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WI 060808.

11

T New (WI 3012)

DRAFT NO. 3

DATE November 1, 2012
TAPPI
WORKING GROUP
CHAIRMAN Steve Veith

SUBJ ECT
CATEGORY Physical Properties

RELATED
METHODS See Additional Information





Approved by the Standard Specific Interest Group for this Test Method
TAPPI

Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, napkin and facial
products
(Proposed new Provisional Method)
(underscores and strikeouts indicate changes from Draft 1)



1. Scope

1.1 This method describes the procedure for measuring bulking thickness and variations in tissue paper
towel and tissue products.
1.2 This method describes the procedure for measuring single sheet thickness and variations in single
sheet thickness of tissue paper and tissue products. Examples of such products are facial tissue, bathroom tissue,
household towels, and napkins.
1.2 1.3 This test method uses a relatively low pressure 2 kPa (0.3 psi) because of the collapsible structure of
tissue paper. TAPPI T 411 Thickness (caliper) of paper, paperboard, and combined board uses a relatively high
pressure 50 kPa (7.3 psi).
1.31.4 An essentially identical method is described in ISO 12625-3 Tissue paper and tissue products --
Part 3: Determination of thickness, bulking thickness and apparent bulk density.

T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 2
napkin and facial products

2. Summary

The method involves measuring the thickness of a single sheet, sheet or ply ply, or stack of tissue
paper/product by the use of an automatically operated micrometer when a specified static load is applied for a
specific time.

3. Significance

3.1 Thickness is an important property of tissue paper/products.
3.2 In manufacturing, thickness determines how much footage of paper can be wound on a roll of a
prescribed diameter. In the trade between companies and countries there is a need for a consistent measure of
thickness.
3.2 3.3 The thickness of tissue paper will determine end product properties such as stack height for folded
products and roll diameter/firmness for rolled products.
3.3 3.4 Thickness is also important to the end consumer. Thick products are perceived to be stronger and
more absorbent and of value to consumers.

4. Definition

Thickness or caliper of tissue paper/products as measured by this method is defined as the perpendicular
distance between two principal surfaces of a single sheet, ply, or stack sheet or ply of tissue paper under prescribed
conditions, as measured between metal platens. This should not be confused with apparent thickness, which is
calculated from basis weight and bulking thickness, (typical units are grams per cubic centimeter).

5. Apparatus

5.1 Automatically-operated micrometer, a dead-weight type instrument, provided with:
5.1.1 A flat ground circular movable face (hereafter called the pressure foot), having have an area of 10.0
cm
2
(1.5 in.
2
) and corresponding to a diameter of 35.7 0.1 mm (1.40 0.04 in).
5.1.2 A flat, ground, circular, fixed flat ground circular fixed face (hereafter called the anvil) of such size
that it is in contact with the whole area of the pressure foot in the zero position. In practice, the anvil should have
minimum dimensions 20% larger than the pressure foot.
5.1.3 Surfaces of the pressure foot and anvil shall be parallel to within 0.003 mm (0.00013 in.) 0.004 mm
(0.00016 in.). The pressure foot movement shall be on an axis perpendicular to the anvil. The opening between the
pressure foot and the anvil is set by agreement between the instrument supplier and the customer. For most
measurements, instruments with an opening of 2 mm to 3 mm (0.08 in. to 0.12 in.) is sufficient. 10 mm to 12 mm
T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 3
napkin and facial products
(0.4 in. to 0.5 in.) is appropriate. When only a single sheet or single ply measurement is required, an opening of 2
mm to 3 mm (0.08 in. to 0.12 in.) is sufficient.
5.1.4 Pressure foot lowering speed of 2.0 0.2 mm/s (0.08 in./s).
5.1.5 Pressure foot, when lowered, exerting steady pressure of 2.0 0.1 kPa (approximately 0.3 psi) for 2
1 s. (ISO says 5 s).
5.1.6 The instrument read-out/scale shall be graduated in increments of 0.001 mm (0.00004 in.).
5.1.7 The accuracy of measurements is dependent upon the range of thickness being measured. The
accuracy of the instrument readings should be within 0.25% of the thickness test range. Capability of repeating
readings to within 0.001 mm (0.00004 in.) at zero settings or on a steel gage block.

6. Calibration

6.1 Accuracy of dial indications. Use Using standard steel guage blocks whose thickness is known to
within 0.0005 mm (0.00002 in.). Use gauge blocks corresponding to approximately 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%
of the full-scale reading of the micrometer. Prepare a calibration curve or table if necessary.
6.2 Digital read out instruments capable of greater accuracy may require standard steel gauge blocks
accurate to within 0.00025 mm (0.00001 in.) or better.
6.3 Parallelism of the faces. Use a uniform diameter wire of any size up to half the operational opening
of the faces, e.g., 0.05 mm (0.20 in.) diameter. Place the wire alternately on the left side, right side, front side, and
back side approximately 3 mm (0.125 in) from each respective edge of the foot and note the readings. Adjust anvil
so that all readings are within 0.003 mm (0.00013 in.) 0.001 mm (0.00004 in.) of one another. A thickness gauge
may also be used if a uniform wire is not available.
6.4 Pressure between the faces. Within the normal thickness measuring range, measure the pressure
exerted by the deadweight mechanism. The pressure foot on the anvil shall be 2 0.1 kPa. Verify with any Any
suitable means to verify may be used.

7. Sampling

Obtain a sample in accordance with TAPPI T 400 Sampling and Accepting a Single Lot of Paper,
Paperboard, Containerboard, or Related Product.

8. Test specimens

8.1 Select each Each test piece so that it is shall be free from perforations and faults not normally
inherent in the tissue.
8.2 Cut test pieces Test piece dimensions are not critical, but they shall to have a minimum dimension of
80 mm (3 in.) in any direction. Cut large Large test pieces shall be cut to a reasonable size using scissors, a suitable
T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 4
napkin and facial products

cutting board, or die press. During this operation, the test pieces shall not be subject to pressure that could alter the
thickness measurement.
8.3 Single-ply thickness. From each test unit of the sample, cut ten specimens, each specimen consisting
of one ply of tissue. Take samples Samples may be taken either directly from the tissue machine, or if practicable,
from individual plies of a multi-ply product, sampled during or after the converting process. In the latter cases, take
care shall be taken to identify the location of individual plies in the product. Do not attempt to separate plies that are
bonded with adhesive or pressure.
8.4 Single sheet thickness. Prepare ten test specimens pieces from a single- or multi-ply product sampled
during or after the converting process.
8.5 Bulking thickness. Prepare ten stacks comprising a number of superimposed sheets, with all the
sheets oriented in the same direction.
8.5.1 The lateral dimensions of the stack should be more than enough to allow ten independent
measurements to be made.
8.5.2 Multi-ply products shall not be separated into individual plies. Stacks shall normally contain twelve
plies. Where the stack height using twelve plies is too great for the maximum opening of the instrument in use, a
lower number of plies may be used, but this should not be less than eight. In all cases, report the number of sheets
and the number of plies per sheet used.

9. Conditioning

Precondition, condition and test all specimens in atmospheres controlled in accordance with TAPPI T 402
Standing Conditioning and Testing Atmospheres for Paper, Board, Pulp Handsheets and Related Products.

10. Procedure

10.1 Before using the micrometer, make sure the pressure foot and anvil surfaces are clean, the
calibration of the instrument has been verified and a calibration curve has been prepared, if necessary, and the
instrument is mounted on a solid level surface free from noticeable vibration.
10.2 Allow the instrument to warm-up according to the manufacturers instructions.
10.3 Place the specimen on the anvil so that in such a position that all points on the peripheries of the
contact surfaces are at least 6 mm (approximately 0.25 in.) from the edges of the specimen.
10.4 Measure the thickness of ten specimens. Between successive readings, make sure that the working
faces remain free from dust.

T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 5
napkin and facial products
11. Report

11.1 Report the The test report shall include a reference to this TAPPI method, the date and place of
testing, the testers name and reference to the micrometer used. Also report Report all details necessary to identify
the material tested. Report the type of test; single-ply, or single-sheet thickness. For single-sheet tests, report the
number of plies. and the location of individual plies if single-ply thickness testing has been requested from a multi-
ply product.. Identify the sample (sheet) and state the number of individual plies in each sheet and the number of
sheets in each pack.
11.2 For each test unit of the sample, report the overall average of the 10 readings in millimeters (or
inches) to the nearest 0.001 mm or in inches to the nearest 0.00004 in.) Also report the minimum, maximum and
standard deviation for each sample set.

12. Precision

The following estimate of repeatability is based on data from one laboratory doing 10 tests each of 4
replicates on a 2-ply embossed premium bath tissue and on a 2-ply embossed premium kitchen towel.

Repeatability (within a laboratory)
Tissue 2.99%
Towel 3.37%

13. Additional information

13.1 Effective date of issue: to be determined.
13.2 The thickness determined by this method cannot be used reliably to determine lineal footage or
weight of a given diameter roll. This test specifies a compressive force of approximately 0.3 psi. Winders often
develop compressive forces much higher than 0.3 psi. Tissue paper and products are usually highly compressible
under force and consequently the calculation of footage or weight will not be accurate.

14. Keywords

Toweling papers, Tissue papers, Facial tissues, Napkin papers, Thickness

Appendix A.

A.1 To support the need for this procedure several different micrometers were used to measure the
thickness of bond paper versus some kitchen towel product. Five different micrometers were employed. The
T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 6
napkin and facial products

micrometers differed mostly in the pressure applied to the material. The micrometers ranged in pressure from 0.7 psi
to 7 psi. Table 1 shows the results from these measurements.

Table 1. Micromenter measurements.

Ordinary Copier Paper - 75 gsm
Micrometer pressure 0.066 psi 0.21 psi 0.29 psi 0.52 psi 7.25 psi
0.4 kPa 1.4 kPa 2 kPa 3.6 kPa 50 kPa
4.0 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.1
4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9 4.0
4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.0
4.1 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.0
4.1 4.0 4.1 4.0 3.9
4.1 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.1
3.9 4.1 4.1 3.9 4.1
3.9 4.2 3.9 4.0 4.0
4.2 4.1 3.9 3.9 4.0
4.1 4.0 4.2 4.1 4.0

Average 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.0 4.0
Standard deviation 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Ordinary Kitchen Towel Product - 50 gsm

Micrometer pressure 0.066 psi 0.21 psi 0.29 psi 0.52 psi 7.25 psi
0.4 kPa 1.4 kPa 2 kPa 3.6 kPa 50 kPa
28.8 24.0 20.4 18.6 6.7
28.8 23.5 21.3 20.2 6.7
26.5 20.0 21.3 18.1 6.6
29.0 23.0 21.9 17.5 6.8
29.5 20.8 22.1 15.6 6.5
29.8 22.8 21.8 20.7 6.4
28.2 20.2 22.5 18.2 6.6
27.4 21.0 22.7 20.1 6.5
26.7 21.4 22.4 18.4 6.5
27.7 22.2 22.1 21.1 6.6

Average 28.2 21.9 21.9 18.9 6.6
Standard deviation 1.1 1.4 0.7 1.7 0.1


A.2 Clearly the use of TAPPI T 411 using a 50 kPa pressure is not appropriate for measuring the caliper
of compressible tissue products.

Your comments and suggestions on this procedure are earnestly requested and should be sent to the TAPPI
Standards Department. g


WI 060808.11

T New (WI 3012)

DRAFT NO. 2

DATE May 9, 2011
TAPPI
WORKING GROUP
CHAIRMAN Steve Veith

SUBJ ECT
CATEGORY Physical Properties

RELATED
METHODS See Additional Information





Approved by the Standard Specific Interest Group for this Test Method
TAPPI

Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, napkin and facial
products
(Proposed new Provisional Method)
(underscores and strikeouts indicate changes from Draft 1)



1. Scope

1.1 This method describes the procedure for measuring bulking eight-sheet thickness and variations in
tissue paper towel and tissue products.
1.2 This method describes the procedure for measuring single sheet thickness and variations in single
sheet thickness of tissue paper and tissue products. Examples of such products are facial tissue, bathroom tissue,
household towels, and napkins.
1.3 This test method uses a relatively low pressure 2 kPa (0.3 psi) because of the collapsible structure of
tissue paper. TAPPI T 411 Thickness (caliper) of paper, paperboard, and combined board uses a relatively high
pressure 50 k (7.3 psi).
1.4 An essentially identical method is described in ISO 12625-3 Tissue paper and tissue products --
Part 3: Determination of thickness, bulking thickness and apparent bulk density.

T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 2
napkin and facial products

2. Summary

The method involves measuring the thickness of a single sheet, ply, or stack of tissue paper/product eight
sheets of towel, tissue, napkin or facial products by the use of an automatically operated micrometer when a
specified static load is applied for a specific minimum specified time.

3. Significance

3.1 Thickness is an important property of tissue paper/products. towel, tissue, napkin and facial products
and variations in thickness are also important. The test is useful for research work, routine control, design of end-
use products, and for acceptance testing for conformance to specifications. Thickness is one of the important
characteristics that affects flexural stiffness.
3.2 In manufacturing, thickness determines how much footage of paper can be wound on a roll of a
prescribed diameter. In the trade between companies and countries there is a need for a consistent measure of
thickness.
3.3 The thickness of tissue paper will determine end product properties such as stack height for folded
products and roll diameter/firmness for rolled products.
3.4 Thickness is also important to the end consumer. Thick products are perceived to be stronger and
more absorbent and of value to consumers.

4. Definition

Thickness or caliper of tissue paper/products towel and tissue products as measured by this method is defined
as the perpendicular distance between the two principal surfaces of a single sheet, ply, or stack of tissue paper the
towel or tissue product under prescribed conditions, as measured between hard metal platens. This should not be
confused with apparent thickness, which is calculated from basis weight and bulking thickness, (typical units are
grams per cubic centimeter). as determined by other means, e.g., between soft platens or calculated from bending
stiffness.

5. Apparatus

5.1 Automatically-operated micrometer, a dead-weight type instrument, provided with:
5.1.1 A flat ground circular movable face (hereafter called the pressure foot), having have an area of 10.0
cm
2
(1.5 in.
2
) 20.25 0.06 cm (equivalent to about 3.14 in.) and corresponding to a diameter of 35.7 0.1 mm
(1.40 0.04 in). 5.08 0.02 cm (2.00 in.).
T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 3
napkin and facial products
5.1.2 A flat ground circular fixed face (hereafter called the anvil) of such size that it is in contact with the
whole area of the pressure foot in the zero position. In practice, the anvil should have minimum dimensions 20%
larger than the pressure foot.
5.1.3 Surfaces of the pressure foot and anvil shall be parallel to within 0.004 mm (0.00016 in.). 0.001 mm
(0.0004 in.). The pressure foot movement shall be on an axis perpendicular to the anvil. The opening between the
minimum distance between the anvil and the pressure foot and the anvil is set by agreement between the instrument
supplier and the customer. For most measurements, instruments with an opening of 10 mm to 12 mm (0.4 in. to 0.5
in.) is appropriate. When only a single sheet or single ply measurement is required, an opening of 2 mm to 3 mm
(0.08 in. to 0.12 in.) is sufficient. in the up or raised position shall be 1.27 cm (0.50 in.).
5.1.4 Pressure foot lowering speed of 2.0 0.2 mm/s (0.08 in./s). 5.87 0.25 mm (0.23 in.)/s. There may
be differences in the results as compared to the previous rate of lowering.
5.1.5 Pressure foot, when lowered, exerting steady pressure of 2.0 0.1 kPa (approximately 0.3 psi) for 2
1 s. (ISO says 5 s). on the specimen of 2.61 0.01 kPa (approximately 0.378 psi) for 1.9 0.1 s.
5.1.6 The instrument read-out/scale shall be graduated in increments of 0.001 mm (0.00004 in.). The
frame of the micrometer shall be such rigidity that a load of 1.5 kg (3 lb) applied to the dial housing, out of contact
with either the weight or the pressure foot spindle, will produce a deflection of the frame not greater than 0.0025
mm (0.0001 in.), as indicated by the micrometer readout system.
5.1.7 Digital display with indication to at least 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.).
5.1.8 Capability of repeating readings to within 0.001 mm (0.00004 in.) 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.) at zero
settings or on a steel gage block.
5.1.9 Accuracy within 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.).

6. Calibration

6.1 Accuracy of dial indications. Using standard steel guage blocks gage whose thickness is known to
within 0.0005 mm (0.00002 in.). 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.); Use gauge blocks corresponding to approximately 10%,
30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of the full-scale reading of the micrometer. check the accuracy of the dial reading over the
required range. Prepare a calibration curve or table if necessary.
6.2 Digital read out instruments capable of greater accuracy than dial indicator instruments may require
standard steel gauge blocks gages accurate to within 0.00025 mm (0.00001 in.) 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.) or better if
this greater accuracy is required.
6.3 Parallelism of the faces. Use a uniform diameter wire of any size up to half the operational opening
of the faces, e.g., 0.05 mm (0.20 in.) diameter. Place the wire alternately on the left side, right side, front side, and
back side approximately 3 mm (0.125 in) from each respective edge of the foot and note the readings. Adjust anvil
so that all readings are within 0.001 mm (0.00004 in.) 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.) of one another. A thickness gauge
may also be used if a uniform wire is not available.
T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 4
napkin and facial products

6.4 Pressure between the faces. Within the normal thickness measuring range, measure the pressure
exerted by the deadweight mechanism. The pressure foot on the anvil shall be 2 0.1 kPa. Any suitable means to
verify may be used.

7. Sampling

Obtain a sample in accordance with TAPPI T 400 Sampling and Accepting a Single Lot of Paper,
Paperboard, Containerboard, or Related Product.

8. Test specimens

For tissue, towel, napkin and facial, stack 8 sheets high to take a caliper reading. For finished product testing,
each sheet of product to be tested must have the same number of plies as the product sold. Napkin and facial need to
be completely unfolded prior to stacking.
8.1 Each test piece shall be free from perforations and faults not normally inherent in the tissue.
8.2 Test piece dimensions are not critical, but they shall have a minimum dimension of 80 mm (3 in.) in
any direction. Large test pieces shall be cut to a reasonable size using scissors, a suitable cutting board, or die press.
During this operation, the test pieces shall not be subject to pressure that could alter the thickness measurement.
8.3 Single-ply thickness. From each test unit of the sample, cut ten specimens, each specimen consisting
of one ply of tissue. Samples may be taken either directly from the tissue machine, or if practicable, from individual
plies of a multi-ply product, sampled during or after the converting process. In the latter cases, care shall be taken to
identify the location of individual plies in the product. Do not attempt to separate plies that are bonded with
adhesive or pressure.
8.4 Single sheet thickness. Prepare ten test pieces from a single- or multi-ply product sampled during or
after the converting process.
8.5 Bulking thickness. Prepare ten stacks comprising a number of superimposed sheets, with all the
sheets oriented in the same direction.
8.5.1 The lateral dimensions of the stack should be more than enough to allow ten independent
measurements to be made.
8.5.2 Multi-ply products shall not be separated into individual plies. Stacks shall normally contain twelve
plies. Where the stack height using twelve plies is too great for the maximum opening of the instrument in use, a
lower number of plies may be used, but this should not be less than eight. In all cases, report the number of sheets
and the number of plies per sheet used.

T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 5
napkin and facial products
9. Conditioning

Precondition, condition and test all specimens in atmospheres controlled in accordance with TAPPI T 402
Standing Conditioning and Testing Atmospheres for Paper, Board, Pulp Handsheets and Related Products.

10. Procedure

10.1 Before using the micrometer, make sure the pressure foot and anvil surfaces are clean, the
calibration of the instrument has been verified and a calibration curve has been prepared, if necessary, and the
instrument is mounted on a solid level surface free from noticeable vibration.
10.2 Allow the instrument to warm-up according to the manufacturers instructions.
10.3 Place the specimen on the anvil in such a position that all points on the peripheries of the contact
surfaces are at least 6 mm (approximately 0.25 in.) from the edges of the specimen.
10.4 Measure the thickness of ten specimens. Between successive readings, make sure that the working
faces remain free from dust.
10.1 Turn on the instrument for at least 30 minutes prior to testing.
10.2 Check to see that the pressure foot and anvil surfaces are clean. This should also be done throughout
the testing process.
10.3 Zero and clear the instrument.
10.4 Change the instrument from the standby position to the run position. With the instrument cycling,
insert a specimen between the pressure foot and the anvil when the pressure foot is in the up position.
10.5 Position the specimen so that the edge of the pressure foot is at least 1-in. (25-mm) from any edge of
the specimen.
10.6 Always try to avoid perforations, wrinkles, folds, creases or custom emboss areas.
10.7 Do not move the specimen while the pressure foot is in the down position.
10.8 Record the reading.
10.9 When the pressure foot returns to the up position, move the specimen to a different position
following steps 10.5 through 10.8.

11. Report

11.1 The test report shall include a reference to this TAPPI method, the date and place of testing, the
testers name and reference to the micrometer used. Also report all details necessary to identify the material and the
location of individual plies if single-ply thickness testing has been requested from a multi-ply product.. Identify the
sample (sheet) and state the number of individual plies in each sheet and the number of sheets in each pack.
T New (WI 3012) Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 6
napkin and facial products

11.2 For each test unit of the sample, report the overall average of the 10 readings in millimeters (or
inches) to the nearest 0.001 mm or in inches to the nearest 0.00004 in.) 0.003-mm (0.0001-in). Also report the
minimum, maximum and standard deviation for each sample set.

12. Precision

The following estimate of repeatability is based on data from one laboratory doing 10 tests each of 4
replicates on a 2-ply embossed premium bath tissue and on a 2-ply embossed premium kitchen towel.

Repeatability (within a laboratory)
Tissue 2.99%
Towel 3.37%

13. Additional information

Effective date of issue: to be determined.

14. Keywords

Toweling papers, Tissue papers, Facial tissues, Napkin papers, Thickness

Your comments and suggestions on this procedure are earnestly requested and should be sent to the TAPPI
Standards Department. g


WI 060808.11

T New WI_3012

DRAFT NO. 1

DATE J uly 18, 2006
TAPPI
WORKING GROUP
CHAIRMAN J Lundeen

SUBJ ECT
CATEGORY Physical Properties

RELATED
METHODS See Additional Information





Approved by the Standard Specific Interest Group for this Test Method
TAPPI

Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, napkin and facial
products
(Proposed new Provisional Method)


1. Scope

This method describes the procedure for measuring eight-sheet thickness and variations in towel and tissue
products.

2. Summary

The method involves measuring the thickness of eight sheets of towel, tissue, napkin or facial products by the
use of an automatically operated micrometer when a specified static load is applied for a minimum specified time.

3. Significance

Thickness is an important property of towel, tissue, napkin and facial products and variations in thickness are
also important. The test is useful for research work, routine control, design of end-use products, and for acceptance
testing for conformance to specifications. Thickness is one of the important characteristics that affects flexural
stiffness.
T New Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 2
napkin and facial products


4. Definition

Thickness or caliper of towel and tissue products as measured by this method is defined as the perpendicular
distance between the two principal surfaces of the towel or tissue product under prescribed conditions, as measured
between hard metal platens. This should not be confused with apparent thickness as determined by other means,
e.g., between soft platens or calculated from bending stiffness.

5. Apparatus

5.1 Automatically-operated micrometer, a dead-weight type instrument, provided with:
5.1.1 A flat ground circular movable face (hereafter called the pressure foot), have an area of 20.25 0.06
cm (equivalent to about 3.14 in.) and corresponding to a diameter of 5.08 0.02 cm (2.00 in.).
5.1.2 A flat ground circular fixed face (hereafter called the anvil) of such size that it is in contact with the
whole area of the pressure foot in the zero position.
5.1.3 Surfaces of the pressure foot and anvil parallel to within 0.001 mm (0.0004 in.). The pressure foot
movement shall be on an axis perpendicular to the anvil. The minimum distance between the anvil and the pressure
foot in the up or raised position shall be 1.27 cm (0.50 in.).
5.1.4 Pressure foot lowering speed of 5.87 0.25 mm (0.23 in.)/s. There may be differences in the results
as compared to the previous rate of lowering.
5.1.5 Pressure foot, when lowered, exerting steady pressure on the specimen of 2.61 0.01 kPa
(approximately 0.378 psi) for 1.9 0.1 s.
5.1.6 The frame of the micrometer shall be such rigidity that a load of 1.5 kg (3 lb) applied to the dial
housing, out of contact with either the weight or the pressure foot spindle, will produce a deflection of the frame not
greater than 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.), as indicated by the micrometer readout system.
5.1.7 Digital display with indication to at least 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.).
5.1.8 Capability of repeating readings to within 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.) at zero settings or on a steel gage
block.
5.1.9 Accuracy within 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.).

6. Calibration

6.1 Accuracy of dial indications. Using standard steel gage whose thickness is known to within 0.0025
mm (0.0001 in.); check the accuracy of the dial reading over the required range. Prepare a calibration curve or table
if necessary.
6.2 Digital read out instruments capable of greater accuracy than dial indicator instruments may require
standard steel gages accurate to within 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.) or better if this greater accuracy is required.
T New Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 3
napkin and facial products
6.3 Parallelism of the faces. Use a uniform diameter wire of any size up to half the operational opening
of the faces, e.g., 0.05 mm (0.20 in.) diameter. Place the wire alternately on the left side, right side, front side, and
back side approximately 3 mm (0.125 in) from each respective edge of the foot and note the readings. Adjust anvil
so that all readings are within 0.0025 mm (0.0001 in.) of one another. A thickness gauge may also be used if a
uniform wire is not available.

7. Sampling

Obtain a sample in accordance with TAPPI T 400 Sampling and Accepting a Single Lot of Paper,
Paperboard, Containerboard, or Related Product.

8. Test specimens

For tissue, towel, napkin and facial, stack 8 sheets high to take a caliper reading. For finished product
testing, each sheet of product to be tested must have the same number of plies as the product sold. Napkin and
facial need to be completely unfolded prior to stacking.

9. Conditioning

Precondition, condition and test all specimens in atmospheres controlled in accordance with TAPPI T 402
Standing Conditioning and Testing Atmospheres for Paper, Board, Pulp Handsheets and Related Products.

10. Procedure

10.1 Turn on the instrument for at least 30 minutes prior to testing.
10.2 Check to see that the pressure foot and anvil surfaces are clean. This should also be done
throughout the testing process.
10.3 Zero and clear the instrument.
10.4 Change the instrument from the standby position to the run position. With the instrument cycling,
insert a specimen between the pressure foot and the anvil when the pressure foot is in the up position.
10.5 Position the specimen so that the edge of the pressure foot is at least 1-in. (25-mm) from any edge of
the specimen.
10.6 Always try to avoid perforations, wrinkles, folds, creases or custom emboss areas.
10.7 Do not move the specimen while the pressure foot is in the down position.
10.8 Record the reading.
10.9 When the pressure foot returns to the up position, move the specimen to a different position
following steps 10.5 through 10.8.
T New Thickness (caliper) of towel, tissue, / 4
napkin and facial products


11. Report

For each sample, report the overall average in millimeters (or inches) to the nearest 0.003-mm (0.0001-in).
Also report the minimum, maximum and standard deviation for each sample set.

12. Precision

The following estimate of repeatability is based on data from one laboratory doing 10 tests each of 4
replicates on a 2-ply embossed premium bath tissue and on a 2-ply embossed premium kitchen towel.

Repeatability (within a laboratory)
Tissue 2.99%
Towel 3.37%

13. Additional information

Effective date of issue: to be determined.

14. Keywords

Toweling papers, Tissue papers, Facial tissues, Napkin papers, Thickness

Your comments and suggestions on this procedure are earnestly requested and should be sent to the TAPPI
Director of Quality and Standards. g