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A Finite Element Scheme for Fluid–Solid–Acoustics Interactions and its Application to Human Phonation

Der Technischen Fakult¨at der Universit¨at Erlangen-Nurnberg¨

zur Erlangung des Grades

DOKTOR - INGENIEUR

vorgelegt von

Gerhard Link

Erlangen, 2008

Als Dissertation genehmigt von der Technischen Fakult¨at der Universit¨at Erlangen-Nurnberg¨

Tag der Einreichung:

Tag der Promotion:

Dekan:

Berichterstatter:

30. Juni 2008 17. Oktober 2008 Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Johannes Huber Prof. Dr. techn. Dr.-Ing. habil. Manfred Kaltenbacher Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Kai Willner

Vorwort

Die vorliegende Arbeit entstand w¨ahrend meiner T¨atigkeit als wissenschaftlicher Mitar- beiter am Lehrstuhl f¨ur Sensorik der Universit¨at Erlangen-N¨urnberg. Die Arbeit wurde von der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) im Rahmen der Forschergruppe 894 und des Sonderforschungsbereichs 603 (TP C7) gef¨ordert. Des Weiteren unterst¨utze die

Bayerische Forschungsgemeinschaft (BFS) die Arbeit im Rahmen des Projektes Struktur-L¨arm.

Mein herzlichster Dank gilt Herrn Prof. Dr. techn. Dr.-Ing. habil. Manfred Kaltenbacher f¨ur die kontinuierliche Unterst¨utzung und den R¨uckhalt w¨ahrend der Durchf¨uhrung der Arbeit sowie f¨ur die M¨oglichkeit dieses spannende und breitgef¨acherte Thema bearbeiten zu k¨onnen.

Bei Herrn Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Kai Willner bedanke ich mich ganz herzlich f¨ur die

Fluid-

¨

Ubernahme des Zweitgutachtens und seine wertvollen fachlichen Anregungen.

Herrn Prof. Dr.-Ing. Reinhard Lerch danke ich f¨ur seine Unterst¨utzung und das sehr an- genehme Arbeitsklima, das an seinem Lehrstuhl herrscht. Außerdem gilt mein Dank allen Kollegen des Lehrstuhls f¨ur Sensorik.

Herrn Prof. Dr. Dr. Ulrich Eysholdt und Herrn Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael D¨ollinger danke ich f¨ur die fruchtbare Kooperation bez¨uglich der menschlichen Phonation.

Des Weiteren danke ich Prof. Dr.-Ing. Michael Breuer,

Dr.-Ing. Frank Sch¨afer und

konstruktiven

Dr.-Ing. Stefan Becker Diskussionen.

Mein Dank gilt auch Britta Hofmann f¨ur die aufmerksame Durchsicht und Korrektur des Manuskripts.

Besonders m¨ochte ich mich bei meiner Familie f¨ur den R¨uckhalt bedanken auf den ich mich seit je her verlassen kann und bei meiner Freundin Eva Gehles f¨ur Ihre liebevolle Unterst¨utzung.

vom

Lehrstuhl

f¨ur

Str¨omungsmechanik

f¨ur

die

Contents

Notations and abbreviations

 

vii

Abstract

xiii

Kurzfassung

xiv

1 Introduction

1

1.1 Multifield phenomenon

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1

1.2 Motivation for the medical application: human phonation

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2

1.3 Models of human phonation

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4

1.3.1 Self-sustained oscillation models

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4

1.3.2 Aeroacoustic models

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6

1.3.3 Motivation for improved computer models

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7

1.3.4 Interim summary

 

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8

1.4 Overview .

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8

2 Physical fundamentals of fluid and solid mechanics

 

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2.1 Nomenclature and reference systems

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9

2.2 Fluid mechanics .

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16

2.2.1 Kinematics

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16

2.2.2 Kinetics

 

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16

2.2.3 Balance principles

 

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18

2.2.4 The constitutive equation

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20

2.2.5 Governing partial differential equations

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20

2.2.6 Initial and boundary conditions of fluid mechanics

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23

2.2.7 Dimensionless numbers to characterize a flow

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25

2.2.8 Turbulent flows

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26

2.3 Solid mechanics

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29

2.3.1 Kinematics

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30

2.3.2 Kinetics

 

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30

2.3.3 Balance principles

 

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31

2.3.4 The constitutive equation

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31

2.3.5 Governing partial differential equations

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34

2.3.6 Initial and boundary conditions of solid mechanics

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34

2.4 Field interactions

 

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34

2.4.1 Fluid-solid interaction

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35

2.4.2 Fluid-acoustics interaction – Aeroacoustics

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37

2.4.3 Solid-acoustics interaction

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39

2.5 Interim summary

 

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39

Contents

3

Numerical fundamentals

 

40

3.1 Computational fluid mechanics

 

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41

3.1.1 Spatial discretization

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42

3.1.2 Time discretization and linearization

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56

3.1.3 Validation examples

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61

3.1.4 Interim summary on CFD

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73

3.2 Computational acoustics

 

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73

3.3 Computational solid mechanics

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73

3.3.1 Spatial discretization

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73

3.3.2 Time discretization and linearization

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75

3.3.3 Geometric nonlinear validation example

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75

3.4 Fluid-solid-acoustics interaction

 

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76

3.4.1 Coupling Strategies .

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76

3.4.2 Fluid-solid interaction

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78

3.4.3 Fluid-acoustics coupling with Lighthill’s acoustic analogy

 

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3.4.4 Solid-acoustics coupling

 

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103

3.4.5 Fluid-solid-acoustics algorithm

 

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105

4

Human phonation

 

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4.1 Medical principles .

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109

4.2 Phonation model

 

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113

4.3 Vocal fold model

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114

4.4 Fluid mechanical validation of the 2d model with a 3d model

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115

4.5 Fluid-solid-acoustics coupled results

 

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116

4.5.1 Development of the Coanda effect

 

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116

4.5.2 Acoustic impact of the Coanda effect

 

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118

5

Summary and outlook

 

123

5.1 Summary

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123

Outlook

5.2 .

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125

Bibliography

 

127

Notations and abbreviations

In this thesis, scalars are represented by normal letters (b), Cartesian vectors are marked with an arrow ( b), second order tensors are denoted by bold letters (b) and fourth order tensors by bold letters in square brackets ([b]). Matrices are capital boldface Roman letters (B) and to denote the non-Cartesian vectors, small bold Roman letters (b) are used.

Abbreviations

FEM

Finite element method

FDM

Finite difference method

FVM

Finite volume method

LBA

Lattice Boltzmann automata

CFD

Computational fluid dynamics

LES

Large eddy simulation

PDE

Partial differential equation

IBVP

Initial boundary value problem

ODE

Ordinary Differential equations

ALE

Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian

LAS

Linear algebraic equation

BE

Backward Euler

CN

Crank-Nicholson

BDF2

2 nd order backward difference

SUPG

Streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin

PSPG

Pressure-Stabilized/Petrov-Galerkin

GLS

Galerkin least squares

USFEM

Unusual stabilized finite element method

CBS

Characteristic Based Split

LSFEM

Least squares finite element method

FIC

Finite increment calculus

VMM

Variational multiscale method

vf

Vocal folds

sub

Subglottal

supra

Supraglottal

Mathematical conventions

Γ

∇·

dΩ

Volume integral Surface integral Gradient Divergence

Notations and abbreviations

∂/∂x Spatial partial derivative

(·) i,x

∂/∂t, (·)

Laplacian

Partial derivative of component i to x

Temporal partial derivative

Temporal partial derivative of second order Substantial or total temporal derivative Directional derivative with respect to n

Identity matrix Transposed Inverted Trace Projection Gamma function With respect to x With respect to X With respect to χ

˙

¨

(·)

D/Dt

∂/∂ n

1

(·) T

(·) 1

tr(·)

Π()

Γ fct

(·)|

(·)|

(·)|

x

X

χ

Differential operators

B

L

L

L

L

L

A

M a

M

C

stab

M

stab

C

ˆ

L

Spaces

Solid mechanics stiffness operator

Fluid operator Fluid momentum operator Fluid continuity operator

Stabilization operator for fluid momentum

Stabilization operator for fluid continuity

Navier-Stokes differential operator

Added mass operator

Adjoint differential operators

R 3

L 2

H 1

V

W

Q

Euclidean space Space of square integrable functions Space of square integrable functions with square integrable derivatives

Functions space of velocity

Functions spaces of momentum test function

Functions spaces of pressure and continuity test function

Domains and Boundaries

Γ

n

0

Simulation domain

Boundary of simulation domain Surface normal

Eulerian domain Lagrangian domain

Notations and abbreviations

Γ

Γ

t

f

s

a

Euler

ALE

fs

a

Symbols

ALE domain Fluid domain Solid domain Acoustic domain Fluid domain where no grid adaption is performed Fluid domain where grid adaption is performed Fluid-solid interface Acoustic boundary

t

Time

x

Spatial coordinate of the Eulerian frame

X

Spatial coordinate of the Lagrangian frame

χ

Spatial coordinate of the ALE frame

x, y, z

L

v

t

f V ˙

σ

τ

P

p

ρ

T

R

e

c

c

T

E tot

v

P

Components of the spatial vector

Spatial length

Velocity

Traction Volume force Rate of deformation tensor

Cauchy stress tensor

Viscous stress tensor

Thermodynamic pressure

Kinematic pressure (p = P/ρ)

Density

Temperature

Universal gas constant

Intrinsic energy Isochor specific heat capacity Isobar specific heat capacity

Temperature

Mass specific total energy

q

Conductive heat flux

k

Thermal conductivity

µ

Dynamic viscosity

ν

Kinematic viscosity (ν = µ/ρ)

c

Speed of sound

K

B

Bulk modulus

I

Sound intensity

Re

Reynolds number

M a

Mach number

 

Kn

Knudson number

St

Strouhal number

Eu

Euler number

F

r

Froude number

Notations and abbreviations

l k

τ turb

τ sgs

a

II a , II a

k t

ν t

t

C s

Kolmogorov length scale Turbulence stress tensor Turbulent subgrid scale stress tensor

Turbulent anisotropy tensor Second and third principle scalar invariant of a Turbulent kinetic energy Turbulent viscosity

Rate of turbulent dissipation Smagorinsky constant

f uid

Fluid force

Displacement at the fluid-solid interface ( d = u) on Γ fs

u

Displacement

d

F

Deformation gradient

E

Green Lagrangian strain tensor

Cauchy strain tensor

σ

Cauchy stress tensor

P

2 nd Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor

[C]

Elasticity matrix

λ s , µ s

Lam´e parameters

E

Elasticity modulus

ν s

Poisson number

[A], [B]

Fractional matrices

A

Gruenwald coefficients

T

Lighthill’s tensor

r

Grid displacement

w,

q

FEM test functions

τ

Stabilization parameter

K

Finite Element

h

Element size

L

Spatial length

N i

Interpolation function

Φ

Complex potential function

t

Time step size

T

Period

f

Frequency

g

Greens function

β, γ

Time integration parameters

fsa

g

Indices

Fluid-solid convergence tolerance

Grid adaption convergence tolerance

f

Fluid

s

Solid

Notations and abbreviations

a

Acoustics

g

Grid

c

Convection

0

Mean part of the acoustic decomposition

(·)

Temporal mean value due to turbulence decomposition Fluctuating value due to turbulence decomposition

(·)

˜

(·)

Resolved scales of LES and VMM Unresolved scales of LES and VMM

(·)

Matrices and Vectors

M

Mass matrix

K

Stiffness matrix

N

Stiffness matrix originate from the velocity term

G

Gradient matrix

D

Damping matrix

F

Right hand side vector

v

Vector of unknown velocities

u

Vector of unknown displacements

d

Vector of interface displacements

ˆ

d

Vector of un-relaxed interface displacements

u˜

Vector of predicted displacements

P a

Vector of unknown sound pressure

r

Vector of unknown grid displacement

v g

Vector of unknown grid velocity

a g

Vector of unknown grid acceleration

Notations and abbreviations

Medical notations [41]

Glottis

Air gap between the vocal folds - (Stimmritze)

Vocal fold

One of Ferrein’s cords; the sharp edge of a fold of mucous membrane overlaying the vocal ligament and stretching along either wall of the larynx from the angle between the lamina of the thyroid cartilage to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage; the vocal folds are the agents concerned in voice production - (Stimmlippe)

Vocal chord

Ligament of the vocal folds - (Stimmband)

Vocal muscle

Shortens and relaxes the vocal folds - (Stimmmuskel)

Pharynx

The throat; above the esophagus and the trachea; below the mouth and nasal tract - (Rachen)

Larynx

The organ of voice production - (Kehlkopf)

Laryngectomy

Surgical excision of the larynx - (Kehlkopfentnahme)

Esophagus

Food pipe/digestive tract - (Speiser¨ohre)

Trachea

Air pipe - (Luftr¨ohre)

Dysphonia

Any disorder of phonation affecting voice quality or ability to produce voice - (Dysphonie)

Epiglottis

A leaf-shaped plate of elastic cartilage, covered with mucous membrane, at the root of the tongue, which serves as a diverter valve of the larynx - (Epiglottis)

Thyroid cartilage

Cartilage of the larynx in form of a shield; protecting the inner larynx - (Schildknorpel)

Cricoid cartilage

Ring shaped cartilage of the larynx - (Ringknorpel)

Arytenoid cartilage

Cartilage of the larynx to adjust the vocal folds - (Stellknorpel)

Hyoid cartilage

U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue muscles - (Zungenbein)

Epithelium

The purely cellular avascular layer covering all the free surfaces, cutaneous, mucous and serous, including the glands and other structures derived therefrom - (Epithel)

Anterior/ventral

Denoting the front surface of the body - (zur Vorderseite)

Posterior/dorsal

Denoting the back surface of the body - (zur R¨uckseite)

Inferior/caudal

Denoting the bottom of the body - (nach unten)

Abstract

The focus of this thesis is on the development of a numerical scheme to capture the fluid- solid-acoustics coupling. As example application the human phonation process is chosen. Human phonation is a paradigm for multifield interactions and at the same time still not fully explored. Many investigations considering the fluid-solid interaction on the one hand and the fluid-acoustics interaction on the other hand have been undertaken. So far, no phonation model is based on the completely coupled system taking into account the fluid-solid-acoustics interaction. The several methods to establish the fluid-solid-acoustics coupling are selected because of their ability to represent the physical fields and their interactions most accurately. The finite element method is adopted to discretize the three physical fields discussed: fluid and solid mechanics and acoustics. The mechanical and the acoustic fields are approximated with a standard Galerkin scheme and a residual-based stabilization method is chosen for the fluid field. The fluid-solid and the solid-acoustics interactions are based on continuum mechanics. The fluid-acoustics coupling is based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. The developed steps of the scheme are verified through several benchmark problems. Novel steps of the computational scheme are the flow solver, the fluid-solid interaction, the fluid-acoustics and the fluid-solid-acoustics coupling. Finally, a fluid-solid-acoustics benchmark is successfully simulated and presented. For the first time the two sound generation mechanisms of fluid-solid interaction - the flow-induced and the vibrational-induced sound - are captured together. In the considered phonation model it is discovered that the hereby developing Coanda effect causes a broadband sound signal. The Coanda effect is the affinity of a fluid jet to attach to an adjacent surface, the pharynx wall in case of phonation. A broadband acoustic signal exists as well during hoarseness and in the case of a substitute voice after a laryngectomy, leading to the hypothesis that in these cases the Coanda effect is more severe in comparison to the healthy state. The developed scheme enabled to detect and justify this interconnection between the Coanda effect and dysphonias. In case of human phonation this scheme opens up new possibilities to understand the phonation process more profoundly and to improve existing therapies. Consequently, this study supplies an accurate fluid-solid-acoustics coupled scheme, which represents each physical field as well as their interactions comprehensively and without any noteworthy simplifications. The simulation of human phonation is a first application success.

Kurzfassung

Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist die Entwicklung eines numerischen Verfahrens, das Fluid- Struktur-Akustik-Wechselwirkungen vollst¨andig abbildet. Als Anwendungsbeispiel wird die menschliche Stimmbildung gew¨ahlt, weil dies ein Musterbeispiel fur¨ Mehrfeld- Wechselwirkungen ist und gleichzeitig noch Forschungsbedarf besteht. Viele Untersuchun- gen betrachteten entweder die Fluid-Struktur-Wechselwirkung oder die Fluid-Akustik- Kopplung. Bislang wurde die Fluid-Struktur-Akustik-Wechselwirkung noch in keinem Phonationsmodell berucksichtigt.¨ Die einzelnen Methoden des Fluid-Struktur-Akustik- Verfahrens werden dahingehend ausgew¨ahlt, dass sowohl die physikalischen Felder als auch deren Wechselwirkungen so genau wie m¨oglich erfasst werden. Alle drei betrachteten physi- kalischen Felder - die Str¨omungsmechanik, die Strukturmechanik und die Akustik - werden mit der Finite-Elemente-Methode diskretisiert. Das mechanische und das akustische Feld werden mit der Standard-Galerkin-Methode approximiert und das str¨omungsmechanische Feld mit einer residuenbasierten stabilisierten Methode. Mittels kontinuumsmechanischer Beziehungen wird die Fluid-Struktur- und die Struktur-Akustik-Wechselwirkung realisiert. Die Fluid-Akustik-Kopplung basiert auf der akustischen Analogie von Lighthill. Die ent- wickelten Abschnitte des Verfahrens werden mit zahlreichen Referenzbeispielen validiert. Neue Schritte des numerischen Verfahrens sind der Str¨omungsl¨oser, die Fluid-Struktur- Interaktion, die Fluid-Akustik- und die Fluid-Struktur-Akustik-Kopplung. Schließlich wird ein erstes Fluid-Struktur-Akustik-Referenzbeispiel im Rahmen dieser Arbeit erfolgreich si- muliert und vorgestellt. Erstmals k¨onnen die beiden Schallentstehungsmechanismen von Fluid-Struktur-Wechselwirkungen - der str¨omungsinduzierte und der schwingungsinduzier- te Schall - gemeinsam abgebildet werden. Im entwickelten Phonationsmodell wird fest- gestellt, dass der hierbei auftretende Coanda-Effekt zu einem breitbandigen Schallsignal fuhrt.¨ Der Coanda-Effekt beschreibt das Bestreben eines Fluid-Strahls sich an eine be- nachbarte Fl¨ache, im Falle der Phonation die Rachenwand, anzun¨ahern. Ein breitbandiges akustisches Signal existiert ebenfalls bei Ersatzstimmen nach einer Kehlkopfentnahme und bei Heiserkeit. Dies fuhrt¨ zu der Hypothese, dass in diesen F¨allen der Coanda-Effekt st¨arker ausgepr¨agt ist als im gesunden Zustand. Erst das entwickelte Verfahren erm¨oglichte die Er- kennung und Begrundung¨ dieser Querbeziehung zwischen dem Coanda-Effekt und Dyspho- nien. Fur¨ den Forschungsbereich der menschlichen Stimmbildung er¨offnet dieses Verfahren somit neue M¨oglichkeiten fur¨ ein fundierteres Verst¨andnis der Stimmbildung sowie zur Verbesserung bestehender Behandlungsmethoden. Im Ergebnis liefert diese Arbeit ein Fluid-Struktur-Akustik-Verfahren, das die einzelnen physikalischen Felder sowie deren Wechselwirkungen umfassend und ohne nennenswerte Vereinfachungen abbildet. Die Simulation der menschlichen Stimmbildung ist ein erster Anwendungserfolg.

1 Introduction

Sound is an omnipresent physical phenomenon in daily life. Many senses of well-being are connected with sounds, e.g. listening to a singer or to a musical instrument. In case of human voice, it is the basis of communication and therefore a part of social life. Other examples within nature are the sound of the surf, the singing of a bird or the rustle of leaves in the wind. This list is arbitrarily expandable. On the other hand sound in the form of noise is mostly undesirable and represents a pollution. Therefore, some sounds should be preserved and others reduced. Despite its omnipresence, not all sound generation mechanisms are fully understood so far, often due to the existence of a physical multifield problem. The focus of this thesis is to develop a fluid-solid-acoustics coupled scheme, which allows a better understanding of these three fields and their interactions. In a second step, the scheme is applied to simulate the human phonation process.

1.1 Multifield phenomenon

In many technical machineries, e.g. airplanes, trains, trucks and cars, the appearance of noise is a multifield phenomenon. All listed examples have relevance for urban areas. The sound radiation of an airplane during start and departure represents an important factor for the people living nearby. An airplane can generate noise by the turbo-jet engines, the flaps, the high buoyant equipment and the landing gears. Furthermore, the wheel-rail contact and flow around the pantograph are crucial noise producing mechanisms of trains. In the case of road vehicles, the wheel-roadway contact, the streamnoise and the noise induced by the engine are important emitters. Within all listed examples fluid-solid interactions are present. The composition of the overall radiated noise changes, depending on the velocity of the respective vehicle. It is therefore necessary to understand all noise generation mechanisms exactly in order to de- velop primary noise reduction, which in general makes more sense from an economical point of view than to install secondary noise insulation. Fluid-solid-acoustics computa- tional schemes can make a significant contribution to this area. There are many additional biological and medical problems in which multiple interacting fields are present. The human phonation process is an example for a fluid-solid-acoustics interaction. The blood flow through veins and the blood flow induced by heart contraction are examples of fluid-solid interaction. In a multifield phenomenon the interaction of the physical fields plays a crucial role. The focus of this thesis lies in the continuum mechanical fields: fluid and solid mechanics and acoustics. Their relationship is sketched in Fig. 1.1. Fluid forces act thereby on a neighboring solid, which is deformed and thereby influences the velocity of the adhering fluid particles. Due to the solid deformation, the fluid domain changes and has to be adapted. The fluid-acoustics interaction is described by Lighthill’s acoustic analogy and the solid-acoustics coupling by claiming coincident surface acceleration. Fig. 1.1 shows the

1 Introduction

1 Introduction Figure 1.1: Modeling of fluid-solid-acoustics interaction approaches chosen in the mathematical modeling

Figure 1.1: Modeling of fluid-solid-acoustics interaction

approaches chosen in the mathematical modeling of the fields and their discretization. The fluid field is modeled therein with the incompressible unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The solid field is described by the geometric nonlinear Navier equations. The acoustic sound propagation considered herein is assumed to be linear and therefore captured by the wave equation. The finite element method (FEM) is applied for all three physical fields as discretization method. The mechanical and acoustic fields are discretized with a standard Galerkin scheme and the fluid field with a residual-based stabilization approach. The aim to treat multifield problems numerically is still a growing area of research and only few publications exist providing an overview. Kaltenbacher’s book [91] represents the most comprehensive contribution. Therein the mechanical, the electro-magnetic and the acoustic fields are tackled as well as the following interactions: solid-acoustics, electro- magnetics, electro-magnetics-solid, electro-magnetics-solid-acoustics and fluid-acoustics. The fluid-solid interaction is treated within the dissertation of Wall [146] and by Tez- duyar [134], F¨orster [57], H¨ubner [80], Dettmer and Peri´c [40]. Commercial codes, which are able to resolve the fluid-solid interaction can be purchased, e.g. STAR-CCM+ [7], CFX [4]/ANSYS[3], ADINA [2] and FLUENT [6]/ABAQUS [1].

1.2 Motivation for the medical application: human phonation

If the phonation process is disturbed due to a disease, as e.g. laryngeal cancer, communica- tion is strongly affected. It is therefore necessary to enhance therapies in order to minimize affliction caused by diseases. There are different approaches to improve existent therapies. Field studies of different physical quantities, like sound pressure, vocal fold displacements,

1.2 Motivation for the medical application: human phonation

Author

Year

Dimension

fluid-solid

fluid-acoustics

Ishizaka et al. [87]

1972

multi-mass

+

Alipour et al. [8]

2000

2d plane

de Vries et al. [36]

2002

2d plane

+

Zhao et al. [155]

2002

2d axi

Direct & Analogy

ˇ

Sidlof [143]

2007

2d plane/multi-mass

+

Table 1.1: Progress of numerical phonation models.

etc. accompanied by high-speed camera detection of vocal fold deformation are one possi- bility. Another promising approach to advance therapies is given by numerical simulations, providing deeper knowledge of the physical basis of dysphonias. Due to the growing power of computers, phonation models with an increasing complexity can be treated and fully coupled fluid-solid-acoustics simulations are now feasible. Human voice can be divided into phonation and articulation. The phonation process means the generation of the base signal within the larynx. Articulation is the sound propagation through the pharynx, the vocal and the nasal tract. Afterwards the voice is radiated into the surrounding air. The maximum sound pressure level a human being can reach is approximately 75 dB in a distance of 1 m from the mouth. A professional singer may even reach 110 dB. The fundamental frequency for females and children is within the range of 200