail to understand. Come, lets go home! 12-13 Thus speaking Lalita takes by the hand and pulls her, but owing to her feelings of viraha from Krishna, Radha becomes fearful, meek and overwhelmed to exclaim: O Lalite! Because Krishna is the friend of the inexperienced, and because he doesnt consider others faults, my stubborn mind is anxious for his darshan! O sakhi! What can I do? As Krishna-prana, Radha hears Lalitas advice, her maha prema overflows to reveal her hearts simplicity. 14-15 Lalita advises: Just as the rice paddy remains hidden within the husk after it ripens, a woman should conceal her wanton desires to protect her modesty. But Radha answers, O Lalite! Please discard all talk of womens social convention! It disturbs my ears, pains my heart and makes my dizzy! ... From just a moment of separation the force of Radha rushing Krishna anuraga-river breaks the dam of her patience! No longer can she hold back her anguish! Hence, Radhas uncontrolled speech becomes a kula-plavini to render her Krishna-kalankini (scandalized by Krishna)! 16 Lalita replies, Sakhi Radhe! Krishna is the king of deceivers, plus a lampata amongst many sundari remanis. Yet no other ramani is as naive or impatient as you! Hence Krishna repeatedly takes advantage! Hay, hay! Be careful, not make things worse!

17 Srimati Radharani meekly answers, Sakhi! Could Krishna do more harm than he has already done, but also him embracing another gopi before her! 18 Although Radhika sees her own reflection on Krishnas, she mistakes it for Chandravali! Hence trembles from wariness, anger and jealousy! Seeing her reflection within Krishnas glossy chest, Radhika surmises: O-rey! Chandravalis turning her back on Krishna to show off to me! But Aha! Her play-stag (Krishna) doesnt release her! so Radha angrily turns her head from this intolerable sceneher body shakes, her voice falters, her breathing palpitates and her eyes roll! 19-20 Then Krishna motions to Kundalata and Kundalata says, Oh sakhi Radhe! You were anxious to meet your prana kanta! So now that he has come, why are you turning your face instead cordially greeting him? Rasika Cudamani winks at Kundalata to expose Radhas prema bhranti, Hence, Kundalata cleverly speaks as to invoke Radhas own confession. 21 Radhika retorts: Hey you cheat! Have you brought me here just to witness Krishna embracing Padmas sakhi? Cant you see whats going on? 22-24 Then Krishna exclaims, Hey Radhe! If youre thinking that Chandravali is embracing me, youre mistaken. But theres a very chaste damsel whos come to say: Im Radhas friend. First she kissed me and embraced me, and clung my chest! But then she turned her back on me! So I tried to remove her, and she tried to remove herselfyet shes going! O Radhe! Even after requesting this wanton ramani to leave, she doesnt desist! Please tell your priya sakhi to stop tormenting me! Catura Churamani - the crown jewel or foremost of the clever- understands everything. Still he plays along with Radhas prema bhranti to relish more of her amusing behavior. Thus he says, Oh Priyatame! Dont misunderstand, this pretty ramani isnt your enemy, shes your dear friend. So dont be jealous. Krishnas words do ring true, however, because Radhas reflection is her near and dear friend (nityasangini). But prema pagalini mad woman- Rai fails to understand Krishnas witty statement. Hence she stares at Lalita with a confused look on her face. 25-26 But Lalita whispers into Radhas ear: Thats your reflection on Krishnas chest, not Chandravali! Aho! Radha lowers her head in embarrassment! But Krishna and the sakhis begin laughing! And Kundalata says, Sakhi Radhe! You cannot recognize your Prana-priyatama even when you stand before him; and you mistake your shadow for someone else! Your fear of Chandravali is allpervading. Indeed, your prema nritya is most amazing! Yet Krishna, Vrinda and all of the sakhis cant help but laugh as their ecstasy sprinkles like a fine

mist! Then Kundalata sums up the episode: Oh Jagad-anandini Raja Nandini rai! all glories to your maha-prema! Weve never seen premas dance displayed so colorfully! Because such prema is impossible elsewhere, weve remained silent to watch its fascinating course. So please dont blame the sakhis, and dont become angry. Vasanta Vihara (Hori Lila)- the spring festival; hori-lila Holi, the throwing of colored dye I

27-30 Next Vrinda Devi says, Hey Vraja-mangalakara, Radha Krishna! Look! Were approaching your Holi festivals colorful vedi! Its floor is decorated with pictures made from aguru and kasturi. There are golden jugs filled with kasturi, kunkum, aguru and chandan solidified in muddy water. Numerous jeweled pichkaris- a kind of large syringe meant for squirting colored water, are placed around of squirting these pleasing substances; along with bombs and flower arrows made of kunkum, camphor and other ingredients. Moreover, there are golden plates filled with pan, pushpamalas and scented rose water. But there are special bombs made from camphor, kunkum, kasturi and aguru and coated with lac. Theyre so delicate that they can break from your breath alone. The north-western corner of Lalitas kunja is the site for Holis festival, During Indian religious festivals, the floors of the temples and the peoples homes are often decorated with alpana (designs painted with rice-paste). And similarly, Holis jeweled stage has been decorated by Vrinda and her Vana Devis. But this specials alpana is mixed aguru, keshara and other costly substances. The liquid for loading the pichkaris (syringes) is made from ground chandan, kasturi, aguru, camphor and flower pollen- solidified in water- and stored in huge golden jugs. And the specials bombs are so delicately made that they burst in mid-air to drench ones opponent from the sky. 31-32 Meanwhile, Ramani-mohana* mounts the stage with the parama-sundari Vraja Kishoris. And taking up the pichkaris, colored powders and other fragrant substanceseveryone begins Holis battle in a loving spirit! Aho! What keli madhuri! Krishna and the gopis are dressed in thin white outfits, and everyone chews pan. The pichkaris are befitting for Anangas battleso along with the shower of colored fluidsarrows of sidelong glances shower too! After hearing Vrindas proposal and seeing the wonderful arrangement Radha, Krishna and the sakhis eagerly ascend upon the Holi Vedi. Vrinda dresses everyone in thin white cloth that tightly fits around the body. Then everyone is garlanded with malas, decorated with chandan and offered tambul (pan). As Krishna stands on one side, with Radhas party on the other, Holis battle begins! Hence the flinging of powders and squirting of divine, scented water commences! As Krishna and the gopis meet head on, Kandarpas erotic moods are arousedthe Vraja sundaris shoot their loving arrow-glances from their arching eyebrow-bows to pelt Krishna! Aho! What a spectacular festival! 33 The gopis wet clothes reveal their charming anga madhuri to sprinkle Krishnas lotus eyes with delight! But as the amrita rasa wets Krishnas apparel too, the Vraja sundaris eyes experience a similar nectar barrage!

Although the gopis greatly outnumber Krishna his maha-virya suddenly awakens! Then his pichkari showers their limbs in all of the vital places! So as the gopis wet clothes cling to their bodies and reveal their full beauty, Krishnas eyes dive within a madhurya-amrita sindhu! 34-36 The Vraja-Lakshmis cheeks bulge from chewing pan, and their foreheads are decorated by wet locks and beads of perspiration, Still, as their loosened hair sways over their shoulders and breastand flowers fall from their braidstheir elegance increases! The gopa kishoris keep their powder bombs tucked in their veils, or wear them around their waistbelts. And while trying to protect themselves from Krishnas advances, they sing beautiful songs meant to arouse the moods of Eros! Thus by throwing different kinds of fragrant powder, flower, flower-bombs or by squirting by their pichkaris, Radhika and the Vraja sundaris shower their prana vallabha with prema! In order to subjugate Ramani-mohana, and protect themselves too, Radha and the sakhis sing Kandarpa-sangita with joking connotation. But when they catch Krishna off-guard they toss a handful of fragrant powder, or squirt the rasa from their pichkaris! Everything is done in loving frolic! 37 Krishnas flower bow rests on his shoulder beside a quiver of flower arrowsand his mohana murali is tucked into his sash. Thus taking up a jeweled pichkari, Krishna sprays the gopis with fragrant, liquid substances and playfully tosses powders over their bodies! Just as Cupid arms himself with a flower-bow to put the whole world under his amorous spell, Krishna stands ready to blitz the gopis with the vigor of a million Cupids! But the Vraja ramanis are captivating tooendlessly more so than a band of Apsaras. It is noteworthy that kasturi, kunkum, camphor, aguru and keshara are all pleasing to the touch. Thus when bombarded with them one becomes surcharged with ecstasy! And moreover, in Krishnas Ananda Vrindavan, these substances are divinefor they are supplied in profuse quantity by the kalpa-vrikshas. 38-44 Aho! The stream from Krishnas pichkari is amazing! While traversing the sky is becomes a hundred, then a thousandand falling through the air a hundredthousandand finally a million streams drench the gopis bodies! Krishna and the gopis throw fragrant powder-but because they are already wet from the pichkari rasait sticks to their bodies! And when the lac-bombs hit the ground they burst as their fragrant powder colors everyone! The kunkum that Krishna tosses on the gopis turns into droplets that resemble red flowers on a golden vine. Thus the gopis kasturi decorations can be mistaken for a swarm of sleeping bees. As Radhikas pichkaris releases fragrant kunkum rasa, it splurts over Krishnas body like hundreds of moon-reflection upon a deep-blue sky! 42When the kunkum bombs carrying camphor, sindura, and flower pollen burst over the wet gopis, their bodies and clothes become multi-colored! Aho! As the colored powder and pichkari rasa continue to showerthe entire area becomes enveloped by a colorful canopy!

When Krishna tries to touch Radha, her kuttamita-bhava awakens, and she splots him with fragrant powder! But as Krishna quarrels with Srimati, a restless-eyed gopa kishori sneaks from behind to pour a flask of colored water over his shouldrs! Rasaraj suddenly penetrates into the sakhis phalanx and places his hand upon Rai manis breast! Thus, although she is elated, Srimati shows anger and pretends to be hurt! Then she retaliates by tossing a handful of fragrant powder! But as Krishna invokes an argument, a rangini ramani pours a lota flask full of colored water over his shoulders. Then she holds her palms over his eyes to blind him! Thus the sakhis laugh! 45 Then the gopis come from all sides to toss fragrant powderbut Krishna seizes the opportunity to embrace them to his chest! Then he tossed powder into their faces and kisses their lips! When that sneaky ramani poured colored water over Krishna, his apparel clung to his glossy Kaliya body. Thus the restless-eyed gopis came closer to view Krishnas anga madhuri. But owing to his superior strength, Krishna excels the gopis in close combat, and takes advantage to enjoy them! 46 As Radha repeatedly comes close to throw powder, Krishna claps her to his chest! And to watch, the sakhis surround Sri Yugala Kishor like a protective curtain. Then Krishna satisfies all of his desires! As the sakhis attack in unison, Ananga Rangini Rai uses their cover to move in closer. But the clever sakhis suddenly abandon their support to Radharani and allow Krishna the chance to capture her! Henceforth, the sakhis support to favor Krishna- they form a protective curtain to block the view of the other gopis. Meanwhile, inside, as Rasika Nagara-Nagaris Ananga Keli begins, the sakhis lotus eyes and faces light up as they witness everything! 47 Then these privileged Vraja kishoris tease and frolic as their amorous eyes shoot Kama-arrows into Krishnas heart to innoculate him! But as Krishna regains some composure, his gentle smile aligns with his restless eyes to shoot his flower-glances! And they strike the gopis hearts, leaving them deeply affected! Yet Krishna is still reeling too! The sakhis know all of the secret mantras and tantras to blitz Krishna with madana rasa.* So softer they Yugala Vilasha Keli, they make Shyamasundars erotic fascination escalate! 48 Rarely does a cloud descend on the earth. And if it assumed a human form that is unusual. Yet it is more amazing if the lightning showers it with rasa! But when a myriad of beautiful lightning-streaks continually shower the cloud with streams of fragrant colored waterthis is the most amazing spectacle of all! Hence, the chatakas eyes always drink the clouds pure nectar! Srila Kaviraj Goswami concludes his Holi-narration with a metaphorical passage. The cloud is nava-jaladhara Krishna, the lightning are the nava saudamini Vraja Sundaris, and the chataka birds

are Vrinda, Dhanishtha, Nandimukhi, Kundalata and all the sakhis that are watching the fun. Vasanta Vihara (Hori Lila)- the spring festival; hori-lila: Holi, the throwing of colored dye II Vrindavans Holi is a nitya lila which occurs at Radha Kund, as previously described. Yet this pastime is also naimittika lila celebrated as the Vasanta-utsava, or the Spring festival. The following is a synopsis of Siddha Krishna Das Babas naimittika Holi narration which appears in the Gutika: On the third day of the waxing moon in the month of Magh, Srimati Radharani leaves Javat with Ananga Manjari and her sakhis to enjoy the Vasanta festival at her parents house in Varshana. Holi begins two days later on Vasanta Panchami and lasts 40 days up to Phalguni Purnima, i.e., the full moon of Phalgun (February-March). During this time, Nanda Maharaj relieves Krishna and Balaram of their cowherding duties so that they can enjoy the Holi festval. The day before Holi begins, Bhagavati Paurnamasi Devi announces to the elderly gopi community: Starting from tomorrow, the gopa kishoris who perform the spring Madana puja at the base of Vrindavans ashok trees will receive a great boon: their husbands life duration, riches, prosperity and cows will all increase. Hearing the benediction, the elderly cowherd women all order their daughters-in-law to go. Thus Radha, Chandravali and all of the other yutheshwaris along with their sakhis prepare for the puja. The first outbreak of Holi begins in the early morning on Vasanta Panchami, when Radha and her sakhis walk from Varshana to Nandagram to perform their cooking duties. Krishna suddenly appears with a band of sakhas to throw colored powders over them. And as the sky becomes covered by a red cloud, Krishna quickly slips beside Radha to embrace and kiss her. But before the sakhas can notice his mischief, he returns into their midst. Later on, after Krishnas morning meal, a brief rest, and Yogapith Milan with Radha and her sakhis at Gupta Kunda, Krishna returns to the house. There he is dressed for the Vasanta festival along with the sakhas. Then everyone leaves for Vrindavan to begins the festive play. Meanwhile, Radha returns to Varshana to prepare for Vasanta Madana Puja. And shortly after, she and the sakhis enter the forest, carrying their puja paraphernalia. As springs opulences awaken, Vrinda and her vana devis busily decorate the forest for the occasion. But when Radha comes to sit upon a madhavi mandapa, she looks like the spring goddess, Vasanta Lakshmi, herself. Then Vrinda and her vana devis apporach Radha and the other gopis to expertly dress them in forest attire suitable for Vasantas festival. Vrinda directs her attention to Radha, while her assistants eagerly dress Shyamala, Chandravali and the other Yutheshwaris. Radha is outfitted in red, with shodasha akalpa (her renowned sixteen items of dress) and dvadasha abharana (twelve types of ornaments). The kalpa vrikshas offer divine ornaments and shringar paraphernalia; they also supply the ingredients for Holi: the powder-bombs, many divine liquid substances, kasturi powder, different types of flowers-and bows, and numerous types of jeweled pichkaris. After dressing Vrishabhanu-nandini sits upon a madhavi vedi. But then the music-acharya, the Kinnari named Matangi, arrives from kinnara-loka with her special band of celestial singers. As she respectfully approaches Radha and the other Yutheshwaris, Vrinda introduces her: Oh Gunamayi* Radhe! Just try and believe me, this is Matangai, she is the greatest acharyas of the Sangita-shastra. She is coming foryour Vasanta festival! Radha affectionately motions to have Matangi and her associates comfortably seated. Then she inquires: Oh Vrinde! Who are the lady friends accompanying Matangi? Vrinda replies, Matangis sakhis are expert vina players. But look! That effulgent dark-

complexioned girl with peacock feathers in her hair, who holds mango buds of enticing the kokilas, and who is maudlin by nature- shes the Vasanta-raga herself, assuming this Devi-form just to see you! Hearing that the Vasanta Raga somewhat resembles Krishna, Radha briefly gazes upon her with a curious, loving glance. Hence, the Vasanta Raga deems her life successful! Matangi address Radha: Oh beloved Kanta of damana*! For your pleasure the seven svaras and the twenty-two shrutis have directly appeared. Radha says, Oh respected Matangi! Surely you can enchant Vrinda and the forest residents with your singing; can we hear a sample? But Vrinda requests Matangi: Krishna is coming, and he is singing in the Vasanta Raga, so please sing some other raga. As Matangi takes up the order, a deep mood awakens within her heart, and her voice enters a rasa sagara as she opens with the Belavali raga. Matangis associates accompany her singing with five types of vinas (the Vipanchi, Mahati, Kaviasika, Kacchapi, and Svara-mandala). As the Sangita enters a celestial quintessencethe five vinas harmonise with Matangis voice to produce one resonance. Aha! Everyone is wonderstruck by Matangis talent! But meanwhile, another amazing sound is heard. Mixing with flutes, mridangas, ringing bells and other instruments it produces an indescribable delightas though all of the senses were suddenly bombarded by yaksha-kardama (a balm prepared from kunkum, aguru, kasturi, camphor and chandan). Thus Radha, Chandravali, Shyamala and all of the other gopis divert their attention from Matangis sangita. Instead, hela overtakes them as their ears perk and their restless eyes scan the path like excited deer! And the Vasanta raga suddenly resounds with deep anuraga! Thus everyone understandsOho! The Ananda SvarupaSri Nanda Kishora, is approaching with his sakha battalion! Vrinda devi exclaims, Hey Radhe! Here comes your Prana-nath along with his priya sakhas! While dancing, singing and playing various instruments theyre inaugurating Vasantas utsava! Aha! Just look at Krishna sporting a white turban that tilts to the left; its decorated with clusters of punnaga flowers, and crested by peacock feathers that toss in the wind. His restless earring dangles beside a cluster of mango budstheyre reflecting on Krishnas cheeks and create unforgettable madhurya! Krishna wears a yellow shirt, and Hes garlanded by a madhavi mala. The multi-colored silken tassles hanging from Krishnas kinkini* gently kiss his nitambaand manohara anklebells jingle from his feet! Krishna holds his Venu, and Hes twirling a red sindura bomb in his right hand. Yet meanwhile, his head and eyes musingly rolling with the tune of the sakhas music! Vrinda continues: Two priya sakhas place a golden pan keli* up to Krishnas lips and the others are flinging powder to paint the skhy! O Radhe! Look, Krishna is dancing towards us as the sakhas blend scales of shadja, madhyama and gandhara to hit the seventh note! Aha! Theyre beautifully singing the Vasanta Raga! But understanding Radhas mood, Shyamala answers with a smile: Hey Vrinde! Let Shyamasundars nectar delight you as you join him to increase his ananda! But listen, oh curiouseyed player! The door bolt of a kulavati naris house of shyness is so strong that it can not be broken by the axe of wanton desire, so well pick for Madanas auspicious puja and Vraja-yuvarajs festival from a distance. Then Vrinda remark: O Radhe! Oh Shyamale! All right, just show reserve. But look! Chandravali and her priya sakhi, Caru-chandra, have already joined Matangi. Theyre nearing the mango grove to join with the exciting tumult of Krishnas Holi Utsava! So let Chandravali, Mantangi and the Sritos satiate themselves in joy as they sing! But Im losing myself in the excitement too! Aha! What a spectacle! Chandravalis party are using the Holi paraphernalia presented by the

kalpa vrikshasand the fragrant red abira us rising like the sun! While squirting their fragrant flower rasa, and ecstatically dancing to the musictheyre putting millions of svarga devi dasis to shame! Radha is struck with wonder! Coming from one direction is Krishnas partyand from the other are Chandravali, Caruchandra, Matangi and the Shrutis. Yet Radha sweetly the grins as she picks flowers and watches from the madhavi garden. As Krishna and his frolicsome sakhas approach, Madhumangal leads the dancing. He looks like a clownprotruding his belly, twirling his necklace and making goofy gestures while moving this way and that! But hearing the wonderful music from Chandravalis group, Madhumangal feigns enraptured, and stops to announce, Hey priya sakhe! Whats that sweet sound? Is it the echo of our concert? Or is some other sound that is outmatching ours? Kishora-mani Krishna replies, Hey Madhu! That sound isnt ours. Why dont you go have a look. Where is it coming from? Thus Madhumangal eagerly approaches Vrishabhanu-nandinis ramani mani samaja. But from the corner of his eye he notices Chandravalis group sporting in maha-ananda nearby. Madhu says, Hey bold Lalite! Youre a great offender! Todays Vasanta Panchami, yet before my Priya sakha can pick anythingyour sakhis have uprooted every leaf, flower and bud in his dearmost madhavi garden! What a calamity! Today youve gone too far! Hay, hay! Surely you have forgotten that my sakhas snake-like arms can crush all of you! Just wait! Im going to tell him everything! Then Madhu quickly runs back to Krishna and says, Hey Sakhe! Your Vasanta Utsava will be gloriousVasant Lakshmi has advented herself with her escorts! And theyre bringing Springs festival to life! Aha! Their music is simply divine; and so are their stirring movements. Theyre putting the Svarga Devis to shame! Whats more, their Holi paraphernalia surpasses anything that Ive ever seen in Brahmas entire creation! The sakhas reply: Hey bato! Dont ever praise our rivals. Wouldnt it be better to glorify your own party? You must be drunk! Madhumangal replies, Aha! Madhu never becomes intoxicated; rather, it makes everyone else drunk! But dont mistake me for the beverage. Krishna exckaims: Hey Madhu! Why dont you return to the Holi site to fully enjoy yourself; were coming soon! Swiftly returning to Radhas sakhi samaja, Batu exclaims, Hey durlalita Lalite! Kamala Nayana Sri Krishna had ordered: Leave this place immdeiately! And dont pick our flowerslest youll have to suffer the consequences! Lalita rebuffs: Hey you fake, double-dealing brahmin! Are you only out to ridicule yourself? The chaste Vraja kishoris come to pick flowers for Vasanta Madana puja, and weve joined the highcultured Raja Kumari Radha. Thus well faultlessly carry out our business. Why are you screaming like a madman? Batu exclaims, OH-rey Lalite! Our Sri Krishna is Vrindavans Madanaand he can curb everyones vanity. So why worship an ordinary Cupid? Just take my advice; havent I helped you before? Because Im your purohit, Ill deliver the svasti vacana* and engage you in Madana Mohans puja. So come on! Radha says, Hey Lalite! This shrewd brahmin is a befitting purohit (pujari) to act for Chandravalis welfare. Meanwhile, as Chandravali and Carucandra overhear the conversation, they bombard Batu with powder! Then they drench him from head to foot with their pichkari rasa! Thus defeated, Batu

appears like a bhuta raja (ghost goblin), and screams for help: Hey Priya sakhe! These cowherdmens daughters have soaked me! Ive become paralysed by their assualt! So save me before they commit a brahma hatya*! Hearing Madhus screams, Krishna understands everything: Aha! Those pert gopa kishoris have out-manoeuvred Batu and massacred him! What a shame ! Thus arriving before them with the uproarious stampede of his curious sakhasKrishna glances toward the gopiswho appear unaffected, arrogant and transported in rapture. Then he looks towards Batu who is outraged, speechless and dazzled within a blissful coma! Thus feigning anger, Krishna tackles the gopis: Aho! You madly-intoxicated ones! I see! Youve unduly molested my offenseless friends! So brace yourselves for a punishment!Thus, taking an ashok flower-bomb from a sakhaKrishna hurls it..and suddelny many bombs strike the gopis breasts! Aho! The battle begins! As both sides open fire, the fragrant scented powders fly, the flower bombs sail, and the kunkum, kasturi and chandan rasa splurts from the pichkaris! Thus the sky become enveloped by the powder clouds! Then Krishna bravely penetrates into the gopis phalanx, playing his flute like a trumpeter inaugurating Kandarpas mahotsava! But from all directions the gopis strike with the arrows of their amorous glances! So Krishna uses mystic powder: mounting his sleeping weapon named Samprasvapana to his eyebrows, hereleases it from his arrow-glance! Aho! The gopis become tiredstretch their armsclose their eyesand fall asleep! When the Mriga-locana general, Chandravali, sees her dazed sakhi-soldiersshe races to pounce on Krishna! Then after slicing Krishnas heart with a sharp glance, she squeezes him within her stronghold! Hence Bhuvana Mohana becomes mohita (subjugated )! But after regaining composure, Krishna kisses Vraja-padminis, tears their kanchulis and removes their clothes and ornaments just as a drunken elephant runs amuck within a lotus patch! A few minutes later, when the dark-powder-cloud vanishesa wonderful scene appears: the gopis lie strewn on the ground like defeated female elephants! Their bodies are totally red from the powders and fragrant rasa and their pichkaris are scattered over the battlefield. Observing their plight, Mahumangala plunges within a sukha-sagaraletting out a hi, hi, hi, hi, hi! Thus waving his hands, he ecstatically towards Krishna, shouting: Oh sakha-re! These proud gopis have gotten their just reward fro humiliating me! But hey sakhe! They are maha catura; they were born outside of Catur-mukhas* jurisdiction! So lets flee before they join Vrishabhanu-nandini to launch a counter attack! Come on! Who knows what these jilted gopis will do under the enmity of bitter revenge? Seeing Batus panic, the sakhas laugh and exclaim: Madhu is foolish; hes sometimes frightened and sometimes angry. Hey Krishna! Why dont you pacify him, so he wont be scared? Krishna exclaims, Hey Madhu! Show fearlessnes to those whom you fear! Why are you anxious when Im here? Krishnas certitude relieves Batus tension. Thus becoming inflated, he starts talking boldly while leading everyone to the madhavi garden where Radhika and her sakhis pick flowers. But then the sakhis love-lorn eyes release hundreds of flower arrows which penetrate Krishnas heart! So to reciprocate, Krishnas flower arrow glances hit Radhas chest to strip her protective shyness! But she smiles and sends the arrows from her crooked glances sailing back! Hence, suspecting Krishnas subjugationMadhu shouts: Hey Priya sakhe! Ill save you from illusion! Here, take this flower bomb and chase them away! Therere nothing to fear when youve got a first class military commander like me standing alert! But with the sound of her jingling braceletsRadha suddenly tosses a red sindura-bomb which bursts upon Krishnas chest! So he takes an abira-bomb and dashes like a lion cub towards Radha! But Lalita intervenes to exclaims, Hey Rasika raja! Who knows which nava rasika kishori threw

that sinduria bomb to reveal her hearts passion? So just stop and think for a moment; then youll understand that my priya sakhi is innocent! But as Lalitaji diverts Krishnas attention, Radha hides amongst the sakhis. And with a frolicsome gesture she signals them to direct Krishna towards Shyamala. But when Krishna and the sakhas release their abira and gulala rasa over Shyamala, her priya sakhi, Bakula Mala, exclaims, Uh Shyamasundar! Your unsmart move irks me! Look! The guilty one is standing over there. Although her moon-face is serene, her teeth shine like the moonbeams as she laughs! Hey you peacock feathered fool! Why have you spared her to attack my blameless sakhi? Learning the facts, Krishna amusingly races towards Radhika with renewed enthusiam, and shouts: Hey proud one! Dont be coward! Come ad hurl your flower-bombs at me! In Sankalpa Kalpadrume, Rasa raja calls out like this: Hey Radhe! Here I am, opening my shirt! But if youre courageous toojust open up your blouse and stand before me! Radha commands: Hey sakhis! Lets surround Krishna and attack from all sides! Thus they shout, Maro, maro (strike, strike)! as their sweet, infatuated voices blend with the kokilas call! The sakhis squirt the scented gulal rasa from their jeweled pichkaris, throw abira and toss their flower bombs in a fearsome attack! But Krishnas party repeatedly bouts back to chase them away! As the Holi battle removes the gopis shyness, their madana avesha awakens. Thus they quickly regroup deliver a fierce onslaught surrounding Krishna as thunder-clouds cover the moon! Meanwhile, Matangi and her orchestra fill the sky with their singing and fine playing headed by the vina. What wonder! Their songs form an incredible concert! So the bees, the kokilas and the other birds sing praise, as the wind tosses the forest-latas, that dance with the music. In Krishnas party, the older sakhas play instruments or sing, while the others throw powder bombs or squirt gulala rasa from their syringes! Yet rasamaya Madhumangal steals everyones attention with his belly-dancing act! Then the Vraj-Kishoris encircle Nagara raja once more! They raise lotus-steam-arms and make their bracelets tinkle as they gently slap Krsna with their lotus-palms! Krishna relishes the sensation, lower his defenses, and succumbs to the pleasure touch! But then the gopis plunder his flute, pichkaris and flower bow! One frolicsome gopi even steals Krishnas ornaments! But Radha smiles and stops them with a raised eyebrow-gesture! Then she affectionately wipes the kunkum and perspiration from Krishnas face. But as Radha re-dresses him, her eyes sip Krishnas anga madhuri! Then as a sakhi places a pan bitika in Radhas hand, she slips it into Krishnas mouth, while cueing Shyamala to fan with a chamara. Seeing the sakhis seva, Madhumangal, whos covered with abira and gulala rasa, ecstatically shouts: Hi, hi, hi, hey sakhas! We won! The celebrated Vrishabhanu-suta was defeated by our Priya sakha today! Aha! Shes serving him just like a dasi to relieve his fatigue! So this proves our victory. Aha! Im feeling boundless ecstasy! And why shouldnt our priya sakha win? When Im his commander, hes bound to reap the victory spoils! Thus Madhu raises his hands and dances to give everyone joy! Even Radhika devi is pleased with Batu and presents him a golden necklace. After Holi, everyones bodily luster radiates in ever-new waves. And Vrinda, her vana devis, as well as Matangi and her staff all feel blessed as the festival comes to a close. Then Venu-pani Vanamali joins the sakhas to rest shady ashok tree, as the bees dart around his fragrant Vaijayanti mala. Kishori Mani Radha retires with her sakhis to the madhavi mandapa in a

nearby mango grove. Everyone experiences parama ananda while reminiscing the first Holi ballte; there are still 39 days left for sporting. After taking rest, Radha calls for Matangi and request Vrinda to present her and her group members some gifts. Then Radha bids Matangi goodbye, and she returns to heaven. Radha is then re-dressed and decorated by her dasis, after which Vrinda and the vana devis arrive with a large variety of fruits, drinks and sweets. After feasting, Radha returns to the madhavi mandapa where a comfortable flower bed has been prepared. Meanwhile, Krishna takes a brief nap under the ashok trees. But when the sakhas fall asleep, he secretly comes to the madhavi mandapa to enjoy vilasa to Radhika devi. Afterwards, Sri Yugala kishor fall asleep in tender embrace. Thus ends Siddha Krishna Das Babas Vasanta-Holi narration in the Gutika. Hindola Lila (Jhulana) 49 Thereafter, as Krishna continues playing with the Vraja kishoris, they arrive at the hindola-vedi. And seating himself on the hindola-padma, Krishna winks to Kundalata and Vrinda and then snatches Radhas pichkari! But she retorts by snatching his murali from his waist sash! The hindola-padma is a huge jeweled swing shaped like an eightlotus stemsled lotus. Chapter 7, verses 55-64 have described it (in the south eastern corner of Lalitas kunja). When Krishna sits on the hindola, Vama manohara Radha feigns disinterest. Thus motioning Vrinda and Kundalata for helpKrishna smiles and grabs Radhas pichkari with a swift hand motion! But Radha wont allow Shyama-cand to cheat her she quickly snatches his flute to settle the score! 50 Kundalata addresses Radha with a smile: Hey sumukhi! Return Krishnas vamshi dont touch that kutini (crooked female)! And, hey Madhava! Please return Radhas pichkari it belongs to a woman! Thus Radha and Krishna return the flute and the pichkari. Krishna was hoping that Radha would try to recover her pichkari with a tug-of-war. Then he could have easily lifted her into the swing. Yet seeing Krishnas plan backfiring, kundalata pretends to be a neutral mediator she speaks so that Krishna will have another chance to grab Radha. 51-53 Krishna returns Radhas pichkari with his right hand, accepts his murali with his left hand but during the exchange he catches hold of Radhas lotus hands! Then Kundalata and Vrinda come from behind to help Krishna lift Vamavati Rai* onto the swing! As Radha and Krishna sit in the hindolas center, the sakhis begin swinging. They push both from in front and from behind. Krishnaji seats Chandramukhi Rai upon a soft cushion in the center of the flower-decorated hindola. Then as they comfortable lean on the soft backrest, the su-kanthini and su-yantrini chandra-vadana gopis begin to clap, dances and sign in parama ananda. Here is a sample of their madhura sangita: aju lalita hindola majha range jhulato nagara raja

rai suvadani vama pasha kotohu anand sagare bhasa kiba adbhuta duhunka shobha nahiko upama bhuvana lobha duhu duhu mukha dohun se heri hasi cumba dei beri beri ankhi bhangi kori koteko bhati bhase gada gada rabhasa mati Today Rasika Nagara Raja joyfully swings on the lalita hindola as if floating within an ananda sagara; sweet faced Radha sits on his left! What a wonderful darshan! Their beauty is incomparable! The entire universe is spellbound! Seeing Radha manohara face, Krishna kisses her again and again! Radhas eye-gestures are exotic, her voice falters and Both succumb to Kandarpas spell! 54-55 As the sakhis push, the hindolas speed gradually increasesbut then it moves too fast! Thus Radha quivers, becomes restless-eyed and embraces Shyamasundar for support! Due to the high speed Radhas hair loosens and gets entangled with Krishnasthus their chandra-hara (moon-necklaces) snag, and their flower-garlands get entangled within their bracelets. Radha Syamas anklebells, kinkini and other ornaments jingle sweetly. But in the feigned fear of falling, Radha embraces Krishna! Although their hair becomes tangled, and Radha orana flies as their bobbing malas and ornaments snagstill the sakhis swing fasterfor they know that after slowing down this wonderful darshan will end! 56-57 Radhas restless eyes motion to the sakhis for help! So they ponder: Oh! Radha must be pleased, but now she wants to satisfy Krishna with our seva. Thus they stop the swing and climb aboard. Rai Vinodinis clothes, ornaments and hair are astrewn; and the perspiration on Rai Kanus moonfaces drip like pearls of nectar! The sakhis can fathom Radhas tremendous ecstasy; still her outward displeasure means that she requires some help. Thus the sakhis stop the swing and seat themselves surrounding Radha Syama. Lalita sits in the eastern petal, Vishakha in the south east, Chitra in the south, Champakalata in the south west, Indulekha in the west, Tungavidya in the north west, Rangadevi in the north and Sudevi in the north east. 58-65 Lalita and Vishakha hold tambul vitikas, Chitra and Champakalata twirl chamaras, Indulekha and Tungavidya carry golden jugs, and Sudevi brings scented ointments and powders with Rangavidya. Receiving Radha Krishnas cue, the sakhis perform their seva, beginning with Lalita in the eastern petal. But a miracle happens..each sakhi sees Radha and Krishna facing them! But as Vrinda, Kundalata and the others swings the hindola, another wonder happens: Krishnas reflection appears to embrace each sakhis! Hence they all imagine, Krishna is alone with me! If the sun were garlanded with a deep blue raincloud-mala, and if a lightning-barrage were fixed within the clouds as they sail in the windthe pandits might compare this to Krishnas jhulan with

the Vraja sundaris! Honoring Radhas hint, Krishna seats Lalita on his right and rests his arm on her shoulder. Then he embraces Radha on his left. Aho! Is a dark cloud now illumined by two lightning streaks? Radhika is a prema kalpalata, and the sakhis are the golden latas leaves and flowers. Therefore, when they satisfy Radha Thakurani, she strives to satisfy them; for this is her nitya vrata (eternal vow). So as Radha nudges Krishna to let her sakhis sit beside himRasikendra agrees by first seating Lalita. 66-68 Kundalata addressed everyone: Oh sakhis! Just see! The two stars Radha and Anuradha are shining beside the rising the full moon! Then Krishna embraces Vishakha on his right side; thus he enjoys swinging with each of the ashtasakhis. But next Radha gets down to enjoy swinging the hindola as Lalita and Vishakha, or other pairs of sakhis sit beside Krishna. Without satisfying her sakhis, Jagad-anandini Rais desires remained unfulfilled. Thus when Krishna kisses, hugs and enjoys other sakhis, enjoying prema keli with them, Radha plunges within an ananda sindhu. Rasika bhaktas may note this is called eka pranata (one-ness in spirit). Radha and her sakhis are one-life in many forms. 69-72 Radha hints to give Kanchanalata and others a turn. Then as they swing on both sides of Krishna, Radha joins Lalita and the remaining sakhis who sing and push the hindola. Meanwhile, Lalita whispers into Radhas ear, and she nods with a smile, climbs into the hindola and gathers her sakhis in a circle. Then as Radha sits beside Krishna-a wonder takes placeKrishna displays a form beside each gopi! Lalita is a lalita lila vistarini (confectioner to amusing pastimes), so now she offers Krshori mani Rai a new idea: Lets bring all of the sakhis onto the hindola to stand in many circles, as in the Rasa lila, then we shall dance with Shyama-nataraja. Thus complying, Krishna expands into many murtis to accompany each gopis; and as the dancing begins, their footsteps cause the enchanting hindola to swing! 73Aho! If a tamal tree entwined by a golden creeper and surrounded by many golden banana trees were to suddenly fly into the sky and land upon a golden mountain this might slightly resemble Sri Krishnas jhulan Madhuri! Krishnas jhulan combined with Rasa is incomparable. Therefore, Srila Kaviraj Goswami presents a dream-like utopian visionjust to give some hint about its wonder! The golden hindola is like a gliding, golden mountain, the many tamal trees are Krishnas innumerable murtis and the golden bananas trees are the Vraja sundaris is the Hema-lata* embracing tamal Krishna. 74-75 After a while, Vishakha cues everyone to descend. Then as Radha and Krishna remain, Lalita and the others begin to swing them higher and higher with increased speed. But becoming frightened, Radhika tightly embraces Krishna for support, and the sakhis smile. Then

Krishna holds Rai-mani and they descend from the hindola together. Radha exclaims, eto vege jhulAio nA, prANa bandhu pore jAbe! (Oh sakhis! Dont swing so hard! My prana vallabha might fall down!) Understanding Radhas ecstasy, however, the sakhis continue swinging with all their energy, all the while singing in paramananda. This scene can be contemplated as follows:

dekho sakhi jhulato yugala kizora nIlamaNi joralo kAGcana jora lalit viZAkhA sakhI jhulAoto sukhe Ananda magana heri dohe dohA mukhe garajata gagane saghane ghana ghora raGginI saGginI gherato cauora vividha kusume sabe raciyA hindola dolya jugala sakhi nande vibhola jhulAoto sakhI gaNa karatali diyA suvadanI kohe pAche giraye vadhuA vigalito dukUla udita sveda bindu amiyA jhoraye jeno duhU mukha indu here saba sakhI gaNa doJhAkAra zrama cmara bijana lei koroye sevana bhramara kokila sab bosi taru dale jaya jaya rAdhA-kRSNa, rAdhA-kRSNa bole kohe jagannAtha kobe habe zubha dine sakhI saha doJhAkAra heribo vipine

Look, sakhi! Sri Yugala Kishor are swinging-like a nilamani (blue sapphire) sit in gold. Lalita and Vishakha push the hindola enjoying their beautiful faces. Thick rainclouds rumble in the sky, as Rai Ranginis sanginis surround the flower decorated hindola. Aha! The sakhis lose themselves in ecstasy while swinging the Divine Couple in pairs! Some of the sakhis clap, and tell lovely-faced Radha: Hold your Prana-Vallabha tightly ! Radha Krishnas hair loosens and perspiration beads glide from their moon-faces in drops of nectar. Seeing Yugala Kishors fatigue, the sakhis twirl chamaras. The kokilas and the bees watch from the branches, calling: Jaya jaya Radha Krishna! Jaya Radha Krishna! Jagannath Das (an associate of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and the disciple of Gadadhar Pandit) says, When will I see Yugala Kishors jhulan lila in the forest nikunjas? 76 Aha! What more can we say about Krishnas jhulan-madhuri? Hes a nava jaladhara surrounded by the lightning-like gopis! Yet Kundalata and the others drink the clouds rasa like chataka birds! Thus Vrindavan is glorious as this lila continues to shower nectar! Hindola Lila (Jhulana) Krishna-bhavanamritas version is equally relishable. Here is a synopsis:

Vrinda exclaims, Hey Rasika Yugala! Come this way, heres the beautiful forest known as Varshaharsha! Since this is the rainy season, see the lightning flashes in the clouds. But upon seeing you, the clouds consider: Aha! The cloud and the lightning traversing the earth far surpass our splendor! So surely were unfit to remain above them. But what can we do? Their bright effulgence illumines the entire sky! As the clouds thus feel sorrow, they release rain-tears and turn pale! Seeing the lightning and the clouds, Radha and Krishna ponder : Oh! Out of love theyre sheltering us from the summer heat-like a blue sapphire umbrella with a golden trim! As the clouds contemplate their fortune, they shed rain-tears, turn pale, and praise Radha Krishnas qualities with faltering thunder voices. While viewing the forests beauty, Radha and Krishna enter a kadamba kanana. The shyamacolored tree-branches twist and turn upwards and millions of bright yellow flowers bloom overhead. There are mandapas and vedis in numerous shapes and sizes that soothe the heart. The kadamba flowers shower madhu, and the bees serve as guards. Beside each vedi the kadambas arching branches are held by emerald pillars, and there are flower wreaths strung in front. Every vedi has a gorgeous swing that suspends from red silken ropes with pearls strung through them; and the swings are gently gliding back and forth in the breeze. Radhas dasis have decorated them with all sorts of fragrant stemless flowers, and made a seat with fine silken cloth.so they have mystic potency to allure Krishnas mind! Thus wandering through the kadamba-forest Krishna sees a special hindola decorated with flags. But as he climbs up and sits downit appears that Ananda personified is served by the Goddess of beauty. So to sprinkle his dearest kanta with ananda ras, Krishna lifts her into the swing. Seeing Radha and Krishna sitting face to face one can imagine: Aha! An enchanting Prema Sarovar now joins an Ananda Sarovar. Just then the sakhis singing as they offer the Rasika Yugala pushpa arati! And during the arati they pause to adjust Krishnas turban, to offer pan, malas and candan. After tying their oranas to their waistbells, two prana sakhis bend over, placing one foot before them to push. Two others stand nearby, outstretch their arms holding pan, and when Sri Yugala Kishor swing past, they slip the pan their mouths! The other sakhis collect the flower pollen and tolls it over the Divine Couple in param ananda! In the skyways, the svarga Devis watch with avid attention, and converse amongst themselve: Aha! Today were fortunate to see Radha Madhavas jhulan lila! However, as a desire awakens to take part as the gopis do, they realise it is impossible. So through darshan alone their desires their becomes satiated! As the svarga Devis bodies erupt in sattvika emotion, they shower divine flower petals! Meanwhile, the clouds also become overwhelmed and release fine droplets of rain. But when the rain and the flower petals combine in min-air, they form the nectar called makaranda which falls over the gopis bodies to berfriend their pearls. In other words, the makaranda-droplets now appear like pearl decorations. As the gopis view Radha Krishna above the hindola, they sing without instruments. Yet still their sangita echoes from heaven, and the divine scent from their mouths attract the bees. Hence the bees madhura buzzing are like prayers to the gopis. The ananda chandra of Radha Krishnas jhulan-vihara gradually reaches a pinnacle. And their necklaces, earrings, garlands, anklebells and kinkini malas all dance on their bodies to sweetly resound! Indeed, Radha Krishnas delicate reveal their acute pleasure!

As the waves in the ocean of Radha Krsnash bodily effulgence rise higher and higher, the sakhis happiness is boundless! But as Yugala Kishors eyes roll Kama, which is an unfavorable element in this pastime, also begins rolling within their minds! Yet, by Yogamayas inconceivable magic, Radha Krishna somehow gather the strength to hold on to their patience! The kadamba flower laden branches sway with the hindolas movements. Hence, they serve as a flower-fan to soothe Radha Krishna. Many beautiful flower garlands hang between the branches. But because they shift with the swings movements, the restless bees are unable to land on them; this presents a splendid picture. As Radha and Krishna desire to increase the hindolas speed, they both push their feet up and down. And their swinging skill astonished the sakhis! But as the momentum increases, an amazing scene appears: sitting face with Krishna, Radha rotates over Krishna at one end of the swings journey, and Krishna rotates over Radha at the other! Repeatedly Radha appears above Krishnathen Krishna appears above Radha. Hence reminded of their intimate rati lila, the sakhis are unable to check their smiles! So, covering their faces, their faces, they point their fingers to gossip in frolic. When Radha comes above, her necklace brushes Krsnas chest. And at the other end, Krishnas Vaijayanti-mala dances over Radhas kanchuli! This brings paramananda to the sakhis watching the fun! But as the swinging continues, Radha sees her reflection in Krishnas glossy, mirror-like chest- and fails to see him! Then the golden mirror of Radhas anga kanta reflects Krishnas imageand he misses seeing her! Thus becoming down-trodden, Radha and Krishna sigh deep breaths which fade their luster, causing their reflections to disappear. So now as they re-discover each other, Sri Yugala Kishor rejoice with their new darshan-ananda! Then Lila Varidhi Krishna pushes the hindola faster and faster in frolic. As it goes higher and higher, Radhas back brushes the kadamba-branches, and she turns frightened! Thus the sakhis are frightened too, and repeatedly implore: Hey Krishna! Dont go so fast! Please slow down! But Krishna doesnt pay heed he broadly smiles at the gopis and continues to swing faster! Thus Radhas hari-braids loosen, her orana flies away and her ornaments slacken! But when Radhas lower garment sails upward to,o she tries to hold onto it by kicking her feet! Aho! Seeing Radhas plight, Krishnas eyes become satiated! Then Krishna swings faster than ever! So Radhas eyes show fear, and she leaves her seat to embrace him around the neck! But Krishna lets go of the ropes to embrace Radha with both arms! Aho! Hes attached to the racing hindola only by his feet1 Radha and Krishna are like a golden champak and a blue lotusbut as they merge, the divine fragrance of champak and lotus begins permeating! Crossing the heavenly regions, it enters Vaikuntha, and finally reaches the nostrils of Padma, Sri Lakshmi! Seeing their Rasika Yugala without support, the sakhis carefully take hold of the hindola and bring it to standstill. Radha quickly gets down, hides amongst her sakhis and begins pouting about her inconvenience! Then Radha brings her leading sakhi, Lalita, and seats her beside Krishna. But as Radha begins to push the hindola and lovingly sing, Krishna swings swiftly as before. Thus he swings with Vishakha, followed by Chitra, Champakalata, Indulekha, Rangadevi, Tungavidya and Sudevi. Then Krishna gets down. As previously described, there are unlimited hindolas of all shapes and sizes within the kadambakanana. So Krishna expands into many forms, taking two Vraja sundari under each arm! Then lifting them into each hindola, Krishna begins swinging with unlimited numbers of gopis. If someone

should ask: Why does Krishna make such an elaborate arrangement? We shall answer: Does his prema sindhu exist for nothing? Krishna thinks, Ill place Myself between each pair of gopis. Indeed, this is a great feat because each gopi considers: Oh! Madhusudan is especially favoring me Hes drinking the beauty of my lotus-face alone! But for Sri Gokulendra-nandana this isnt so amazing, because anything is possible with Yogamayas help. In the kadamba Kanana there is a very special hindola shaped like a huge lotus. When Vrinda devi shows it, Krishna and his preyasis eagerly climb aboard. The lotus karnika is decorated with stemless flowers that smother the seat which is covered by a soft silken cloth. Alongside there are many thick cushions stuffed with scented flowers. So Krishna enters the karnika and sits down, placing his lift arm over Radhikas shoulder. Then the ashta-sakhis sit in the first eight petals of the lotus whorl. In the second whorl there are sixteen petals where sixteen other sakhis sit. Seeing Yugala Kishor and the sakhis comfortable seated, Vrinda joyfully brings a large assortment of forest fruits (including dates, berries grapes, mangoes and other delicacies), placing them before Radha and Krishna. But first everyone sips refreshing sharbatas that defeat the taste of nectar. And after Sri Yugala Kishor enjoy the feast, the sakhis take their maha-prasad. Then golden pan kilis are served: the sakhis prepare select types of pan and offer them to Radha Krishna, and then to each other. Afterwards, Vrinda and Nandimukhi joyfully swing the Padma-Hindola. And Radhas dasis show ecstatic symptoms as they sing for the Divine Couple. Thus Krishna Chandra conquers the Vraja sundari with his prema during the hindola vijaya utsava! But he also reaps the reward of their cumbaka ratna (jewel-like-kisses)! After swinging, Krishna gets down from the hindola with his Kishori-vallabhas to resume Vana-vihara.

Like Holi, jhulan is also nitya and naimittika. As a nitya lila, jhulan happens daily at Radha Kund. And in its naimittika aspcet, it is pompously celebrated for thirteen days (from the third day of Shravanas waxing moon up to Shravana Purnima). Jhulan Abhisar vrishabhanu-pure, prati ghare ghare, phukare sakhi samaje caloho tvarite, nagara dekhite, besha banao abhyaje lalita vishakha, sajaiya radhika, colilo jhulana range hasa parihase, monera ullase, mililo nagara sange duhu donha here, rabhase matiya, bosila jhulana pori, yoteko lanana, jhulaye jhulana, mohana ananda heri At Vrishabhanu-pura the sakhis are gossiping from house to houseLets quickly get dressed to meet Shyama-nagara! Lalita and Vishakha dress Radhika then everyone departs to the Jhulan-site. Along the way laughter and joking is exchangedbut then they ecstatically meet with Nagara Raja! While looking at each other, Radha and Krishnas minds churn with amorous desire! Then they are seated together on the hindola. Ad the Vraja-lalanas swing the Divine Couple, Mohana dasa watches in ecstasy! jhulato shyama, gauri bama,

ananda range matiya, ishata hasita rabhasa keli, jhulato saba sakhini meli, gaoto bhatiya hema mani bara hidora, racita kusuma gandha bhora, porot bhramara patiya navina lataya jodita dala, vrinda vipine shobhita bhalo canda ujora ratiya nava ghana tanu dolaya shyama, rai sange jhulato bama, tadita jadita katiya tara-mani chandra hara, jhulita dolato gale dohara hilana duhuka gatiya vidhi koto dhiya ta-thaiya bola, baje mridanga mohana rola, tini-na tini na ta-ti-ya bheda pavana grama pura, ghora shabada jila sura, varana nahiko jatiya mani abharana kinkini banka, jhulane bajaye jhunura jhanka jhana jhana jhana hja-ti-ya radha monana carane asha, kevala bharasa uddhava dasa racita purito chatiya Shyama swings with Gauri on his left, intoxicated by jhulans ananda rasa! Yet with their silver-like smiles they arouse the mood for Ananga Keli! Radhas sanginis push the hindola and sing, displaying madhura gestures. The hema-mani hindola is decorated with fragrant flowers that allure hoards of bees. Shyama appears like a cloud, and Rai Rangini is like the brilliant lightning embracing his left side! Radha Shyama wear chandra hara (moon-necklaces) and tara-mani (star-jewels) that toss as their bodies clasp together. The mohana mridangas play- bi-dhi, bi-dhik-a-di-ya and tini-na, tinina-ta-ti-ya. The gopis high-pitched singing traverses the sky to fill the surrounding area its simply indescribable! Yet their ornaments and kinkini malas tinkle as the jhunura (large karatalas) resound: jha-na, jha-na, jha-na, jha-ti-jha! Thus overwhelmed, Uddhava Das takes shelter at Sri Radha Mohanas lotus feet.

Descending from the hindola Jhulana hoite, namila turite, rasavati rasa Raja, Ratana asane, bosila jatane, ratana mandir majha Su-camara loi, bijana bijai.Seva parayana sakhi Subasita jale, badana pakhale, basane mochaiya dekhi Thari bhori koi, vividha mithai, dhari duhu sanmukhe Sakhi-gana, kotohu kautuke, bhojan korilo sukhe Tambula sajaiya, kono sakhi loiya, dohara badane dilo Ei kesha kusume, apada vadane, nichiya nichiya nilo Kusuma talape, alape alape, bosila-radhika-shyama Alase ishato, nayana mudila, heriya mohita kama

Dekhi sakhigana, kotohu jatane, shutayaso duhu taya Sakhira ingite, carana sevite, ei dasa Vaishnava dhaya

Rasavati Rai and Shyama-rasa raja swiftly descend from the hindola, enter a ratna mandir, and sit on jeweled asanas. The seva parayana sakhis fan with chamaras. One sakhi offers scented water, and wipes their faces with a soft cloth. Then large plates of assorted sweets are brought before them. Thus Radha and Krishna enjoy a delightful feast with the sakhis. Afterwards, a sakhi slips pan into their mouths. And them Radha Madhava are decorated with flowers from head to foot and escorted to the flower bed. Feeling tired, Sri Yugala Kishors eyes slightly close, yet mohana kama awakens! And seeing the situation, the sakhis carefully put them to rest. Then will the sakhis que, Vaishnava dasa comes to massage their lotus feet. This kirtan concludes the Jhulan Festival Madhu Pana Lila (The Pastime of Drinking Honey) 77 Thereafter, Krishna takes the Vraja kishoris and enter a cool, shady madhavi kutir to enjoy a brief rest. Pana means to drink, hence madhu pana is a pastime centered around drinking madhu (intoxicating honey). This lila unfolds in the northern section of Lalitas kunja (see Chapter 7, verses 66 and 67). 78 As Pitambara Vanamali sit at one end of the madhavi kutir, the padma nayana Vraja sundaris form two circular rows sitting on both sides of him. Thus Krishna looks like an Indranila mani* locket within a golden necklace. 79 Using their reddish palms, that are more beautiful than lotuses, the sakhis grasp five chamara whisks. And in param-anand they fan their Priyatama Radha and Madana Mohan, who are fatigued from the jhulan kelis exertion.

The seva parayanis sakhis move into action. In unison they twirl chamaras and view Radha Krishnas faces, which easily eclipse Kandarpa, the devata of beauty! And having enjoyed jhulan, their fatigue brings on more and more intrigue. Rai Vinodinis keli shranta madhura-anga is a feast for Shyamasundars eyes- and for the manjaris eyes too. Being sama-prana (merged in spirit) they share a very intimate tie with Srimati. 80 As the sakhis fan and massage Radha Krishnas charana padma, Vrinda arrives and places a jug of madhu before the Divine Couple. As Sri Yugala Kishors vigour returns. Vrinda introduces the next lila vinoda. She brings a dazzling, crystal decanter that attracts everyones attention. Yet before the sakhis can see what it is, she smiles

and places it before the Divine Couple. Vrindas madhu arouses Madanas intoxication; it servers the gopis modesty and resistance. Thus the Madhu-pana pastime destroys all of the impediments leading to Krishnas rati keli mahotsava. 81 Sundari-tanu Rai and Shyamasundar both curiously glance into the canister. Now one might guess: Aha! Are two sets of hummingbirds darting over the blue and the golden lotus within the honey jar? The nila kamala is Krishnas face, the svarna kamala is Radhas the hummingbirds are their dancing eyes. 82 Aho! Radhas bee-like eyes swiftly fly to the nila padma in the honey and get stuck! Similarly, Krishna is unable to remove his eyes from the svarna kamala! Owing to the honeys pure, glossy texture, Radha and Krishnas faces reflect brilliantly. Yet their bee-like eyes grieve, unable to touch either the blue or the golden lotus. 83-85 How amazing! Before drinking, they become drunk! Radha and Krishnas beauty is the elixir, their mouths are glasses and the madhu is the mirror. Thus, as their eyes turn into bees, and their senses turn into eyesthey become drunk seeing One another! So Ananga stuns Radha Krishna as their reel in horriplation! Kundalata comments: Hey Kamala-nayani Rai and Padma Lochan Shyama! I see that youve sipped the madhu with your eyes, and refreshened it with your facesso now its time to taste it with your tongues. Balanuja takes the jar and places it up to Radhikas lips, saying: Hey Priya, drink this! Radha then lowers her head and grasp the decanter. Our Radha Thakurani always take the remnants of Krishnas prasad. But here is an exception. During madhu-pana the nayika takes first sip for this is the rasa-riti (lovess custom). Krishnas request pana kora (drink) can mean either: Drink the madhu, or Kiss my lips! Hence, Radha shyly lowers her head as she contemplates the second definition. 86-91 Concealing her face with her veil, Sudha-mukhi Rai sniffs the madhus fragrance, flavors it with her lips and passes it to Krishna. Krishna thinks, This madhu is priya* because it comes from my priya-Vrindavans trees and latas. But now Priyaji lips have touched it, after her priya sakhis flavored it with their joking; and moreover, Priyaji has affectionately offered it to me herself! So how can I resist? Thus Krishna with gusto! Charmed by Radhas qualities, Krishna passes the madhu back to her. Thus she veils her face and drinks the honey scented by Krishnas lips. Vrinda mixes more madhu with Radh-Krishnas adharamrita, and pours it into many glasses. Then

she and Kundalata serve all of the sakhis. Then Krishna performs some magic. He manifests his form beside each Vraja sundari. But as they drink, each gopi sees only the Krishna standing beside her! We learn from the Bhagavata that Krishna expands himself to accompany each gopi during Rasa. But Govinda-lilamrita shows that this amazing feat happens during every major lila. 92-93 When drinking kadambari (kadamba flower madhu) the Vraja-Sundaris blooming eyes roll and turn red around the borders. Their facial fragrance attracts the bees, their delicate lips display moonbeam-smiles and the madhu enhances their incredible effulgence and beauty. Hence these pretty faces become the drinking vessels which quench Krishnas thirst! While drinking madhu ones thirst increases. But its the sakhis beauty which over intoxicates Krishna! So he kisses their sweet lips to extract more of their adhara-madhu. 94 Similarly, Krishnas lips become the drinking-vessels for the mriga locana* Vraja kishoris who are intoxicated with kama, too! Madhu causes the gopis shy, resisting natures to turn about-face. Yet Madhusudans sweet lips intoxicated them to the most. 95 Meanwhile, Vrinda and her assistants bring an assortment of snacks and beverages. Rasa-tarangini Tika: While drinking madhu hunger awakens. The appetizers which stimulate the madhus effect are called vidamsha. 96-97 But Vrinda and her sahacharis* become drunk simply by the darshan madhuri of Radha Krishna and the sakhis enjoying the vidamsha with the madhu. In Krishnas drunken state the gopis lips are the vidamsha. But when everyone becomes drunk by kissing, and because of the madhu, bewilderment sets in. Then the ability to recognize what is the madhu, and what is the appetizer and who is the lover, and who is the beloved, becomes lost! This shloka brings to mind an interesting siddhanta r~ ?dh~ ?-kr??s??n??a eka ~ ?tm ~ ?, dui deha dhari' anyonye vilase rasa ~ ?sv~ ?dana kari' Radha and Krishna are one atma who become two bodies for enjoying prema vilasa. (CC 1.4.56) So as they are non-different, Krishna is Radha, and Radha is Krishna. Hence, sometimes Radha behaves like Krishna, and vice versa. In Krishnahnika-kaumudis madhu pana narration, Srila Kavi Karnapur gives the following instance of this:

During the height of separation, Radhas intense Krishna meditation makes her believe that she is Krishna! Then Krishna also thinks that he is Radha. But due to the madhus intoxicating effect, this remarkable event now takes place. So with a madhura smile, Radhika address Krishna : Hey Radhe! and Krishna answers, Hey Krishna! Radha asks, Oh, are you my dasi? Krishna says, Na, na! Youre my prana I cant live without you! Then Radha Krishnas rati keli begins and this reversal of roles reaches its ecstatic peak in viparita vilasa! (Krishnahnika-kaumudi 6.63-64) 98 The combined intoxication of Kamadevas spring, the madhu and Krishnas touch completely devastates the Vraja tarunis! Vasanta Madana awakens a sundari ramanis erotic desires, and so does the madhuyet the most intoxicating effect comes from Madana Mohans mohaniya touch! So how much can the gopis endure? 99-101 The gopis are drunk with Varuniso they dont notice their clothes and ornaments slipping away. Sometimes they laugh loudly or lament without a cause, and sometimes they question that were never asked! The madhu act as Krishnas dear friend. For without any endeavor everything favorable for his Kandarpa Vilasa happens automatically: The gopis approach him, their clothes fall off, their hair loosens and their voices falter! Besides, the sulochana gopis please Krishna with their red eyes, flatering gait, fragrant breath, joking, restless glance and forward behavior which are caused by drinking three-types of madhu. The three types of madhu are 1) vrikshaja, i.e., made from tree sap, 2) phalaja, made from fruit juice, and 3) gudaja, from molasses and spices. However, the gopis are also intoxicated by the wine of Krishnas beauty, his saundarya-madhu, and the wine of his lips, or adhara-madhu. 102-109 The kamala nayana gopis conceal the deep Krishna anuraga in their hearts, and guard it with their feminine shyness. But with the madhus influence, that anuraga now resides in their lotus eyes! Meanwhile, one rolling-eyed navina kishori, drunk for the first time, deliriously blurts out: Oh La-la-lite! Loo-oo-oo-ok! Radha Shya-a-a-a-m-a are ro-o-o-o-lling with the sk-sk-sky, a-a-and the fo-o-o-rest! The ea-r-r-rth is tu-ur-ur-ning! How-w-w is-s-s tha-a-at ha-a-a-a-pen-ing-g-g? Krishnas surata keli lalasita lola locana (intoxicated rolling-eyes anxious for rati keli) petition the

gopis. Their pupils dart like mad bees trapped inside a red lotus which tosses in the breezes. Thus Madhusudan enjoys the sakhis as a maudlin madhukara wanders through a lotus patch! Radha and Krishna are served by two friends the desire for rati vilasa and the desire to sleep. But the sakhis simply want to sleep. Understanding Sri Yugala Kishors amorous mood, Kundalata sends Padma Lochan Krishna out to gather ashok flowers for decorating Srimatis ears. Meanwhile, tired, rolling-eyed Radha is escorted by her dasis to a special nikunja within Lalitas bower where she is placed upon a flower-bed. Kundalata thinks, If Krishna leaves, the sakhis will go to take rest in their respective kunjas. Then Krishna can privately meet Radha (Krishna will search for Radha to decorate her with the ashok flowers and find her alone). The manjari escort Swaminiji to the padma mandir in the south-west corner of Lalitas bower. Then they begin fanning her chamaras and massaging her lotus feet. 110-114 The sakhis bodies are fragrant, but they are even more so when they yawn. As they are thus rollingeyed and sleepy, they stumble into their respective kunjas and fall asleep. 111The sakhis shayan kunjas are profusely decorated with lotuses and other flowers, along with gunja-wreaths and flower stems. The beds are made of soft leaves and covered by lotus petals and pollen. Beside them there are scented water-flasks and pan-containers. The bees are bizzing to-and-fro attracted by the flowers. Thus each padma vadana sakhi arrives in her own kunja, flutters her eyes like a hummingbird, falls into bed and goes to sleep.

115As the result of Sri Rupa Goswamis mature seva; aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Devas lotus feet, at the request of Sri Raghunath Das, in the association of Sri Jiva, and with the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, here ends the fourteenth chapter of Govinda-lilamrita. Krishna-bhavanamrita describes the madhu-pana lila on another day as follows: Krishna tells Radhika: Hey Priye! Madana is the King of this land, his chief minister is the intoxicating madhu, the cool malayan breezes is his military commander, the bees are his spies, the kokilas are his jury, the resisting Vraja kishoris are his guilty criminals and the Govardhan caves are his jails. Thus arriving at the tirtha named Rasauli with the gopis, Krishna continues: Hey Radhe! This is the place where We perform Vasanti-Rasa. Lets rest here for a while. So everyone sits down to relax. Then Vrinda arrives, bringing honey. But when Radhas eyes glance over the golden pot, she discovers Krishnas face reflected in the honey, and thinks, Aha! How sundar! My Priyatamas face is much sweeter than madhu! So with full concentration Radhikas eyes are being drinking the honey. Then she further contemplates: Hey Providence! The Vraja gopis minds always burn in a fire of anxiety for Krishnas darshan! Yet youve created shyness which makes us curse you! For its shyness that keeps us from looking at Krishna to our hearts content. But after creating madhu,

youve given us an undisturbed darshan of Krishnas mukharavinda! Thus we forgive your aparadhaand offer hundreds of praises. When Krishna notices his reflection appearing on Radhas face, he says, Oh Prana-priye! Youre drinking my vadana kamala by force so I cant imagine what will happen when you drink the madhu! But suddenly Radhika becomes disenchanted, and the sakhis lament, Oh no! Radhas darshan madhuri within the honey jar has been ruined by Krishnas tactlessness! Then Krishna holds the madhu jar, places it under Radhas lips, and repeatedly exclaims, Oh Priye! pana koro, pana koro! (drink, drink!) But Radhika smiles and raises her eyebrows, saying, Na, na, na! and turning her face. Then restless-eyed Rassa-rangi Krishna gazes upon Radhika and forcefully makes her drink the honey! He also induces Lalita and the other sakhis to drink! And very soon the gopis eyes turn red, their clothes loosen and they become drunk as their shyness vanishes. Hence, they themselves induce each other to drink more. Radhika becomes dizzy and loses her discrimination. The drunken Vraja sundaris exclaim: Wh-wh-why is the su-su-sun fa-al-al-ing? Wh-wh-why is the ea-r-r-th tu-r-r-rning? Kri-Kri-Kri-shss-na, sa-s-ave us! One gopi embraces Krishna around the waist, another embraces his arms, another takes hold his chest, while the other gopis clasp onto his back! By these endeavors the sakhis oranas slip away, their braided hair comes undone and their heavy breasts smite Krishnas lips! Thus he firmly embraces each gopi to reciprocate. But the drunken Vraja ramanis forcefully kiss Krnsa! And seeing this unsual behavior, the manjaris try to cover their smiles; but how long is that possible? As Krishna sees the manjaris faces lighting up with laughter, he addresses them: Oh restless-eyed kinkaris! What have your mistresses done? Look, theyre ganging up to defeat me! Oh! Im surely lucky that you havent joined them! Meanwhile, Sri Madhumati Sakhi offers Krishna the madhu jar to intoxicate him. But he only places it to his lips and instructs the Vraja yuvatis, pana koro, pana koro! Drink, drink! The Vraja tarunis soon lose all composure and fail to discern: Are we male or female? Is it night or day? and What are we doing ? But as they talk like mad-women, Krishna points to show the manjaris. Hence Tulasi asks, Oh Prabhu! Why didnt you drink the madhu? Krishna replies, Hey Tulasi! Im constantly drinking the madhu of their faces; cant you see whats going on? But look, now were perspiring. So why dont you come closer and fan us with a chamara? Fearing the Nagarendra will grab them, Tulasi and the other manjaris neglect the command. But vidagdha Madhava understands their hesitation, so he places the jug up to his lips and pretends to drink he even pretends to be drunk. Thus the manjaris smile and approach him. But then Kundalata comes from behind to bolt the door! Aho! Restless Nagara Raja grabs the manjaris and forcefully kisses their sweet lips. They retort, Na, na, na! and try to stop him, but

Ananga Deva personally comes to release his arrows and Krishnas rahasya lila begins! Then Krishna drinks the madhu and becomes intoxicated, so the manjaris are saved from drinking more. Thus, after rati keli, they take up chamaras to remove Krishnas pearl necklace of perspiration. The sakhis were covered by the Rahu of over-intoxication; but as the madhus effect slowly wears off, the moon of their consciousness returns. Then their surata sukha with Krishna becomes incomparable! And seeing their ecstasy, even those who hadnt been drinking are wonderstruck! Chapter Fifteen Continued Madhyahna Pastimes 10:48 a.m.3:36 p.m. Rati Keli, Jala Keli and Bhojana Vilasa. 1-2 Thereafter, Krishna places two ashok clusters beside each ear, collects some more in hand, and returns to the madhupan vedi. But not seeing Radha, he becomes anxious. Then Vrinda hints that she has gone to the padma mandir, so Krishna goes there. When an intoxicated elephant plunges into the Ganga, the swans fly away. Similarly, the sakhis hide themselves upon seeing rati rasika Shyamasundar arriving in Radhas presence! As the krishna matta matanga- intoxicated black elephant- approaches Surata-rangini Rai ( Radha, the enjoyer of rati keli. Broken up as sura-tarangini, it means the river of the gods, i.e., the Ganges), the manjaris move to their hidden vantage positions. 3-9 Just as an intoxicated elephant enters a river and scatters the moss and uproots the lotus with its trunk, Krishnas lusty eyes drink the beauty of Radhikas form, while his hands remove her kanchuli and unfasten her lower garments! But because Radha is sleeping, she considers Krishnas advances to be a dream: Do-o-ont touch me! Wh-a-a-at do-o-o yo-o-o-u want? Let me sle-e-e-p! My eyes are ro-o-o-l-ling! she says. Thus, in her sleep Radha smiles, cries, mumbles and rebukes Krishna, mistaking everything for a dream! But aho! As Radhika awakens she sees the same thing happening! Intoxicated by both Kandarpa and the madhu, Srimati opens her eyes, but waking or sleeping her words and actions are exactly the same! Radha resists, both due to being vama and to being shy, and so Krishna attacks with more vigor! But seeing this aggression, Radhas waistbells fall silent in fear, while her ankle bells shriek into the sky! The Kaviraj portrays Krishna attack like that of a lion. Although Radhas waistbells fear the lion and remain silent, as she kicks her feet to resist, her nupur, ankle bells, loudly bellow as if screaming for help! 10-16 As Krishnas hands latch onto her neck, Priyaji pitifully pleads for Krishnas mercy in a fascinating

tone! Using the clubs of his strong arms, Krishna tears down the fortress of Radhas resistance! Then the military commanders of Krishnas bodysuch as his lips, nails, teeth, chest, hands, shoulders and faceplunder the beautiful city of Radhas body! hat jewels are looted from the city of Radhikas body? Krishnas nails plunder her the jewel of her youth (yauvana-ratna) from her kucha kumbhas (breasts)! He bites Radhas lips, plundering her adharamrita, and his arms batter her body, stealing the sparsha ratna from her breasts! Then Krishna clasps Radhas hair as his lips steal her five best jewels her chumbaka ratnashidden in her cheeks, eyes and forehead! Aho! Witnessing Krishnas lootingthe shield of Radhas shyness snaps! She calls on her general, Boldness the Great, to unite all her military commanders headed by her nails, teeth and lips, to launch a counterattack in the Maha Kandarpa battle ! Krishna kanta Rai attacks like a purusha. Aho! She blows like a lioness and her kinkinis jingle like the victory beat of a dundubhi drum! Rati-rana-pandita (A scholar of Ratis battles) Sri Bhanu-Kishoris nitamba parvat (mountain-like buttocks) delivers crushing blows! Thus her kinkinis jingle like the devatas dundubhi drum as they defeat the asuras! 17 Seeing their Swamini defeating the ever-unconquerable (ajita) Krishna, the male dancers of her earrings and the lady dancer of her pearl necklace frantically perform in jubilation! Radhas face and breasts vigorously rotate over Krishnas chest! 18 After stealing Radhas jewels from her lips and breasts, Krishna hid amongst his own treasures. But Radhas teeth and nails not only recover her own along with the rest of Krishnas riches! Hence it is true what is said, Stolen goods ultimately lead to the loss of what one has. Ratimati Rai smothers Krishna in kisses and scratches his body with her nails even more than he did to her! 19-20As Radhas General Boldness takes command, her heroic eyes and brows ride in the chariot of her lotus face to plunder the honey from Krishnas mukharvinda! But suddenly the bumblebee guards of Krishnas eyes are alerted, so Radhas lovely eyes swiftly retreat! The heroic attack of Krishnas glance causes Radhas eyes to close in fear. Thus, even though her soldier-eyes had advanced far into Krishna territory, they fled, and behind them, her entire body army seemed to collapse! When Radhika took the dominating role, Krishnas eyes were closed. Hence she began drinking his unguarded mukha madhu without getting satiated. But when Krishnas eyes reopen to meet hers, she instantly closes them in shyness. Her General Boldness flees the battlefield and all her other heroic fighters such as her nails, lips and teeth surrender, and her body collapses over Krishnas! 21-22 Radhas forehead is covered by curling hairs and soaked in perspiration. Her nitamba is motionless,

her stana yugala rises and falls with heavy breathing, her arms are slack and eyes half closed. Witnessing Radhas defeat in the battle of love, Krishna experiences paramananda! Although Kandarpa Raja had ordered Rai Vinodini to attack Krishna with a purushas vigor its not amazing that she suddenly collapsed from fatigue. After all, a delicate young woman will always remain the weaker party. Rasa-tarangini Tika: The word abalA or weak is a synonym for woman. So here Kaviraj Goswami says that since women are called the weaker sex, they will always be true to their name. In the Shringar-shataka, however, Bhartri-hari writes a nice verse that clearly shows where the power of women lies: nUnaM hi te kavi-varA viparIta-vAco ye nityam Ahur abal iti kAminIs tAH yAbhir vilolitara-tAraka-dRSTi-pAtaiH zakrAdayopi vijitAs tv abalAH kathaM tAH Surely the great poets have used the wrong word when they described women as the weaker sex, for by the quivering movements of the pupils of their eyes, even the gods like Indra have been subjugated. So how can they be called weak? (zRGgAra-zataka, 10) 23-28 Radha is naked, her motionless limbs lay on Krishnas chest, drenched in perspiration, she utters soft, indistinct words and her eyes are slightly closed from fatigue. Thus Radha appears like a sthira saudamini (still lightning) within a nava jaladhara (fresh raincloud)! Radhas tummy presses Krishnas with her heavy breathing. Was it to wake Krishna who had been stunned in ecstasy so that he would perform her seva? But this is the custom in our world too, a sleeping person is awakened by a gentle tummy rub. Its true, the stunning madhurya of doe-eyed Radhas tired body is also her sevika; for a keen desire awakens in Krishna to touch it, and to relish its darshan madhuri! Hence, Krishnas desire joins the maidservant of Radhas fatigue. He rises and uses his own hand to lovingly remove the perspiration from her body. Then using his chador, Krishna straightens Radhas ruffled hair. Radha orders Krishna, Arrange my clothes and ornaments! But he hesitates. Then after Radha requests him for the third time, he agrees. Yet Krishnas touch arouses vibhrama or bewilderment in Radha. Thus she forbids him, saying, Hey Ramana, who asked you to dress me? Stop wasting your time and leave me alone! These heavy ornaments are not pleasing to me. I feel dizzyso let me sleep for a while. After vilasa keli, Radha understands that Krishna experienced great pleasure, so her pride brings on her svadhina bhartrika mood. Thus Madhava Manohari Rai dictates: Oh Prana-kanta! Quickly dress me before Lalita and the others arrive to tease me! But Krishna wants to join the sakhis in teasing Radha and doesnt pay heed. So only after Radhas repeated coaxing does he begin. But Shyama Nagaras touch arouses Madans intoxication! Hence, in her prema vibhrama, erotic stupor, Radha forgets her request. 29 Seeing Prema-mani Rai smiling, whimpering and murmuring sweet words, Krishna is pelted by

Ananga and smiles in wonder! Radhas whimpering adds camphor to her madhu like smile. And when her indistinct, sweet kathamrita is combined with this, she becomes irresistable! Hence, Krishnas unblinking chakora eyes turn lusty to drink Radhas mukha chandramrita! 30-31 The manjaris happiness is Radha Krishnas Yugala seva. They were eagerly waiting outside. Then, seeing the right moment, they enter, carrying pan and other seva paraphernalia. Overwhelmed by Yugala prema, the manjaris bring pan, scented water, fragrant perfumes and flower malas. Some take up chamaras to fan while others massage their charana kamala. Hence, Radha Krishnas fatigue vanishes and they experience paramananda. These two shlokas describe the goal of rupanuga devotion. One is to meditate on performing similar types of service in manjari bhava. The school of Vrindavanas Goswamis has produced volumes of literature to teach this process; and they themselves are Radhas closest maidservant, whom all are to follow. 32 Radhika smiles and winks at Krishna: Hey Priyatama! Im unhappy without my lotus-faced sakhis. But theyre sleeping in their kunjas to get relief from the madhus effect. So hey Ramana! Why dont you go wake them up and bring them here? The sakhis are Radhas prana (life)and Radhika is sakhi-sukha sukhini (happy when the sakhis are happy). So after enjoying rati keli with Shyamasundar, she desires that he enjoy them too. However, because the manjaris are present, Srimati doesnt directly state this, rather she talks in a round-about way, and hints with a wink. 33-34 Krishna has no intention to leave Radha for having rati keli elsewhere. However, by Radhas repeated entreaties he finally agrees. Thus Krishna leaves like an intoxicated elephant to enjoy the Vraja-padminis. Krishna thinks, Who shall I visit first? Lalita? Or Vishakha? How about Chitra? While thus meditating, Krishna joyfully expands into many murtis to join each sakhijust as the Paramatma accompanies every jiva. Each sakhi is dear to Krishna. Thus to honor their glorious prema, HIS own potency Yogamaya enables him to visit all of them at once. This shouldnt appear astonishingKrishna already resides as the Paramatma within every living being. Therefore, he is Gopi-vallabhaand Jiva-Vallabha too. 35 Meanwhile, just as Yutheshwari Radha enjoyed Krishnas sambhoga (during dreaming and waking) the sakhis experience the same wonder! Krishnas prema lila with the sakhis is similar to his lila with Radha, which was described in verses 15.3-14 of Govinda Lilamrita.

36-39 Aho! Krishna is the best wrestler. He bouts with all of the sakhis in arm to arm combat, and wins! Meanwhile, Radhika rests in the Padma kunja. But when she awakens, the manjaris assist her then they follow her to the Radha Kund-Ghata. If a yajna area is cleansed many times it will still look like yajna area. So as Krishna redresses and redecorates the sakhis, carefully trying to remove his love marks with his own hand, still his Kandarpa yajna performance with them cannot be concealed! So as the sakhis approach Radha, they crease their eyebrows in feigned anger. But their heads are lowered in shame, their arms hang loosely, and their eyes squint as they stagger up to the ghat. The sakhis feign anger because Radha sent Krishna to them, but in fact, it is a loving anger (praNaya-roSa). There is a frolicsome contest between Radha and her sakhis that adds flavor to Krishnas rati keli rasa. When Radha is caught, the sakhis tease her, and when Radha gets the chance she teases them back. 40 Krishna resumes one murti, leaves the nikunjas and joins Madhumangal and Subala. As they smile and approach Radha, she is smiling too. 41 Then the outspoken Kundalata introduces a jovial dice game in which Krishna is to preside over the assembly of Vrinda and the sakhis as the sabhapati. The stakes are everyones embarrassment, and when Kundalata reveals all the sakhis bruise marks they immediately suffer a humiliating defeat! The sakhis are still pridefully sulking because Radha jokingly questioned their character. However, it appears to be a stalemate, as neither side succumbs to defeat. But when Vrinda, Kundalata and Nandimukhi arrive on the scene, Rai Rangini takes advantage of their help to introduce a one-sided dice match. She asks them to be the spectators and makes Krishna the Chief Guest. Then the challenge is setwho can deliver the most embarrassment! Radha first questions: Oh Priya sakhis! Why are you silent as you shyly lower your heads? Having slept alone, whats there to be ashamed of? But seeing your tired eyes, I suspect that you havent slept a wink. So what happened in those nikunjas? One prideful sakhi retorts, Aha! The mastermind behind the scandal is pleading innocent! Shrewd women like you should be put on trial first! Radha replies, Am I right, or wrong? You are many and he is alone. How could he succeed against your will? And I didnt hear one peep of resistance coming from the nikunjas. So certainly you must have welcomed that Vilasi Nagara satisfying his fancy? Because Vrinda caught you red-handed, I see, youve become like perplexed deer! Ananda dayini Kundalata interrupts, Oh Raja Nandini Rai! Youre mistaken! These shuddha satis are innocent! The countless marks adorning their breasts and faces arent new, theyre timeless. Theyre not the charity of an outsider, but their own personal property. As Radha, Krishna and the others hear Kundalatas version, everyone laughs! But, although the sakhis are embarrased, their loving anger dissolvesfor they are caught like minnows within Chaturini (tricky) Rais net of affection! 42

Madhusudans madhura rati lila is like a fathomless amrita sagara where not even Brahma or Shiva have access, what to speak of others. Only some rare pranayi bhaktas who descend the steps of love can enter and swim in its ambrosia. As for poets like myself, we stand on the shore and it is only by great good fortune that we can even touch it! Jala Keli (Water Sporting) I 43 Thereafter, seeing Sri Yugala Kishor and the sakhis rati keli fatigue, the seva para dasis - the manjaris, who are dedicated to service, escort everyone to the waters edge to commence jala keli. The manjaris are aggrieved to see Sri Yugala Kishor and the sakhis fatigue, dishevelled dresses and rati bruises. Hence they wish to dunk everyones limbs in the soothing waters of Radha Kund. Later they will arrange their flower dresses, serve them bhojan and put them to rest in the flower mandir.

Krishna-bhavanamrita presents the following prelude to the jala keli lila at Radha Kund: As Vrinda leads everyone to the kunda she says, Hey Madhava! These shores are the beautiful crown-jewel of all the three worldsfor they shelter your prema vilasa with Radha! So even the best poet is unfit to praise their glories! (14.8 ) Thus Sri Yugala Kishor arrive to curiously look from the golden sangama bridge bordering Radha Kund and Shyama Kund. Then Krishna exclaims, Hey Rangini Radhe! Look at all the birds flocking to your kund! Usually each species calls only in its seasonthe kokilas in the spring, the tittibha in the summer, the chataka in the monsoon, the swans in the autumn, the parrots in the hemanta and the haritas during the winter. But because the six seasons always manifest here, these birds sing together. Krishna continues: Hey Vinodini Rai! Look at the bees maha-mahotsava! Theyre enjoying the madhu of every seasonal flowerthe springs nava mallika, the summers mridu mallika, the monsoons yuthika, the autumns lotus, the hemantas kuruntaka and the winters kunda flowers. Hey Rasika Radhe! These bees are like a householder with many wives who even though they have vowed to visit them only when they are most fertile, are constantly occupied in going from one to another. Oh slim-figured Radhike! The trees and latas surrounding your sarovar provide shade, yet since they are so high, even the midday sun cannot touch the water. The wind softly blows through the kundas four entrances to beg the lotus fragrance. But when the bees offer rebuke with their loud buzzing, the wind still keeps its gentle nature. Oh Rai! Isnt a humble sage like that? When he is cursed for begging alms, he remains gentle. Hey Sundari Radhe! This sarovar has all of your pleasing qualities: Your face resembles a blooming lotus, and your kund has many lotus faces. As your eyes are restless like minnows, this kund has many minnow eyes. Your delicate smile resembles the foam of a wave of sweetness. Similarly, your kund is smiling with its foaming waves. Oh sweetheart! You have a lalita veni, a lovely ponytail, and this sarovar has clusters of buzzing bees that are like a veni in appearance. Hey Mohini Rai! Your kucha yugala look like two mating chakravakas, and here on the sarovar sport many chakravakas. Hey beautiful-hipped Radhe! All of the auspicious rivers fill your kund with their ghana rasa (meaning both water and rati keli), and you delight my mind with ghana rasa. Thus Krishna holds

Radhas bangle-adorned hand and smiles, and Radha smiles too. This tender moment is indescribable. But Vrinda interrupts, saying, Hey Krishna! The person whose ghana rasa you wish to bathe in isnt a sarovar, shes the high mountain of resistance. You wont be able to enjoy her ghana rasa now, so let her go! Thus Vrinda pulls Radhas hand from Krishnas, and escorts her to another place to put on her bathing attire. (Krishna-bhavanamrita, 14.17-24) Jala Keli (Water Sporting) II 44 During rati keli the sakhis hair came undone. So the kinkaris style it in a vinoda kavari or enchanting bun that brushes their shoulders. Then they are dressed in sheer white bathing cloth and their heavier ornaments are removed to enable free movement. Hence the sulochana gopa kishoris appear exquisitely beautiful. Ka-bhvanmta adds: When Vrinda dresses Radha in a secluded place, Krishna sneaks in for a peek from behind the foliage. Then his bee-like eyes soar from the bushes, fly to Radha and land upon the tips of her flowerbud-like uncovered stana yugala! But as Radha momentarily stands unclothed, she doubts, Ill bet that Krishna is looking at me! Thus turning fidgety, her pensive eyes glance furtively hither and thither while she quickly puts on her bathing outfit. (Krishnabhavanamrita 14.25) The Kaviraj uncovers multi-meanings of the word pushkara in the following verses: 45-47 Krishna Chandras body resembles the pushkara (sky) lit by thousands of moons. His eyes look like the blooming pushkara (lotuses) of early morning, which release Madanas pushkara (flower arrows). Thus being restless to relieve his perspiring body and enjoy pushkara keli (jala keli) with his pushkarini (Radha and the Vraja padminis), Krishna enters the pushkarini (lotus-filled kunda), behaving like an intoxicated pushkari (elephant) Before the sporting begins, Krishnas eyes become like drunken elephants to ecstatically view the gopis bodies. They appear non-different from the kundafor their eyes look like lotuses, their curling hair resemble swarms of bumblebees, their breasts resemble chakravaka birds and their arms look like lotus stems. Hence, Radha Kund and the gopis have the same features. Krishna-bhavanamrita continues: After dressing, when the Vraja sundaris arrive at the waters edge, they playfully induce each other to enter. Seeing them one might wonder, Have the restless forest latas tossing in Anangas breezes twisted and turned to fall in the kunda? 48Being shy, some Vraja Devis hesitate to enter the water. Thus the others sprinkle them from the kunda. Then the shy ones try to flee, but the other gopis catch hold of their garments, and while laughing, pull them into the water! Krishnahnika-kaumudi tells that some Vraja ramas dont enter the water because the flower ornaments that Krishna made for them will get spoiled. But though theyre determined not to enter, some of the other rasamayi gopis use their lotus palms to splash them, burst with laughter!

49-50 Fearing Krishnas attack, some gopis only wade in up to their knees, or up to their hips. So Krishna splashes them from the waist-deep water! The Vraja sundaris wet garments cling to their bodies and reveal everything! Aho! By turning into intoxicated elephants, Krishnas eyes bathe in the nectar river of that delightful darshan! His own wet garments reveal his bhuvana mohana rupa. So the gopis hastini eyes also submerge in that amrita pravaha! Krishna eagerly calls the gopis. But fearing that he may grab them, they dont come. After pondering a moment, however, the gopis clasp hands, and prepare to advance forming a half-moon phalanx. Kavi Karnapur elaborates: All of the gopa kishoris hold hands forming a golden net; then they surround Krishna as the moon-rays cover a cloud. But Krishnas eyes dance while he churns the water with great force to splash everyone! Aho! He breaks the gopis phalanx! When everyones thin garments become wet, they seem to disappear. Thus Krishna and the taruni gopis feast on each others unadorned beauty! 51 Some of the Vraja tarunis were unwilling to go into deeper water out of pure vamya. They pretend to pout and shiver from the cold, yet their faces are still smiling! So Krishna grabs them and pulls them into water that reaches their navels, where they stand all around him! Vama Radha doesnt retaliate Krishnas attack. Instead, she and the sakhis put on the airs that Krishnas sudden offensive was unjust. And to support their mood, dry pouting and shivering add to the stagecraft. Yet owing to Madanas extreme pressure, they are unable to cover their smiles! Hence, Rasika Raja sees through their tactics and hugs and kisses them. 52 As the gopis splash Krishna, the pollen and madhu of white, pink, red, yellow and blue lotus flowers refresh the water. Krishna-bhavanamrita again provides more detail: The ghana rasa priya sakhis (who love the water and rati keli) begin their assault, relishing Krishnas anga shobha (bodily beauty). And surrounding him in a circle, they float over the kunda like a thousand lotus stemsled golden with a blue sapphire center piece. But as the Vraja sundaris churn the water, their minds churn Anangas rasa too! They splash in such a way that the water makes the shape of a womans breast. Then as their shyness disappears, they speak in captivating voices: Hey Krishna! Its your endless pursuit to see and touch beautiful breast, thus youve polluted the Vraja-stri community! But today youre really luckybecause look: these shapely breasts have directly appeared from the kunda! So just stare at them and fondle them to your full satisfaction! Hearing such forward words spoken by such shy women, Krishna is astonished! Thus he declares: tathastu (let it be so)! And becomes the cancala-kara-yugala-shali (restless-handed one) to touch the breast-like water formations, and then the gopis breasts! Then Krishna inquires: Oh Sundaris! Are these, or are those the stana (breasts)? But when Krishnas hands pinch the Vraja-ranginis stana yugala they giggle, and quickly move out of reach!

53-54 Above the kunda, Nandimukhi, Vrinda and Dhanishtha watch from a pavilion, throwing flower petals and cheering Jaya Radhe, Radhe! And nearby, in another pavilion, Subala, Madhumangal and Kundalata shower flowers, but they are shouting, Jaya Krishna! Jaya Krishna! Although Dhanishtha is a maidservant in Krishnas home, shes anxious for Radhas victory. Similarly, Kundalatas life is Radha, Yet she hopes to see Krishna win. But everyone pleases Radha Govinda with their endeavors. Krishna-bhavanamrita elaborates: As Kundalatas minnow-eyes glide over the kunda, she sees the Vraja sundaris retreating and wants to reverse the situation to witness their expertise in Anangas combat. Thus she says, : Hey Krishna! Youre like a jaladhara (raincloud), and Ill bet that you can turn these ramanis into jaladharas too! So lets see you achieve the syllable ja (jaya), and enjoy the syllable stu (praise). In other words, you become the victor, so the gopis will offer you due praise! But while speaking the pun, Kundalata mistakenly says the stu first and the ja last, which gives the opposite meaning. Hence, Krishna inquires, Hey Kundalata! What are you saying? Kundalata gravely tries to correct herself, but the gopis interrupt, Hey Shyama! Just see! Saraswati has blocked Kundalatas intelligence to preserve the truth. Thus we shall win and receive your due praise! Krishna retorts: Hey garvinis (proud girls)! If you win, Ill reward you with a kiss. Aha! Youre already anticipating that bliss, and thus youre mad for victory! But if I win, where can I hide to enjoy the spoils? Im unable to see a befitting place. Next Krishna asks, Hey Nandimukhi! What should we offer for the bet? Please decide and tell us. Nandi replies, Hey Vraja-yuva Raja! Smriti-shastra declares that when a wealthy person loses a bet, his victor can tie him up usurp his wealth! Krishna replies with a smile: Hey Nandi! Were all wealthy, and our necklaces, bracelets, armlets and anklebells are our riches. So if I win, Ill take the gopis ornaments. Then Ill bind them within my embrace! But the gopis raise their eyebrows and loudly rebuke Nandimukhi! 55 Aho! The battle begins! Thus the gopis and Krishna gently splash water back and forth. And soon both sides begin splashing in frantic competition! But the frightened Vraja-padminis lower their heads and cover their eyes, noses, ears and faces with their palms! Krishna-bhavanamrita describes: Surrounding the Kala-cand and using the red-lotus-bows of their palms, the Gaurangi kalavatis splash infinite streams of water-arrows which cascade over Krishnas body like Kamadevas onslaught! However, when strength is required, Hari can outmanoeuvre the nitambinis. So he encircles them alljust like a lion, to begin his maha-assault! And the gopis are unable to withstand so much water! Thus abandoning hopes for victorywithout any other coursethey lower their hands and cover their faces! Seeing Krishnas skill, Madhumangal shouts: Hey sakhe! Youve won, youve won! Look, these proud nitambinis are trying to hide their valuable ornaments and flee! So quickly snatch them away and give them to me! Ill sell them at the Mathura-bazar, but sweets and be back in no time! Batus outlandish angers Lalita, who answers, Oh-hey rascal! Just wait! Well take revenge later!

Meanwhile, Krishna moves in on the Vraja-padminis to fondle and kiss them! He also snatches away their ornaments! Thus a gopis shrieks: Oh, my necklace is gone! Another cries: Hey, my bangles were taken! Another Kishori laments, Aha! Who stole my kinkini mala? 56-59 As Krishna relishes the gopis beauty he becomes a thousand-eyed (sahasra-locana)! He approaches them with thousands of feet (sahasra-pAda) and embraces them to his chest with thousands of arms (sahasra bahu)! Then with thousands of hands (sahasra-kara) Krishna fondles the doe-eyed gopis chakravaka breasts as they stand in belly-deep water with blooming lotus faces! Watching Krishna, Madhumangala becomes inspired to joyfully chant the Purusha-sukta hymn from the Rigveda, O Lord of a thousand feet, a thousand eyes and a thousand arms! In the other pavilion, Nandimukhi smiling recites a verse from the Bhagavad-gita, sarvatah pani-padam sarvatokshi-shiro-mukham (Everywhere are the Lords hands and feet, and everywhere are his heads, eyes and faces)! Here Krishna display his aishvarya (opulence) simply to enhance his madhura focus on the gopis. Madhumangal puts on an air of seriousness (covering his smile) and recites the mantras as if to say: Aha! How wonderful! All of Vishnus grandeur is adventing to topple the gopis pride! Nandimukhi is Madhumangals sister, and a witty joker, just as Madhu is. Although she cheered for for Radha, the waves of Lila Purushottams bliss now submerge everyone! So even Nandimukhi is unable to check her laughter as she recites another verse praising Lord Vishnus prowess, this time from the Smriti, to authenticate the Shruti version. 60-61 Krishna, like a raincloud, showers torrents of water upon the lata-like gopis from all directions! Then Shyama-jaladhara (cloud) thinks, The gopis paint red alta on the bottom of their feet, but their natural redness is much more beautiful. After trying to defeat the alta, however, the natural redness of their feet was defeated also from remaining in the water too long. Sri Krishna is refered to as a jaladhara-mAlA (cloud chain) in this verse, but that is also the name of the meter in which the verse is written. 62-63 The gopa sundaris enjoy Krishnas sprinkling, but lose interest in the battle as their lata-like arms become tired and their hair, garments and garlands loosen! Then Krishna takes the padminis into the deep, clear water and performs vastra haranaleaving them unclothed! But seeing their plight, the kundas waves befriend them to offer lotus leaves for cover. Sri Krishnas prema-siJcita-jala (prema-sprinkled water) thrills the gopis hearts! Yet, as they become tired, they are unable to withstand any more and so they try to escape into the deeper water. But Rasikendra does not give in. He assumes many murtis and snatches away all of their garments to enjoy their darshan madhuri. But the gopis are luckythe kunda comes to their rescue, bringing many lotus leaves floating on her waves. Thus they can quickly cover themselves.

64 Seeing her priya sakhis golden faces and pan-tainted lips turning pale from Krishnas constant bombardment, manju-bhashini (sweet-spoken, the name of a Sanskrit meter) Radha becomes zealous to conquer him with a smashing victory! Here the Kaviraj calls Radha manju-bhashini or sweet-spoken, but the verse has also been composed in the maju-bhi meter. 65-66 Radha and Krishna forbid the sakhis to interfere as they begin contending with each other. Although the combat begins with a water fight, it progresses hand to hand, nail to nail, mouth to mouth and finally tooth to tooth! But meanwhile, the sakhis surround Sri Yugala Kishor, forming a protective curtain! : As Radha and Krishna directly focus on each other, Kandarpas strength becomes overwhelming! Hence jala keli turns into rati keli! Then the sakhis surround the Divine Couple to hide their raholila from the others. 67-69 In the joy of each others company, Krishna begins to slow down from the bliss, and Radha is also becoming intoxicated by ecstatic feelings! Seeing this, Lalita exclaims, Hey Rai! You can stop now! Look! Krishnas crown has fallen, his Kaustubha gem has taken shelter of your cheeks in the guise of their reflection, and his earrings are shaking in fear! Besides that, his tilak has been washed away and his garland torn to pieces! Krishna is worn out, sakhi, so lets not torture him any more! Every time either Rai or Kanu took the upper hand in their water fight, the cheering and laughing of their respective supporting parties would become louder. The cheering from both pavilions is captivating. With Krishnas victory, Subala shouts, To win at jala keli one requires strong arms. But these nitambinis strength lies in their nitambas! And seeing Krishnas defeat, Vishakha exclaims, Aha! Look! Were longer the helpless kumaris Krishna exploited during the vastra-harana! How could our dignified Raja-Kumari Rai let him get away with such scandalous behavior? 70-71 When Krishnas cognizance returns, he pulls Rai Kamalini into neck-deep water. Then he dunks her head under as an elephant uses its trunk to play with a golden lotus! 7But Padmini Rai swims for a moment, just as a padma glides over the water after being released from an elephants trunk. Then with her lotus-stem arms she anxiously embraces her Krishna elephant around the neck. The hair around her face looks like long strands of algae covering a svarna padma. To regain support from Krishnas dunking her, Rai Rangini embraces him around the neck, and begins kicking her feet to use her Rasika Nagara like an air mattrress. 72 Meanwhile, the sakhis move to the neck-deep water and hide within a golden lotus patch. But because their faces resemble golden lotuses, they become invisible. So Radha asks, Hey Priya!

Where have the sakhis gone? Can you find them? Thus Srimati introduces a game of hide-and-seek. 73 Following Radhas advice, Krishna leaves her in the deep water and goes searching for the Vraja padminis, but as he enters the blooming padma vana, Rai Kishori also goes to hide amongst the golden lotuses. LukA-curi (hide and seek) is a regular pastime on the land also. Bhavanamrita briefly mentions this during Vana vihara. In Vidagdha-mAdhava, the following lila appears: Once Radha Thakurani went to hide from Krishna in the bushes, and a swarm of bees followed her. So as she tried to chase them away, her garments got caught in the twigs and branches. But while endeavoring to get loose, the jingling sound of her bangles gave her away. And so Krishna was able to find her! Then Krishna went to hide in a dense thicket, but a playful monkey sitting in the branches kept staring at him. From observing the monkeys strange behavior, the sakhis were able to find Krishna. 74-75 Madhusudan deliberates, Hmm, in this lotus patch there are blue lotuses attached to the golden lotuses, but moss is covering them. Thus turning restless to drink the sakhis mukha padma madhu, Krishna eagerly kisses them, just as a thirsty bee wanders from flower to flower! (The nila padmas are the gopis eyes, the svarna padmas are their faces and the moss is their glossy hair.) 76-77 After Radha secretly joins the sakhis, Krishna approaches each of the lustrous golden lotuses. Aho! A blue lotus flower begins Kandarpas battle with many golden lotuses! When Krishna tries to kiss them, the Vraja padminis resist. Hence their large, shapely breasts create waves which cause the lotuses to shake and dislodge the bees, who begin swarming about. Krishna smiles when he sees this. The jilted bees remind Krishna of the vamavati gopis eyes when he tries to kiss them. 78-79 Owing to fatigue, the gopis become thin and the bangles slide from their wrists. So Prema Purushottama makes more bangles from the lotus stems ties them around their wrists to prevent their bangles from slipping. The gopa kishoris soft smiles defeat the lilies, their faces the lotus flowers, their arms the lotus stems, their breasts the chakravakas, their eyes the blue lotus flowers and their movements defeat the swans! Besides, the swinging of their heavy breasts and nitambas churn the kunda! Although the Vraja mohinis become thin due to the rigorous exercise, their heroic spirit doesnt subside. The kundas lotus flowers, chakravakas and swans all begin oscillating within the waves

caused by their swinging nitambas! Thus Krishna surmises, Surely these kunda residents are shaking in humiliation from the superior beauty of their rivalsthe gopis eyes, faces, arms, breasts and gait! 80-81 By the lilas influence makes the waves rise higher and higher, causing strong winds to blow over the kunda. Thus the mating chakravakas bobbing in the water become perplexed. They can neither fly away, nor can they sit still! Although the Vraja tarunis moon faces rise over the kunda, the chakravakas dont have to separate. Rather, their ananda increases seeing the gopis chakravaka breasts closely perched beside the beautiful full moons! At night the chakravakas are separated from their mates, and this pains them. But seeing the gopis moon faces they become confused and wonder, How can we remain together when so many moons have risen? Then noticing the gopis lovely chakravaka breasts, they joyfully conclude, Look! Those chakravaka yugala are right near the moons and yet they happily remain together. So surely we wont have to separate either! 82-84 How amazing! Due to Radhikas rising mukha chandra, the lilies are blooming! So the bees are jubilant because they can enjoy both the night and the day flowers honey. As Radhika and the sakhis watch this, Krishna hides in a blue lotus patch. While searching for Krishna, the sakhis see a blue lotus, mistake it for his mukharavinda and kiss it! But upon discovering their blunder, they become embarrassed! After the gopis attention returns from watching the bees, they notice that Krishna is gone. Aha! Certainly Hes hiding to play a trick on us. Krishna is expert in holding his breath under-water, how could he escape from our eyesight? After all, there were thousands of eyes upon him? However, when he sees Radha mistaking a nila padma for his face and kissing itKrishna cant resist returning a kiss! Thus he reveals himself. 85-86A moment later, Chitra discovers Radhas face resting beside Krishnas and exclaims, Oh sakhis! Look at these amazing padmas! One is a golden lotus covered by strands of moss with two darting hummingbirds trapped inside. Or perhaps these are two restless honey-bees trying to fly to the nila padma? As the sakhis search for Krishna continues, Chitra suddenly, stumbles upon him, resting beneath a huge, blooming nila kamala; and surprisingly enoughRadha is there too! As the Vilasi Yugala are busy exchanging kisses, Chitra thinks it wise not to directly uncover them. Rather, she describes the scene using a metaphor. 87And look, sakhis! The waves bring the svarna padma and the nila padma together, and them separate them. The waves thus repeatedly cause their union! Chitra continues to relate Radha and Krishnas kissing episode, using a metaphor. Ghana rasa means water, and rati keli. Hence, as the waves of ghana rasa (water) bring the padma togetherit is the waves of ghana rasa (rati) that cause Radha and Krishna to kiss each other!

88 Chitra says, Aha! Two nila padmas are rising from the water to attack a pair of chakravakas. But two svarna padmas quickly obstruct the nila padmas! Seeing this extraordinary event brings great joy to the sakhis! The nila and svarna padmas are Radha and Krishnas hands. The chakravakas are Radhas stana yugala. 89 Then Krishna embraces Radha and the sakhis surround them. Thus it appears that a huge golden lotus with a nilamani* centerpiece decorates the kunda! Rasa-tarangini Tika: Returning to Krishnahnika Kumudi two events are taking place: a lotus fight, and the search for Krishna as he hides under-water. Returning to Krishnahnika Kumudi two events are taking place: a lotus fight, and the search for Krishna as he hides under-water. (1) The lotus battle As the water fighting subsides, kamas ananda impels the Vraja tarunis to continue attacking Krishna! Thus they pick the best blooming lotus flowers and offer them to Radhika. Srimati wants to pelt Krishna with these, but while raising her arms to toss the flowersshe exposes a peak of her lovely breasts! Thus innocent Radhas mind churns in erotic sentiment as her lotuses smash Shyamasundars chest! But Shyama catches the flowersand with a playful smiletosses them back! By these endeavors the lotuses achieve matchless beauty! One can imagine: Aha! The shuttle of Kamas spinning-wheel is moving back and forth to weave to silken sari of prema! So now, as the bees chase after the pollen falling from the lotus- the restless bumblebees of Radha Govindas eyes fly like Kamadevas arrows! Rai Sundaris creeper-arms give in, her breathing becomes heavy, her tired eyes roll and her breasts tremble! Yet still her thirst for the sporting increases! Suddenly a bee flies to Radha, and some fishes brush her charana padmathus Radhika is frightened and holds on to Krishnas chest! Then the sakhis fearlessly surround Radha Shyama and toss lotus flowers! But Sri Yugala kishor smile and shelter themselves with lotus leaves. When Yutheshwari Radha stops fighting, however, the sakhis stop too. Then the birds befriend Krishna to spread their wings and dance, but as Radha stands before him in chest-deep water, two chakravakas approach, mistaking her breasts for their own species. Seeing the Cakracakas bewilderment, Krishna becomes exceeding delighted and begins to fondle them. But feeling shy, Radhika crosses her hands to cover her stana yugala! Then Krishna picks a fine lotus-stem and touches Chandramukhi-Rais neck; thus the hair on her creeper like arms horripilate! This is the token of prema. (2) The search for Krishna as he hides underwater Krishna tells Radha: Hey Priye! Let your sakhis surround me as you stand by side Then lets see if you can find me after I dive underwater! Rasavati Rai accepts the challenge and winks to her sakhis to encircle Krishna. Then, as she stands before him, Krishna submerges. The gopis first join

hands and begin searching close to Radha. Then they gradually increase their circle wider and wider as the rays expand from the moon. In the deeper water, the rasa pandit ramanis form a chain as their soft, restless hands comb through the water in search for Krishna. But when the gopis blissfully return and stand before Chandramukhi Rai, she takes one look at their smiling faces and inquires: Tell me, have any of you detected Krishna.or has our culprit escaped? O Radhe! I didnt see him! a sundari replies. I couldnt find him either! says another. Then one gopi exclaims, Weve lost Krishna. But its certainly mysterious how that Nagarendra fled, fearing you! Hey sakhi! Ill bet that you know where he is. Your body reveals the fresh marks of rati; so why are you keeping such matters a secret from us? Arent we your close, surrendered friends? As the sakhis tease, Radha remembers her Priyatama, and feels anguish from his separation! Thus Rai-Vinodinis restless eyes wander here and there. But a swarm of bees appear, and with their buzzing they direct everyones attention to playful Madhava hiding in a lotus patch! So the gopis quickly clasp their hands to surround him! Aho! What a splendid picture! They look like Kamas victory soldiers! And hence, a soothing glance of karuna filters from Krishnas nayanaravinda. Krishna exclaims, Why are you surrounding this lone Padmini vana vihari? After losing the match, dont you feel embarrassed? Are you eager for more sporting? Krishnas honey-coated inquiry intimidates the Vraja sundaris, yet covering their resentment, they return madhura smiles and answer with curious, sweet voices: You lost the padma keli battle and fled! And now weve captured you in this lotus patch! Aha! You were defeated by the keli nipuna Vraja-balas! But what type of mischief took place underwater after we left? Chi-chi! Arent you ashamed? Radha answers, Who knows what Krishna didcan anyone speak about these matters? So to simply gossip is unbefitting. Look Krishna must have admitted his defeat to the lotus. Just consider, as Hes alone, youre many; so isnt his defeat certain? As Krishna hears his leading sundari Radha, thus speak, a fresh desire awakens in his mind, and he answers, Hey Sundari-mani! Come, I can see that you understand my heart; you must be on my side, so Ill perform your puja! Thus Krishna begins to decorate Srimati. He uses lotus pods to make earrings and gathers the best lotus leaves to make a crown. Collecting lotus pollen, Krishna paints artistic pictures on Rais forehead (which reveal his minds intention), and using the moss, he makes Radhas kanchi.* Then, by curving lotus stems, he makes a necklace, and finally he rubs Srimatis cheeks with red lotus pollen. 90 Therefore, Krishna and the sakhis play the game of jala-manduka vadya -they produce various sounds by slapping the water. Something their slapping sounds like a dhakka drum, and at times it echoes like a dundubhi! In Krshnahnika-kaumud, jala manduka vadya is defined: Water is raised with one hand and then slapped to make a sound with the other. So as the gopis strike the water it produces a Dindima drums sound to announce their Jala keli victory! 91-92 The kundas fragrance and coolness multiplies from Krishna and the Vraja Devis touch. And as everyones kasturi, chandan and kunkum-apparels mix with the water, the kunda takes on a variety of colors. Using their lotus-hands, Krishna and the Vraja-padminis splash one another? just as an elephant and his mates do with their trunks! Then everyone comes out of the padma-filled kunda onto the shore.

In Krishna-bhavanamrita the jala keli episode ends in this way: When Krishna and his preyasis comc closcr during the water sporting, the fight progresses from hand to hand, and then from tooth to tooth! Thus the gopis shyness and fear drowns within the waves of ghana rasa (rati). Although the Vraja ramanis brush Krishnas arms, he binds them within a snakelike embrace until they break loose! But then Krishna and the gopis pluck lotus flowers and begin striking one another! So Krishna steals their ornaments, snana vastras and kanchulis, leaving them naked! Aho! The Vraja ramanis madhura darshan is indescribable! Their tummies are shaking in the wind like the leaves of a peepal tree, and the fine hairs over their foreheads cling to their faces. But with their arms they cover their stana yugala, which display Krishnas nail marks. And seeing the gopis, one might consider: Aha! These arent padmini ramanis. Rather, here we find Shashi-shekharas Kama-prize- fighters wielding Cupids ropes for binding Krishna! But then the gopis stumble forward to complain before Nandimukhi with faltering voices: Hey you cheater! Why did you engage us with this foul player? Hearing their version, Nandimukhi questions: Giridhari! Did you use any under-handed tactics? Krishna smiles and boldly declares: Hey Nandi! I won the Jala keli tournament! Thus to collect my prize I went to smell the golden lotus flowers that were encircled by the alis, but I didnt kiss the gopis faces. I was also curious to fondle the chakravakas, but I didnt touch the gopis breasts. So what is my fault? Nandimukhi smilingly replies, Krishna! Are you telling the truth? Your words anger the gopis because their bruised lips and marked breasts testify to your honesty! Krishna answers, Hey Nandi! Radhika and her friends are a knapsack of lies! You should never believe them for a moment. Look! Becausc they were in the water for a long time they bit their lips while shivering from the cold. And its the thorny lotus stems that marred their breasts. So this proves the gopis dishonesty. How dare they declare: Krishna has made these marks!? But then Krishna says, Well, perhaps if I did it, it was certainly a mistake. Because when I approached the golden lotuses and the chakravakas to kiss and fondle them, no one told me: Hey! These arent lotus flowers, but our faces, and those arent chakravakas, but our breasts! Hence, if I kissed the gopis faces or scratched their breasts unknowingly, who can blame me for that! Afler all, the Vraja sundaris didnt shout to forbid me. So why are they angry now? Nandimukhi responds: Oh Krishna! Oh Gopa sundaris! Theres nothing to gain by arguing; lets forget about the wager, too. Instead, why not show us your skill in jala manduka vadya? When Krishna and the Vraja Devis hear Nandis request, both parties begin to slap the water. Thus many types of rhythmic sounds are produced. As the jala-manduka vadya echoes across the kunda, the chataka birds mistake it for the thunder and fly into the sky! Similarly, the peacocks open their tail feathers and dance. Then Madhumangal shouts hi, hi-hi!, and imitates the peacocks dance while slapping his chest! Even the trees are enthralled by the jala manduko vadyathey cry tears with their oozing honey! And this induces the bees to offer their buzzing praise. In Krishnahnika-kaumudi Srila Kavi Karnapura sums up the glories of jala keli as follows: To attain mukti (liberation) the sages must become nistraigunya (above natures three modes),

nirbandha (detached), niraga (desireless), nirlepya (disconnected from matter), niranjana (pure) and nirava (silent). But it is more amazing that after Jala keli the gopis bodies now display all of the mukti-symptoms: their necklaces are nistraigunya (indistinguishable), their hair is nirbandha (loosened), their lips are niraga (without redness), their breasts are nirlepya (devoid of chandan, kosturi and kunkullra) their eyes are niranjana (devoid of anjana, mascara) and their kinkini? are nirava (silent)! 93 The seva-para sakhis, i.e., the manjaris, anoint Krishna and his priya kantas with scented oils and powders while bathing them in premananda. Then everyone comes out of the water. Krishnahnika-kaumudi describes that some of these dasis sported in the water previous to performing this seva. That narration runs as follows: Before the jala kelis conclusion, some of the sakhis and manjaris bathe, leave the water and get dressed. But while proceeding to the nikunjas, they soon forget all about Radha Krishnas loving assaults upon them. Thus they return to assist in the jala keli yajnas avabhritha snana (the ritual bath that follows the performance of a sacrifice or any other ritual and marks its conclusion. The jala keli here is being likened to such an auspicious ritual). (Khnika-kaumud 4.196) 94 The water dripping from the gaurangi kishoris wet clothes looks like the sprinkling of white autumn clouds from a golden mountain peak. The white snana vastras resemble autumn clouds, and the gopis breasts are like golden mountain peaks. Krishnahnika-kaumudi says, Fearing that the Vraja sundaris will discard them, the thin snana vastras meekly shed tears in the form of water droplets. The gopis pale bodies and eyes reddened from the prolonged stay in the water create an enchanting sight that pleases Krishnas eyes. (Khnika-kaumud 4.197) 95 The droplets falling from the gopis loosened hair resemble strands of pearls. Hence they shine within Krishnas heart like his pearl ekavali necklace. According to Yadunandana Thakur, the droplets fall from Krishnas hair onto his chest appearing like a pearl necklace. Ekval means it only has one strand of pearls. This verse is relishable with either interpretation. Anga Seva 96-98 The fortunate, doe-eyed Vraja sundaris ponder: Aha! Krishnas darshan is rarely attainable, even In dreams. Yet today were enjoying it unimpaired. Thus the gopis thirst to see him doublesthis is amazing! It isnt so amazing that Mother Yashodas ropes failed to bind Krishna during his childhood, but as Krishna enjoys the rare darshan of the gopis bodies through their wet clothes, he becomes totally

bound to them! Thus his bliss during early youth reaches incomparable heights. This is even more amazing! As the gopis deem themselves are very fortunate to have Krishnas darshan, Krishna also considers: Aha, what ananda! Although the gopis darshan is maha sudurlabha (very rare), today all of my desires to enjoy with them have succeeded! This is my greatest fortune; hence my life is glorious! Still, Krishnas pleasure waves swell to newer heights while he views the gopis shapely beauty through their wet clothes. 99 The manjaris dry Krishna and the sakhis wet hair and bodies with fine towels, and dress them with upper and lower garments. Then everyone proceeds to the padma mandir in the kundas southwestern corner. The padma mandir is in Rangadevis kunja. Krishnahnika-kaumudi 4.203-206 provides an illustration of another behaviour. There it says that Srimati Radha, Madhumati, Indumati and others use a soft cloth to dry Keshavas hair. His body is dried by Madhuri, Madhurika and Marimala. Then Madhavi, Manimati and Shashilekha put on Krishnas garments. Srimati Bhanu Kishori (Radha) is dressed by Shyamala, Lalita, Vishakha, Kaumudi, Kumudini and Mandalekha. 100 Radhika Sundari and her sakhis lovingly seat priya Keshava upon the shringar vedi on the padma mandirs southern side. Then they decorate him with a large assortment of flowers. Krishnahnika-kaumudi describes that Radha suddenly embraces Krishna in the padma mandirs doorway just before she begins to perform his shringar! (4.207) Vesha Rachana 101-104 How does Radhika dress her priyatama? First she dries his hair with the scented smoke of aguru incense, then she combs it, ties a mallika mala in the center and adds clusters of jati, rangana, bakula and svarna yuthi flowers. Radhika uses assorted leaves along with ketaki and champaka clusters to further decorate Krishnas hair. Then she ties it in a mohana chura and places a mayura chandrika on top. Krishnas chura is large at the base and gradually tapers, taking the shape of a chamara whisk. As the bees are attracted, this mohana chura enchants the three worlds! Aha! Having seen Krishnas manohar chura just once, the Vraja kishoris bumblebee eyes remain fixed on itfor its charm never leaves their hearts. Even Krishna becomes enchanted seeing its shadow. Hence the madhurya of its splendid chura fascinates the whole universe! Lalitaji decorates Krishnas forehead with tilak. First she paints a moon spot of red kunkum and places a black kasturi dot in its center; then she encircles it with smaller dots of chandan. This tilak appears like Kandarpas chakra, that is meant to slice the gopis hearts!

As Lalita sits with her face beside Krishnas? and as her breath mixes with his? is Krishna performing any mischief! And meanwhile, is Vrishabhanu-nandini scolding her lusty Nagara with a reprimanding, sidelong glance? 105-108 Chitra adds the substance called khora with kunkum and smears it all over Krishnas limbs. Aho! The madhurya-wave rising from this seva reminds everyone of Krishnas Rasa lila with the gopis! After smearing kunkum, Chitra befriends Krishna by painting tilak designs on different parts of his body. These are like Kandarpas large net for capturing the two humnling birds of Radhas eyes! Using various colored buds, flowers and leaves, the sakhis make Krishnas earrings, necklace, bangles, anklebells, kanchi (waist-ornament) and armlets. But these pushpa alankaras become like Kandarpas noose which captures the Vraja sundaris doe-eyes. The seva-parayana sakhis dress Radhika Devi in the appropriate attire for the season, with matching flower ornaments. Then they dress and decorate the other sakhis also. In the hot season Rai Kanu are outfitted completely in flowers. In other seasons, after Krishna is dressed in pitilmbara, and Rai Kishori in nilambari (deep blue) with pushpa alankara, the ashta sakhis are attired in the following dress:

Lalitapeacock feather Vishakhastar cluster Chitracrystal Champakalatachash bird, i.e., blue Tungavidyapale yellow Indulekhapomegranate red Rangadevihibiscus (jabA) red Sudevi hibiscus red Vana Bhojana 109-110 Then Vrinda escorts Radha Krishna and the sakhis to the padma mandirs north side, and shows the bhojan vedi. Here a vast assortment of sliced fruits and other edibles are selectively arranged on palasha leaf plates, shala leaves, or on banana leaves. Some items are kept in leaf cups, or cups made from banana tree bark. Krishnahnika-kaumudi mentions that Kaumudi, Kaumudini, Kumudvati, Shitala, Shashikala, Kulavati, Rupa Manjari, Ananga Manjari, Keli Manjari, Ashoka Manjari and other mriga nayana Sakhis join Vrindas assistants to help prepare and serve the meal. 111-112 Krishna sits on a white flower asana covered by a white cloth. Then Madhumangaia and Subala take their seats on Krishnas right and left. Radhika and her sakhis sit facing Krishna to serve, and Vrinda brings the items one by one.

At midday Krishna usually enjoys eating with a few priya narma sakhas while Radha serves. Then she and her sakhis relish Krishnas prasad. But in Krishna-bhavanamrita, Krishna and the gapis enjoy feasting sitting face to face. Then by Kandarpas influence Krishna feeds the gopis, while they feed him! Thus he expands into many murtis to enjoy bhojan vilasa with everyone! 113-126 First Radharani serves four types of coconuts: white, red, green and yellow; their pulp is liquid, soft, firm and hard. After separating the pulp from the husk, the sakhis mold it into bite-size pieces that look like conchshells. After Krishna and the sakhas sip the coconuts juice, Vrishabhanu-nandini and the sakhis break open the husk and serve the tender pulp. Next Radha serves the mangoes. There are many different colors and sizes, some are almost ripe and others are fully ripened. Krishna, Madhu and Subala enjoy them all. The slightly ripe, the dissected pieces, and the seedless mangoes with very thin skins. Some of the mangoes are to be eaten with the skin, some have thick juice, some are for sucking and otllers are fit for chewing. Another type of mango is very ripe and filled with rasa. After clipping the end, Krishna sucks its juice with great pleasure. The ripe jackfruits are colored like golden lotuses and shaped like champak petals. These succulent pieces are served from the husk. Lots of pilu fruits, grapes, dates, palm fruits, bael, jambu, lavali and lakicha fruits are served. There are also bananas, ber, various types of kula fruits, pant fruits, palm seeds, cucumbers and bhuta fruits. The guavas are more delightful than nectar, and there are pears, grapefruits, oranges and buichi fruits. Other fruits like karonda, bijuri, kad-bela, amla and pomegranate seeds are offered. Then Radhika serves the sensational fruits that are beyond the imagination such as watermelon, guru-alu, keshrala and mulaka. Krishna and the sakhas also enjoy lotus-seeds, lotus stems, many types of Piyala-fruits nuts and pulpy seeds. The Vrindavan forest supplies countless varieties of exotic fruits; yet many of them are unknown to our world. Therefore, who can describe their appearance or taste? We can simply know that they are all delicious, pleasure-giving and divine. Krishnahnika-kaumudiadds the following additional ingredients to this meal: There is fine rice topped with butter, buttermilk and cooling yogurt that is bright as the moonbeams, scented with camphor, and served in fresh clay pots. And there are fruit juices like pomegranate, mango and sugar cane. 127-132 Then Radhika serves the sweets that she prepared at home, such as kshira-sara floating in sugar juice, naranga, ruchaka and oranges. She also brought chandrakanti, Ganga-jala and various other types of laddus that delight all or Krishnas senses.

Another kind of laddu was made from sugar, camphor, cloves, cardamom and black pepper, and then squeezed in condensed milk. Jackfruit juice, mango juice and other juices mixed with sugar and camphor are served. Then the sakhis bring karpura-keli and amrita-keli. Thus Krishna, Subala and Madhumangal enjoy all of the items served by Radhika. Radhika is addressed here as Sumukhi because her face beams with joy as she serves Krishna the dishes that she personally prepared. 133-134 There is tree-shaped candy that is made from kshira and sugar. Krishna and his friends enjoy biting their leaves, flowers, fruits, branches, trunks and roots. As each item is served, Batu (Madhumangal) makes the sakhis laugh. Sometimes he contorts his face when disappointed by a dish, but then he praises another by showing a silly gesture of appreciation. According to Madhu, bhojan-ananda is never complete without mixing the sweet and the sour. Thus his vidushaka* talents add to the meal-time enjoyment. 135After eating, Krishna and the sakhas drink cool water freshened with camphor. The sakhis supply water for mouthwash. Shayana (Taking Rest) 136 Then Krishna goes to another room in the padma mandir and rests upon a flower-bed. Tulasi and others approach to offer pan, massage his legs, fan him with chamaras or perform other sevas. The Shayan a mandir is ready and waiting. Just previously Vrinda elaboratcly decorated this bed chamber. Flower malas hang from the ceiling, from the windows and over the doorways. And there is a flower ceiling fan ahove the bed that the manjaris pull with flower-laden ropes, the floor is covered with rose petals, and the bed is smothered in lotus petals with thick flower pillows, too. In Krishnahnika-kaumudi, Krishna leaves the padma mandir after bhojan and rests upon a jeweled vedi beside a shady tree. 137-139 While chewing their pan, Subala and Batu proceed to the southern wing of the padma mandir and take rest on their cooling flower beds. Meanwhile, Radha sits down with Lalita, Vishakha and the other sakhis who are eager to enjoy Krishnas adharamrita. Thus Rupa Manjari and Vrinda begin serving. Nandimukhi and Kundalatas laughter becomes like another sakhi serving the meal, for their light conversation adds to the bhojan ananda. Adharamrita is the nectar of Krishnas lips; it is the flavor that makes Krishnas prasad enjoyable for the gopis. Thus at meal-time, their hearts are fixed on the flavor of Krishnas lips, the delicious taste of the meal is secondary. Although Kundalata and Nandimukhi make amusing comments to stimulate Radhas absorption in

Krishna, they are partaking with the others also. In Krishnahnika-kaumudi there are more details: When Krishna goes to take rest, the sakhis become exceedingly restless to enjoy the object of their hearts craving? Sri Krishnas adharamrita. Thus the leading sakhi, Sri Radhika, overlooks all formality to relish the first morsel! But then she considers: Uh! I shouldnt eat like this! Thus Sumukhi Rai addresses the sakhis: Oh chaste ones! Lets all take prasad together. Some of you can serve. Im unable to do anything without you, what to speak of I dining. As the sakhis eagerly sit in a circle, Vrinda begins serving Radha and then the others. After partaking, everyone thinks, Because this meal was touched by Krishnas lips, its natural taste has wonderfully increased! Thus Radha and the sakhis relish many items one after the other. Then they wash their mouths with camphorated water and enjoy pan. 140-141 After performing achaman, Radha and the sakhis enter Krishnas shayan mandir. Radha sits on a corner of the bed, and the others sit around the bed in a circle. Vrinda offers Radha, tulasi and the sakhis Krishnas tambul vitika. Nandimukhi, Kundalata and Dhanishtha are given separate pan. Nandimukhi is the daughter of a brahmin, Kundalata is Krishnas jyeshtha bhratri-vadhu, his older cousins wife, and Dhanishtha is senior in age. Thus these three persons are worthy of Krishnas pranams. So Vrinda doesnt serve them Krishnas adharamrita tambula in front of him. However, when Krishna isnt present, they privately enjoy his remnants. 142 Then Tulasi, Rupa and the other seva-parayana manjaris leave with Vrinda to take prasad. Lalita, Vishakha and the other sakhis remain surrounding Radha Krishnas flower bed to exchange narma katha, laughter and light-hearted joking. 143 Having taken prasad, the manjaris return to Radha Krishnas shayan mandir. But Nandimukhi and Kundalata leave to take rest in a nearby kutir in the south. Lalita, Vishakha and the other sakhis also depart to take rest in their respective kunjas. 144-145 Seeing the manjaris returning, Radha gives them her own tambul prasad; but she offers Vrinda a separate tambul vitika. Thus Vrinda goes outside to relish it. Radha shyly sits on the edge of the bed, yet Rasikendra smiles and pulls her to his side. Then he joyfully places his carvila tambul in Radhas mouth. As Rasaraj pulls Rai Mani to his chest, he kisses her and transfers his chewed pan into her mouth. Radhas unbounded bliss is shared by her dasis. They ponder: Aha! Rai Kishori has discarded her vama modesty. Instead, shes smiling while extending her mouth to accept Krishnas gift. What a tender moment!

146As Rupa Manjari and other leading seva dasis fan with chamaras and perform other timely seva, Radha and Krishna fall asleep in happiness. Krishna-bhavanamrita now depicts Radha Kelichands rati keli lila: So as they enjoyed the ghana rasa battle during Jala keli, they enter the madhura sarovar* of their bodily limbs to resume the ghana rasa-combat! 147 As the result of Sri Rupa Goswamis mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Devas lotus feet, the request of Sri Raghunath Das, the association of Sri Jiva, and the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, Govinda-llmtas fifteenth chapter ends. Chapter Sixteen Continued Madhyahna Pastimes 10:48 a.m.3:36 p.m. The Shukas and Sharikas Describe Sri Krishnas Rupa Madhuri 1 When Radha and Krishna rise and sit up on the flower bed, the sakhis approach them along with Subala and Batu. The Gutka tells that the sakhis were sleeping in separate kutirs that surround the padma mandir. Before Sri Yugala Kishor rise, the manjaris awaken and prepare scented water for refreshing Radha and Krishnas faces. Someone brings cool drinking water, another supplies tambul, some fan with chamaras and others sit beside Radha and Krishna to gently massage their lotus feet. 2 Then Vrinda arrives, carrying two young parrots, the sarika named Kalokti and a shuka named Manjuvak. These birds are Vrindas best trained students. Kalokti means a beautiful sound, and Manjuvak means a captivating speaker. Thus their names disclose their meritorious credentials. 3-4 The shuka and the sharika humbly exclaim: Hey Vrindavan Ishwar! Hey Vrindavan Ishwari! All glories to you! Ohey sakhis, you are also glorious! Please be merciful to us. 4Receiving Radhas wink, Vrinda tells the shuka: patha koro! (recite). Thus he begins to delight the sakhi samaja - assembly. In Chapter 11, Krishna relished hearing about Radhas form, qualities and prema from the sakhis. Now Radhika Devi desires to relish Krishnas wonderful attributes. Thus taking her cue, Vrinda instructs the shuka to begin. 5My poetry isnt glamorous, informs the shuka. But just as a chintamani can convert a hunters

iron blade to gold for the use of a saint, the simple words spoken by my tongue will please the sadhus because they describe Sri Krishnas glories. Sri Krishna s Charana Chihnas 6Krishnas charana chihnas disclose that he is not only Purushottam, the topmost male, but that he is the chief amongst all avatars. Thus his lotus feet are adorned with the auspicious marks of a moon, half-moon, barley, octagon, jug, umbrella, triangle, a zero, bow, svastika, thunderbolt, cows hoofprint, conchshell, fish, line of fortune, goad, lotus, flag and a jambu fruit. As Krishna rests beside Radhika Devi in the nikunja mandir, the manjaris have the fortune to massage their lotus feet. Then they clasp Krishnas charana kamala to their chests more affectionately than a mother fondling her newborn child. Then they are able to observe: On the bottom of Krishnas left charan is a half moon, above it are four jugs and between them is a triangle. Above the jugs is a cows hoofprint, then a bow, and above that is a clear space. On the skys right side, underneath the big toe, is a conchshell and at the base of the foot, inscribed in red, is a fish. Under Krishnas right charan, at the base, is an octagon encircled by four jambu fruits, and beside them are four svastika signs. Above the svastika is a flag with a thunderbolt on its right and an umbrella on the left. Above the flag is a chakra, and above that, under the big toe, is a barley sign. Under the middle toe is a padma, under the small toe is a goad, and a fortune line runs from top to bottom. Thus there are 19 auspicious chihnas or marks. 7-33 Manjuvak: If the topic of Krishnas charana padma enters the ears just once, all other attractions are stolen away! And by meditating on them all troubles are destroyed as good fortune awakens! The darshan of these beautiful feet would astonish anyone and their touch engladdens all of the senses! Let Sri Krishnas charana kamala fulfill my desires. Krishnas charana kamala are our only shelter. Simply by meditating on them all spiritual and material fortune, beauty, qualities and wealth are attainable. And moreover, they are the abode of Sri Krishnas lila. Even the slight worship of Krishnas lotus feet turns a mere stone into a chintamani, a cow into a kama dhenu, and a tree into a kalpa vriksha! Because Krishnas feet fulfill everyones desires, who can neglect taking shelter of them? Their fragrance can make everyone in the three worlds like a bumblebee, mad to taste their madhu! So where is the rasika who dares try forget them? I worship Sri Krishnas cooling pada padma, filled with the honey of beauty drunk by the honeybee eyes of Vrajas young women, with petal toes and filament toenails full of light, and spreading waves of aroma in all directions. Is there anything comparable with Krishnas charana padma? They please the five senses like a raktotpala (red lotus), and they are more generous than a kalpa vriksha! Krishnas lotus feet are the holy tirtha of Prayaga, for the white of the Ganga in the toenails, the deep blue of the Yamuna of the skin above, and the red of the Saraswati in the soles underneath, have come together in a confluence of three rivers, bestowing all desires on those who bathe there. Aha! What more can I say about the wonderful glories of Krishnas charana kamala? They conquer darkness and suffering. Even the darkness of night itself took shelter of them, fearing a duel with the rising sun! And similarly, on seeing that night was ending, the moon also merged into

Krishnas toenails to preserve its effulgence! Then Vrinda winks, and Kalokti begins praising Krishnas lotus feet to purify her tongue. Kalokti says, The poets tell that even the suns scorching rays seek Krishnas lotus feet for cooling relief; hence his soles are bright red. But they must be mistaken, because Radhika always embraces Krishnas charana kamala within her heart, they have turned red as the abode of Radhas ever increasing anuraga! I praise Krishnas glorious charana kamala! When massaged by the padma lochana Vraja kishoris they look like an indivara, the blue lotus; when resting on their jug-like breasts, they resemble ashok flowers; and when they shine on the gopis lake of the gopis hearts, they are like blossoming raktotpalas! May we be ever privileged to touch Krishnas lotus feet! They are more cooling, beautiful and fragrant than the moon, the indivara, chandan, camphor or lotus stems. Yet they are always eager to rest upon Radhas kucha yugala, or to be fondled by her hands. And when smeared by Radhas kucha kumbha kunkum (The saffron kunkum powder that is used to highlight the skin on Radhas breasts) they become the lila niketana (the play garden or abode of amusement) for beauty personified! Then Radha encourages the shuka and shari to pour amrita into the sakhis ears by describing Krishnas other limbs. Manjuvak exclaims, Aha! Bakaris ankles are like the tips of two budding lndivaras peeking from the Yamunas beautiful waves! Kalokti says, Muraris ankles are like tiny tamal leaf cups filled with madhu. Thus when the gopis bee-like eyes lick this honey they spin with intoxication! Manjuvak says, The Creator hid Krishnas ankles above his lotus feet as if they were two kamaranga fruits for feeding Radhas parrot eyes! Kalokti adds, These ankles embrace Krishnas feet like the play marbles belonging to the kumaris of Radhas desires. Oho, replies Manjuvak, desiring to defeat the Gokula kulavatis soldier of patience, I see, Kandarpa molded two tamal clubs in the form of Krishnas shins! Kalokti says, Let Krishnas thighs destroy all of our sins! Theyre like emerald banana-trunks which support the Creators universal abode. But to the Vraja sundaris, they are indranila-mani pillars for tying the baby elephant of their minds! Manjuvak: Flowing with the Yamuna of Krishnas beauty is the lavanya taranga, the lovely wave of his thighs. His ankle bells are like the quacking swans in that nectar river. Kalokti: When Krishnas thighs see each others elegance, they hanker to meet each other. Thus when Muralidhar plays his mohana vamshi displaying his tribhanga lalita sundar pose, they get their chance. Manjuvak exclaims, Krishnas enchanting knees are Madhurya Lakshmis seat, or perhaps theyre two jewel boxes for storing Shobhas (beautys) opulences! Krishnas knees are blue sapphire jewel boxes no doubt, replies Kalokti, but they store the chintamani gems of the Vraja yuvatis minds! Manjuvak: Let Krishnas knees bestow all good fortune! They show attractive lines that appear and disappear as Krishna walks, and theyre always fondled by Radhikas hands. The shuka continues, The curve of Bakaris strong, glossy thighs is simply manohara! This is the stage for Kandarpas dancers. Let this abode shine within our hearts. Could these be sapphire pillars for supporting the universe? Or are they the posts for Kandarpa rajas yajna? Perhaps theyre pillars for binding the Vraja gopis hearts? Na, na! exclaims

Kalokti, Theyre Krishnas beautiful thighs! Manjuvak says, Krishnas nitamba is like two hills of kajjal and two sapphire banana trees support them. But isnt it amazing how these banana trees produce two such nectarean fruits that entice the parrot eyes of every young woman? Krishnas nitamba is the ripened amrita fruit of his banana tree thighs. 34Oh shuka! says the shari, Your example wont do. Krishnas thighs easily defeat a banana trees beauty, or the beauty of a baby elephants trunk. Besides, Radhikas hands always fondle them. So what can the poets use to compare to these thighs? And Krishnas nitamba is soft, broad and sundar. Its the Rasa lila sthali for billions of dancing Cupids and Ratis. Hence, the Gopa sundaris sturdy patience is stolen as they hanker after this sundar nitamba! From his waist up Krishnas body resembles a new tamal. Around his waist a nilamani dam holds the water of beauty. Krishnas kinkinis are the quacking swans in this amrita sarovar. Manjuvak says, The queen of Radhas mind always reclines on Krishnas bodily singhasan. So, for her comfort, the Creator added to it the soft sapphire moon pillows of his nitamba. Aha re! Let me praise the lower portion of Krishnas nitamba! exclaims Kalokti. Here is the nectar lake and a flood of madhurya for the Vraja sundaris darting minnow eyes. Aha! The fold under Krishnas navel is an amrita river, and his navel is an amrita lake. So on these banks the queen of Radhas mind performs Rasa vilasa with millions of beautiful damsels, which are her desires! Krishnas navel isnt a lake! the shuka replies. Its a nectar well, and the fine hairs and portion below his navel are the ropes and bucket for drawing the wells nectar. Thus the Creator nourishes the thirsty cows of the gopis eyes! Kalokti exclaims, The Creator made the blue lotus mortar of Krishnas waist to separate the rice of the gopis minds from the husk of other thoughts. So let this thin waists lustrous beauty always appear in our minds! Manjuvak says, When chivalrous Kamadeva desired to defeat Shiva, he worshipped the Creator, who granted him a damaru drum. This drum looks just like Krishnas waist with his broad chest above and wide hips below! Kalokti: The Creator gave his fresh youth to Krishnas midsection and shaped it like the letter X between his broad hips and broad chest. Manjuvak says, Seeing Krishnas waist, the lions feared that their elegant waists would become objects of mockery. Thus they fled to the Himalayan caves and hid themselves there! Aha! What splendor! exclaims Kalokti, Krishnas navel is a deep lake filled with streams of loveliness and whirlpools of raving beauty! So its not surprising that the elephants of the Vraja kishoris minds bathe there and want never to come out! I see things differently, replies the Suka, Krishnas navel resembles the honey-filled hollow of a tamal tree where the greedy bee-eyes of the gopis enter and never return. Kalokti says, When Bali Maharaj praised Vamana Deva, seeing the Ganga flowing from his lotus feet, Yamuna Devi became jealous. Thus she reappeared from Krishnas navel lake as the romavali line of black hairs. Although Ganga received the praise of one Bali, Krishnas Yamuna romavali is praised by three the stunning tri-bali (three lines) on his tummy! Hence, Sri Yamunaji washes away all other desires and bestows Krishna bhakti on all those who bathe in her. Manjuvak says, A black romavali snake is crawling from the hole in Krishnas tummy! Although shes small and thin, she breathes the mental airs of those who view her!

Kalokti replies, When the young bees or the gopis eyes drink the saundarya madhu (the honey of beauty) of Krishna s lotus navel, they become intoxicated and unable to fly, so they fall asleep on the lotus petal of Krishnas belly to form his romavali. The shari says, O shuka! Never compare a frightening object with Krishnas bodily limbs! You need not mention the snake! Hence, the shari describes Krishns romavali, using another example. As the shuka and the shari describe Krishnas madhura anga, Radhika and her sakhis direct their attention to each limb as it is eulogized. Beause most of the examples are related to the sakhis, this documents their special prema and good fortune. And in the places where Radha is specifically mentioned, these descriptions show the superexcellence of her prema, as well as Krishnas supreme fortune. Manjuvak says, Krishnas belly and romavali are gorgeous like the universal Jaya Lakshmi, the Goddess of Victory. So why wouldnt they defeat the charm of a peepal leaf, or a blue lotus petal, and attract everyones attention? Kalokti replies, Krishnas sleek belly is more fragrant and soft than a new tamal leaf coated with musk. Thus it allures everyones bee-eyes. Manjuvak: The river of shringar rasa flows from Krishnas mountain chest into the lake of his navel as a line of fine, black hairs. Both sides are raised and slightly lowered in the center. May Sri Krishnas midriff illumine my mind! Kalokti: Krishnas lotus-navel shines in the beautiful sarovar of his belly. Its the playground for Radhikas mano-hamsa (swan-mind) and minnow-eyes. The calling swans of Krishnas kanchi (waistbells) jingle on its shores, the tri-bali are its waves, and its elegance is like an amrta pravaha (nectar stream). Manjuvak: Krishnas sides are like two strong, handsome nagaras who always yearn to touch the shapely nagaris of Radhas sides! Kalokti: Aha! Just look at Krishnas magnificent chest! On its right is the Srivatsa mark, and Lakshmi resides on the left as a svarna rekha (golden line). The dazzling Kaustubha-mani with a splendid vana-mala are placed in the center. Thus Krishnas chest invokes the Vraja ramanis kama and enchants every woman in the three worlds. But it especially reigns as the nilakanta mani singhasan (throne made of sapphires) for the queen of Radhas mind! Manjuvak: I offer my pranams to the triveni of Krishnas chest which bestows auspiciousness to the three worlds! His mukta mala (pearl necklace), black hairs and ruby necklace resemble the Ganga, the Yamuna and the Saraswati. Kalokti: Rati and Kandarpa swing from the hindola of Krishnas chest. This swing suspends from the ropes of his anga kanti and fastens to the indranila mani pillars of his arms! In Kandarpa and Ratis jhulan lila the hindola swings automatically by the radiance of Krishnas bodily luster! Hence Sri Krishna is directly shringar rasa personified. Manjuvak: Ah! Krishnas chest is Cupids net for trapping the hummingbirds of the gopis eyes; its woven with the threads of raving beauty and baited with the marks of Srivatsa and Lakshmi! Kalokti: Radha is the ratna chintamani amongst all sundari yuvatis, and Krishnas chest is the nilamani doorway leading to her minds treasury. So arent Krishnas nipples like two studded jewels on the door?

Krishnas romavali and chest 61-66 Shuka: Krishnas arms are like a tamal kalpatarus branches which fulfill the Vraja tarunis desires. Or perhaps theyre tamal spears belonging to the hunter Kandarpa for they pierce the proud doe of a womans chastity! Shari: Krishnas arms are sapphire pestles for separating the husks of pride from the gopis hearts and the latch on the bird-cage of Radha and the gopis parrot-like minds! Shuka: May the glimpse of Krishnas graceful, long and good-looking arms appear in my heart! They are coveted by all women beginning with Lakshmi, and theyre the hridaya dhana (hearts treasure) for the large-breasted gopa sundaris! Oh look! says the shari, Have two lovely elephants named Madana entered the spring garden of Krishnas body? Yet wont they (Krishnas arms) devour the gorgeous effulgence of his knees? The shuka replies, Did the Creator make the two indranila mani pillars of Krishnas arms to support the swing of his madllurya? Look, theyre swinging the minds of all the devis headed by Lakshmi. Poets say that Kandarpa raja performed a yajna to destroy the gopis patience, using the sapphire ladle of Krishnas arms, the shari says, but I think that Krishnas arms are two sublime streams within a shringar rasa sagara! Krishnas Hands and Shoulders 67 Manjuvak Krishnas palms reveal that he is Purushottama theyre marked with 19 auspicious symbols such as: a conch, half-moon, barley, goad, umbrella, club, sword, spade, bael tree, fish, arrow, lotus, plough and a chakra on the tip of each finger. Kalokti: Pandits say that Krishnas hands are naturally soft and delicate, yet they became hard due to having the distinguished marks of a maha purusha. Although this is true, I believe that Krishnas hands became hard from fondling the gopis breasts which are firm like turtle shells! Shari: Vrindavan-chandras hands are like medicinal leaves. They soothe the scorching fever of the gopis breasts which become inflicted by Cupids arrows! But theyre also like two lotus petals meant to decorate Radhikas svarna kucha kumbhas! Shuka: If an indivara and a raktotpala were crested by a garland of moons and attacked to the sharp points or Cupids arrows the poets might use this example to describe Krishnas hands! Krishnas palms are like raktotpalas (red lotuses) and their back-sides resemble an indivara (blue lotus), his finger tips are like Kandarpas arrows crested with moon-like fingernails. Kalokti: Some say that Krishnas shoulders outmatch the hump on a bulls back because he is Purushottam. But I think theyre raised from the ecstatic embraces of Radhikas lotus-stem-arms! Oh, there is another reason, exclaims Manjuvak, Krishnas shoulders are high because his neck and head always perk up for a candid peek at the Kaustubha manis devastating charm! Kalokti goes on: I praise Krishnas back, which arouses the doe-eyed Vraja sundaris priti.* Its broad in the upper portion and sleek at the base like Madhurya Maharajs indranila mani singhasan! By carrying a heavy load of elegance and by curving inwards towards the bottom, its extremely good looking!

Manjuvak: Mukundas neck is broad at the base and gradually becomes slender. Its madhuri topples the pride of a lions neck and serves as the resting place for Keshavas beautiful curling hair. Kalokti: The nilamani conchshell of Krishnas neck produces a luster that even decorates the manindra (the monarch of gems, Kaustubha). Its three celebrated lines please the eyes of everyone in the three worlds. And besides, the shruti madhura sound of Krishnas voice mocks the singing of the kokila, the vina, the flute or the buzzing bees! Shuka: Owing to the presence of the Kaustubha Raja-hamsa, Krishnas throat retains the splendor of an akshaya sarovar (immortal lake). Hence, its not surprising that the rivers of his clever words, poetry and singing constantly flow from this sarovar. Aha! Krishnas immaculate mukharavinda is the best of all! replies the shari. His nose, jaws, lips, cheeks, chin and ears are its petals, his teeth are the stamen, and his tongue is the whorl. Krishnas madhura smile is its fragrance, his eyes are hummingbirds, his brows are bhramaris and the curling hairs falling over his forehead are bhramaras! Krishnas Mukharavinda 78-79 Uninformed poets say that the full moon of Krishnas face casts its kalankas (spots) upon the innocent gopis to become flawless! However, just hear my opinion, exclaims the shuka, because Krishnas moonface is spotless by nature, it purifies everyones kalankas! But the poets can use another example, the shari replies, if the Creator were to remove the full moons spots and add bandhuli flowers, two mirrors, kunda flowers, a sesame flower, Kandarpas bow, a half-moon and a set of hummingbirds this might slightly describe Krishnas moon-face! Krishnas face is a spotless full moon, his cheeks are two mirrors, his teeth are kunda flowers and his nose is a sesame flower. Krishnas eyebrows resemble Kandarpas bow, his forehead is like a half moon and the hummingbirds are his restless eyes. 80-83 Manjuvak says, Aha! Krishnas chin defeats the elegance of a blue lotus petal resting in the moonrays! Its slightly lowered in the center and raised on both sides. Perhaps this is because Mother Yashoda would press his chin with her thumb during his childhood? Still Krishnas chin is simply manohar like a flood of refined beauty! Kalokti: Oof! Krishnas jaws are a net of sweetness that catch the bird of everyones eyes! Although they are not too long, they elegantly underline his face from the ears to the chin. Manjuvak: The softness and shape of Krishnas ears defeat both shashkutis and a well-designed knot of kusha grass. His celebrated makara earrings hang from them. Thus its only natural that their brilliancy allures everyones minds and eyes! Aho! Krishnas ears are incomparable, exclaims Manjuvak. Still he does try to give an analogy; he compares them with shashkulis (soft, delicate cream tarts shaped like a half moon). During yajnas executed under the karma khandi rites, the purohit (priest) ties a vishtara around his finger or wrist, during the puja. A vishtara is an auspicious bracelet, or ring, tied with fresh kusha grass. Because it resembles the shape of Krishnas ears, Manjuvaka mentions it. Makara kundalas are a noteworthy item of Krishnas dress. And what is a Makara! Some say

sharks, others say dolphins, but actually they are neither. Makaras are legendary sea- dragons that slightly resemble a huge dolphin. Krishnas Ears and Lips 84-89 Kalokti adds: Aho! The holes in Krishnas ears have widened by the makara kundalas weight. Is this Madanas net to catch the fish of every pretty girls eyes? Or perhaps theyre Madanas doe-trap for capturing the mriga-nayana Vraja-kisoris? Or maybe theyre Madanas noose for trapping the hummingbirds of Radhas eyes? Ah! Let the sight of Krishnas ears always remain within my heart, says Manjuvak. Theyre always eager to hear Radhikas proud teasing and crooked insults! They have a reddish tint inside and their shape are sundar and manohara! Kalokti: Krishnas cheeks are two purna chandras nourished by the adharamrita of Radhikas kisses! Besides curbing the pride of sapphire mirrors, theyre the stage where Krishnas makara kundalas dance! Manjuvak: Krishnas lips meet the borders of his mouth like whirlpools in a nectar river. His glistening teeth constantly bathe these lips. Thus they look like leaf blossoms floating in a milk ocean! Sari: The upper portion of Krishnas lips tilt downward and the mid-portion rises from the air pressure passing through his nostrils. But the raised place where his shyama kanti and ruby-red lips meet is simply a knock-out! Manjuvak: Krishnas lips moistened by his adharamrita are glossier than red bimba fruits, and the faint lines running through them awaken Krishna anuraga. When the vamshi is played upon them its melody is simply jaga jana mano mohana (mind-stealing to everyone in the world)! The faint lines running through Krishnas lips are visible only when ones head is placed right next to his. Thus it is the gopis who become interested by them for they strongly awaken their thirst to kiss him! 90-91 Kalokti: Let Krishnas bright lips always shine within my heart! They are jewel boxes for storing all of the Vraja sundaris wealth; besides, theyre vrishabhanu Raja-nandinis life-giving nectar cups that are graced by her stunning tooth-marks! Manjuvak: Mukundas teeth outmatch the charm of budding kunda flowers, diamonds, pearls or ripe pomegranate seeds. Besides, theyre like parrots which nibble the bimba lips or the beautifulbrowed gopa sundaris! Krishnas teeth have innumerable qualities. Comparing them with kunda flowers tells about their whiteness, likening them to diamonds indicates their dazzling feature, and a comparison with pearls tells about their soft glossiness. But perhaps their most exotie feature is seen when Krishna chews pan then they become deep red like pomegranate seeds. However, the next verse gives another reason for their redness. 92-93 Kalokti: Because Krishnas teeth continually relish Priyajis sweet lips they became red. They are

like Kamadevas chisels for splitting her gem-like lips! But such qualities will only be remembered by a rasika. Manjuvak: May the moonbeams of Gopi-jana-vallabhas smile be glorified! They destroy the anxiety of his priya bhaktas for just a slight fragment of their prasad submerges the world in his karunamrita! And besides, this moonbeam-smile creates waves within Radhikas prema sindhu! Oh shari! Could a chisel please these gem-lips? the shuka says, Just hear about the karuna of Krishnas hasya kaumudi (moonbeam smile)... 94-96 I shall always remember Krishnas nectar smile (hasyamrita)!, says Manjuvak. Its fragrance is coveted by every heavenly devi, including Lakshmi. Yet its sweetness is drunk by the gopis honeybee eyes. Moreover, this madhuryamrita mixes with his beautiful flute song. Kalokti: Krishnas tongue is the birth place for all types of jewel-like poetry, and is expert in relishing six types of flavors (bitter, pungent, salty, spicy, sour and sweet). Although Krishnas tongue flavors the whole world, its keen to enjoy Radhikas adhara sudha rasa! Hence Krishna is a real connoisseur. Manjuvak says, All glories to the tasty shikharini of Krishnas speech! Its flavored by his gheelike prema, his smiling madhu, the sugar of his joking and its scented by his camphor-like words. Although it is crooked with multi meanings, Krishnas speech cools the gopis anguish from the sun of Kandarpas lust, it gives satisfaction to the world and curbs the pride of a nectar ocean! Shikharini, also called rasala, is a delicious drink made from yogurt, ghee, madhu, sugar, black pepper, cardamom and camphor. 97-99 Ah! Krishnas raised nose is gorgeous! says Kalokti. Its pointed like a sapphire sesame flower, or Kamadevas sapphire arrows, yet it defeats the refined curve and good looks of a parrots sapphire beak! Kalokti goes on: Krishnas eyes are white like moon-stone circlets. Yet, inside, it appears like two, restless bees have landed upon a kahlara or white lotus! Manjuvak: Did the supreme artist paint Krishnas eyes white with a touch of crimson around their borders adding a shyama colored centerpiece? ...or is that a black play ball that he tossed in the middle? Krishnas eyes resemble a three colored flower ball that he tosses at the gopis to conquer their mana or jealous anger. So fearing the ball will strike them, they seldom look Krishna in the eye; instead they lower their heads to preserve their mana. 100-108 Kalokti: Aha! Krishnas eyes shower the essence of ambrosial beauty, they are a waterfall of karuna and a flood of Kandarpas rasa. Thus they inundate the whole world in bliss! Manjuvaks chest swells in ecstasy as he exclaims, Krishnas long, tapered reddish eyes are cooling with large enchanting eyelids. Being intoxicated with new youth they gently roll let these wonderful eyes always appear in your heart! Kalokti: Krishnas glances expertly break the shields of a womans chastity; and they are more heart-sinking than Cupids arrows, although they are rarely seen, even in dreams. And being the

greatest donors, Krishnas glances fulfill the desires of the poor. Manjuvak says, Krishnas dancing eyebrows are the arrows that not only pierce the restless doeminds of every sundari yuvatithey also leave them spinning! Although they are crooked, these notorious brows make Kandarpas arrows seem like mere blades of grass. Has the Kaliya-naga offered his two daughters to Krishna? asks Kalokti. Surely Krishna has placed them over his brows, where they shyly hide. But seeing the Vraja sundaris, these snakes turn jealous and bite! Thus the gopis are bitten by the snakes of kama and faint! I praise Krishnas forehead! exclaims Manjuvak. Appearing like the moon on its eighth waning day, its bordered by curly hairs and eyebrow latas. Krishnas forehead is anointed with kunkum tilak, and designs of colored, earthen pigments. Aha! Surely this is Cupids instrument for capturing the doe of Radhikas mind! Manjuvak continues, Vallabi-vallabhas (the lover of the gopis) smart, curling locks resemble bumblebees. Or, could they be nets cast by the fisherman named Madana for catching the gopis minnow eyes (nayana-shaphari)? Krishnas hair looks like Kandarpas deep blue flag; its long, praiseworthy and glossier than a bumblebee. Besides, its dense, curly, equally trimmed and carries the fragrance of a blue lotus smeared with musk. Let us always remember the beauty of Krishnas curling hair! exclaims Kalokti. Sometimes its tied in a half juti, a bun, or left open. But in whatever way it appears, Krishnas hair is like the deer spot on the full moon or Radhas heart! Rasika Kalokti awakens the memory of various lilas by describing how Krishnas hair appears at those times. For example, when he joins the sakhas on the goshtha, its tied in an enticing chura.* Sometimes he dresses up like a woman to fool the gopis and break their mana; then its parted in the center. And during rati keli it becomes scattered. 109-111 Manjuvak says, Aha! What more can I say? Krishnas body is a limitless madhurya sudha sindhu (an ocean of sweet nectar) and everyones locana ananda dhama (an abode of joy for the eyes)! Thus, those graced with his darshana can never satiate their eyes! Even Ananta deva with his thousands of mouths fails to fully describe this splendor. With these words, the shuka and the sharikas voices choke with sattvika emotions! Thus swept up by a sukha sagara, the sakhis also become wonderstruck! As the result of Sri Rupa Goswamis mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Devas lotus feet, at the request of Sri Raghunath Das, in the association of Sri Jiva, and with the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, here ends the sixteenth chapter of Govinda-lilamrita. Chapter Seventeen Continued Madhyahna Pastimes 10:48 a.m. -3:36 p.m. Radhika and Krishna Chandras Qualities

(As Narrated by the Shuka and the Shari) 1 Thereafter, Radhika encourages Vrinda to carress the Suka and restore his vitality. Then Vrinda coaxes him to begin describing Krishnas qualities. Thus the shuka and I the sharika begin. The Glories of Krishna katha 2-4 Even great poets fail to taste one drop from Krishnas guna samudra! says Manjuvak. Yet even though Im only a small bird, I am still thirsting to taste it! Perhaps I am like a hungry parrot who tries to break the coconuts husk. Am I shameless? Still I am bent on describing Krishnas qualities. So is this like an effort to touch the sun, or to smash the Sumeru Mountain with my beak, or to swim across an ocean? On the other hand, when the tongue is purified by Krishna-guna katha, ones taste for other topics ceases. After all, would a kokila return to the neem leaves after sampling the buds of the mango tree? Rasa-tarangini Tika: Who is qualified to speak Krishna kathamrita? exclaims the shuka. The subject is the most exalted and inexhaustible, so who can reach its limits? And I am a mere bird. However, having heard from Vrinda that Krishna kathamrita can purify evcn the fallen, I perform Krishnas guna kirtan. And it is remarkable: once I begin, I am unable to stop! The shukas meekness and firm resolution is highly instructive. Yes, who can properly glorify Krishna? Krishnas qualities are endless, and one lacking purity will surely fail to properly desribe them. But still, no matter how fallen one may be, Krishna katha acts to purify its reciter. Thus even the fallen become great mahatmas by this activity. Hence this is one of Krishnas most glorious qualities. 5-8 Manjuvak: When Krishna was a baby, Garga Muni told Nanda: Your son is the Moon of Gokula. There is no end to his auspiciousness, qualities, gravity and fame indeed, he is just like Narayan. Krishna is affectionate to his devotees (bhakta-vatsala) and submissive to their love (bhakta-vasha). Thus when they attempt to glorify him he is pleased. And similarly, his bhaktas have unlimited qualities too, so who can fully describe just one of them? What can I say about Krishnaas glories, for his ornaments become ornamented when placed against his sundar nava kishor body! He lifted Giri Govardhan as if it were a play ball. His nature is gentle, his lila is jagan-mohana, and he even gives himself to his bhaktas. Thus, his magnificence, his karuna and his fame flood the universe with auspiciousness! 8Everything related with Krishna is crowned with success owing to his purity. This includes his kishor-age, qualities, dress, madhurya, Kandarpa keli, rasa vaidagdhi (witty rasika behavior), shringar rasa, restlessness and, of course, his beloved gopis. Because Krishna is rasika shekhara, the supreme connoisseur, why wouldnt he have the best of everything? But such objects become limitlessly enhanced by his affiliation. This verse mentions the upakarana (related articles) for Krishnas best rasa, shringar. Amongst unlimited Bhagavata-forms of the Lord, here we find Krishna at his best.

9-10 Although Krishnas body smells like a blue lotus dipped in musk, his armpits, eyebrows, hips and hair defeat the aroma of parijata and lotuses smeared with aguru. But his nose, navel, mouth, hands, feet and eyes smell just like a lotus smeared with camphor. Thus the amrita taranga (nectar wave, wave of bliss) of Krishnas anga gandha (bodily fragrance) inundates the universe! Krishnas qualities are mind-stealing to the Vraja sundaris, who are submerged within the flood of Krishna prema. But Krishnas mind and senses are stolen by the gopis maha prema. In fact Hes under their control! Rasa-tarangini Tika: After Manjuvak said that Krishnas anga-saurabha or bodily aroma floods the universe, he thought for a moment and became perplexed. Na, that wont do! he exclaims. Krishnas greatest quality doesnt lie with his flood of sweetness. Stealing the minds of the samartha-ratimati (the competent affection of the gopis, which has the power to control Krishna, to make him incapable of paying back the debt he feels to them) Vraja sundaris is his topmost attribute. Bul they steal his mind too! Samarth-ratimati means that the gopis are able to conquer even Krishna by their love. And no other consorts, whether it be Lakshmi, the Mathura damsels or the Dvaraka queens, can enslave him as they do. 11 Kalokti: Krishna allures the gopa kishoris with the muralis sweet song. Then he dances with them in Maha Rasa to satiate his desires! Hence the entire universe is rejuvenated with ananda! Rasa is Sri Krishnas sarva shreshtha lila(; and except for the gopis, no one can enter the Rasamandala. But only Krishna (and no other bhagavat-svarupa) could possibly allure the gopis into the forest in the dead of night. The basis of Krishnas activities is to satisfy his bhaktas and to fill the world with joy. Amongst the nitya siddha bhaktas, the gopis are the shirsha-sthaniya. Thus to fulfill their desires, Krishna performs Rasa. But one may ask: How does Krishnas Rasa lila make the whole world happy? To answer this, the gopis are Krishnas hladini shakti (pleasure potency), and amongst them, Radha is directly prema (love) personified. Yet Krishna is ananda (pleasure) personified. Hence, when the source of prema and ananda join the entire universe is replenished. Their prema-ananda spreads through the ether, merges with the elements and surcharges every living entity. And moreover, the Rasa lila brings joy to all who hear about it. 12-13 Manjuvak: When Vraja Raja Nanda embraces Krishna, it appears that a blue lotus petal mala garlands him. Aha! Even the thousand mouths of Ananta cannot find an end to Krishnas qualities! Kalokti: Ma Yashoda saw the whole universe within Krishnas mouth and Krishna held Govardhan as though it was a lotus flower. But how amazing Krishna cannot contain his ecstasy upon seeing Radhikas lotus face! Upon seeing Radhas lotus-face, Krishna loses all composure by the onslaught of ashta-sattvika emotions! So one might wonder: Is this Radhas quality, or Krishnas? Aftcr pondering, it can be concluded: Here is Krishnas quality of Supreme fortune. 14-15

Kalokti: When Radhika sees her reflection in Krishnas glossy chest, she mistakes it for another nayika embracing him. Thus angered, she turns her head and trembles with jealousy! Kalokti continues: Because matchless Radhika stole Krishnas mind, he never runs after other sundari ramanis. Would a honey-bee give up the sweet lotus for a mere vine? Thus Krishna is called Madhusudan. 16 Manjuvak: Just as the sun is warm, the moon is cool, the earth is tolerant, the wind is restless, the saints are grave and the ocean is deep our Sri Krishna is controlled by love! Although Krishna is Ajita (unconquerable), he is controlled by love. Hence those who wish to see him must first secure prema; there is no other way. Krishnas submission to love is His underlining quality. 17-19 Kalokti: Although Krishna is grave, steady, forgiving, polite, enjoyable, modest and patient he is attacked by kama when seeing Sumukhi Rais lovely faceand restlessly wanders amuck within her subjugation! Manjuvak: When Krishnas beautiful qualities steal the patience and virtues of Lakshmi and other devis from a far, what will happen to the Vraja sundaris whose hearts easily melt with deep love? How do the Vraja sundaris perform Krishna puja? The shari explains: They offer padya with their perspiration, arghya with their horripilation, achaman with their loving words, gandha with their bodily fragrance, pushpa with their sweet, smling faces and finally they offer themselves in rati krida for naivedya, their kisses are an offering of tambul. For the gopis, premas puja is done with premas upacaras (paraphernalia). Knowing Krishnas fancy, they completely surrender themselves with body. Mind and soul. 20-42 Krishna appears to different people in different ways, exclaims Manjuvak. Hes a great donor for the greedy materialists, a merciful saviour for the distressed, Cupid for the young women, death for his enemies, Bhagavan for his faithful bhaktas, and for the Vrajavasis he is their dearmost friend. Manjuvak: I offer my pranams to Sri Krishna, who possesses all good qualities. If a chandala (dogeater) worships him, he should be respected like a brahmin yet if a brahmin disregards him, he becomes degraded like a chandala. The gopis avoid the prison of bashfulness to dive within the nectar-flood of his prema! In fact, Krishnas fame colors the entire world blue (the sky). But for those feeling his separation the moon becomes hot as fire and the fire appears cooling as the moon. Manjuvak: What more can I say about Krishnas parama karuna even his enemies like Putana attain the Supreme destination after he kills them! Thus the poets sing of his magnanimity. The shuka relates a conversation between two gopis: Oh sakhi! Thats not Krishnas body, its the

Yamunas stream! Oh thats not Krishnas face, its a padma! Oh, those arent Krishnas eyes, theyre blue lotuses! And those arent Krishnas curling hairs, theyre a flock of bees! So hey sakhi! Why are your eyes restlessly roaming about? The shari replies, First Kandarpa entered the gopis minds and transformed them; then Krishnas murali song followed! All glories to Sri Gokula-chandras mohana murali, exclaims Manjuvak. Its sound awakens the lotus-eyed Vraja tarunis kama. It steals their patience, destroys their fear of public scandal, severs their chastity and allures them from their husbands laps! And moreover, its madhura sound causes the mobile objects to palpitate! Manjuvak: People say: There are many jewel-like men having opulence and refined qualities, and who lead exciting lives. Yet, if we consider the sages version, Vrajendra-nandana is their source, Kalokti: While suffering premas onslaught, the Vraja sundaris inform the flute: Oh dear sakhi, oh hey crooked vamshi! Your sound showers both visa (poison) and amrta because it can kill us or save us! But aho! Please do one thing or the other we can not tolerate being kept half-alive! The foolish demons are envious of Krishna, says Manjuvak. Although they desire sense enjoyment, wealth, happiness and the power to rule over others its parama ishvara Krishna who awards these things. Kalokti says, Once a doe-eyed gopi was returning home after being with Krishna and was still so absorbed in the memory of their night together that she became afraid when she saw her mother-inlaw approaching. Thinking Krishna was still with her, she exclaimed: Oh Priyatama! Quickly run and hide, my mother-in-law is coming! Manjuvak says, Murajit resides within the chaste yuvatis hearts, he bestows bliss, and is calm even while lifting mountains (Govardhan). Moreover, he destroys all types of distress, his form is nava kishor and he captivates everyone in the universe. Kalokti says, Krishna was hated by his enemies whom he killed, envied by deva raja Indra for upsetting his yajna and detested by the Kaliya serpent for being chased away! But Krishna awarded auspiciousness to all of them. Krishna is the most clever, exclaims Manjuvak. Even his fault-finders cannot discover his faults. When he returns home in the morning from Radhas nikunja, her alta is smeared with his kunkum tilak...and the black kasturi from Radhas breasts is smeared over his chest. Still no one knows that Radha enjoyed him. Kalokti says, Krishnas madhurya expands with Radhas ever-increasing prema. Thus the sakhis happiness expands with Radha Krishnas ever-increasing vilasa madhuri! As Krishnas madhurya Radhas prema and the sakhis happiness continue expanding, so docs the bhajan-ananda for those who meditate on them. Manjuvak: Aha re! Kamsari Krishnas feet look like a kamala, his face is lovelier than the moon,

his eyebrows can be mistaken for a row of bees and his mouth is like amrita. Moreover, his eyes resemble two restless indivaras; his teeth are white like kunda flowers, his smile is cooling like the moon rays, and his speech is like nectar. Kalokti: Krishnas fingers are delicate like new leaves, and his nails resemble full moons. His cheeks shine like mirrors and his bodily hue rivals a new raincloud. The ladies often mistake Krishnas face for a lotus and hanker to enjoy it like thirsty honeybees. For the saints, Krishna is cooling like the moon; and for his surrendered devotees, he is affectionate like a father. But he lurks within the kunjas as Kunja Vihari! Manjuvak: Let Krishna protect us. Hes like a thunderbolt to the asuras, yet for the sundari ramanis he appears as Cupid. Within the universe there is no other donor or heroic fighter to equal him. Thus he is without compare! Our Krishna is Vraja Mohana! exclaims the sari. Vrindavans forest latas give joy to him with their breast-shaped fruits, their smiling flowers and lip-shaped leaves. Krishnas flute awards sarva siddhi! Manjuvak declares. Besides fulfilling the desires of everyone it acts like Narayans cit shakti to deliver mystic siddhis for the yogis, and bhakti for the bhaktas. Kalokti: Krishna Chandras kirti* is sweet like a nectar stream, cooling like the moon rays and jagat pavani like the Ganges! Manjuvak: Krishnas rupa, guna and madhuri are all anupama (incomparable). Indeed, they are only comparable with themselves. Kalokti says, Krishnas kantas (lovers) are overflowing with prema, and Krishna is quite vidagdha (clever, playful and witty) In his dealings with them. Moreover, Krishna is parama rasika (thirsty to enjoy loving mellows). Hence, Krishnas vilasa (lovemaking) with the gopis is incomparable. Manjuvak replies, Subala and the other priya narma sakhas share a special friendship with Krishna. Knowing his inner fancy, they make a flower bed in the nikunjas, and then they bring Krishnas priya vallabhas and engage them for his ramana vilasa. Subala Milan (Radha meets Krishna dressed like Subala) Subala-milan is a popular lila kirtan palya with many versions. The following story is written by the Mahajana named Dina Bandhu. (Only the English translation is provided to save space). 1) Seeing Rasika Nagara Shyama falling in the pangs of viraha, Subala becomes overwhelmed and lifts him onto his lap to offer solace: Oh Kanai! Youve fainted upon seeing Radhakund! What has happened to your soft heart? Did you enter a forest fire, or did you fall into a river of poison? Let me help you, Ill do whatever I can. Seeing your tears tortures me. Dina Bandhu says, Krishnas body and mind burn within Rais viraha-agni! 2) Oh bhai Subala! answers Krishna, hear my plight: Although I am shy to tell, without telling I might die! Why did you garland me with a golden champak-mala? The thought of champak-varani Rai is piercing me! My dhani mani- Radha is trapped at Javat in Jatilas house, so Ive fallen into a dilemma; what more can I say? Look, if you can somehow bring Radha here, Ill become your dasanudasa life after life! Oh Subala, Ill wait and watch for your return. But if you fail to bring my

Rasavati Rai, Ill die! Dina Bandhu says, Subala gives Krishna assurance and leaves. 3) Su-catura Subala runs with the speed of the wind to arrive at Javat! And seeing Jatila, he says, Oh Ma! My Rakhal Raja is downtrodden he has lost his dearest calf! So I have come here after searching all over Vrindavan. But I am thirsty, can you give me a drink? Jatila answers, Go to the kitchen and have a glass of cold water. Then Subala enters Radhas private quarters. Dina Bandhu says, Seeing Subala, Rai understands everything. 4) Radha says, Come, come, my dear Subala! What a surprise to see you! Tell me, what is your Prana-sakha doing? When I heard his flute along with the sakhas buffalo horns, I became stunned, thinking of his hardship in the forest. Aha re! Being a kulavati bala I cant go there, so I cry and pretend that my tears are caused by the kitchen smoke. But if I would get the chance to be a sakha, Id jump in the ocean to end my nari jivana. Dina Bandhu says, If Radha were a sakha she could always see Krishna. 5) Subala answers with a smile: Listen, oh Vinodini! Ive come to take you to Krishna, for he has fallen unconscious at Radha Kund, thinking of you! Just put on my clothes and go there; then Shyamasundar will be brought back to life! And give me your clothes and Ill put them on and stay here. Hearing the news, Dina Bandhus mind dances in jubilation. Aha! My desire will soon be fulfilled! 6) Subala puts on Rais blue shari and she carefully ties his dhoti around her waist and covers her breasts with his chador. Then they exchange ornaments. As Radha looks in the mirror she removes her sindura bindu (the kunkum dot on her forehead) and combs her hair into a vinoda chura. Then Radha places her bracelets on Subalas wrists and ties his hair into a veni. As Radha leaves, keeping Subala at home, Dina Bandhu offers this song to her lotus feet! 7) As Rai-Vinodini swiftly leaves, Subalas earrings dance over her cheeks! She takes the dust of Jatilas feel and moves with the pace of an intoxicated elephant! Seeing Radha departing with her shoulders bent over (and mistaking her for Subala) Jatila says, Jaya, and asks about the sakhas news. Jatilas words appear sweeter than nectar to Radha, and Jatila even touches her stick to Radhas back while offering a blessing! Thus Dina Bandhu narrates the Subala-clad Radhas departure. Then Vrinda-vipina fills with Rais enticing anga gandha (bodily aroma). Her restless eyes arch in every direction, and at last she finds Gokula-chandra! Thus Shyamau-Nagaras wish nears fulfillment. But Krishna thinks, Subala will surely bring Radha to my nikunja! But seeing Rasavati Radha coming, he assumes that Subala is returning alone. Thus Krishnas suffering doubles; tears stream from his eyes as he dejectedly speaks, Oh no! My sundari must have taken to mana after considering me to be an aparadhi! Oh! Has she rejected me? Shyamas sadness reveals his deep love. But to see more of it, Radha remains silent and lowers her head. Aho! Our Rasika Nagara faints! Then Rasika Nagari Rai places her Prana-bandhu on her lap, and feeling her touch, Krishna reawakens! He is like a thirsty chakora-bird discovering the autumns full moon as he drinks the nectar of Radhas sweet lips. Aho! Dina Bandhu faints in the ecstasy of Yugala Milan! 9) Krishna asks, Oh Sundari! Tell me, why did you dress like Subala...and how did you manage to come here? But where is he ? I cant understand whats going on? When seeing you, I thought he was returning alone. Thus I shook in your separation! But by your touch, all of my suffering is gone. Dina Bandhu says, Oh Sundari Rai! Just give Shyamausundar an explanation. 10) Radhika answers, When you entered the forest herding your cows and playing your Venu, I wept and nearly died! Oh Bandhu! What more can I say? Then your priya Subala brought news about you. He is at my home, dressed like a kula vadhu. After putting on Suhalas clothes I rushed to come here. Being bound to my family members how else could I escape? Dina Bandhu says,

Oh Vinodini! Otherwise, how would you have gotten Kalacanda? 11) Subalas age, complexion and dress resembles Vinodini Rais. He performs Radhas chores of cooking, serving and cleaning the floors with cow dung. Subala is rasamaya and very catura so under the plea of fetching Yamuna-water, he leaves for Krishnas kunja with a kolsi (jug) cocked over his hip. He carries a plate of assorted sweets, puris and pan. Thus deceiving Jatila, he swiftly heads for the forest, his restless eyes roaming in every direction. Dina Bandhu says, Oh, when will I receive the dust of Subalas feet in this situation? 12) Subala arrives at Radha Kund, still dressed like Radha. He is broadly smiling, and Krishna returns a smile upon seeing him; but Radha lowers her head in shyness. Knowing Rais heart, Madhava behaves like a vidagdha nayaka. He inquires from Subala about his welfare and firmly embraces him. Then Subala tells him what happened and garlands Rasaraja and Rasamayi with Malati malas that he made himself. But he begins to worry and his body develops a fever while contemplating about Radhas adversaries! Dina Bandhu says, Owing to the pain of separation Subala left there. 13) Seeing Radhas delay, crooked Jatila swiftly heads for the Yamuna. And while searching from kunja to kunja she finally arrives at Radha Kund to discover her bau-ma seated beside Shyamanagara! Aha! Radha Vinodini is a kalankini(, she shrieks. Youre a Pagali (fool)! Thus Jatila grabs Subala by the hand (thinking him to be Radha)! Yet, meanwhile, Radha flees homeward dressed like Subala. Jatila is burning with rage, her eyes are red and her voice is harsh! Dina Bandhu says, Thus Jatila drags Subala into the center of Gokula. 14) When Yashoda, Rohini and other elderly gopis see the situation, they question: Oh Jatila! Why are you pulling your baumas arm and why do you bring her here? Crooked Jatila (still holding Subalas hand) shrieks: Oh just hear me! Ive caught Radha in the forest with Nanda-Kumara! But aho! Subala smiles and removes Radhas clothes! And seeing the fun, Yashoda and the others laugh as their minds are filled with bliss! But Jatila is greatly embarrassed! In the meantime Radha arrives home with the speed of the wind; her heart is torn in two directions. Thus Dina Bandhu says, Come, come, oh Vinodini! Let me wash your lotus feet! Devotees often wonder about the priya narma sakhas seva. Subala Milan shows how they play a vital role in Radha Govindas Yugala Milan. 43Blessed is Sri Vrindavan! says Kalokti, because in every kunja, on every river bank, and in every mountain cave, Krishna performs rati keli with his beloved gopis! Here is Vrindavans mahimamrita! As a result of deep meditation on Krishnas qualities, his lila sthana, Sri Vrindavan, awakens within the sharis heart. And she reveals an interesting fact: our prema thakurani Radha and our ananda rasamaya Shyamasundars main activity is rati keli. They have it everywhere. Thus sadhakas desiring to attain their prema seva should visit all of these sites, enjoy their darshan, touch them. roll in their dust, always remember them and constantly recite their glories. 44-45 Manjuvak: When Krishna enjoys with the Vraja sundaris, the musk and kunkum from their breasts rub onto his lotus feet. But later, when the Pulinda-girls become lusty by seeing Krishna, or hearing his flute-song, they smear their breasts with the dust from his feet collected from the grass of Vrindavan. Thus they soothe their hearts and extinguish their lusty desires! 4Kalokti: The Vrindavan latas are fortunate because they please Krishna with their flower-smiles,

fruit-breasts and leaf-lips. Thus the forest takes on a nari rupa. To remind Krishna of his priya gopis. 46-49 Manjuvak: The wives of the asuras that Krishna killed hid themselves in the Govardhan caves, and became angry widows. But after being maintained by the Pulindas, even they sing Sri Krishnas glories! Manjuvak adds: The asuras told Kamsa Were able to defeat the king of the devatas, so theres nothing to fear from a small-fry like Krishna. Hes soft as flat rice! Thus Kamsa became arrogant. But later, when Krishna killed all of these asuras (as one smashes flat rice) what happened to Kamsas pride? I cannot explain. Manjuvak concludes: Krishnas qualities, pastimes and glories are all limitless. Although I have purified my tongue by tasting only a drop, its futile to try and estimate all of his attributes. Thus the shuka and sharika repeatedly dip into Sri Krishnas marvellous guna sindhu. And becoming refreshed, they desire to offer some prayers. Sri Krishna Chandrashtakam 50-52 Aho! May Sri Ballabendra-nandana engage me in his charana kamala seva. His anga kanti defeats a dark cloud, black kajjal and indranlila mani gems his bright pitambara shines like kunkum, the rising sun and lightning, and his body is anointed with camphor, kunkum and yellow chandan. May Sri Vallabhendra-nandan engage me in his charana kamala seva. His glowing makarakundalas dance on his cheeks, his round face toppels the pride of the moon or a lotus cluster, and he binds the gopis within his ever-increasing intimate love! May Sri Vallabhendra-nandan engage me in his charana kamala seva. His manohara-rupa (form), vesha (clothes) and prema keli are ever-fresh. His sporting activities and joking with his friends is anandamaya, and the moonrays emanating from his keli kanana outmatch the renowned Nandana Kanana or Devaraja Indra! Nandana Kanana is famous as Indras abode of sensuous delights. Here the prettiest devis of heaven enjoy endless kama-krida with their lovers. But the mere effulgence of Gopi- vallabhas prema keli ecstasy toppels all heavenly enjoyment. 53-57 May Sri Ballabendra-nandana engage me in his charana kamala seva. The greatest devatas bow their heads when offering his praise, yet he bows to his parents and to the brahmins every morning. And his friends all possess the golden ornament of prema. May Sri Ballabendra-nandana engage me in his charana kamala seva. He has curbed the steaming pride of Indra and the Kaliya-naga, and killed Kamsa and Vatsasura. Yet his karuna-vrishti (shower

of mercy) maintains his chataka like bhaktas and his heroic valour charms the Vraja-vasis. May Sri Ballabendra-nandana engage me in his charana kamala seva. By his Rasa-performance within Vrindavans nikunjas he satisfies Radhika and her sakhis; He maintains them by his sporting and joking behavior. Indeed, his prema, character and pastimes give joy to the whole world. May Sri Ballabendra-nandana engage me in his charana kamala seva. His Rasa lila shows his bhaktas the pure path of bhakti, his manohara rupa and attire excites even Cupid, and he awakens the gopis loving sentiments from the corner of his eye. 57May Sri Ballabendra-nandana engage me in his charana kamala seva. He is bent on touching Radhikas body when she picks flowers. And seeing her vama manohara mood, he is intrigued! Thus he becomes smeared over her breasts like chandan, i.e., she carries him within her heart. Phala-shruti (The Benediction) 58 Whoever praises Sri Radhas Prana-vallabha by this astakam will receive Krishnas darshan with Radharani. For they will gladly engage the reciter in their charana kamala seva, which is rare even for Lakshmi. Sri Radhikashtam 59-66 Now Kalokti prays: Oh Radhake! Please be merciful and accept me as your nitya charana dasi. Your anga kanti steals the pride of a svarna padma dipped in kunkum, and your anga gandha defeats its fragrance. So only you can completely fulfill Sri Govindas sarva kama. Please be merciful and accept me as your nilya charana dasi. Your silken shari defeats the kanti of Prabala-gems (coral), you are the blooming pushpa-barika (flower garden) for the enmaddened Krishna-bee, and you worship Padmini Bandhu (Surya deva) for an excuse to meet Krishna. O Radhike! Please be merciful and accept me as your nitya charana dasi. Your bodily softness outmatches the newly blossomed leaves and your body is cooler than the moon, sandalwood paste, camphor or the lotus. And Sri Gopinathjis Kandarpa fever is vanquished by your touch. O Radhike! Please be merciful and accept me as your nitya charana dasi. Your matchless beauty, youth and lila are praised by every fortunate yuvati rama including Lakshmi; no one is your equal. O Radhike! Please be merciful and accept me as your nitya charana dasi. In Rasa lilas singing, dancing and joking vaidagdhya (wit) you are a pandit. Your virtuous qualities and numerous dresses are all rendered ramaniya (pleasing) by your exemplary prema. Amongst all of the gopis you are the masterpiece! O Radhike! Please be merciful and accept me as your nitya charana dasi. Seeing your nava rupa, keli and prema, the nava anuragini Vraja Kishoris tremble! (your sakhis shiver in bliss and your

rivals shiver in fear). But your mind is always fixed on Govindas manohara rupa, vesha (dress) and keli (sporting activities). O Radhike! Please be merciful and accept me as your nitya charana dasi. Satittvika bhavas like perspiration, shivering, horripilation, tears and faltering speech ornament your body, and your bhavalankaras like anger, jubilation and resistance are Sri Krishnas locana ananda dhama. O Radhike! Please be merciful and accept me as your nitya charana dasi. Deep pain overtakes you if Krishnas separation occurs for even half a second! Humility, restlessness and other bhavas exhilarate you, yet when you finally get Krishna by the help of your sakhis, you attain shanti. The benediction (Phala Shruti) 67-69 Anyone praying to Krishnas beloved Radha with, these eight prayers will invoke her karuna. She will personally appear before him with Shyamasundar and her sakhis to award her dasyamrita seva which is impossible to attain for Parvati and other devis. While hearing Sri Krishna guna amrita from the shuka and the sharikas, Radhikas sakhi samaja submerges within a boundless ocean of bliss! As the result of Sri Rupa Goswamis mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Devas lotus feet, the request of Sri Raghunath Das, the association of Sri Jiva, and the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, Govinda-llmtas seventeenth chapter ends. Chapter Eighteen Continued Madhyahna Pastimes 10:48 a.m. -3:36 p.m. The Shuka and Sharis Ensuing Praises, Pasha-khela and Surya puja 1-7 Prema Lakshmi, Sri Radhika, affectionately takes the shuka in her hand, and Krishna fondles the sharika. Radha exclaims, Recite, oh shuka! Lets hear you praise my Krishna ji the Gopala whose complexion rivals a nava jaladhara, who lifts Giri Govardhan and who has come to a kutir at my Sri Kunda. Hey shuka! Just say, Oh Krishna, youre the sarva guna mani ashraya, the source of all jewel-like qualities! Your lips are the intoxicating madhu for the Vraja tarunis! Hey Sundara Shekhara (topmost handsome one)! Hey Sringara rasa sagara! Hey Vara-nagara Hey Vraja-kulanandana! All glories to you! Hey shuka! Recite: Oh Giridhari! Your pada padma defeat the pride of a thousand-stemmed lotus! Yet you destroyed the Agha, Baka and Shakata asuras to protect Vraja Mandal! Thus your feet shelter all of the pious. Hey shuka! Praise that Krishna diamond, whose madhura nupura enchant everyone, who is grave owing to his greatness, who is a hero in battling the asuras and who is calm while holding Giri

Govardhan! Oh shuka! Remember Sri Govinda wearing dancing earrings. Hes that Yamuna-vihari-lal who sports in the water like a mad elephant with the Vraja padminis! Then he sports in the waves of kama krida with the Vraja ramanis in the caves of Govardhan! Radhika enjoys the rasodgara of her rasika Shyamasundars qualities and pastimes that are deeply impressed within her heart. At midnight, after Sharadiya Rasa, Shyama Nagara plunges within the Yamunas waves with the gopis like a matta matanga, intoxicated elephant, with its mates. Then he kisses them and enjoys all types of sambhoga sukha with these surata-ranginis. But after Vasanta Rasa, the surata ranga rasa tarangas (sporting waves of surata rasa) go on within the hidden caves of Govardhan hill. 8-12 Then Krishna says, Oh shari! Praise my Priyatama (dearest one), whose vadana kamala enchants me; its charm defeats the moon and the lotus, and her noble qualities curb the pride of all vishya naris (women of the universe)! Oh shari, just say: Hey Nagari Radhike! Youre reputed as the golden swan swimming within Giridhari nagaras hridaya sarovar! Your kama kalas are imitated by all of the worlds tarunis who are like your disciples. Krishna tells Kalokti: Oh shari, just recite Hey Radhe! Youre a gunamani khani (mine of jewellike qualities), a prema sudha samudra and the most chaste women in the universe worship your chastity. Moreover, youre famous as Vrindavans Rajeshwari Maha-rani and Lakshmi Svarupini! Say: O Radhe! Even Ajita* is conquered by your purity, virtuous qualities, characteristics and prema! Thus you stand beside him as Vraja- Lakshmi. Just recite: Dhira Radhas adharas repeatedly hold Dharani-dhara Govardhan dharis adhara! This amazing shloka is called a dvyakar, because it composed with the combination of only two consonants, r and dh. In simple English it means: Equipoised Radha repeatedly holds selfcontrolled Giridharis lips (adhara) with hers, 13-17 Krishna: The tittibha birds musingly sing in the trees beside Radha Kund to arouse everyones rati. Then the shari flies to land on Radhas hand, and the shuka flies to Krishnas hand. From there, their recital continues: Oh shari! exclaims Radhika, praise my Krishnas glossy body, which defeats the luster of the bees, the tamal or a nava jaladhara. Then narrate his madhura lilas that are more cooling and pure than chandan, kunda flowers, hailstones or diamonds sprinkled with lotus-nectar pollen. Hey shari, just say that Gokula-chandras fame is like the termites: it eats away the bamboo-like hearts of all the vishwa ramanis. Then his fame goes dancing on! Hey shari! Rasa vilasi surasika asurari comes to my sarasi to enjoy the sarasa shobha of the cranes, the bees and the lotuses. This is another dvyakar verse, like 12 above, made with just r and s. Asurri is Krishna, the slayer of the asuras. Radha tells the shari, People say that Krishna comes to my sarasi (kunda) in search of me, but thats not true. As he is sundar and rasika he admires the beautiful environment; the cranes

sweet call, the lotus fragrance, the bees drone and the fresh water all soothe him. Its an ideal place for a midday nap. Srimatis naming Krishna as rasa-vilasi, (fond of the Rasa), hints that he is bahu-vallabha, surrounded by many loves and unchaste. 18-24 Radha goes on, Hey shari, just praise Krishna, whose well-behaved bride, the vamshi, causes the gopis nivi bandhana to loosen. She severs their attachment to their husbands and awakens their thirst to enjoy rati krida with him! Hey shari! The chaste Vraja sundaris arent fond of their husbands, nor do their pretty faces nourish before them. The reason is that their minds dwell in Madhava. Krishna tells Manjuvak to recite: Aha re! The gentle breezes carry the kundas moisture sweetened with the lotus fragrance to serve Ramani Mani Rai, who oscillates within Govindas arms during their rati mahotsava! Krishna goes on instructing: Hey shuka! Just say, Radhika and her sakhis daily come to this kunja kanana. Although they are eager to meet me, Im tortured by their vama natures. Oh shuka, just say: Hey sundari Radhike! When you desire to kiss Krishnas lips, his lips become thirsty to kiss yours! Krishna: Oh shuka! When I become restless and lusty and anxiously ask the sakhis: Wheres Radha? they frown and speak neglectfully. Their behavior thrills my eyes and ears just like Radhas! Then Vrinda brings grapes and pomegranate seeds. So Radha and Krishna affectionately feed the parrots. The sharika is fond of grapes; the pomegranates are the shukas favorite. Pasha Khela 25 Thereafter, Radha and Krishnas desire to enjoy pasha khela awakens. Thus, while fondling the shuka and the sharika, they arrive at Sudevis Harita* kunja. We may remember from shlokas 7.98-99 that Sudevis kunja is above Radha Kunds north western corner. Everything here is green, even the birds, the bees and the animals. The cottages, pathways and vedis are all made of emeralds. This kunja has a Pasha-khela mandir in the center, and here Radha Krishnas last pastime is performed before they move on to Surya Krishna. 26 As everyone enters the pasha khela mandir to sit upon colorful asanas Krishna and his sakhas, and Radha and her sakhis sit face to face. There are 64 squares on the Pasha-board. They are contoured in mosaic designs of differently shaded emeralds on the floor in the mandirs center. Krishna sits with Madhumangal, Subala and Kundalata, and Radhika and her sakhis sit facing him. In Krishnahnika-kaumudis version, Krishna plays with the bimba lipped Vraja kishoris upon an

indranila mani vedi under a tree. The Pasha-khela board is sown on a colorful silken cloth with golden threads to indicate the different playing squares. In Krishna-bhavanamrita the following conversation ensues: Radhika questions Lalita: Oh sakhi! During Madhu-pana, Holi and Jala keli, Krishna defeated us just as a strong elephant uproots the Padminis (lotuses). So now Hes become too proud! Oh intelligent Lalite! Lets play some other game where physical strength isnt a deciding factor. How about a game that requires brains? Then well defeat Krishna. Lalita answers, Hey Radhe! For the Pasha-khela victory, youre like the moonbeams for the lilies. So hey Garva-dharini! Krishna can never cast you into a dark defeat! Thus encouraged, Radha calls Krishna and says, Hey Priyatama! Hey Prabhavishno! Why arent you showing off the dancing girl of your victory-desire at the Pasha-arena? Krishna answers, Hey sakhi Radhe! Yes, its true. Your desire to win appears just like a dancing stage girl! But look! The victory Raja is sitting on the singhasan of my hand so the desire dancing in your heart will soon leave the stage. As Madira Nayana Rai hears Krishnas boasting, her eyebrow-latas perk with resentment! Thus she nods to Sudevi for bringing the dice. 27 As the game begins, Lalita advises Radha, and Madhumangal becomes Krishnas advisor, to say, Do like this, or do like that Then Sudevi sides with Radha and Subala with Krishna, to move their playing pieces, which are called sharis, on the pasha board. As the pashaka (dice) roll, the sharis move on the board according to the numbers shown on the dice. In Krishnahnika-kaumudi, the sharis are made of gold and emeralds. 28 The referees are Nandimukhi, Vrinda and Kundalata. Then Radhika takes the Shyama-colored dice, and Krishna accepts the golden dice. In Krishna-bhavanamrita, Nandimukhi is Krishnas referee, Vrinda is Radhas and Kundalata carries messages between both parties. According to their ruci, Radha and Krishna accept their favorite colored dice. 29 For the first throw, Krishnas stag Suranga and Radhas doe Rangini are wagered. As Krishna wins, Madhumangal joyfully binds Rangini and brings her into Krishnas camp. As Madhu clasps onto Rangini, his pride overtakes him. Thus with a broad smile he dances back to Krishnas party in a funny step meant to jeer Radhas team members! Krishna-bhavanamrita focuses on Radhikas dice throwing technique as follows: As the red lotuses of Radhas palms toss the dice (which resembles dancing boys) her jingling bracelets and bangles form a musical ensemble. Thus Radhas arms and breasts gently jiggle with her hand movements as her indescribably sweet darshan rolls like a wave to cascade over Krishna! And Krishnas eyes submerge within this netrotsava! But somehow, through great effort, Krishnas Pasha-khela skill draws his mind back to remain equipoised. 30

For the second throw, Krishnas murali and Radhas pavika lute are at stake. But Radha wins, so as Krishna tries to hide his murali under his chadar, Lalita snatches it by force! In Krishnahnika-kaumudi, the betting slightly varies. There, Krishna says, If We first set the wager the game will be more fun. So for the opening match lets place up my Kaustubha and Radhas golden necklace, And for the second bet Ill offer my murali and Radha can offer Lalila. Look, Pyariji.! If you can defeat me Ill gladly hand over my murali, but if I win, Ill take Lalita! Radha answers, I cant accept your second proposal because the values of the two objects (set for the wager) are unequal. Is a mere bamboo-slick comparable to a golden arrow? Then a sakhi named Kalavati asks, All right Radhe! What will you place for the third bet! Youre my bet! Radha replies jokingly: And his necklace is the other. For the fourth bet, let me make a suggestion, Kalavati says. Thus after winning or losing, youll Both enter a sukha sagara and consider your bodies fortunate. Whats that? Krishna inquires. Kalavati replies, Oh Sumukhi* Radhe! Your wager is a kiss and your Priyatama shall offer a hundred embraces! Hearing this statement, Radha becomes fumed, and raises her eyebrows to scoff: Hey Kalavali! Why dont you accept these wagers and shamelessly play with this wanton Ramana? Oh rey! Kalavati retorts. Ive given the best advice, why are you becoming flustered over the betting? Just think for a moment your wager is light, but your Prana- Vallabhas wager is heavy. If you lose, youll only have to give a little, whereas if you win you can smilingly gain a lot. Therefore, just rest assured, good fortune awaits both parties. So hey Sumukhi Radhe! Sit up straight. Lets see your skill in lila vilasa as you contest your Priya Nagara! (Thus Kalavati smiles and pulls Radhas hand) 31-32 For the third throw, Radha and Krishnas necklaces are at stake. But then Madhumangal cheats. he tells Krishna: sharike maro (kill the shari), so Radhikas shari, Kalokti, fearfully chirps and flies to the treetops! Thus everyone laughs! As the third match begins, Batu notices: These maha-garvini* Vraja tarunis have stolen Krishnas attention with their seducing eye gestures and restless movements! Oh no! This time we dont stand a chance of winning! Thus to distract the gopis and give enthusiasm to Krishna, Madhu gives some crooked advice. He points to Radhas playing-piece on the board (called a shari) and shouts: Sakha! If you can kill the shari, youll win! As we remember, Kalokti has been sitting on Radhas left hand since the previous pastime. But when she hears the command Kill the shari!, she thinks that Madhu is instructing Krishna to murder her! Thus while flying to a tree of safety, she meekly cries: Ah! Please dont slaughter an offenseless tiny bird as me! Hence Madhus tactics succeed: all of the sakhis divert their attention from the playing board to laugh at the amusing incident. 33 As the laughter continues in an uproar, Krishna turns deceitful. Although he scores a low number, he still declares: Look! Ive killed the shari! So Ive won! On the third throw, Kaitabi* Krishna sees his low score and thinks, Uh oh! I dont stand a chance of winning. But now everyones attention is diverted in the joking jubilation, So heres an excellent opportunity to win by cheating! Thus Krishna tries to remove Radhikas shari from the playing board, saying: Look! Ive

scored the right number; Batus instruction. To kill the Sari has proven fruitful! 34 But next Radhika throws her desired score to capture Krishnas pieces on the playing board. Thus she smiles and declares: Ive won! Su-nayani dhani moni Rai strikes Krishna with a subjugating, scolding eye-gesture! Then she throws such an amazing score that she can surround Krishnas sharis (playing pieces) and block their movement. Then with a smile Radha addresses everyone: Just see, Ive won. Krishna is telling a lie! 35 Then Krishna and Radha brawl hand to hand, Each trying to remove the others necklace! And seeing the contention, Batu and Kundalata squabble with Radhas sakhi-supporters over whose side scored the victory! Dhrishta-churamani Krishna doesnt pay heed to Radhas declaration! Instead, he insists that he is the victor and moves in to grab Radhas necklace! Radha instantly rebuffs him and offers her tit-fortat by trying to remove Krishnas necklace! Aho! What a fascinating struggle! Radha and Krishnas eyes meet head-on as they tossle in hand-to-hand combat! Krishna is backed by Madhu and Kunda, while Radhas sakhis support her! Madhu shouts: Hey Nitambinis! This isnt a game of shaking nitambas, bobbing nose- rings or raising the arms to captivate the men! This competition excels with a dexterous hand. Look! My priya sakha has thrown his chosen number, so your victory is impossible! The sakhis retort: Aha! This game doesnt depend on ones skill in cowherding, demon-killing or seducing innocent women with a flute, this sporting is dominated by the su-catura kalavatis! Kundalatas version wont pass because shes simply captivated by her cousins charming eyegestures! 36-38 After consulting the references, Nandimukhi and Vrinda, they say, Oh, we became distracted and missed seeing what happened. Thus they decide: Alright, lets call this match a draw, just keep your necklaces on and throw again. On the fourth throw, Radhas sakhis and Krishnas sakhas are placed for the bet. This time Radhika wins, and Madhumangal becomes afraid, thinking: Uh, oh! Now theyll take me away! Switching back to Krishna-bhavanamrita, Radhika wins after throwing her desired number! Then the sakhis sternly address Madhumangal: Oh re Bato! Why are you lowering your head now? During the jala keli you were dancing upon seeing our defeat, so where has that artful dancing performance gone? And where is that funny grin as you said, Aha! Ill take the gopis ornaments and bangles to trade them for sweets in the Mathura bazaar! Radhika says, Hey sakhis! This Batu is very fond of shitopala candy, so why dont you bring shitopali (ice blocks) from a mountain-top and dump it on his head. Lets see how he relishes that! Madhumangal listens to all this in silence, prompting the sakhis to say, Oh re! Why arent you answering? Ah ha! We see, having lost at pasha khela, youre now assuming forgiveness, patience

and shanti to preserve your brahminical qualities! Seeing no other way out, and fearing the consequences. Batu cheats as follows: 39 Then slyly moving his hand over the board in an effort to hide Govindas low score, Madhu asserts: Aha! Our desired number has fallen! We won! Meanwhile, he upsets the pieces on the board, mixing Radhas with Krishnas! Seeing Madhus mischief, the sakhis come to bind him, but he screams and a great skirmish ensues! The sakhis warn Batu: Your sneaky tricks wont pass! Weve seen everything. Thus were going to tie you up first! Then they surround him. But Batu does not give an inch and takes to screaming! He swears and makes all sorts of faces. Thus he gives ananda to everyone! In Krishna-bhavanamrita, Krishna loses a match to Radha when his Kaustubha-mani is at stake. Then the sakhis say: This Kaustubha has rubbed the breasts of many Vraja ramanis; so how can we place it around our priya sakhis neck? Oh, perhaps we could sell it and purchase other gems for decorating Srimati! Or maybe if we wash it many times our Raja-nandini might accept it? Then Nandimukhi declares: Oh Vraja-yuva Raja! Youve lost! So give the Kaustubha to Radha! Krishna feigns disappointment as Kundalata transfers the jewel to Radhas chest. But as Krishna sits before Radha, suddenly his reflection appears on the Kaustubha. Thus Kundalata exclaims, Oh Krishna! Just see how beautiful you look between Radhas two breasts! Hey Prema Sindho! The Kaustubha has rested on your chest for so long, but today, having accepted the ashraya of Radhas kucha yugala, this mani raja holds you on its chest! As Krishna stares at his reflection, moha (illusion) overtakes him! Thus he feelingly declares: Hey reflection! Youre the real Shyamasundar, because you reside between my Priyas kucha yugala, the place of my constant meditation! As Krishna repeats himself over and over, tears pour from his eyes! Then Radha slips a peek to see her Prana-naths reflection cast on the Kaustubha. Thus she scorns both her kanchuli and her modesty (because her kanchuli prevents the reflection from touching her body, and because modesty prevents her from staring to her hearts satisfaction). Thus Radha is stunned in ecstasy! Then the sakhis chide Madhumangal: Hey Bato! What happened to your Priya sakhas prestige! Has it fallen to hide under your feet! Oh rey foolish one! Were not in the cow pastures, nor are we playing a demon-killing game, this is called Pasha-khela! This competition discloses ones wit! The sakhis swiftly flowing Saraswati river of rebuke uproots the jute-plant of Batus equipoise! Thus frightened, he addresses Krishna: Hey sakhe! Here, you can offer the Kaustubha. Ive got some business to look after, so Ill see you later. Oh, by the way, in case these Vraja-ramanis should attack you alone Im going to warn Nandarani. Shell certainly come and teach them a lesson. Aha! Theyll be thrown in a dark well of embarrassment! Krishna scoffs: Oh foolish Madhu! Why are you so panicky! Just watch, now I shall defeat these gopis! So dont worry, and slop announcing my defeat! Madhu retorts: Hey Krishna! lve given good advice, so why are you becoming upset! Oh! Let your Kaustubha get stolen, Im leaving. These shrewd yuvatis will simply make you dance like a play-puppet and take all of your wealth! (As Madhu starts to leave, everyone offers pacification; then he is re-seated near the playing board). 40 Then Krishna addresses Radha: Hey Priye! Look, if we continue to move the sharis, quarrelling is

bound to ensue. Lets just throw the dice and decide the winner by the highest number, Krishna: Look, Kishoriji! A dispute can never be resolved by arguing, so lets forego this match and start afresh. With this caturali Krishna saves Madhumangal from the gopis. binding ropes. 41-43 Oh Priye, says Krishna, Lets both throw the dice. The winner will be decided by the numbers. This game has ten numbers, and four of them are equal. But of the six unequal numbers, one is the vamancha (ten). You can take this one also. Thus, there are five numbers for you, and five for me. Lets wager that the loser must embrace the winners body in as many places as is shown on the winners dice. The sakhis can fathom that catura Nagara-manis one-sided match is meant to satisfy all of his Senses, by winning or losing. Nevertheless, they play naive because they know that Radhas ultimate satisfaction lies in Krishna s happiness. 44-45 Then Radha throws the dice, scoring ten, and her sakhis laugh in amusement! But Krishna feigns sadness and exclaims, Ha Priye! You may take ten of my limbs by embracing your arms, two hands, two breasts, two cheeks, lips and face with mine! The word dasha (ten) also means damsha (to destroy). Krishna-bhavanamrita explains why this number makes the sakhis smile: While throwing the dice Radha exclaims, dasha, dasha (ten, ten)! Thus, to poke fun, Krishna questions: Hey Priye! Your viti (required number to add a new piece) has fallen, but you havent scored dasha (ten). Thus your repeated prayer, dasha, dasha, simply sounds funny! So whats the question of your victory? The inner meaning is : Hey Radhe! Your repeated prayer, dasha-dasha (bite my lips, bite my lips!) sounds funny. The reason is because in rati krida you lose your viti (consciousness) during viparita vilasa! So whats the question of your victory? Krishnahnika-kaumudi elaborates further: After the fourth bet was set for the exchange of kisses, Prema mani Rai turns shy; but still shes determined to win. And its amazing, whatever score she desires, turns up. Yet Radhas ramana is prideful of his skill, too. So then Radha raises her arms (exposing her breasts) and boldly exclaims, dasha-dasha! (calling for ten). A sakhi then advises: Hey bold one! Stop saying dasha, dasha (destroy, destroy)! Just look before you, theres a poisonous Krishna-sarpa (black snake) standing ready to bite you! So be careful! Lalita answers, Rai has two maha-sarpi (great female snakes) within her eyebrow- latas, and theyve already destroyed the Krishna-sarpas poison. So whats the harm? Krishnas suggestion to embrace his limbs in ten places brings a smile to the sakhis faces, but Radhika lowers her head in shyness to answer: 46 Oh referee Kundalate, Ive won; but you can accept Krishnas reward with your limbs (embrace his body in ten places)!

Rai-Vinodini finally awakens from her stupor! Hay, hay! What sort of embarrassing wager have I agreed to? The reward cannot be given, nor can it be accepted lest I become a laughing-stock before this assembly. Thus Radha passes the reward on to Kundalata. 47-48 Then Krishna throws four and five to score nine. Seeing him overjoyed, Kundalata advises: Hey Krishna! Radhika has become too proud of her slight victory. So why dont you embrace her in nine places: Her two eyes, two cheeks, two breasts, forehead, lips and face! Playing a beneficiary role, Shyama VinodinI Rai foregoes her prize. Thus Krishna contemplates: If I insist that she take it, a fierce quarrel will break out. Better yet, let me use my wits to Score a victory; then Ill be able to demand my desired objective. Although nine isnt the highest score, still it is enough to secure Krishnas victory. Thus Kundalata declares: Oh Krishnaji! Now youre eligible to embrace Radhika: in nine places (these are the prescribed place. for kissing a sundari ramani according to Vatsyayana Munis Kama-shastra Paddhati). But Kundalata further coaxes: Krishna! Youd better kiss Radhika firmlyand let the sakhis witness your prowess, this will curb all of Radhikas previous victory infatuation! 49 Lalita says, Hey Krishna! Kundalata has accepted Radhikas ten bodily limbs. So just place your lips to any nine of these and enjoy your prize! Here Lalita Sundari rebuffs Kundalatas suggestion. She states that the winner isnt entitled to take nine limbs from the loser. Rather, the loser has the right to decide Whose limbs will be offered. Thus our Raja-nandini places the reward with Kundalata. 50 Kundalata replies, Ive placed all of these limbs on Lalitas right cheek. So hey Krishna, just go and collect your reward. Thus Krishna becomes eager to kiss Lalita! Kautuka-pandit, Kundalata, doesnt protest Lalitas dodging tactics, for this would upset the rasa ranga. Rather, she shifts the attention back to her. Oh Krishnaji! Kundulata instructs, . Just kiss Lalita Sundaris right cheek nine times to reap your due reward! Krishna is always looking for a chance to molest Lalita; thus taking Kundalutas advice to heart, he springs! 51 Then Radha throws the dice exclaiming, dasha vamancha! But Krishna takes the meaning, Kiss Lalita ten times on her vama (left) cheek! Thus to follow Radhikas order, Krishna attempts to kiss Lalita! It is a common practise in pasha khela to loudly announce ones desired score while rolling the dice. Hence Radhika sundari exclaims, dasha vamanca! desiring to score ten. But our rasa pandit Krishna construes another meaning to suit his own fancy. Thus he jubilantly thinks, Aha! Kundalata advised me to kiss Lalitas right cheek nine times, and Radhika is suggesting to take ten more from her left (dasha vaman ca)!

52 Lalita shows anger, turns her face and quarrels with Krishna and Kundalata! Meanwhile, Krishna tells Radha: Because you defeated me you must take my limbs! Lalita shrieks: Kundalata and Krishna are a befiting match! Just as the cousin-brother is the fraudulent lampata, the cousin sister is shameless and dirty-minded! So lets watch their yugala milan in the matter in giving and taking the rewards! How dare they try and pollute the chaste kulavadhus ! Rather than try and contend with furious Lalita, Krishna thinks it wise to ignore her. Thus directing his attention to Radha, he hopes to fulfill his desire by exclaiming: Hey priye! Since youve won with your dasha vamanca, just seize my ten limbs! What are you waiting for? 53 Thus Krishna eagerly offer his face and other limbs to Radha,s corresponding limbs! Aho! Radha,s eyebrows arch, her eyes turn sharp, and her hands block his aggression! But as her indistinct rebuke mixes with laughter and dry pouting Krishna experiences paramananda! Praphulla padma mukhi Rai Vinodini is vama manohara, an amusing, resisting, bright lotus-faced enchantress! Her body is molded from maha bhava chintamani, the essence of Krishnas pleasureSakti. Thus every movement she makes, enthralls him! But when a combination of contending bhavas mix, such as now, Krishnas pleasure waves rise higher and higher within his sukha sagara! 54 But as the game continues, Vrindas sharika named Sukshmadhi suddenly flies into the assembly to exclaim: Ayi! Jatila is coming from Vraja! According to shloka 8.99, Vrinda sent Sukshmadhi to watch Jatilas house. So as soon as Jatila starts into the forest, this sharika quickly flies ahead to relay the warning. 55 Panic overtakes Radha and Krishna. Thus dropping everything, everyone flees to the kunja named Kunjenara! Nothing frightens Radha Govinda more than hearing the name of Jatila! Thus their bodies shake in trepidation! While stumbling along the path they arrive at the remote Kunjenara Kunja, and pause for a breather. Then everyone begins planning how to mislead Jatila. Kunjenara lies between Radha Kund and Surya Kund. To this day a village named Kunjenar is located there. Surya Puja 56-59 Kundalata leaves Krishna at Kunjenara and escorts Radhika to the Surya mandir. But meanwhile, old fangled Jatilla arrives there and asks: Oh Kundalate! Why are you so late? We couldnt find a brahmin kumara, Kundalata replies. Yesterday all of the Vrajavasi women invited them elsewhere. 58

Kundalata continues: But there is one young brahmin available from Mathura, hes a disciple of Ganga Muni and his Vishwa Sharma. Weve heard that hes expert in Surya puja. Today Vishwa Sharma went to Kamyavana to meet Krishna, whos herding his cows there. And later, Madhumangal brought him to Arishta Kund for bathing. Then we invited him to perform our Surya puja, but unfortunately, Madhumangal forbade him, warning him about your harsh temper! By coincidence, Vishwa Sharma came to visit Vrindavans forests today and met Krishna at Kamyavana. Thus Kundalata tactfully relieves Jatilas suspicion of Krishna, for Kamyavana is 26 miles from Radha Kund. After leaving Krishna, Vishwa Sharma came to Arishta Kund with Madhumangal to bathe. Although Arishta Kund is none other than Shyama Kund, Kundalata uses the former name to avoid reminding Jatila of Shyamasundar. Kundalata goes on: When approaching the sober brahmin boy Vishwa Sharma, we humbly reqested him to perform Surya puja for us, and he kindly agreed. But hearing your name, Madhumangal forbade him to come because of your harsh and baseless criticism of the gopis character. Thus Kundalata hints that Jatila dealings with Radha are unjust. Indeed, to soften up a bit would be kind. Jatila inquires: Where is this brahmin pujari now? Hes still sight-seeing in a nearby forest, Kundalata answers. So why dont you courteously invite him here? Jatila coaxes. We tried, Kundalata says, but after hearing about your ill-temper he refused. Jatila falls into a dilemma. Oh, what shall I do now? she wonders. its getting late and no pujari is available! Hay, hay! To return home without performing the puja will be inauspicious. Thus she says, Oh Kundalata! Well have to find that Mathura brahmin and bring him here at any cost! Perhaps hes still wandering in the forest near Arishta Kund? Kundalata replies. Hearing that Vishwa Sharma might still be available restores Jatilas hope. Thus speaking in an affectionate tone, she urges Kundalata: Oh chaste one! Youre expert in all affairs. All glories to you! Listen, quickly go and fetch that Mathura brahmin by soliciting him with utmost care! Kundalata sighs and feigns sadness: Oh Arye! Weve tried our best, but after hearing about your rough behavior, that peaceful brahmin boy became afraid! 62-64 Kundalata, then do one thing, says Jatila. Take Dhanishtha with you to persuade him. And if he does not want to come along, then invite Madhumangal also, after mentioning that Ill reward him with a lot of sweets and a large dakshina. To oblige Jatilas respected coaxing, Kundalata and Dhanishtha set off. But seeing Krishna dressed like a brahmin, theyre astonished for he appears just like the personified Vedas! Thus everyone returns, even Madhumangal.

As the disguised Krishna brahmin arrives, Jatila greatly honors him. And Krishna offers a blessing in return: May your son be rich with many cows, and your daughter-in-law embraced by good fortune! Jatila greatest ambition is to see her son, Abhimanyu, attain an equal status with Chandravalis husband, Govardhan Malla, who is independently wealthy with a large herd of cows. Thus this

benediction instantly awakens Jatilas steadfast devotion for the dark- complexioned brahmin kumar. When Jatila hears of the benediction bestowed upon her daughter-in-law, she is also encouraged, as she thinks it means, Radha will flourish with pati bhakti, i.e. devotion to her husband. In fact, as rasamaya Krishna smiles at Radha, his words convey the message, If you embrace me, youll attain all auspiciousness! As the brahmin-clad Krishna arrives, in Krishna-bhavanamrita, Jatila respectfully addresses him as follows, Hey vipra-varya, O best of the brahmins! My life is blessed by your darshan. Can you engage my vadhu in puja? With the puja paddhati and kusha grass in hand, the tranquil shyamala kishor brahmin replies,Hey Vriddhe (old woman)! Even though a brahmachari should never look upon a woman, I shall engage your vadhu in the kama-puraka-amshu puja because shes a famous sati and her head is covered with a veil! 65-67 As the puja begins, Krishna asks Jatila: What is the name of your putra-vadhu (sons wife) ? Jatila answers, Radha. But Krishna become struck with wonder to reply: Oh! Is this that famous gunavati dhani mani whose ideal chastity is celebrated even in Mathura puri? Is she your putra vadhu? Oh Vriddhe (old woman)!youre really fortunate! Then Krishna instructs Radha: [Jatila understands A, but B is for Radha.] A) Without following the Vedic vidhi of purohit varana (accepting the priest), I,m unable to perform the puja. So to accept me for the Surya-maha-yajna you must touch me. But because I nevertouch women, just touch me with this kusha grass as you recite the mantra. B) To perform the Ujjvala-kama yajna you must take off your clothes. After doing so, you can touch the Jagat Pati (me) with the Kusha (your sharp nails) and recite the mantras (begin rati krida)! Radha blushes while contemplating Krishna command to accept his partnership for Kamadevas maha yajna! The mantras 68 A) I accept Vishwa Sharma, who is pure minded and wise as my purohit. He belongs to the Jagatmangala kali gotra (the dynasty which bestows fortune to the world). B) I accept the Universal-pleasure-giver as my lover, he is all-auspicious and expert in the arts of shringar rasa! The first meaning is for Jatila, the second is for Radha. From ancient times, persons engaged in puja recite the purohits name, gotra (dynasty, and pravara (special talents) when accepting him to perform the rituals. Such purohits gotra descends from an ancient RIshi such as Bharadvaja, Kashyapa or Shandilya. Thus, as Jatila hears the words jaganmangala krit and shucivit she imagines that these are the names of Rishis. But, actually, Bhagavan belongs to his own gotra which is jaganmangala kari (auspicious to the entire universe). Then Krishna introduces his pravara (noted talent) as being shucivit (pure). But the inner meaning is that he is expert in shringar* .

69 Then Vishwa Sharma tells Radhika: Just recite, I offer my obeisance unto Mitra (the Sun-god) who is padmini bandhu (the friend of the lotus), who destroys the darkness with his rays and who become bright red in the morning and evening. The inner meaning is: I offer Myself to Mitra (my friend Krishna), who is padmini pati (the lover of the padmimi gopa kishoris), whose chest is marked with a svarna rekha (Srivatsa) which relieves ones Kandarpa-lust and who is a (anuragi purusha) great lover! After the formality of purohit varana (accepting the priest), Krishna begins the puja with Mitras pranama mantra. However, for Radha the mantra hints at a different mitra with different credentials. In Krishna-bhavanamrita Krishna requests Radhika to recite the pranam mantra which runs as follows: om jaya sarva vyapaka ishvara jagaddhitakarina-bhaskara, nayana-duhka-nivaraka padminigana vikashaka dharmadaya namah, paramarthe savitre namah kamadaya namah mahase tubhyam namah Oh great surya Deva! All glories to you! You are an all-pervading lord, and the worlds wellwisher who relieves the darkness from evryones eyes. You cause the lotus to bloom, awaken dharma and award trascendental knowledge to fulfill everyones desires. The inner meaning is: Oh effulgent lord! Your darshan relieves my distress. Youre the Vrajapadminis ramana who destroys their religious principles with your pleasureful sambhoga vilasa! 70Vishwa Sharma continues: (A) Recite the mantra mitraya namah to offer arghya (hand water) and padya (foot- water) to please the golden-dressed devata who will fulfill your desires! (B)By uttering om mitraya namah you can offer your body to Pitambara Vanamali who will fulfill all of your desires! Madhumangal recites: svastina indra (be ever blessed) and other Vedic mantras throughout the puja. Then at the end he instructs: Hey Radha! To complete the sacrifice of Gopati (Surya) and to increase your herd of cows, you must offer a cow to the purohit. (Hey Radha!To fulfill Krishnas rati keli yajna you must offer your body with all of its senses to Vishwa Sharma for the puja dakshina!) Then Jatila places two golden rings and a plate of sweets before Krishna for dakshina. But Krishna smiles and replies, Oh Im a pure Vaishnava, so I dont accept other devatas prasad. And besides, as a celibate brahmin kumara, I dont accept gift of food from other castes. Jatila is very attached to her cows, so she thinks, Greedy Madhumangal is advising my innocent bau-ma to offer her best dhenu (given by her father) for dakshina! Thus panic-stricken, Jatila quickly removes two of Radhas golden rings and shoves them along with a plate of sweets before the Mathura brahmin! This is done to silence Madhu and divert the attention away from the topic of dhenu dakshina. In Krishna-bhavanamrita Jatila is very pleased with Vishwa Sharmas skill, and after the puja she

says, Hey vipra varya! my beloved son Abhimanyu is the dearest object of my affection, so please bless him to be long-lived with the fortune of having millons of cows! Evam astu so be it, Krishna answers. Then Madhumangal says, I recited the Surya-shukta, as his lusty eyes glance over the naivedya. But Jatila turns to Batu and exclaims, Hey murkha (you fool)! Youre the friend of that lampata. (debauch)! So why did you come here? I shall engage this tranquil shyama brahmin to perform my baumas puja every day! 75 Vishwa Sharma goes on: Im Garga Munis disciple, an astrologer, a palm reader and a clairvoyant I know all of the Jyotisha-shastras by heart. But for dakshina, your priti is my greatest reward. Under the guise of being nishkam (self-satisfied) before Jatila, Krishna hints to Radha, Your love is my only motivation! 76-80 Then Jatila whispers into Kundalatas ear, who in turn relays the message, O brahmin kumar! Honorable Jatila is requesting you to look at Radhas hand and divine her future. Oh no! I never look at women, says the brahmin-disguised Krishna. But since you have such pure affection for me, Ill agree. Krishna instructs Kundalata: just hold this chaste young womens hand befor me. But shaking, tears and horripilation overtake Krishna as he looks on! How astonishing! exclaims Krishna (trying to cover his sattvika emotions). From the marks on this girls hand I see that shes directly Lakshmi Svarupini! Aha! This young damsels merciful glance will bring all opulence! And wherever she remains, auspiciousness will flourish! The inner meaning is: When Radha blesses me with her anga sanga I become supremely fortunate! 81-83Then Krishna asks jatila: What is your sons name? But after she answers, Krishna makes a show of calculating, and then feigns surprise, saying: Oh Jatila (old women)! Your son faces many calamities, but fortunately, by your chaste baumas grace he can side-step all of them! Hearing the forecast makes Jatila overjoyed. Thus she quickly removes two precious gem rings from Radhas fingers, and places them before the brahmin clad Krishna. In just one lila our rasika cudamani accomplishes many tasks, He fools Jaltila in a brahmins gard, amuses Radha with rasamaya katha containing erotic inner maening, and performs Radhas kalanka bhanjana (he removes Jatila doubts about Radhas chastity to re-establish her firm faith in Radha). In other words, through his skillful word-jugglery, Krishna converts suspicious and nasty-spoken Jatila into an affectionate shashuri. So how could Shyama-Vinodini Rai resist surrendering upto such a Guna-mani Nagara?*

84 Meanwhile Subala comes to announce: Hey Vishwa Sharma! Krishna is anxiously waiting! He wants to serve you and Madhumangal a feast of milk and fruits! Subala has been watching behind the bushes. Seeing Krishna deeply absorbed in the Surya puja rasa he wishes to remind him that the sakhas are anxiously waiting to start uttara goshtha (their return journey home). And they might ever come here seaching for you, so come quickly! Subala hints. 85Vishwa Sharma replies, I dont accept food offered by non- brahmins. Today Gargi has invited me for lunch, so now Im going there. Oh Madhumangal, you can take the surya-naivedya. Krishna realises: Aha! Soon Ill have to leave Radha! But as Krishnas mind being whirling a plan awakens: Let me see my Priyas moon-face a few moments more before bidding farewell. Jatila thinks that Krishna is at Kamyavana (in the western direction), but my Radha will be heading north (towards Javat) ; so leaving with Subala for Kamyavana wont do. Thus Krishna tells Subala: Im already invited for lunch at Gargi house. Gargi is Garga Munis daughter, and the wife of Bhaguri Muni. In going there, Krishna can follow Radha party for a short distance because Bhaguri Muni lives beside the Javat pathway. 86 Madhumangal exclaims, Oh Jatila! I recited the pujas svasti vacana, so now you can offer me some dakshina. (Jatila removes two golden rings from her fingers and offer them to Batu). The svasti vacana mantra is: om svasti na indro vriddha-zravA svasti naH puSya-vizva-devAH svasti naH starkha ariSTanemiH svasti naH bRhaspatir dadAtu om svasti om svasti om svasti Indra and other devatas are unable to award shanti, the four Vedas cannot give shanti, the ghosts and the Rakshasas cannot give shanti, what to speak of Brihaspati? Only Bhagavan can give shanti! only Bhagavan can give shanti! Only Bhagavan can give shanti! 87-92Madhu is happy to receive his giftthus he makes an amusing sound by slapping his armpits! Then Batu wraps the Surya prasad within his cloth, and while praising Jatila and Radha, leaves dancing! Jatila urges Batu to make Vishwa Sharma accept the dakshina, lest the puja remains incomplete. So Madhu says, Oh Vishva- sharma! If you dont require the dakshina, just give it to another brahmin, they this young girl can achieve the result of her vrata (tapasya). Although Vishwa Sharma refuses again and again, Madhumangal finally replies, Allright, Ill just have to bear your burden! Thus with a smile he pockets the two coins!

Jatila tells Krishna: Hey brahmin-kumara! Please engage my bauma in Surya Puja whenever you come to Vrindavan; I will offer a large dakshina. Jatila offers her pranams to Surya deva, to Vishwa Sharma and to Madhumangal. Then feeling blessed and satisfied, she escorts Radha and her sakhis home. Switching back to Krishna-bhavanamrita, another event happens. We may remember that Krishna lost his vamshi. But soon it will turn up again. After receiving the puja dakshina, Vishwa Sharma tells Radhika: Hey Sati-kula chura-mani (crownjewel amongst the chaste women)! Just say the mantra bhasvate namah, perform parikrama of Surya deva and offer pranams. Doing what she is told, Radhika loses herself in thought of her Prana-vallabhas antics! Thus while offering pranams, Krishnas manimaya( murali falls from her veni, making a thanat sound upon the floor! Whats that? Jatila Shrieks. Then she comes over, picks up the murali and recognizes it! Jatila is infuriated! Her face turns red, her body starts shaking and she loudly screams Hoo, hoo, hoo, hoo, hoo, ! Mriga-nayana Radhika is very frightened; but somehow she gathers the courage to answer: Arye (respected one)! Today we found this murali lying in a valley near Govardhan. Because it always tortures us were going to throw it in the Yamuna; why are you needlessly becoming angry? But Radhikas plea only aggravates Jatila further. Thus she goes on scoffing: Hey Kalankini! Youve ruined our familys good name! I see, youve been cheating on me evrey day like this! Ha! Today I shall display this crooked murali in the elderly Vraja-vasini (womans) assembly! Then well all decide the befitting punishment for you and your kamuka (lusty man)! Overhearing the feud, the vipra-clad Rasika Nagara says, Oh Jatila! Why are you angry? And why are you screaming at your bauma? Although I dont know what is going on, you can frankly tell me the problem. As your well-wisher, lets see if I can help straighten things out? Hey Vipra-varya! Jatila says, Do you know Vraja Raja Nanda? Oh yes! the brahmin-clad Krishna replies, Who hasnt heard of his fame in Madhu- puri? Well, he has a notorious son, Jatila exclaims, Oh, is he the one who killed Aghasura, Bakasura and Kesi? Vishwa Sharma asks. Yes, we have also heard about his glories in Mathura. But Jatila retorts: Well, just hear about that rascals character! Because of him there isnt one taruni left in Vraja Mandal who can claim to be chaste only my bauma remains! And who knows, perhaps tomorrow she will also become molested by that notorious lampata! Hey vipra-vara! This is his murali! Its enchanting song carries a magic mantra that drives the Vraja kishoris mad! Thus they foresake their families and come searching for that wanton murali dhara! Then they meet, and, Saying this, Jatila contorts her face in shame, bites her lips and exclaims Om Vishnu! Om Vishnu! and become silent. After hearing Jatilas story, the vipra-clad Krishna gently smiles and says, Hey old one! What is this murali? Ive never seen it; can you show me? Jatila places the flute in Nagara- rajas hand, and Krishna beings to look at the murali (pretending that he never saw it before). Then Jatila says, Hey Arya! (respected one) you know what is a suitable dakshina. How about this manimaya murali? Why dont you take it? Let it go with you to Mathura Puri. And hereafter the Vraja gopis chastity will be saved! Thus Jatila says, Now please give permission, I shall return home with my bauma. Ohey Gunanidhe! Please come daily to engage Radha in Surya puja as she is your bhakta, please make her happy! Srila Vishanath Chakravartipada concludes Krishna-bhavanamritas Madhyahna pasttimes saying: Krishnas madhura lilas are like a blooming nectar-lata that fills the three worlds. Ive merely

plucked a few fragrant flowers from the lata, hoping to please the rasika bhaktas. Yet Cupid converts these pastimes into flower arrows and uses them to penetrate the Vraja sundaris hearts! So those who listen will become completely happy (lik the gopis) by recciving Krishnas direct sanga! Jatila respectfully folds her hands, bidding farewell to the vipra-clad krishna and returns with Radharari back to Javat. But Krishna holds Madhus hand and follows for a short distance then he returns to the sakhas. 93 As Radhika walks home, Lalita lags behind and starts a conversation. Thus having a chance to look back over her shoulder, Radhika repeatedly drinks the madhu of Krishnas mukha-aravinda! But failing to quench her thirst, she becomes sad! Similarly, shrila Chakravartipada prays to serve Radharani in Sankalpa-kalpa-druma: O Swamini! When Jatila escorts you home after Surya puja youll be very anxious to get a last peek at Krishna, so Ill remain lagging behind. Then youll have a chance to look back and call me. Come, come! you will say as your eyes drink the sweet nectar of Krishnas face for a few moments more! 94 The golden vessel of beautiful-browed Radhas body was overflowing with the flavorful milk of Krishnas lilamrita rasa; and the sakhis eyes were filled with joy upon seeing her! But as the milk becomes poisoned with the first touch of Krishna-viraha -the sakhis eyes painfully burn! Aho! Viraha-anala! Viraha-anala! For a long time our Rai-Vinodinis kamaniya kalevara (delightful body) was nourished by the splendor of Shyamasundars smabhoga rasa. And when the sakhis and manjaris saw their Praneshwari happy, their parama-ananda was boundless! But suddenly the lila rasa changes from sambhoga to vipralambha! Thus Radhas Ananda Vrindavan become converted into a nirananda dhama (abode of misery)! This is when Radha starts crying, her sakhis start crying, and those having affection for her also cry! Srila Kaviraj Goswami will now leave Radha in her viraha lila until shloka 49 of the next chapter. 95 Aho! The blue lily of Krishnas body was basking within the cooling moonbeams of Sri Radhikas sanga-ananda! But as the scorching viraha surya rises, Krishnas body turns pale in agony! This is a traumatic moment! All sorts of opposing sancari bhavas suddenly rise and collapse within Krishnas prema sindhu they pound his mind, they pound his heart and his entire body throbs! Thus our Ananda Ghana Murati , Sri Govinda, become enveloped within Radhas viraha fever! 96-98 In despair Krishna returns to the sakhas with Subala and Madhumangal. And seeing him apporaching, the sakhas exclaim: Oh look! Our sakha is coming! Ill touch him first, Ill touch him first! Thus they ecstatically run to embrace Krishna! The sakhas shout: Oh Bhai Kanai! We cant tolerate your separation! After you left we thought that youre hard-hearted. We became downtrodden and wanted to go searching for you. But in less

than a second youve returned! Thus we can fathom your tender love for us! Aha! The amrita sagara of Radha Krishnas madhyahna lila is limitless and extremely beautiful, yet it is inaccessible for most people. Fortunately the favorable wind of Sri Rupa Goswami mercy blew just a drop of this nectar over my fallen and untouchable self! Without diving into this ocean, its prema ratna and madhuryamrita are inaccessible. Unfortunately most people dont know about this topic, or lack the appreciation to just dive in. By Sri Rupa Goswami grace this rasa is available. 99 As the result of Sri Rupa Goswamis Mature seva aroused by drinking the madhu at Sri Chaitanya Devas lotus feet, at the request of Sri Raghunath Das, in the association of Sri Jiva, and with the benediction of Sri Raghunath Bhatta, here ends the eighteenth chapter of Govinda-ilamrita.