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The Role of HighHigh -Frequency Communications in the Future NATO Network Enabled Capability (NNEC)

A presentation to the NATO HF Policy Workshop 11 October 2004 by Donald G. Kallgren NC3A CISD TTS don.kallgren@nc3a.nato.int don kallgren@nc3a nato int +31+31 -70 70-374 374-3442
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Agenda

NNEC Where did it come from? What is it? Why do we care? What will it do to/for us? NATO Network Information Grid (ENGINE) NNEC NNEC-HF Component Desiderata for NetNet-Readiness Current status & Future Vision Enabling technologies what they were, what theyll become Is I There Th a Way W Ahead Ah d for f HF?
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NNEC Background: Prague Summit


North Atlantic Council Meeting of 21 November 2002 invited Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to begin accession talks Determined that in order to carry out the full range of its missions they needed to: missions, Create a NATO Response Force (NRF): technologically advanced, flexible, deployable, interoperable and sustainable force including land, sea, and air elements ready to move quickly to wherever needed Streamline NATOs military y command arrangements. g Created ACO w/ two Joint Force HQ for land-based or sea-based CJTF operations Created ACT w/ responsibility for force transformation and the promotion of force interoperability
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Framework for Transformation


Effects-Based Approach to Operations

Bi Bi-SC Strategic g Vision:


Effects Effects-based approach 2020 target state
Achieving Coherent Effects Achieving Decision Superiority Achieving Joint Deployment & Sustainment

Capable Future Forces

Defence Planning

NNEC encompasses the elements involved in linking sensors, effectors and decision makers together

Concept Development and Experimentation


Effective Engagement Joint Maneuver Enhanced CMC Information Superiority Network-Enabled Capability Expeditionary Operations Integrated Logistics

Transformation Objective Areas


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Developing A Technology Vision


DECONFLICT
Land Forces Air Forces
Maritime Forces

COORDINATE
Land Forces SOF Air Forces
Maritime

INTEGRATE
L d Land Forces SOF Ai Air Forces
Maritime Forces

COHERENT EffectsEffects-Based

Operational
SOF Forces

Functional Area Services Information Integration Services Communication Services

Standalone Applications

Integrated and Web Applications as Based applications Services

Self orchestrating Applications

Semantic Standalone Database Centric Service Oriented Architectures Web capabilities Information Information sharing Mobile Software Multiple types Migrate to a of Networks Single network type defined networks Self managing Adaptive networks

Integrated Technology Vision for the NNEC Infrastructure


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TECHNOLOGY VISION
5

Time

Information Integration Services


Standalone Information segregated data and delivery systems TARE, TARE BRASS BRASS, SSB SSB, CUDIXS CUDIXS, LINK 11 11, , LINK 16 16) ) incompatible formats (ACP (ACP127 127, ,X X400 400, , SMTP, TADIL TADIL-A, OTH OTH-G ) DatabaseDatabase -Centric Information Sharing linked networks enhanced access (linked databases) self self-describing data (SGML, XML, XHTML ) Service Oriented Architecture defined, published interfaces for services by functional area, bearer, core services and specialized network as marketmarket-place for end and bearer services Semantic Web ubiquitous connectivity, w/ information portals and hubs query/discover knowledge centers by meaning meaning, information type query by text / audio / video pattern match
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NNEC Notional Transmission Component

SPACE TRANSPORT

space space air


AD HOC NETWORK

space

space

air air
DEPLOYED NETWORK FIXED NETWORK

air
AIR TRANSPORT

terrestrial terrestrial, air


TERRESTRIAL TRANSPORT

terrestrial

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NNEC Global Infrastructure


Black core IPv6 IPv 6 New protocols, e.g. routing (R&TO) Ubiquitous access Convergence - QoS Physical diversity Architecture for system of systems

Nation A

Nation B Static

NATO

Deployed Land - Maritime


Deploy Deployed D yed Concep Co pts oncepts (NNGG07 7)
8

Grid Related Grid Related INFOSEC INFOSEC (FWA CDE) CoreCore Services Services (NNGG10 -16) End-to-end CIS Services control end CoalitionCoalition CIS Services control (NNGG18) National Network Management facilities QoS Transm National Network Management facilities QoS Transm Standards Policies, procedures NC3B MIP - STGP CIS Management based on modular Service CIS Management based on modular Service Creation (NNGG05) Automatic Service Configuration (NNGG04) Automatic Service Configuration Net centric Communication Intelligence (NNGG06) Net centric Communication Intelligence QoS Capability QoSCapability (NNGG03) Converged IPv6 (NNGG02) Converged IPv6

Transmission Transmission & Access & Access (NNGG01) Special p Coms Special Comms (NNGG08) New technologies New technologies
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NNEC CommunicationCommunication-Service Tenets


Philosophy Follow F ll th the I Internet t t Model M d l Build from smaller component blocks Design w/ interoperability, interoperability evolvability evolvability, & simplicity in mind Tenets Evolve to packetpacket-switching infrastructure Build Build-layered, modular, components, upgradable in simple steps Trend towards convergence of voice voice, video video, and data Trend towards IPv6 IPv6 for NATO standard comms Provide network connectivity for all endend-points Support differentiated management of Quality of Service
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Communication Services
Migration to a Single Network Type does not (cannot?) mean convergence to: a common frequency band waveform media-access control protocol media should (must?) mean convergence to: a common user interface between end systems and bearers a common interface between bearers a common network architecture The Single Network will be a network of networks (hierarchical, concatenated, meshed) common architectural features and management ad ad-hoc, adaptive, selfself-organizing
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NNEC House

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11

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12

The HFHF-House STANAG Suite


ACS
(interface to higher ISO layers) Subnetwork service interface S5066, S4538

Automatic Channel Selection

MS14 41 (appx A)

Network Layer Link Layer

S5066

2G ALE

2G ARQ

3G, ARCS ACS ALE S4 4538


ALM ARQ

ALE
EPM LSU S4 4444

Automatic Link Establishment

Burst waveforms

8FSK

Physical Layer

Clear voice and traffic waveforms : S4203, S4197, S4285, S4415, S4539, MS110, etc.

EPM waveforms

ARQ
Automatic Repeat Request q

KEY

2G: second generation 3G: third generation Snnnn: STANAG MSnnn: Mil-Std Mil Std

STANAG 5066 - Profile for HF Radio Data Communications STANAG 4539 - HF Waveforms (PSK, QPSK, QAM) STANAG 4538 - Automated Radio Control System y ( (ARCS) ) STANAG 4444 - HF EPM Waveform (FH(FH-PSK/FHPSK/FH-QPSK) STANAG 4415 Robust HF Waveform STANAG 4203 - HF Radio Standards (~ 3 kHz, ~1 ~1.4 kHz ) MILMIL -STDSTD-188 188-110A/B 110A/B - HF Waveforms (PSK/QPSK/QAM) MILMIL -STDSTD-188 188-141A 141A - Automatic Link Establishment
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ALM
Automatic Link Maintenance

EPM
Electronic Protection Measures

13

BRASS Capability in 2004


Reitan Other Domains: Mill Cove (CA) Norfolk (US) ?? Noordwick Jaatta Zeebrugge gg Aarhus

Northwood Paris

Gluecksburg Gdynia

Madrid

NGCS

Oeiras Azores (PO) Lisbon Cadiz Rome Naples Athens


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Ankara

Enabling Technologies for BRASS (noted circa 1995 !)


Improved Throughput
done that S S4285 4285 / S S4539 4539 / S S4538 4538 HDL+ BUT still till constrained t i dt to 3 kHz kH !!!!! and d thus th < 9600 bps b and d th then only if BRASS contracts are modified for S S4539 4539 done that accepts message traffic over NGCS in a variety of formats (X 400, (X.400 (X. 400, SMTP, SMTP ACP127 ACP127) ) BUT, still uses ACP ACP127 127 text formats over the HF interface done that S S5066 5066 ARQ for Ship Ship-Shore and MRL circuits BUT ALE integration is minimal if at all well weve defined S S4406 4406 A-E, but deployed only S S4406 4406 A-D no overover-the the-air S S4406 4406E E capability yet specified in BRASS defined and used with S5066 S5066F F CFTP but only for informal messaging, and only on bibi-directional S/S & MRL circuits only y if using g S5066 S5066 CFTP if only .

Network Network-Ready Interface at Shore

Improved Protocols for Reliability Improved Messaging Protocols

Integrated Compression

Reception Reception-Adaptive / Directive Antennas


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Talking points
HF House is necessary but not sufficient to bring HF into the NNEC improved waveforms, link automation, standardized interface a preprerequisite BUT little focus on operational/system concepts devoid of knowledge or recognition of netnet-ready requirements needs to address mobility, self self-configuration, integration issues in a larger network Without Without: : recognition of the NNEC operational requirements by the HF community, HF will not grow (alternatively, will not be supported w/in NATO ) a statement by the strategic commanders that HF can/must play a role in NNEC, it WILL die ... With With: : a proactive policy and interest in growth, AND a strategic vision ision and set of MMRs that allo allow gro growth, th THEN --- HF will play a continued, viable, valuable role
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What are the prepre-requisites for defining an IP IP-over over-HF NNEC component?
Agreement g on the vision is it worth doing Agreement on an architecture operational concepts components, systems, interfaces services provided Agreement on technological approach(es) do we (how do we) pick winners? do we ( (how do we) )p prune for efficiency? y how do we transition?

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DC/04 DC/ 04/MD /MD15 15 JWID AtAt-Sea Demonstration: St t / WrapStatus Wrap W -Up U
Status:
Completed JWID 2004 Demonstration Exercise: In US JWID exercise as Coalition Interoperability Trial 02. 02.10 (AHFWAN (AHFWAN66 66) ) (see 1Q rpt) NNATO-3 - Allied High Frequency Wide Area Network (see 1Q rpt) In NATO JWID Exercise as NNATONC3A-NL JWID Demonstration Area: The CAVE (first major demo, w/ SCOBE) Developed the NC3

Lessons Learned (many!)


IP IP-overover-HF subnetworks are viable for some services: COP dissemination, multicast e e-mail, other delaydelay -tolerant applications HF wireless token token-ring protocol is a viable self self-organizing, self self-healing network architecture supporting pp g letlet-net entry y and errorerror-recovery y Viable configurations for mobilemobile-IP (requires black black-infrastructure support), HFIPHFIP-router, multicast Proxies and QoS support required for delaydelay-intolerant applications

Recommendations
adopt the HF WTRP and HF HF-IP router architecture for STANAG 5066 Edition 2 adopt the AHFWAN architecture as a comms component for NATO NetworkNetwork-Enabled Capability

Way Ahead:

Spread p the Good Word!


Other exercises (Combined Endeavor, CWID 2005 2005, , CATHEM, TRIDENT WARRIOR 05 05) ) Insert requirements/capabilities into STANAG 5066 Ed Ed2 2 NATO MMR, Maritime Reference Arch.
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DC/04 DC/ /04/MD /MD15 / 15: : JWID JWID04 04 At At-Sea Demo


2004 Target
Participate p in an At Sea JWID 2004 demonstration of Allied HF Wide Area Networking g using IP over HF (STANAG 5066 (Ed 2)) and provide a TP supporting the results of the demonstration. (DC 3) deliverable 2Q/3 Q/3Q JWID JWID-2004 2004: : June Exec.; ; June/July/August: y g Hot Wash, , Final Report: p Sept p

Operational Concept:
NATO Maritime Communications Architecture: as a deployed NATO Expanded Task Force (NETF) (w/ IP mobility pre/ during/ post deployment) as an IPIP-based wireless wide area network as a mix of largelarge-deck/small deck/small-deck platforms Seamless Tactical Wireless WAN connectivity amongst shoreshore-based HQ and Deployed Maritime Forces NATO UNCLASSIFIED

IP-over-SHF SATCOM

IP-performance-enhancing proxies for f messaging, network functions

IP-over-HF

NGCS
Pier-side Pier side IP (NATO In-port Comms Support)

Ship/shore IP apps
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DC/04 DC/ 04/MD /MD15 15 : AHFWAN AHFWAN66 66 SV SV-1


Core Services Satellite (sim) Platform LAN

Notional View (s):


As prototype of the Goal NATO Maritime Comms Architecture: as a deployed NATO Expanded Task Force (NETF) (w/ IP mobility pre/during/post deployment) as an IPIP-based wireless wide area network as a mix of largelarge-deck/smalldeck/smalldeck platforms
IP-Crypto Z

COMSNFL

AHFWAN66 Core Services SATCOM FIP site LAN In-port FO connector (make/break as required for in-port scenario)

SATCOM

Z Bulk

Core Services Platform LAN

IP-Crypto

Z IP-Crypto

100-BaseFX 100-BaseFX S'4539 PSK HF Tx/Rx

MNTG
CFBLNet/CWAN/ ISDN/SATCOM/ other bearer into MNTG Bayern
AHFWAN66 Z Bulk Z Bulk S'4539 HF PSK Tx/Rx AHFWAN66

Node Node-EdgeEdge-to to-NodeNode-Edge & SystemSystem -to to-System Interfaces:

NATO FIP ASHORE (Network Operations Center & Fleet Interface Point)

Allied HF Wide Area Network (IP over S'5066 S 5066 V2)


HF Tx/Rx

S'4539 PSK HF Tx/Rx

SHF SATCOM (simulated) NATO In In-Port Connector ( (100 100 Mbs FO FO-link) Allied HF Wide Wide-Area Area-Network using S S5066 5066 Ed. 2 High High-speed HF (S (S4539 4539, , MS MS188 188-100B/F) 100B/F) Wireless token ring protocol IP IP-overover-HF w/ performance enhancing proxies

JWID04 AHFWAN66 Equipment Diagram And Connectivity

NATO Expanded Task Force (NETF)

S'4539 PSK Bulk Z

Witte de Wit

Applications / Core Services:


Messaging M i (SMTP (SMTP-Email; E il STANAG 4406 Annex A E) Distributed Collaboration (Domino / Sametime) COP (MCCIS R5 R5 ) NATO UNCLASSIFIED other

AHFWAN66

Platform LAN

Core Services

20

DC/04/ DC/04 /15 15: : AHFWAN AHFWAN66 66 IPIP -overover-HF Network Architecture

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21

DC/04 DC/ 04/ /15 -

JWID 2004 AHFWAN AHFWAN66 66 Test Results

Throughput

Loaded Performance:
simultaneous: mail, COP, and Web

MAC-delay (ring-cycle-time)

Round-Trip-Time (end-to-end delay)


Representative data (Week 2 Day 4 shown)
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Common IP Subnetwork Architecture

SN1

SN2

SN3 HF BLOS

HF BLOS

UHF LOS

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IP Mobility Technology
IP Mobility conformant f t w/ / NNEC vision
self selflf-organizing i i ubiquitous

Mobile and/or Dynamic Internetwork Domain

Mobile Mobile-IP MANET


OLSR OSPFv OSPFv3 3
Mobile S ubnetworks/AS es ( (e.g., M Mobile bil Pl Platform) f )

future ...
24

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E.G. - MRA NOV NOV-1 TopTop -Level Operational Concepts

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25

NSVNSV -1b: IntraIntra-Nodal Interfaces

Platform LAN

M RL

HF

HF

Br oa dc as t, B

ISDN/ PCM/ Audio


LO S Ba ck up Li nk s

HF

M S, t,S as c d oa Br

RL

Sh ip /S ho re

ISDN/ PCM/ Audio

ISDN/ PCM/ Audio

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ISDN/ PCM/ Audio

26

NTVNTV -1 Standards Profile Transport Services (from JWID 2004 demos) ( )


NonNCSP Std

Class
Best-Effort End-to-End Datagram Delivery Reliable Connection Reliable Multicast Delivery Compression Services

Standards
User-Datagram Protocol (UDP) - STD 6 (RFC 768) Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - STD 7 (RFC 793) Multicast Dissemination Protocol Version 2 (MDPv2)

Remarks
point-to-point; point-to-multi-point addressing

point-to-point

MDPv2 uses UDP/IP multicast.as the bearer service. Compression used in the MSEG in conjunction with MDPs; compression provided in the Skyways IP client for AHFWAN; compression in S'4406E TMMHS, compression in S S'5066F-CFTP 5066F CFTP

GNU-ZIP (RFC-1950, RFC-1951, and RFC1952)

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NTVNTV -1 Standards Profile Internet Services (from JWID 2004 demos) ( )


Class Standards
Non-NCSP Std

Remarks
supports pp unicast and multicast addressing g modes

Internet Datagram g Internetwork Protocol ( (IP) ) - STD Delivery Service 5 (RFC 791) IP control/utility services IP Datagram Broadcast IP Datagram Multicast IP Subnetting Interior Routing Protocol (unicast) Exterior Routing Protocol (unicast) Generic Routing Encapsulation Multicast Routing P Protocol l IP Mobility Services Internetwork Control Message Protocol (ICMP) - STD 5 (RFC 792) STD 5 (RFC 919) RFC1112 STD 5 (RFC 950), RFC1517, RFC 1518, RFC1519 OSPFv2 (STD54 / RFC2328)

'ping' protocol uses ICMP-ECHO-REQUEST, and ICMP-ECHO-REPLY IP Broadcast w/ Subnets uses RFC 922

Classless Inter-Domain Routing Extensions activated only on NFIP and CSNFL

BGPv4 (RFC1771)

GRE (RFC2784) PIM-SM/DM (RFC2362) RFC2003, RFC2005, RFC2006, RFC3024, RFC3344 X X

tunneling protocol between NFIP and NRSSD tunneled through CFBLNet between MNTG NOCs and d the h NFIP Mobile-IP and Mobile-Router support now integral to CISCO IOS (12.3 and higher)
28

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NTV-1 Standards Profile Subnetwork NTV(from JWID 2004 demos) ( ) Protocols

Class
Local Area Network IEEE 802.3 Protocols SATCOM Link Protocol Pierside FO Link

Standards

NonNCSP Std

Remarks
FastEthernet 100/10 BaseT

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) RFC1661/1662 100-BaseFX (IEEE802.3-2002); Connector: MIL-STD-2042 MIL STD 2042 or X

CISCO HDLC encapsulation PPP

proposed NATO STANAG in draft

SMPTE-358M
CFBLNet mixed protocol usage: ATM (IP-over-AAL5); E1 / E3 (IP-over-PPP) STANAG 5066 Edition 2 X protocol usage varies by POP location and link

High-Frequency WAN Protocols

wireless token-ring extensions under study in this JWID are not part of the ratified HF protocol.

Plus VHF, UHF, SATCOM transmission protocols TBS


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Role of HF in NNEC / NNIG


DO MORE WITH LESS A reinterpretation of the result of achieving the NNEC strategic vision vision, NC3 NC 3A Feasibility Study Guidelines we cannot abandon a spectrum resource; we must integrate it into the vision solutions for longlong-thin bearers (e.g., HF) are more scalable to the higher frequency bearers good-news/bad news/bad-news issue ... this is a good Must recognize the limitations bandwidth cannot compete with fibre, wireless LOS, SATCOM Must recognize the opportunities / capabilities low low-end / lowlow-cost access to NNIG unique operational scenarios (terrain, platform factors) off offff-load l dt traffic ffi f from more capable bl ( (and d more h heavily il l loaded d db bearers) )
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IPIP -over over-HF support


PointPoint-toto-Point trunking well well-defined ( (e.g., g , ACP200 ACP200, , others), ), Adaptive Multimember Nets current research & development areas (e.g., S5066 S5066 E2) Proxy support Translating proxy, e.g., CFTP or HMTP ee-mail connectors Connectivity/neighborhood Hello proxy TCP TCP-toto-SCPSSCPS-TP TP-4 Edge Edgedge-p proxy, o y, e e.g., g, S S4406 4406 E TT-MMHS proxy TCP TCP-toto-SCPSSCPS-TP TP-4 Direct Direct-IP ACK ACK-Decimation, ROHC
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A Strategic Vision for HF HF-NNEC ?


Linked Shore / Terrestrial Infrastructure Mobile Nodes / Mobile Networks build on the BRASS infrastructure commit to the identified enhancements identify / define the MMRs that get you there
deployed/mobile node and access to fixed infrastructure mobile adad-hoc networking deployment of performanceperformance-enhancing proxies

plug plugl -n-play l capabilities biliti pro pro-active autoauto-configuration (e.g., DHCP, distributed DHCP ad ad-hoc network formation asymmetric architecture large G/T fixed and small G/T mobile ad ad-hoc mobile infrastructure extensions protocols to find and use routes back to the NNEC core
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Mobile-IP: Mobility of Subnets Mobilew/ Fixed Infrastructure


NATO Ship NATO Pier MHQ #1 MHQ #2

MCCIS

other CIS

MCCIS

other CIS Pierside LAN (secure) secure connection w/o IP crypto

MCCIS

other CIS

MCCIS

other CIS

Shipboard LAN (secure)

Shipboard LAN (unsecured)

MHQ LAN (secure)

MHQ LAN (secure)

AR

AR

Z Bulk

Z Bulk

AR

AR

Z Bulk

NICE Z

NICE Z

black network (e.g., PSTN)

NICE Z

AR

AR

black network (e.g., IP-based NDN or NGCS)

AR

IPencrypted lineencrypted

NATO Pierside Interface Module(s) UNCLASS CLASS

AR

Z NICE SGT LAN

UHF/SHF/EHF Modem(s)

UHF/SHF/EHF SATCOM

NATO SGT Sites


CLASS

IPencrypted AR

Z UNCLASS Bulk line-encrypted

When line-encrypted atachments are changed, mobile-IP is managed on the red-side when IP-encrypted links are changed, mobile-IP may be managed on
NATO UNCLASSIFIED the black-side (trivially) OR on the red-side, if IP-crypto supports multicast

SGTs

UHF/SHF/EHF Modems

33

Proxies in IP IP-over over-HF networks


Fl t I t f Fleet-Interface Point P i t (FIP) D l Deployed d Maritime M iti Platform Pl tf
Messaging Systems)

Messaging Systems)

1)

SMTP MMHS

SMTP Mail-Server Proxy (CFTP/HMTP)

1) translating proxy (e.g., using CFTP/HMTP)

SMTP Mail-Server Proxy (CFTP/HMTP)

SMTP MMHS

1)

IP / LAN

S5066 SPRIMs

S5066 SPRIMs

IP / LAN
COP

COP

2)

OTH-G

Other proxies (e.g., S4406TMMHS, HTTP, FTP)

S5066 DPDUs (bytes)

HF Radio Link

S5066 DPDUs (bytes)

Other proxies (e.g., S4406TMMHS, HTTP, FTP)

OTH-G

2)

Directory / Web / Database

IP/ LAN

S5066 SPRIMs

2) ) Edge-Proxy g y( (e.g. g S4406E)

S5066 SPRIMs

IP / LAN

HTTP FTP TCP IP / WAN IP / LAN


Site LAN

IP / LAN

S5066 SPRIM SPRIMs

3) Directly Encapsulated IP Encapsulated-IP flows


Modem/ radio/ antenna Modem/ radio/ antenna

S5066 SPRIM SPRIMs

IP / LAN

Directory / Web / Database

3)

WAN Access Router

IPinterface w/ proxies, tunnels

S5066E2 Protocol Stack

S5066E2 Protocol Stack

IPinterface w/ proxies, tunnels

HTTP FTP TCP


Site LAN

3)

AHFWAN66 HF Subnetwork AHFWAN66 HF Subnetwork Controller Controller NATO UNCLASSIFIED

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IP-over IPover-HF ?? Or Multi Multi-Protocol over over-HF??


An example for discussion from the NC3 NC3A AHFWAN project ...
S_Primitive _ STANAG 5066 Subnetwork Interface Sublayer
S_Primitive Header S_UNIDATA_...type Header U_DPDU

SAP ID = 8

Destination Address
4 octets

Source Address
4 octets

U_DPDU _

Translation
Source and destination address mapping between STANAG 5066 and Ethernet addresses

5 4 0x5066

STANAG 5066 Address

EtherType

Message as specified byEtherType


Size of message = U_DPDU - 2 octets

Ethernetframe Ethernet frame


Preamble

Destination Address
6 octets

Source Address

Ether Type

DATA

6 octets

2 octets

Size of data is 46 to 1500 by tes

Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Ether Type Examples: 0x0800 Internet Protocol 0x0806 ARP 0x876B TCP/IPHeaderCompression[RFC 1144] 0x880B NATO PPP UNCLASSIFIED

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Multiprotocol-overMultiprotocolover-HF Support: integrated IPv4 4, ARP, , IPv6 IPv6, ROHC (IPv4 (IPv ( 4/6) IPv
DB
Proxy selection ARP PROXY Delivery Type?

ARP

UNICAST

Ethernet TYPE Frame

IPv4 IPv6

BROADCAST

ROHC
MULTICAST

OTHER

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Performance Enhancing Proxies: translating direct direct-to to-HF -- e.g., CFTP


Messaging System SMTP MailServer/Proxy S5066 E2 Protocol Stack S5066 E2 Protocol Stack

IP

S_Primitives
(a)

DPDUs

Email client
(Outlook, Netscape, etc.)

IP

SMTP Email server


Internal/ unspecified

IP port 25 (SMTP) IP port 110 (POP3)

CFTP/HMTP email server/client


SIS interface i t f
IP port 5066 on localhost

STANAG 5066 HF Subnetwork

Network layer (TCP/IP)


IP-bearerservice

Synchronous serial port to HF modem

Non-IP-bearer-service
(b)

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Performance-Enhancing Proxy: Performanceg Edge g Proxy y -- e.g., g , S4406 S4406E E raterate -reducing
LMTA 1) ) TA-OPEN.req q 3a) TA-TRANSFER.req 2) TA-OPEN.cnf 7b) TA-TRANSFER.cnf Messaging Sub-Layer LMTA

5) TA-OPEN.res 4b) TA-OPEN.ind 6) TA-TRANSFER.ind

Tactical Adaptation Sub-Layer P_Mul Sub-Layer Bearer service 3b) PM-DATA.req 7a) PM-DATA.cnf Encapsulated message DATA Bearer signaling ( reqd) (as d) 4a) PM-DATA.ind

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SCPS TRANSPORT PROTOCOL


ISO 15893:2000 Space p data and information transfer systems -- Protocol specification for space communications -- Transport protocol C Consultative lt ti C Committee itt f for S Space D Data t S Systems, t Space Communications Protocol Specification (SCPS): p Protocol, CCSDS-714.0-B-1. Transport Department of Defense Interface Standard, Transport Protocol for High-Stress, Resource-Constrained E i Environments, t MIL MIL-STD-2045-44000. STD 2045 44000

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LayerLayer -2 Data: OSPF/OLSR HelloHello-Proxies


An example from the NC3A AHFWAN project other protocols offer similar potential

RTTs RTTs-heard:
known unidirectional link from the source to the recipient p

ACKs heard:
known unidirectional link from the source to the recipient
ACK

known bi bi-directional link between the sourcesource- and destinationdestination - addressees


40

Token Holder

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Security Approaches & Compression: a cautionary tale


NNEC Object Level 2020 Encrypted file or

software component ACL + PKI Network Level Encrypted datagram ACL + PKI
current

Link Level Encrypted bitbit-stream


Compression has classically been cited as a netnet-enabling technology for lowlow-BW bearers BUT Trends in security y architecture, moving g encryption y out to the edges, g preclude integrating compression with the bearer service Future approaches must integrate compression with endend-systems and encryption
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WayWay -Ahead
BLOSCOMMs AHWG to address: operational operational-/system/system-level issues for HF networks how we can use it how it works why we still need it mobility issues ad add-hoc h radio di networks: t k organization, i ti autoconfiguration y fixedfixed-/deployed /deployedp y - infrastructure asymmetric
lets do some work on adaptive antennas

recognize that Integrated solutions cross NC3 NC3B subsubcommittee responsibilities p and TORs
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The Role of HighHigh -Frequency Communications in the Future NATO Network Enabled Capability (NNEC)
A presentation to the NATO HF Policy Workshop 11 October 2004 by Donald G. Kallgren NC3 NC 3A CISD TTS don don.kallgren@nc don.kallgren@nc3 kallgren@nc3a.nato.int kallgren@nc3 a nato int +3131-70 70-374 374-3442
NATO UNCLASSIFIED

Transformational Strategy
Transition Period
Deconflict Stitch Nation Services & Cultures Seams Integration of NRF Capabilities

Effects-Based, Collaborative, Network Centric and Interdependent

Land Forces SOF

Air Forces Maritime Forces

Land Forces SOF

Air Forces Maritime Forces

Land Forces SOF

Air Forces Maritime Forces

Deconflicting

Coordinating

Integrating

Coherence

Attributes of a Transforming NATO Force


[Presented by SACT at NNEC Workshop, Norfolk, VA March, 2004]
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NNEC Definitions (1 (1)


NATO Network Enabled Capability: encompasses the th elements l t involved i l di in li linking ki sensors, effectors and decision makers together, enables the development of a NATO NATO, Network NetworkCentric, Effects Effects-Based, Operational capability. involves support for the Joint Deployment and Sustainment of forces translates information into increased combat power and mission effectiveness through Decision Superiority p y to achieve Coherent Operational Effects.
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NNEC Definitions (2 (2)


Network Centric, Net Net-Centric, Netcentric : (adj) Indicates that the general concept of a network or networks is central and foundational Net Enable To make possible or effective by or through a network Net Ready A certification process that demonstrates the ability of a system or group of systems to access and utilize a set of Enterprise Services. Enterprise Services Units of information system functionality made available through g well defined invokable interfaces by y one or more system components belonging to an enterprise.
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NNEC Definitions (3 (3)


Basic NetNet-Readiness certifies the ability of a system or systems to access and utilize enterprise Information Transport Services as well as Core Enterprise Services. Communities of Interest Groups of users, who must exchange information in pursuit of shared goals, interests, missions, or business processes. Pre Pre-planned COIs based on existing business processes or organizational entities. Ad Ad-Hoc COIs are not prepre-planned, but formed to satisfy shared goals or interests for a limited period of time during the conduct of a mission. Advanced levels of Net Net-Readiness defined d fi d i in t terms of f th the ability bilit of f COI COI-related l t d system t components to access and utilize COICOI-Enterprise Services.
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NNEC Definitions (4 (4)


Service Oriented Architecture
An architecture within which all functions are defined as independent services Has well well-defined invokable interfaces interfaces, called separately or in sequences to form business processes. Focuses on the interface: defined in terms of the required parameters and the nature of the result when the service is invoked. defined in a neutral manner that is independent of hardware platform, operating system, & programming language by which the service is implemented implemented.
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