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de V|ve|ros

!"#$ &"''(# !)#(*' !('(*')+,-


., /0(#0)(1
Lu|z de V|ve|ros
L|P-6o|mbra
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <2>
8ummary
The 6ase for 0ark Hatter
0etect|ng 0ark Hatter
The LUX Exper|ment
Us|ng se|f-sh|e|d|ng to
reduce backgrounds
8tatus

de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <3>
6ompos|t|on of the 6osmos
0ark Energy
72.87 1.57
0ark Hatter
22.77 1.47
Free h and he
47
8tars and Cas
(- bound h and he}
0.57
heavy E|ements (us}
0.037
60H Hode|
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <4>
0ark Hatter Ev|dence: Ca|act|c 6|usters
Ve|oc|t|es of ga|ax|es |n ga|act|c
c|usters
Fr|tz Zw|cky, 1933 - measurement of
rad|a| ve|oc|t|es |n 6oma c|uster
Us|ng v|r|a| theorem, conc|uded that
H
v|s|b|e
- 0.57 H
c|uster
6oma c|uster (|mage from 8088}
V|r|a| Theorem
(bound system}
rad|us (m|n}
V
e
|
o
c
|
t
y

PE KE
2
1
=
2
2
1
Mv
R
Mm
G
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <5>
0ark Hatter Ev|dence: Ca|act|c Ve|oc|ty Heasurements
Ca|axy rotat|on curves
Vera Rub|n, 1970
|f most matter |s |n bu|k of ga|axy,
we expect that at |arge r:


however, we observe v - constant,
wh|ch |mp||es:




0ark Hatter "ha|o" around ga|axy
ha|o
bu|ge
d|sk
sun
data

- bu|ge, d|sk & ha|o
bu|ge
d|sk
8p|ra| Ca|ax|es
v - const
u|k of |um|nous matter
! !# "
#
$%&'(

!!""
"
#$%&' !" >> "
#$"%
"
r v
r
GmM
r
mv
/ 1 ~
2
2
r
=
( ) const r r M
r
v
Gm
r
r
mv
M
r
GmM
r
mv
~
= = =
/
G
2
r
2 2
r
2
2
r
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <>
6osm|c H|crowave ackground
T= 2.725 K

de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <7>
T|me of Last 8catter|ng

Temperature 1CK 3000 2.725K
!"#$%&#'
)*+$$',%-.
photon
13.7 Cyr.
/%0'
10%- 12345,6
7'#%"0

|
g

a
n
g

N
u
c
|
e
o

-
8
y
n
t
h
e
s
|
s

R
e
c
o
m
b
|
n
a
t
|
o
n

859,:.'- +$:0
;7:$:- $,+-<=',
$,+-<&+,'-$
|||ustrat|ons by N. 8ug|yama
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <8>
6H An|sotrop|es
Crav|tat|ona| Redsh|ft
F|uctuat|on |n matter dens|ty create potent|a| we||s => 0sc|||at|ons
we||s attract more mass, compress|ng photon-baryon f|u|d
6ompress|on |s countered by rad|at|on pressure, expand|ng p-b f|u|d
6ompress|on + Expans|on = 0sc|||at|on
0sc|||at|ons are |mpr|nted on 6H at t|me of |ast scatter|ng
Red reg|ons are hotter - reg|ons under compress|on
|ue reg|ons are co|der - reg|ons under expans|on

rad|at|on
pressure
osc|||at|ons
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <9>
6osm|c H|crowave ackground
wHAP 7-year resu|ts (2010} (+h
0
+A0}
est f|t to A-60H mode| g|ves dens|ty parameters:
0
tota|
= 1.002 0.00, 0
m
= 0.273 0.015, 0
b
= 0.045 0.001
Hatter (0
m
} - aryon|c Hatter (0
b
} 0|screpancy !"#$%&'"#() 0ark Hatter

est f|t to A-60H mode|
Temperature F|uctuat|on by Angu|ar 8|ze
6osm|c H|crowave Temperature F|uctuat|ons
7-year map (d|po|e + ga|axy removed}
T= 2.725 K
!"+,% -../
0123 -.4.
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <10>
aryon|c Acoust|c 0sc|||at|ons
aryon|c Acoust|c 0sc|||at|ons (A0}: sound waves |n the photon-
baryon f|u|d at the t|me of decoup||ng

|||ustrat|ons: Hart|n wh|te, U6 erke|ey|LN
1 2 3
4 5
|n|t|a|
pertubat|on
mass prof||e
baryon +
photon
f|u|d
trave|s
outward
baryons
photons
today
acoust|c
peak
t-10
5
y
potent|a|
we|| at 0
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <11>
8088 and A0
8|oan 0|g|ta| 8ky 8urvey (8088}: 3-d|mens|ona| map of the |oca| un|verse, show|ng
the d|str|but|on of ga|ax|es
Large sca|e structure: c|usters, superc|usters, wa||s, .
aryon|c Acoust|c 0sc|||at|ons (A0}: sound waves |n the photon-baryon f|u|d at the
t|me of decoup||ng
Peak |n the baryon|c matter d|str|but|on at the sca|e of the sound waves
8ets constra|nts on the baryon|c matter and tota| matter dens|t|es (0
b
and 0
m
}


Ca|axy map from 8088 (5",, -..6}
Acoust|c Peak
6
o
r
r
e
|
a
t
|
o
n

f
u
n
c
t
|
o
n

Ca|axy separat|on d|stance (h
-1
Hpc}
(7(89#8,9(# -..6}
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <12>
8upernovae Type |a
:#"; -..<
8tandard 6and|es
8|m||ar, we||-def|ned |ntr|ns|c |um|nos|ty
The red sh|ft Z can be measured |ndependent|y from spectroscopy
Lum|nos|ty d|stance d
L
|s ca|cu|ated from rat|o of apparent and |ntr|s|c |um|nos|ty
d
L
sca|es ||near|y w|th redsh|ft
determ|nes hubb|e constant h
0

(at sma|| redsh|ft}
At |arge redsh|ft, dev|at|on from
||near|ty determ|ned by
0
m
and 0
A

F|t of 8upernova d|str|but|on
sets constra|nts on the matter and
energy dens|t|es
8upernova 6osmo|ogy Project (2008}
0
m
= 0.287 (-0.045, +0.049} and
0
A
= 0.713 (+0.049, -0.045}
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <13>
Crav|tat|ona| Lens|ng
6urved space-t|me due to matter a|ters path trave||ed by ||ght
8trong |ens|ng: |arge def|ect|on |eads to arcs and mu|t|p|e
|mages of the background objects
weak |ens|ng: sma|| d|stort|on (shear} on the |mage of
background objects
Effect on |nd|v|dua| object |s sma|| (17}
6oherent d|stort|on of the |mages of severa| background
source objects
8tat|st|ca| measurements a||ow reconstruct|on of
foreground |ens
Abe|| 2218 (h8T}
=%&,9+>%## -..4
u||et 6|uster
4:*7+-<>%? 0e||'Arlor|o? /5<:-
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <14>
Crav|tat|ona| Lens|ng: The u||et 6|uster
Lens|ng Examp|e: "u||et c|uster"
- 8hock front of co|||s|on between
2 ga|axy c|usters at Z=0.3. The
|mage was taken 100 m||||on years
post-co|||s|on. 8eparat|on between
gas c|ouds and dark matter
6omb|ned weak + strong |ens|ng
Hass center determ|ned to be
decoup|ed from v|s|b|e matter (hot gas}
Abe|| 2218 (h8T}
!"##$% '#"(%$)* +,)-.* /0102'+'2'302454-)6$78%9: $% -#5; <=%89-#* /01021>19?; 4-@$##-A2B50)8CDA-2E5'#DF$ $% -#5; G$A(8A@* /01021>19?; H1< IJ?; 4-@$##-A2B50)8CDA-2E5'#DF$ $% -#5
Cas
v|s|b|e on X-ray
Hass
measured w|th
grav|tat|ona| |ens|ng
u||et 6|uster
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <15>
|nv|s|b|e Hatter?
6ou|d |t just be norma| matter we s|mp|y cannot see?
For |nstance: g|ant p|anets, |nterste||ar gas c|ouds, t|ny
neutron stars, b|ack ho|es.
Those have been |ooked for |n the past decade, most
notab|y through grav|tat|ona| |ens|ng
6an exp|a|n at most 57 of the m|ss|ng mass
Not near|y enough!

de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <1>
6and|dates
HA6h0s (Hass|ve Astronom|ca| 6ompact ha|o 0bjects}
rown 8tars, P|anets, |ack ho|es
Hod|f|ed Crav|ty
Neutr|nos
w|HPs (weak|y |nteract|ve Hass|ve Part|c|es}
8upersymmetr|c part|c|es
Ka|uza-K|e|n part|c|es
Ax|ons
w|HPz|||as
Crav|t|nos
.


de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <17>
6oo||ng
re||c
dens|ty
0ark Hatter 6and|date: w|HPs
w|HPs: 8tab|e (or |ong ||ved}
part|c|es, re||cs from the |g
ang, decoup||ng when non-
re|at|v|st|c
Freeze out: h > |


h = Expans|on rate of the Un|verse
|

= n

v = Ann|h||at|on rate
of w|HPs


= 3 x 10
-27
cm
3
s
-1
| o


weak


8upersymmetry |ndependent|y
pred|cts a >%88(?9@ A9%B+'
(#,9&%),(#C ;%&,()+9
The Neutra||no: L|ghtest
8upersymmetr|c Part|c|e (L8P}

DE#C>%# 4//F
Therma| Equ|||br|um:
n (m " T}
3|2
exp ( - m # T }
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <18>
The Ca|act|c ha|o
as|c |dea: each ga|axy |s
surrounded by a homogeneous
c|oud of w|HPs w|th a tota|
mass -5x of everyth|ng e|se
Ca|act|c 0ark Hatter Re||c
0ens|ty
p
0
= 0.3 CeV|cm
3

=> 3 w|HPs | ||ter
for H = 100 CeV|c
2

Ve|oc|ty 0|spers|on = same as
the rotat|on ve|oc|ty of Earth |n
the ga|axy -230 km|s
the w|HPs are #", rotat|ng





de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <19>
w|HP 0etect|on
w|HPs (and neutrons} scatter e|ast|ca||y off nuc|e|
Photons and e|ectrons scatter off atom|c e|ectrons
Reco|| rate and energy spectrum dependent on |oca| dark matter dens|ty p
0
and
ve|oc|ty d|str|but|on
Reco|| energy = few keV - tens of keV (requ|re detectors w|th |ow thresho|d}





w|HP8 and
Neutrons
nuc|ear reco||s
Photons and
E|ectrons
e|ectron reco||s
1G 2,,(8H%
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <20>
Typ|ca| w|HP Reco|| 8|gna|
6a|cu|ated d|fferent|a| event rates for Xe, Ce and Ar targets
m
w|HP
= 100 CeV|c
2
and o
w|HP
= 7x10
-4
cm
2
(est|mated LUX sens|t|v|ty}

8tandard ha|o parameters
Assumes sp|n-|ndependent |nteract|on
1 dru = 1 event | keV | kg | day



Thresh at 5 keVr
1 event | 3,000 kg-days
o
w|HP
=
7x10
-4
cm
2

(LUX
est|mated
sens|t|v|ty}
Xe
Ce
Ar
0|fferent|a| rates
r E E
r
r
e
r E
R
dE
dR
0
/
0
0

=
at |ow E (E
r
<40keVr}
E|ast|c
8p|n-|ndependent
|nteract|ons on|y
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <21>
8|gna|s (1}
!"#$
!"#$
&'()*#$)'(
+),-$
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <22>
8|gna|s (2}
!"#$
!"#$
&'()*#$)'(
+),-$
."/ 01
2
3#&/ 4"
56
2
7
8
/ +)9
:;"< = "(">,?
@">? ;#A$

:2B= "(">,?
:CBB= "(">,?
A6'<
D>?',"()DA
0AHA|L|RA, K|H8, XHA88
60UPP, P|6A80
0R|FT-||
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <23>
8|gna|s (3}
!"#$
!"#$
&'()*#$)'(
+),-$
+)EF)G
4"/ 5>
."/ 1)
0#H7
I
/ J.7
:;"< = "(">,?
@">? ;#A$

:2B= "(">,?
:CBB= "(">,?
A6'<
D>?',"()DA
60H8-||, E0ELwE|88-||
6RE88T
ZEPL|N-|||, LUX,
Ar0H, wARP,
XEN0N100
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <24>
8|gna| vs. ackground
|nteract|ons rema|n very un||ke|y
-1 | year |n 1 kg of detector
cou|d be as bad as < 1 | year |n 1 tonne!
ackground g|ve much h|gher event
rates
8ome examp|es:
Amb|ent rad|oact|v|ty: -100 events|kg|s
human gamma act|v|ty: -10,000 gammas|s
wa||s (6oncrete}: -100 gammas|kg|s (U|Th|K}
Huons at sea |eve|: 1|hand|s
-100 hz w|th 10-1000 HeV depos|ted |n LUX at
surface
w|HP?

de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <25>
The |mportance of 8h|e|d|ng
Hust e||m|nate a|| backgrounds
Camma rays from rad|oact|v|ty
Neutrons from rad|oact|v|ty
Lead + P|ast|c 8h|e|d|ng, water
6osm|c rays and |nduced backgrounds
Co deep, reduce f|ux
@:"#A5 !%-'? B4C D6D >0? D3
EF
,'9"*$%:-
8:0'<$+>' !%-'? B)GC D6H >0? D3
EI
,'9"*$%:-


LA
1 | hand | s
1 | hand | month
LUX
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <2>
0ark Hatter 0etectors

de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <27>
0AHA|L|RA
Low Act|v|ty Na| sc|nt|||ator 9
9.7 kg Na| crysta|s, each
v|ewed by 2 PHTs
Located at Cran 8asso
Underground Lab, |ta|y
(depth: 1.4 km, or 3.8 kmwe} +
Photon and Neutron sh|e|d|ng
Annua| Hodu|at|on s|gna|
December
6
0
June
)*+,%-*. /*--0-. 12-*&-$ 34)56
|
o
g

d
N
|
d
E
r
e
c
o
|
|

June
0ec
-57 effect
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <28>
0AHA|L|RA
Annua| Hodu|at|on - Pos|t|ve 8|gna|
-27 modu|at|on, 8.2o s|gna|
F|rst reported on 1999 - as of 2008, 11 years modu|at|on data
No d|st|nct|on between w|HP s|gna| and ackground d|rect|y
we can ca|cu|ate the under|y|ng w|HP |nteract|on rate from the amp||tude of the
modu|at|on
0ther exper|ments resu|ts |ncons|stent w|th annua| modu|at|on s|gna|
60H8-||, ZEPL|N-|||, XEN0N100, E0ELwE|88-||
Lack|ng |ong-term ca||brat|on dur|ng run (|.e. LE0s}
ackground modu|at|on?

(
)*
*(
+*
,((
,)*
-(.* -(., (./ (.+ ,., ,.*
27
Background
June June Dec Dec
WIMP Signal
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <29>
60H8-||
30 "Z|Ps" - 19 Ce (250g} and 11 8| (100g}
cy||nders
6harge and phonon sens|t|ve
Located at 8oudan H|ne, U8A (depth = 0.7 km,
or 2.0 kmwe}

380 x 0
a|um|num f|ns
1 tungsten
phonon s|de
4 channe|s: each has
103 sensors (be|ow}
charge s|de
2 channe|s :
|nner and outer
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <30>
Neutrons (externa| source}
Cammas (externa| source}
/,%..', /7,'<7:#9
6a||brat|on 0ata
60H8-|| - 0|scr|m|nat|on
w|HPs (and neutrons} scatter e|ast|ca||y off
nuc|e|, photons and e|ectrons scatter off atom|c
e|ectrons
0|fferet y|e|ds for charge and phonon s|gna|s
=> background reject|on
Event-by-event d|scr|m|nat|on:
|on|zat|on y|e|d (charge|phonon} => bands

w|HP8 and
Neutrons
nuc|ear reco||s
Photons and
E|ectrons
e|ectron reco||s
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <31>
60H8-|| Resu|ts
60H8-|| Resu|ts, 12 kg-days, 0ec 2009: 2 events |n the search box (after d|scr|m|nat|on}
ackground est|mate: 0.80.1(stat}0.2(sys} events
Probab|||ty to observe 2 or more events |n box based on the est|mated background |s
207
Not s|gn|f|cant enough to be taken as ev|dence for w|HPs, but cannot reject e|ther event as s|gna|
2 events |n the NR band
w|HP 8earch data
after cuts
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <32>
8ens|t|v|ty L|m|ts
8ens|t|v|ty ||m|t p|ots of
0ark Hatter d|rect search
exper|ments = Upper
||m|ts on the w|HP-
nuc|eon cross sect|on vs.
Energy
Examp|e: sp|n-|ndependent
coup||ng
8evera| resu|ts (e.g.
60H8-||} are |ncons|stent
w|th the 0AHA|L|RA
resu|t.
XEN0N10
2007
60H8-||
2004-2009
ZEPL|N-|||
2009
XEN0N100
2010
0AHA|L|RA
2009
LUX
2012
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <33>
E0ELwE|88-||
5 events
6ryogen|c Ce detectors (s|m||ar
to 60H8-||}
|on|sat|on+phonons
10 x 400g
Located at Hondane, France (3.5
kmwe}
Resu|ts on Harch 2011
384 kg-days
5 cand|date events (20-200keV}
(after d|scr|m|nat|on}
Est|mated background: <3.0 events
ehav|or be|ow thresho|d
und|sc|osed; uncerta|nt|es for
|nd|v|dua| components of
background not d|scussed |n paper

de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <34>
6RE88T
9 x 300 g 6aw0
4
crysta| cryogen|c detectors - sens|t|ve
to sc|nt|||at|on ||ght and phonons
Located at Cran 8asso, |ta|y (3.8 kmwe}
Pre||m|nary resu|ts (no s||des or papers yet}: 730 kg-days
57 events observed |n search box (after d|scr|m|nat|on}
Est|mated background: -3 events
0|str|but|on suggests |ow-mass w|HP: -13 CeV
Large uncerta|nt|es on background est|mate - needs d|scuss|on
- events cou|d s|mp|y be background
C subtract|on on|y works |f you rea||y know your backgrounds.
8||de
captured
w|th mob||e
phone
camera !
15mK
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <35>
Eureca
European Underground Rare
Event 6a|or|meter Array
8ca|e-up of cryogen|c (so||d
state} detectors:
E0ELwE|88 and 6RE88T
(+ R08EU0 and others}
Ce and 6aw0
4
100-kg to 1-tonne
0ep|oy 2014 at Hodane, France
10
-4
cm2 sens|t|v|ty goa|
>2 orders of magn|tude better than
ex|st|ng ||m|ts
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <3>
XHA88
8|ng|e Phase Xe detector - 800 kg of ||qu|d Xe
42 PHTs mon|tor|ng Xe vo|ume
8ens|t|ve to sc|nt|||at|on ||ght (no d|scr|m|nat|on}
Runn|ng |n 2011?
Kam|oka, Japan, depth = 2.7 kmwe
10m x 10m water tank
Pass|ve sh|e|d|ng for both
gammas and neutrons
Act|ve sh|e|d|ng for
muon-|nduced events
10
-45
cm
2
sens|t|v|ty goa|
100 kg f|duc|a| (effect|ve detector}
mass
8ma|| f|duc|a| vo|ume =
u|tra |ow background rate
800 kg LXe
10m
10m
sh|e|d|ng
vo|ume
f|duc|a|
vo|ume




de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <37>
8e|f-8h|e|d|ng
h|gh dens|ty (2.94 g|cm
3
} and h|gh Z
8h|e|d|ng aga|nst |ow energy gammas
8e|f-sh|e|d|ng
Add|t|ona| sh|e|d|ng aga|nst neutrons
and h|gh energy gammas
F|duc|a| vo|ume cut
8e|ects vo|ume w|th |ower background |n
the center of detector
Low energy cut
8e|ects |ow-energy, sma|| ang|e 6ompton
scatters
Hore scatters more energy depos|ted
h|gh-energy gammas must transverse
|onger path (ent|re vo|ume } w|thout
depos|t|ng more energy
Hu|t|p|e scatter cut
act|ve Xe
f|duc|a| Xe
10
1
0.1
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Energy [keVj
Tota|
6ompton
|nteract|on |ength of
gammas |n ||qu|d Xe
|
n
t
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de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <38>
0ua| Phase Xe 0etectors
XEN0N10, ZEPL|N-|||,
XEN0N100, LUX
0ua| Phase:
L|qu|d and Cas Xe
8ens|t|ve to both 8c|nt|||at|on
(81} and 6harge (82}
0|scr|m|nat|on: Nuc|ear and
E|ectron Reco|| events
produce d|fferent charge-to-
sc|nt|||at|on rat|os
E
gas
> E
dr|ft
L|ght 8|gna|
UV -175 nm
photons
T|me
Pr|mary
Proport|ona|
E|ectron 0r|ft
-2 mm|s
0-150 s
depend|ng on
depth
-40 ns w|dth
-1 s w|dth
81
E
d
r
|
f
t

|ncom|ng
Part|c|e
6athode
e- e-
e-
e- e-
82
Anode
Cr|d
E
g
a
s

8ca|e
Exaggerated
Cas
L|qu|d
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <39>
ZEPL|N-|||
12 kg ||qu|d Xe act|ve vo|ume
(f|duc|a|: 4-5 kg}, 31 PHTs
(bottom array on|y}
Located at ou|by H|ne
(depth: 1.1 km, 2.8 kmwe}
F|rst 8c|ence Run: 28 kg-days
pub||shed on 2008; 8econd 8c|ence
Run (88R} ongo|ng
88R: upgraded PHTs for |ower
rad|oact|v|ty, |nsta||ed muon veto
For more |nformat|on, p|ease
watch A|exandre L|ndote's
ta|k on Apr|| 2 or Hay 3 (?}

de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <40>
XEN0N100
10 kg ||qu|d Xe, 40 kg f|duc|a| |n f|rst run (11 days},
30kg f|duc|a| for 2
nd
run (200 days}
178 PHTs |n top and bottom arrays
Located at Cran 8asso, |ta|y (1.4 km or 3.8 kmwe}
F|rst resu|ts, 2010: 11.2 days, 40kg f|duc|a| mass
Lowest sens|t|v|ty ||m|t: 3.4 x 10
-44
cm
2
for 55CeV w|HP
20cm
Pb
20cm
Po|y
5cm
6u
+20cm
h20
ER band
NR band
No events |n
w|HP 8earch ox
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <41>
The LUX 0etector
To be dep|oyed |n the 8anford Lab at the homestake H|ne (8outh 0akota, U8A}
1.5 km deep (4300 m.w.e., f|ux reduced x10
-7
compared to sea |eve|}
350kg L|qu|d Xe 0etector (59cm he|ght, 49cm d|ameter}
120 hamamatsu R8778 PHTs (2" round}: 0 on top, 0 on bottom
Low-background T| 6ryostat


T|tan|um 6ryostat
PHTs
(0 Top | 0 ottom}
Tef|on 6an
R8778 PHTs
R|chard Ca|tske|| ;J? ;,:='<<:,
8|mon F|orucc| K'<'+,*7 G<<:*%+$'
Hon|ca Pang|||nan ;:<$9:*
Jeremy 6hapman L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
6ar|os hernandez Faham L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
0av|d Ha|||ng L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
James Verbus L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
rown
XEN0N10, 60H8
Thomas 8hutt ;J? ;,:='<<:,
0an Aker|b ;,:='<<:,
H|ke 0ragowsky K'<'+,*7 G<<:*%+$' ;,:='<<:,
6armen 6armona ;:<$9:*
Ken 6|ark ;:<$9:*
Tom 6offey ;:<$9:*
Karen C|bson ;:<$9:*
Adam rad|ey L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
Patr|ck Phe|ps L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
6hang Lee L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
6ase western
8N0, orex|no, XEN0N10, 60H8
ob Jacobsen ;,:='<<:,
J|m 8|egr|st ;,:='<<:,
Joseph Rasson M-.%-'',
H|a |hm L,+9 )$"9'-$
Lawrence erke|ey + U6 erke|ey
8N0, KamLAN0
Hasah|ro Hor|| ;,:='<<:,
H|cha| w|asenko ;:<$9:*
harvard
AAR, ATLA8
Adam ernste|n ;J? N'+9', := G9O6 P'$'*$:,< L,:"&
0enn|s 6arr )'-%:, M-.%-'',
Kareem Kazkaz )$+== ;75<%*%<$
Peter 8orensen ;:<$9:*
Lawrence L|vermore
XEN0N10
Un|vers|ty of Hary|and
EX0
X|nhua a| ;,:='<<:,
Hark hanardt B-9',.,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
Frank wo|fs ;,:='<<:,
Udo 8hroeder ;,:='<<:,
wojtek 8kutsk| )'-%:, )*%'-$%<$
Jan Toke )'-%:, )*%'-$%<$
Eryk 0ruszk|ew|cz L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
James wh|te ;,:='<<:,
Robert webb ;,:='<<:,
Rache| Hann|no L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
Tyana 8t|eg|er L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
6|ement 8ofka L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
Han| Tr|path| ;,:='<<:,
Robert 8voboda ;,:='<<:,
R|chard Lander ;,:='<<:,
r|tt ho||brook )'-%:, M-.%-'',
John Thomson M-.%-'',
Hatthew 8zydag|s ;:<$9:*
Jeremy Hock L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
He||nda 8weany L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
N|ck wa|sh L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
H|chae| woods L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
80 8choo| of H|nes
Texas A&H
U6 0av|s
0oub|e 6hooz, 6H8
ZEPL|N ||
6arter ha|| ;,:='<<:,
0oug|as Leonard ;:<$9:*
0an|e| HcK|nsey ;,:='<<:,
James N|kke| K'<'+,*7 )*%'-$%<$
8|dney 6ahn K'<'+,*7 )*%'-$%<$
A|exey Lyashenko ;:<$9:*
Ethan ernard ;:<$9:*
Lou|s Kastens L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
N|co|e Larsen L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
0ongH|ng He| ;,:='<<:,
wengchang X|ang ;:<$9:*
6hao Zhang ;:<$9:*
Jason 8paans L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
X|aoy| Yang L,+9"+$' )$"9'-$
Un|vers|ty of Rochester
U. 8outh 0akota
Ya|e
ZEPL|N ||
Hajorana, 6LEAN-0EAP
XEN0N10, 6LEAN-0EAP
|ce6ube
harry Ne|son ;,:='<<:,
0ean wh|te M-.%-'',
8usanne Kyre M-.%-'',
U6 8anta arbara
60H8
The LUX 6o||aborat|on
|sabe| Lopes ;,:='<<:,
Jos P|nto da 6unha G<<%<$+-$ ;,:='<<:,
V|ad|m|r 8o|ovov )'-%:, K'<'+,*7',
Lu|z de V|ve|ros ;:<$9:*
A|exandre L|ndote ;:<$9:*
Franc|sco Neves ;:<$9:*
6|aud|o 8||va ;:<$9:*
L|P 6o|mbra
ZEPL|N |||
Formed |n 2007, fu||y funded 00E|N8F |n 2008
6o||aborat|on meet|ng, homestake, Harch 2011
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <43>
The LUX Evo|ut|on
LUX 8urface
2010-2011
LUX0.1 - 6ase western
2007-2009
LUX Underground
2011+
Now
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <44>
8urface Lab - Harch 2011
L|P-6o|mbra
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <45>
8urface Lab - Harch 2011
L|P-6o|mbra
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <4>
LUX ackgrounds - water 8h|e|d
water Tank: d = 8 m, h = m
(300 Tonnes}
3.5m sh|e|d th|ckness on the s|des
|nverted stee| pyram|d (20 tons} under tank
to |ncrease sh|e|d|ng on top|bottom
U|tra-|ow background fac|||ty
Camma event rate reduct|on: 2 x 10
-10
h|gh-energy neutrons (> 10 HeV} rate
reduct|on - 10
-3

F
|
u
x

R
e
d
u
c
t
|
o
n

Rock Neutrons
(<10 HeV}
-|nduced Neutrons
(>10 HeV}
Cammas
F|ux Attenuat|on |n water
(Ceant4 H6}
0 1 2 3 4
8h|e|d Th|ckness (m}
|nverted 8tee| pyram|d
2.75 m
1.2 m
3.5 m
water
8h|e|d
(300T}
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <47>
LUX ackgrounds - |nterna|s
6onstruct|on
mater|a|s chosen for
|ow rad|oact|v|ty
(T|, 6u, PTFE}
Hajor|ty of
mater|a|s
heav||y
sh|e|ded by
6u
PHT rad|oact|v|ty
g|ves dom|nant
background
- 10 mq|PHT
|nterna| backgrounds
dom|nate over externa|
(from cavern rock}
: 400 udru
n: 500 ndru
dru = events | kg | keV | s
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <48>
8|mu|ated s|gna| |n LUX
100 days acqu|s|t|on, 100 kg f|duc|a| mass
ER ackground -390 dru
L
eff
= 0.19

Us|ng same
ER and NR bands
as XEN0N10
ER
NR
NR band mean
NR band -3o
background
Energy Range:
2-12 keVee
4.5-2.9 keVr
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <49>
8|mu|ated w|HP s|gna| |n LUX
100 days acqu|s|t|on, 100 kg f|duc|a| mass
ER ackground -390 dru
what w||| w|HPs |ook ||ke |n LUX?
Examp|e: m
w|HP
= 100 CeV|c
2
and o
w|HP
= 3.5x10
-45
cm
2
(5x the est|mated LUX sens|t|v|ty}
L
eff
= 0.19

Us|ng same
ER and NR bands
as XEN0N10
ER
NR
NR band mean
NR band -3o
w|HPs
background
Energy Range:
2-12 keVee
4.5-2.9 keVr
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <50>
LUX ackgrounds - 8e|f-sh|e|d|ng
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <51>
8|mu|ated w|HP s|gna| |n LUX
100 days acqu|s|t|on, 25 kg f|duc|a| mass
1 s|ng|e background event, before d|scr|m|nat|on
L
eff
= 0.19

Us|ng same
ER and NR bands
as XEN0N10
ER
NR
NR band mean
NR band -3o
w|HPs
background
Energy Range:
2-12 keVee
4.5-2.9 keVr
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <52>
8|mu|ated w|HP s|gna| |n LUX
300 days acqu|s|t|on, 25 kg f|duc|a| mass
Longer exposure, s|gna| becomes better def|ned
8t||| on|y a handfu| of background events, before d|scr|m|nat|on
L
eff
= 0.19

Us|ng same
ER and NR bands
as XEN0N10
ER
NR
NR band mean
NR band -3o
w|HPs
background
Energy Range:
2-12 keVee
4.5-2.9 keVr
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <53>
Larger 0etectors
Evo|ut|on of f|duc|a| vo|ume: more mass more se|f-sh|e|d|ng
Larger tota| mass |eads to |arger fract|on ava||ab|e for f|duc|a| vo|ume
LUX F|duc|a| Vo|ume = 337 of tota| mass
20T 0etector F|duc|a| Vo|ume = 07 of tota| mass
PHT rad|oact|v|ty reduct|on subdom|nant for |arge detectors
|mprovement due to reduct|on of PHT rad|oact|v|ty (per area} |s subdom|nant for |arger detectors (210T}
x1|10 reduct|on |n PHT act|v|ty |n 20T => 107 |ncrease |n f|duc|a| vo|ume


Camma backgrounds
LUX (350 kg}
= 337 f|duc|a|
vo|ume
20T
>707 f|duc|a|
vo|ume
LUX
350 kg
3T
10T
20T
Hax|mum f|duc|a| fract|on for
0.7 events |n 300 days (same as LUX}
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <54>
LUX-ZEPL|N (LZ} Program
Two phases: LZ-8 (3 t}, LZ-0 (20 t}, from 2012
2022+
|n|t|a| 0ep|oyment at homestake L4850 (1.5km}
LZ-8: 3 tonnes detector |n 0av|s water sh|e|d
(8U8EL}
Proposa| start: 8ept 2009
|gger 7.5cm PHTs a|ready |n test|ng.
Coa| -1 mq|PHT
LZ-0: 20 tonnes detector (0U8EL}
u|t|mate d|rect detect|on
exper|ment
ZEPL|N-|||
12 kg
LUX
350 kg
LZ20
20 tonnes
(base||ne des|gn}
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <55>
Projected Coa|s
8p|n-|ndependent
coup||ng
LUX goa|:
7 x 10
-4
cm
2
100 CeV w|HP
XEN0N10

x20 b|gger
x100 better
sens|t|v|ty

LUX

x0 b|gger
x2000 better
sens|t|v|ty

LZ0
ZEPL|N-||| (2008}
de V|ve|ros
23( 4,5
Thank You
de V|ve|ros
.55)')+,"6 76)5(8
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <58>
E|ectron Reco|| s|gna| ||m|ted by p-p so|ar neutr|nos
8ubdom|nant w|th current background reject|on
Nuc|ear Reco|| background: coherent neutr|no scatter|ng

8
so|ar neutr|nos
Atmospher|c neutr|nos
0|ffuse cosm|c supernova background
LZ-0 reaches th|s fundamenta| ||m|t for d|rect w|HP searches
)#%9' 9'<%.- =,:0 /6 )7"$$
E|ectron Reco||s
LZ-0 a|so sens|t|ve to
0 decay |n natura|
xenon up to ||fet|mes
of -1.3 10
2
years !
N6 )$,%.+,%
+<$,:E&7Q3R3161F13
Nuc|ear Reco||s
LZ Program - LZ, u|t|mate search?




e.g. signals
from these
candidates are
completely lost
in experiments
based on
"rejection
procedures of
the e.m.
component of
their rate
Some direct detection processes:
- Conversion of particle into e.m. radiation
detection of , X-rays, e
-
- Excitation of bound electrons in scatterings on nuclei
detection of recoil nuclei + e.m. radiation
- Scatterings on nuclei
detection of nuclear recoil energy
- Interaction only on atomic
electrons
detection of e.m. radiation
- . and more
- Inelastic Dark Matter:DMp + N DMp* + N
DMp has 2 mass states _+ , _- with o mass
splitting
Kinematical constraint for the inelastic
scattering of _- on a nucleus
1
2
v
2
> o v > v
thr
=
2o

- Interaction of ligth DMp (LDM)


on e
-
or nucleus with
production of a lighter particle
detection of electron/nucleus
recoil energy
a

e
-
X-ray

DMp
e
-
,even WIMPs
"K,K A$">)6" v
de V|ve|ros - L|P-6o|mbra Apr|| 2011 v04 <0>
LUX vs. Kr|pton
Present |n commerc|a| Xe at ppm
|eve|.
LUX: Kr reduct|on to <2 ppt w|th
charcoa| co|umn separat|on