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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Noise Pollution

Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

___________________________________________________________________________ Noise pollution: It is defined as unwanted sound pollutant, which produces undesirable psychological effects in an individual by interfering with ones social activities like work, rest, recreation, sleep etc., Impacts of noise: 1. Annoyance: It creates annoyance to the receptors due to sound level fluctuations. The periodic sound due to its irregular occurrences causes displeasure to hearing and causes annoyance. Physiological effects: The physiological features like breathing amplitude, blood pressure, heart beat rate, pulse rate, blood cholesterol are affected. Loss of hearing: Long exposure to high sound levels cause loss of hearing. This is mostly unnoticed, but has an adverse impact on hearing function. Human performance: The working performance of workers /human will be affected as they will be losing their concentration. Nervous system: It causes pain, ringing in ears, feeling of tiredness, there by effecting the functioning of human system. Sleeplessness: It affects the sleeping there by inducing the people to become restless and lose concentration and presence of mind during their activities Damage to material: The buildings and materials may get damaged. Indian standards for ambient noise levels: Area Silence zone Residential area Commercial area Industrial area Noise limits dB [A] Day Night 50 45 55 45 65 55 75 65

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


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Sub: Environmental Engineering Measurement of noise:

Topic : Noise Pollution

The intensity of sound is measured in sound pressure level [SPL] and common unit of measurement is decibel, dB. The community [ambient] noise levels are measured in the A weighted SPL abbreviated dB [A]. This scale resembles the audible response of human ear. Sounds of frequencies from 800 to 3000 Hz are covered by the weighted scale. If the sound pressure level, IN dB is measured at distance, then the sound pressure level in dB at , is given by = 20 ( ) is given

If the sound levels are measured in terms of pressure, then, sound pressure level, by = 20

The is measured against a standard reference pressure, =2 which is equivalent to zero decibels. The sound pressure is the pressure exerted at a point due to a sound producing source. Equivalent noise level: is defined as the constant noise level, which over a given time expands the same amount of energy, as it expanded by the fluctuating levels over the same time. This value is expressed by the equation. =10 Where = time duration of sample expressed as friction of total time.

= total number of sound samples = the noise level of any Addition of sound levels: Let =20 =20 and be two sound levels in dB. ( ( =20 Anti =20 Anti ) where ) sample


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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Noise Pollution

= L=20 ( )

Averaging sound pressure levels: = Where average sound pressure level in dB. 20 Pa

N= number of measurement readings. = nth level pressure level in dB 20 Pa Equipments used in the measurement of noise levels: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sound level meter Impulse meters Frequency analyses Graphic recorders Noise dosimeters Calibrators 100

The concept: The parameter is a statistical measure indicating how frequency a particular sound level is exceeded. The value of will represent the sound pressure level that N% of the gauging time. 100
% time

50 0 50 70 90

Sound level dB(A)

Control of noise pollution: The techniques employed for noise control can be classified as 1. Control at source 2. Control in the transmission path 3. Using protective equipment. (1) Noise control at source: a) Reducing the noise levels from domestic sectors b) Maintenance of automobiles c) Control over vibrations d) Low voice speaking. JH ACADEMY Page 3

Sub: Environmental Engineering e) Prohibition on usage of bud speakers. f) Selection of machinery g) Maintenance of machines (2) Control in the transmission path: a) Installation of barriers b) Installation of panels or enclosures. c) Green belt development (3) Using protective equipments: a) Job rotation b) Exposure reduction c) Hearing protection

Topic : Noise Pollution


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