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http://www.industrial-electronics.com/motor_control/2a_Limit_Switches.html 1.0 INTRODUCTION TO MECHATRONIC DEVICES Introduction to mechatronics devices.

INTRODUCTION OF MECHATRONIC DEVICES

OBJECTIVES General objective : To understand the basics of mechatronic devices. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: List the types of mechatronic devices. Describe the basics of mechatronic. Explain the mechatronic devices.

1.1 INTRODUCTION OF MECHATRONIC. Mechatronic is a term coined by the Japanese to describe the integration of mechanical and electronic engineering. More specifically, it refers to a multidisciplinary approach to product and manufacturing system design. It represents the next generation machines, robots and smart mechanisms for carrying out work in a variety of environments-predominantly factory automation, office automation and home automation as shown in figure 1.1(a).

As a discipline, mechatronic encompasses electronics enhancing mechanics ( to provide high levels of precision and reliability) and electronics replacing mechanics (to provide new functions and capabilities). Some examples where mechanics has been enhanced by electronics are numerically controlled machines tools which cut metal automatically, industrial robots and automatic bank tellers. The products where electronics replaces mechanics include digital watches, calculator or others.

However, the products that really blur the distinction between electronics and mechanics are machines and robots driven by numerical control. Japan is the first country in the world to have mastered the NC machines technology and as a result the Japanese machine tool industry has flourished. This is because the Japanese have mastered mechatronics, the fusion of precision mechanics and electronics in design, engineering and manufacturing, which are popularly depicted by the Japanese as shown in figure 1.1(b).

1.2 SCOPE OF MECHATRONICS Since the 1970s , there has been a dramatic change in the technology of these products, mainly an increasing content of electric and electronic systems integrated with the mechanical parts of the products, mechatronic. Example of products which have already moved to mechatronic technology from simple mechanical products are;

a. Machine tools incorporating computer numerical control (CNC), electric servo drives, electronic measuring systems, precision mechanical parts, such as ball screws, anti friction guide ways and each others ? b. Electronic watches incorporating fine mechanical parts and sophisticated electronic circuits. c. Electronic consumer products washing machines, electronic cooking appliances, fax, plain paper copiers and others.

In the last twenty years, the production technology has seen the introduction of high precision measuring instruments such as electronic gauges and measuring instruments, in process gauge and quality control instruments, laser measuring systems and others to ensure high dimensional accuracies, as well as increased productivity on the shop floor.

In the domain of factory automation, mechatronics has had far reaching effects in manufacturing and will gain even importance in future. Major constituents of factory automation include CNC machines, robots, automation systems and computer integration of all

functions of manufacturing. Proper application, utilization and maintenance of these high technology products and systems is an important aspect that enhances the productivity and quality of products manufactured by the customers. To ensure correct selection of equipment, an accurate estimation of the techno-economics of various manufacturing systems, developments in the high technology machines and equipment are studied in detail. Also, proper maintenance of various mechatronic elements, diagnostics can increase the life of the various mechatronic elements, which in turn will enhance the life of the product or system. Such inputs in mechatronics can be best given by the manufacturers of hi-tech machines and manufacturing systems. In fact, the machine tool manufacturers are now being called upon to offer a total manufacturing for solution in production, by the customers, rather than supply of just the standalone machines. This trend is already evident in many of the advanced countries. Evidently, the design and manufacturing of future products will involve a combination of precision mechanical and electronic systems and mechatronics will form the core of all activities in products and production technology.

1.3 TYPES OF MECHATRONIC DEVICES. In this module, we will discuss a several types of mechatronic devices which is in used by working design. The types of mechatronic devices is used such as switches, relay, solenoid, power diode, power transistor, thyristor, gate controller switch, rectifier , chopper, transducer and others. These types of devices will be discussed in this module by unit in this module.

FIGURE I

FIGURE 2

FIGURE 3

2.0 SWITCH
Basic function, configurations, types, movement methods, usage and specification according to NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association). SWITCH OBJECTIVES General objective : To understand the concept and basic application of a switch. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: Identify the basic function of switch . Identify the type of switches. Describe the application of switch in industrial. Draw the symbol of a switch. 2.1 INTRODUCTION OF SWITCH. The switch is a mechanical, electrical or electronic device that opens or close a circuit. Switching may also be called making or breaking the circuit. 2.2 BASIC FUNCTION OF SWITCH AND SWITCH DIAGRAM. The switches function as a device that opens or close a circuit. The closing of a switch is called making the circuit. The opening of switch is called breaking the circuit. The output of system depends on the switching pattern of the converter switches and the input voltage (or current). Similar to the linear system, the output quantities of a converter can be expressed in terms of input quantities, by spectrum multiplication. The arrangement of single phase diagram of converter and simple hold circuit are shown in figure 2.2(a) and 2.2(b) below.

2.3 TYPE OF STRUCTURE AND CONSTRUCTION OF SWITCH The structure and construction of power electronics switch can divided into four parts: i. Design of power circuits. ii. Protection of power devices. iii. Determination of the control strategy. iv. Design of logic and gating circuits In the analysis, the power devices are assumed to be ideal switches unless stated otherwise; and effects of circuit stray inductance, circuit resistances, and source inductance are neglected. The practical power devices and circuit are also affected. However, in the early stage of design, the simplified analysis of circuit is very useful to understand the operation of the circuit and to establish the characteristics and control strategy. Before a prototype is built, the designer should investigate the effects of the circuit parameters (and devices imperfections) and should modify the design if necessary. Only after the prototype is built and tested, the designer can be confident about validity of the design and can estimate more accurately some of the circuit parameters (e.g., stray inductance). 2.4 TYPES OF SWITCH There are many different type of switches. Some switch types are push buttons, limit switch, slide switch, rocker switch, precision switch and toggle switch. 2.4.1 PUSH BUTTONS SWITCH. A pushbutton is a switch activated by finger pressure. Two or more contacts open or close when the button is depressed. Pushbuttons are usually spring loaded so as to return to their normal position when pressure is removed. Figure 2.4(a), show that the mechanical-interlocked pushbutton with NO (normally open) and NC (normally close) contacts, rated to interrupt an ac current of 6A one million times.

2.4.2 LIMIT SWITCH A limit switch is a low-power snap-action device that opens or closes a contact, depending upon the position of mechanical part. Other limit switches are sensitive to pressure, temperature, liquid level, direction of rotation and so on. Figure 2.4(b) show that the limit switch with one NC contact, rated for ten million operations, position accuracy is 0.5 mm.

2.4.3 SLIDE SWITCH. A slide switch is a switch activated by sliding of two or more contacts open or close when the button is depressed. Pushbutton are usually spring loaded so as to return to their normal position when pressure is removed. Figure 2.4(c), show that the mechanical-interlocked sliding plate/rod with NO (normally open) and NC (Normally close) contacts.

2.4.4 ROCKER SWITCH. A rocker switch is a switch activated by 3 finger which includes 2 finger push button for opening and closing of 2 circuits. Two contacts open or close for 2 circuits when the button are pressed and depressed. Pushbutton are usually spring loaded in the bottom to return to their normal position when pressure is removed. Figure 2.4(d), show that the mechanical-interlocked pushbutton with ON (normally open) and NC (Normally close) contacts through 2 circuit involved.

2.4.5 PRECISION SWITCH. A precision switch is a switch activated by roller loaded on the top of pushbutton to open or close a circuit. Only one contact open or close when the button is depressed by load moving on top of the roller. Pushbutton are usually spring loaded so as to return to their normal position when load on top of roller is removed. Figure 2.4(e), show that the mechanical-interlocked pushbutton with ON (normally open) and NC (Normally close) contacts, rated to interrupt an ac current of mechanical effect to the top of roller device.

2.4.6 TOGGLE SWITCH. A toggle switch is a switch activated by ball bearing moving for open or close a circuit. The movement of roller makes a contact to open or close a circuit when the toggle is depressed. A toggle usually parallel with the force loaded so as to open or close. Figure 2.4(f), show that the mechanical-interlocked toggle pushbutton with NO (normally open) and NC (Normally close) contacts.

2.5 PRINCIPLE OPERATION OF SWITCH Switches should follow the international system of units (SI) which defines the ampere (the fundamental unit of electric current) as the constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel contactors of infinite length and negligible circular cross section place in a mechanism part that will produce a force between two parallel contactors. By international agreement, the value of the international ampere for switches was based on the electrolytic deposition of silver form a silver nitrate solution. The resistance standard of switches is absolute measurement of the ohm and is carried out by the international standards laboratories, which preserve a group of primary resistant standard. For the voltage standard the saturated cell has a temperature dependence, and the out put voltage change about -40 m V/0C from the nominal 1.0185 V. The output of a converter depends on the switching pattern of the converter switches and the input voltage (on current). Similar to linear system, the output quantities of a converter can be expressed in terms of the output quantities, by spectrum multiplication.

3.0 RELAY
Function, application, specification referring to NEMA, logic circuit and function of relay ladder diagrams. RELAY OBJECTIVES General Objective : To apply the concept of relay. Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: Identify the main uses for a relay Identify the application of relay Show how the control relay is constructed mechanically Identify the specification of relay according to NEMA standard Draw the relay and switch logic circuit Identify the function of ladder-type diagram of relay Draw the schematic diagram and the ladder-type diagram of relay 3.1 INTRODUCTION OF RELAYS The relay is an electromechanical device. The relay offers a simple ON/OFF switching action and response to a control signal. 3.2 RELAY PRINCIPLE The electrical relay offers a simple ON/OFF switching action in response to a control signal. Figure 3.2 illustrates the principle. When a current flows through the coil of wire a magnetic field is produced. This pulls a movable arm that forces the contact to open or close. This might then be used to supply a current to a motor or perhaps an electric heater in a temperature control system. Time-delay relays are control relays that have a delayed switching action. The time delay is usually adjustable and can be initiated when a current flows through the relay coil or when it ceases to flow through the coil.

3.3 APPLICATION OF RELAYS IN INDUSTRIES Relays are used in the control of fluid power valves and in many machine sequence controls such as boring, drilling, milling and grinding operations. 3.4 SYMBOL OF RELAY Below is the common electrical symbols of relay based on the function of relay.

3.5 SPECIFICATION OF RELAY The standard voltage for relay used in machine control is 120 volt. The coils on electromechanical devices such as relays, contactors and motor starters are designed so as not to drop out (de-energize) until the voltage drops to minimum of 85% of the rated voltage. The relay coils also will not pick up (energize) until the voltage rises to 85% of the rated voltage. This voltage level is set by the National Electrical Manufacturer Association (NEMA).

3.6 RELAY AND SWITCH LOGIC CIRCUIT Relays are widely applied in electromagnetic devices. Figure 3.6(a) and 3.6(b) shows a typical relay appearance. When the relay is not energized, the spring keeps the armature away from the coil. This produces an air gap and the main contact presses against the normally closed contact. When the relay is energized, the armature is attracted and moves toward the coil. This eliminates the air gap and the main contact touches the normally open contact and completes that circuit. The circuit with normally closed contact is opened. The relay acts as a single-pole double throw switch. Many different contact arrangements are possible.

Relays require a given current for pull-in. Once they pull in, less current is required to hold them in the closed position. This is because the air gap is eliminated when the armature pulls in. The air has quite a bit more reluctance than the iron circuit and eliminating it means that less mmf is required to overcome the spring tension. The switch logic circuit application in relay ( Figure 3.6( c ) shows a relay with two NO contacts). One contact is used as an interlock around the START push button. Thus, an interlock ircuit is a path provided for electrical energy to the load after the initial path has been opened. The second relay contact is used to energize a light. Remember that when a relay coil is energized, the NO contacts close. The circuit can be de-energized by operating the STOP push-button switch.

Figure 3.6 (d) shows the addition of a selector switch, fuse, pilot light and a second relay. When the selector switch is operated to the ON position, electrical energy is available at the two vertical sides of the circuit. The green light is energized, showing that the operation has been completed. One additional relay contact is added in the circuit from relay 1 CR. This contact closes when the relay1 CR is energized and it, in turn, energizes a second relay coil 2 CR. The operating circuit can be de-energized by operating the STOP push-button switch.

4.0 SOLENOID
Functions, applications, symbol and control circuit. SOLENOID OBJECTIVES General objective : To apply the concept of a solenoid. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: Identify the main function of a solenoid Identify the application of a solenoid Describe the application of solenoids with operating valves Draw the symbol of a solenoid with a standard symbol Draw a control circuit showing the energizing of a solenoid through the closing of relay contact, using a control relay, two push- button switches and a solenoid 4.1 INTRODUCTION OF SOLENOID The general principle of the solenoid action is very important in machine control. Solenoid is an electromechanical device. Electrical energy is used to magnetically cause mechanical movement. 4.2 PRINCIPLE OPERATION OF SOLENOID A solenoid is a coil with an iron core and moveable iron plunger. When the coil is energized, the plunger is attracted by the coil. It pulls in, and this motion can be used to activate another mechanism. The solenoid shown in figure 4.2 (a), is used in many electrically activated devices such as valves, locks, punches and marking machines.

Solenoid is made up of three basic parts a. Frame b. Plunger. c. Coil.

The frame and plunger are made up of laminations of high-grade silicon steel. The coil is wound of an insulated copper conductor. Solenoids for alternating current use are now available as oilimmersed types. Heat dissipation and wear conditions are improved with this design.

4.3 SYMBOL OF A SOLENOID.

4.4 TYPES OF SOLENOID. There are many kinds of solenoids. Figure 4.4, shows one type of solenoid in industrial use.

4.5 BASIC FUNCTION OF SOLENOID CONTROL CIRCUIT Operating the START push-button switch close the circuit to the coil of relay ICR as shown in figure 4.5(a). The coil is now energized. Relay contact 1CR-1 as shown below then closes, interlocking around the START push-button switch. Contact 1CR2 closes, energizing solenoid A. The circuit can be de-energized by operating the REVERSE push-button switch.

In figure 4.5(b), a time-delayed relay is added. Operating the START push button switch closes the circuit to the coil of relay 1CR. The coil is now energized. Contact 1CR-1 closes, interlocking around the START push button switch. Contact 1CR-2 closes, energizing solenoid 1A. Contact 1CR-3 closes, energizing the coil of timing relay 1TR. After a time delay, as set on the timing relay, the timing constant contact

closes, energizing solenoid 1B. The circuit can be de-energized by operating the REVERSE push-button switch. Note that if for some reason the REVERSE push button switch is operated before the time set on the timing relay expires, solenoid 1B will not be energized , as the timing relay coil will be de energized . With the relay coil de-energized , the timing contact remains in the normal open condition.

4.6 APPLICATION OF SOLENOIDS Solenoids are used to control fluid flow in hydraulic or pneumatic system. Solenoids are also applied in many electrically activated devices such as valves, locks, punches and marking machines.

5.0 ELECTRONIC CONTROL DEVICES


Power diode, power transistor, gate-controlled switch, Gate Controlled Switch (Gate-turn-off SCR) GCS (GTO) and programmable unijunction transistor. ELECTRONIC CONTROL DEVICES (PART 1) General objective : To apply the concept of electronic control devices. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: Identify the power of diodes Define the symbol of diodes List the types of diodes Define the characteristics of diodes Define the application of diodes Draw the construction of diodes

Identify the power transistor concept INTRODUCTION OF POWER DIODE

5.1

A diode is a component that allows current to freely flow through it in one direction but essentially stops any current from flowing in the reverse direction. Power diodes can be assumed as ideal switches for most applications but practical diodes differ from the ideal characteristics and have certain limitations. The power diodes are similar to pn-junction signal diodes.

5.2

PRINCIPLE AND CONSTRUCTION OF DIODE

According to the introduction above, you can see that a PN junction has all the characteristics of a diode. Thus, from previous discussion on the PN junction, its characteristics apply to the diode. The legend for Fig. 5.2(a) could just as well be capacitance of a reverse-biased diode.

Nearly all diodes used in electronics today are silicon PN junctions. Silicon is preferred because of its low current leakage. There are also a few diodes made from germanium PN junctions. They are primarily used when the lower potential barrier voltage of the germanium junction is advantageous. Figure 5.2 (b) shows a cutaway view of a typical diode that is capable of carrying 2 A of current. One of the diode leads connects to the P-type material and the other to the Ntype material. The silicon PN junction is very small: about the diameter of the lead wire and a few thousands of an inch thick. The body of the of this plastic-encased diode is about 1/8 inch in diameter and about 5/16 inch long. The band of the left end of the body identifies the cathode end of the diode. The cathode end of a diode is N-type material and the anode end is always P-type material. Thus, for a forward-bias diode, the anode must be positive to the cathode.

5.3

SYMBOL OF DIODES.

The schematic symbol for diode is shown in figure 5. 3 (a). The cathode is represented by the vertical straight line and the anode by the triangle. Figure 5.3 (b) and 5.3 (c) illustrate forward-biasing and reverse-biasing respectively.

5.4

TYPES OF POWER DIODES

A number of specific types of diodes are manufactured for specific applications in electricity and electronics. Some of the more common types are rectifier diodes, zener diodes,

varactor diodes, switching diodes and signal diodes. All of these diodes except the zener diode are represented by the symbol shown in Fig.5.3. The zener diode symbol, as shown in Fig. 5.4, uses a different line configuration to represent the cathode.

Ideally, a diode should have no reverse recovery time. However, the manufacturing cost of such a diode will increase. In many applications, the effects of reverse recovery time will not be significant, and inexpensive diodes can be used. Depending on the recovery characteristics and manufacturing techniques, the power diodes can be classified into three categories. The characteristics and practical limitations of each type restrict their applications: a. Standard or general-purpose diodes b. Fast-recovery diodes c. Schottky diodes 5.4.1 Standard or general-purpose diodes.

The general-purpose rectifier diodes have relatively high reverse recovery time, typically 25 s, and are used in low-speed applications, where recovery time is not critical. These diodes cover current rating from less than 1 A to several thousands of amperes, with voltage ratings from 50 V to around 5 kV. These diodes are generally manufactured by diffusion. However, alloyed types of rectifiers that are used in welding power supplies are most cost-effective and rugged, and their ratings can go up to 300 A and 1000 V.
5.4.2 Fast-recovery diodes The fast-recovery diodes have low recovery time, normally less than 5 s. They are used in dc-dc and dc-ac converter circuits, where the speed of recovery is often of critical importance. These diodes cover current ratings from less than 1 A to hundreds of amperes, with voltage ratings from 50 V to around 3 kV. For voltage ratings above 400V, fast-recovery diodes are generally made by diffusion and the recovery time is controlled by platinum or gold diffusion. For voltage ratings below 400V, epitaxial diodes provide faster switching speeds than that of diffused diodes. The

epitaxial diodes have a narrow base width, resulting in a fast recovery time of as low as 50 ns. Fast-recovery diodes of various sizes are shown in Figure 5.4.2.

5.4.3 Schottky diodes

The charge storage problem of a pn-junction can be eliminated (or minimized) in a Schottky diode. It is accomplished by setting up a barrier potential with acontact between a metal and a semiconductor. A layer of metal is deposited on a thin epitaxial layer of n-type silicon. The potential barrier simulates the behavior of a pn-junction. The rectifying action depends on the majority carriers only, and as a result there are no excess minority carriers to recombine. The recovery effect is due solely to the self-capacitance of the semiconductor junction.
The recovered charge of a Schottky diode is much less than that of an equivalent pnjunction diode. Since it is due only to the junction capacitance, it is largely independent of the reverse di/dt. A Schottky diode has a relatively low forward voltage drop.

5.5

CHARACTERISTICS OF DIODE

5.5.1 Peak Inverse Voltage

A diode can withstand only so much inverse voltage before it breaks down. The peak inverse voltage (PIV) ranges from 50 V to 4000 V, depending of the construction. If the rated PIV is exceeded, the diode begins to conduct in reverse and in many cases, is immediately destroyed.
5.5.2 Maximum Average Current

There is also a limit to the average current a diode can carry. The maximum current may range from a few hundred milliamperes to over 4000 A, depending of construction and size of the diode. The nominal current rating depends upon the temperature of the diode, which, in turn, depend upon the way it is mounted and how it is cooled.
5.5.3 Maximum Temperature

The voltage across a diode times the current it carries is equal to the power lost, which is entirely converted into heat. The resulting temperature rise of the diode must never exceed the permissible limits, otherwise the diode will be destroyed.

5.6

APPLICATION OF DIODES.

Diodes have many applications, some of which are found again and again, in one form or another, in electronic power circuit. In the sections that follow, we will analyze a few circuit that involve only diodes. They will illustrate the methodology of power circuit analysis while revealing some basic principles common to many industrial applications. Examples of the applications are :

a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

battery changer with series resistor battery changer with series inductor single-phase bridge rectifier filter three-phase, 3-pulse diode rectifier three-phase, 6-pulse diode rectifier effective line current: fundamental line current distortion power factor displacement power factor harmonic content

5.7

POWER TRANSISTORS Power transistors have controlled turn-on and turn-off characteristics. The transistors, which are used as switching elements, are operated in the saturation region, resulting in a low on-state voltage drop. The switching speed of modern transistors is much higher than that of thyristors and they are extensively employed in dc-dc and dc-ac converters, with inverse parallel-connected diodes to provide bidirectional current flow. However, their voltage and current ratings are lower than those of thyristors and transistors are normally used in low to medium power applications. The power transistors can be classified broadly into four categories: Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET) Static induction transistors (SITs) 4. Insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) BJTs or MOSFETs, SITs or IGBTs, can be assumed as ideal switches to explain the power conversion techniques. A transistor switch is much simpler than a forced-commutated thyristor switch. However, the choice between a BJT and a MOSFET in the converter circuits is not obvious, but either of them can replace a thyristor, provided that their voltage and current ratings meet the output requirements of the converter. Practical transistors differ from ideal devices. The transistors have certain limitations and are restricted to some applications. The characteristics and ratings of each type should be examined to determine its suitability to a particular application.

1. 2. 3.

A bipolar transistor is formed by adding a second p- or n-region to a pn-junction diode. With two n-regions and one p-region, two junctions are formed and it is known as an NPN-transistor, as shown in Fig. 5.7 (a). With two p-regions and one n-region, it is called as a PNP-transistor, as shown in Fig 5.7 (b). The three terminals are named as collector, emitter, and base. A bipolar transistor has two junctions, collector-base junction (CBJ) and base-emitter junction (BEJ). NPN-transistors of various sizes are shown in Fig 5.7 (c).

5.7

STEADY-STATE CHARACTERISTICS

Although there are three possible configurations-- common-collector, common base, and common-emitter, the common-emitter configuration, which is shown in Fig. 5.8(a) for anNPN-transistor, is generally used in switching applications. The typical input characteristics of base current, IB, against base-emitter voltageVBE, are shown in Fig. 5.8(b). Figure 5.8 (c)shown the typical output characteristics of collector current, Ic, against collector-emitter voltage, VcE. For a PNP-transistor, the polarities of all currents and voltages are reversed.

There are three operating regions of a transistor: cutoff, active, and saturation. In the cutoff region, the transistor is off or the base current is not enough to turn it on and both junctions are reverse biased. In the active region, the transistor acts as an amplifier, where the collector current is amplified by a gain and the collector-emitter voltage decreases with the base current. The CBJ is reverse biased, and the BEJ is forward biased. In the saturation region, the base current is sufficiently high so that the collector-emitter voltage is low, and the transistor acts as a switch. Both junctions (CBJ and BEJ) are forward biased. The transfer characteristic, which is a plot of VCE against IB, is shown in Fig 5.8(d).

ELECTRONIC CONTROL DEVICES (PART 2) General objective : To understand the concept of electronic control devices. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to:

Identify the Phase-Control Thyristors Identify the Gate-Turn-Off Thyristors Define the symbol of GTO Identify the Programmable Unijunction Transistor (PUT) Define the symbol of PUT Identify the Uni-junction Transistor (UJT) PHASE-CONTROL THYRISTORS (SCRs)

6.1

This type of thyristors generally operates at the line frequency and is turned off by natural commutation. The turn-off time,tq, is of the order of 50 to 100 s. This is most suited for low-speed switching applications and is also known as converter thyristor. Since a thyristor is basically a silicon-made controlled device, it is also known as silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR). The on-state voltage , VT, varies typically from about 1.15 V for 600 V to 2.5 V for 4000 V devices; and for a 5500-A 1200-V thyristor it is typically 1.25 V. The modern thyristors use an amplifying gate, where an auxiliary thyristor T A is gated on by a gate signal and then the amplified output of TA is applied as a gate signal to the main thyristor TM. This shown in Fig. 6.1. The amplifying gate permits high dynamic characteristics with typical dv/dt of 1000 V/s and di/dt of 500 A/s and simplifies the circuit design by reducing or minimizing di/dt limiting inductor and dv/dt protection circuits.

6.2

THYRISTOR TURN-OFF

A thyristor which is in the on-state can be turned off by reducing the forward current to a level below the holding current IH. There are various techniques for turning off a thyristor. In all the commutation techniques, the anode current is maintained below the holding current

for a sufficiently long time, so that all the excess carriers in the four layers are swept out or recombined.

6.3

GATE-TURN-OFF THYRISTOR A gate-turn-off thyristor (GTO) like an SCR can be turned on by applying a positive gate signal. However, it can be turned off by a negative gate signal. A GTO is a latching device and can be built with current and voltage ratings similar to those of an SCR. A GTO is turned on by applying a short positive pulse and turned off by a short negative pulse to its gate. The GTOs have advantages over SCRs: (1) elimination of commutating components in forced commutation, resulting in reduction in cost, weight, and volume; (2) reduction in acoustic and electromagnetic noise due to the elimination of commutation chokes; (3) faster turn-off, permitting high switching frequencies; and (4) improved efficiency of converters. In low-power applications, GTOs have the following advantages over bipolar transistors: (1) a higher blocking voltage capability; (2) a high ratio of peak controllable current to average current; (3) a high ratio of peak surge current to average current, typically 10:1; (4) a high on-state gain (anode current/gate current), typically 600; and (5) a pulsed gate signal of short duration. Under surge conditions, a GTO goes into deeper saturation due to regenerative action. On the other hand, a bipolar transistor tends to come out of saturation.

A GTO has low gain during turn-off, typically 6, and requires a relatively high negative current pulse to turn off. It has higher on-state voltage than that of SCRs. The on-state voltage of a typical 550-A 1200-V GTO is typically 3.4 V. A 160-A 200-V GTO of type 160PFT is shown in Fig. 6.3.

6.3

PROGRAMMABBLE UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (PUT) The programmable unijunction transistor (PUT) is small thyristor shown in Fig. 6.4(a). A PUT can be used as a relaxation oscillator as shown in Fig. 6.4(b). The gate voltage VG is maintained from the supply by the resistor divider R1 and R2, and determines the peak voltage Vp. In the case of the UJT, Vp is fixed for device by the dc supply voltage. But Vp of a PUT can be varied by varying the resistor divider R1 and R2. If the anode voltage VA is less than the gate voltage VG, the device will remain in its off-state. If VA exceeds the gate voltage by one diode forward voltage VD, the peak point is reached and the device turns on. The peak current Ip and the valley point current Iv both depend on the equivalent impedance on the gate RG = R1 R2 /( R1 + R2) and the dc supply voltage Vs. in general , Rk is limited to a value below 100 .

6.5

UNIJUNCTION TRANSISTOR (UJT)

The unijunction transistor (UJT) is commonly used for generating triggering signals for SCRs. A basic UJT-triggering circuit is shown in Fig. 6.5(a). A UJT has three terminals, called the emitter E, base-one B1, and base-two B2. Between B1 and B2 the unijunction has the characteristics of an ordinary resistance. This resistance is the interbase resistance RBBand has values in the range 4.7 to 9.1 k. The static characteristics of a UJT are shown in Fig. 6.5(b). When the dc supply voltage Vs is applied, the capacitor C is charged through resistor R since the emitter circuit of the UJT is in the open state. The time constant of the charging circuit is T1 = RC. When the emitter voltage VE, which is the same as the capacitor voltage vc , reaches the peak voltage Vp, the UJT turns on and capacitor C will discharge through RB1 at a determined by the time constant T2 = RB1C. T2 is much smaller than T1. When the emitter voltage VE decays to the valley point Vv, the emitter ceases to conduct, the UJT turns off, and the charging cycle is repeated. The waveforms of the emitter and triggering voltages are shown in Fig. 6.5 (c).

6.0 THYRISTOR
di/dt, dv/dt and reverse recovery time. Gating requirements; thyristor gate characteristics, Vg/Ig, gate characteristics upper limit value and maximum permitted gate voltage. THYRISTOR General objective : To understand the concept of thyristor. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to:

Identify the element of di/dt, dv/dt Identify the reverse recovery time for the ON and OFF thyristor method Identify the characteristics of thyristor gate INTRODUCTION OF THYRISTOR

7.1

Although transistors can be used as switches, their current carrying capacity is generally small. There are many applications in which it would be advantageous to have a high-speed switch which could handle up to 1000 A. Such a device is known as the thyristor. It also has the advantage of not having any moving parts nor arcing. A thyristor is an electronic device similar to a transistor switch. It has four layers and can only be switched on; it cannot be switched off. Circuits can be used to switch off a thyristor but the most simple arrangement is to let the current fall to zero which arises when used with an a.c. supply.

7.2

PRINCIPLE OF THYRISTOR The basic parts of the thyristor are its four layers of alternate p-type and ntype silicon semiconductors forming three p-n junctions, A,B and C, as shown in Figure. 7.2(a). The terminals connected to the n1 and p2 layers are the cathode and anode respectively. A contact welded to the p1 layer is termed the gate. The CENELEC Standard graphical symbol for the thyristor is given in, Figure. 7.2 (b). The direction of the arrowhead on the gate lead indicates that the gate contact is welded to a p-region and shows the direction of the gate current required to operate the device. If the gate contact is welded to an n-region, the arrowhead should point outwards from the rectifier.

When the anode is positive with respect to the cathode, junctions A and C are forwardbiased and therefore have a very low resistance, whereas junctions B is reverse-biased and consequently presents a very high resistance, of the order of megohms, to the passage of current. On the other hand, if the anode terminal is made negative with respect to the cathode terminal, junction B is forward-biased while A and C act as two reverse-

biased junctions in series.

7.2

di/dt PROTECTION

A thyristor requires a minimum time to spread the current conduction uniformly throughout the junctions. If the rate of rise of anode current is very fast compared to the spreading velocity of a turn-on process, a localized hot-spot heating will occur due to high current density and the device may fail, as a result of excessive temperature.

The practical devices must be protected against high di/dt. As an example, let us consider the circuit in Figure. 7.3. Under steady-state operation, Dm conducts when thyristor T1 is off. If T1 is fired when Dm is still conducting, di/dt can be very high and limited only by the stray inductance of the circuit.

7.4

DV /Dt PROTECTION

If switch S1 in Figure. 7.4 (a) is closed at t = 0, a step voltage will be applied across thyristor T1 and dv/dt may be high enough to turn on the device. The dv/dt can be limited by connecting capacitor Cs, as shown in Figure. 7.4(a). When thyristor T1 is turned on, the discharge current of capacitor is limited by resistor Rs as shown in Figure. 7.4(b).

With an RC circuit known as a snubber circuit, the voltage across the thyristor will rise exponentially as shown in Figure. 7.4(c) and the circuit dv/dt can be found approximately from

7.5

CHARACTERISTICS OF THYRISTOR

Let us now consider the effect of increasing the voltage applied across the thyristor, with the anode positive relative to the cathode. At first, the forward leakage current reaches saturation value due to the action of junction B. Ultimately, a breakover is reached and the resistance of the thyristor instantly falls to a very low value, as shown in Figure. 7.5. The forward

voltage drop is of the order of 1 -2 V and remains nearly constant over a wide variation of current. A resistor is necessary in series with the thyristor to limit the current to a safe value.

7.6

THYRISTOR PRINCIPLE

We shall now consider the effect upon the breakover voltage of applying a positive potential to the gate as in Figure. 7.6(a). When switch S is closed, a bias current, IB, flows via the gate contact and layers p1 and n1 and the value of the breakover voltage of the thyristor depends upon the magnitude of the bias current in the way shown in Figure. 7.6(b). Thus, with IB = 0, the breakover voltage is represented by OA and remains practically constant at this value until the bias current is increased to OB. For values of bias current between OB and OD, the breakover voltage falls rapidly to nearly zero. An alternative method of representing this effect is shown in Figure. 7.6(c).

Figure. 7.6(b) : Variation of breakover voltage with bias current

If the thyristor is connected in series with a non-reactive load, of resistance R, across a supply voltage having a sinusoidal waveform and if it is triggered at an instant corresponding to an angle after the voltage has passed through zero from a

negative to positive value, as in Figure. 7.6 d(a) , the value of the applied voltage at that instant is given by

= Vm sin

Up to that instant, the voltage across the thyristor has been growing from zero to . When triggering occurs, the voltage across the thyristor instantly falls to about 1 2V and remains approximately constant while current flows, as shown Figure. 7.6d(a). Also, at the instant of triggering, the current increases immediately from zero to i , where

i = p.d. across thyristor R

= when the p.d. across thyristor R

If is less than /2, the current increases to a maximum Im and then decreases to the holding value, when it falls instantly to zero, as shown in Figure. 7.6 d(b). The average value of the current over one cycle is the shaded area enclosed by the current wave divided by 2.

7.7

LIMITATION TO THYRISTOR OPERATION

Because of the nature of the construction of the thyristor, there is some capacitance between the anode and the gate. If a sharply rising voltage is applied to the thyristor, then there is an inrush of charge corresponding to the relaion i = C (dv/dt). This inrush current can switch on the thyristor, and it can arise in practice due to surges in the supply system, for example due to switching or to lighting. Thus thyristors may be inadvertently switched on, and such occurrences can be avoided by providing C R circuits in order to divert the surges from the thyristors.

7.0 ACDC CONVERTER (RECTIFIER) AND DCDC CONVERTER (CHOPPER)


Uncontrolled rectifier circuits; half-wave and full wave. Halfcontrolled rectifier circuits. Controlled rectifier circuits; half-wave and full wave. Function of choppers; commutator principles, operation of chopper circuits, mark space ratio or time ratio control, step-up and the step-down chopper. RECTIFIER AND CHOPPER General objective : To understand the concept of a rectifier. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: Identify the power of an uncontrolled rectifier, semi-controlled rectifier, controlled rectifier and chopper. Identify the uncontrolled rectifier and chopper circuit. 8.1 INTRODUCTION OF RECTIFIER

The process of converting alternating current (or alternating voltage) into pulsating direct current (or pulsating direct voltage) is known as rectification. Rectification is accomplished with the help of diodes. Circuits which provide rectification are called rectifier circuits. Rectifier circuits can provide either halfwave rectification or full-wave rectification. 8.2 PRINCIPLE OF RECTIFIER Assume a half-wave rectifier output is to be used to supply current to a load. The output of the rectifier gives the expected half-cycle of sinusoidal output once every cycle except that conduction of the rectifier diode is not allowed to begin at the start of the cycle but after an angular measure of radians has occurred. The resulting current waveform is shown in Fig. 8.2(a).

If the angle can be varied form 0 to /2 radiants (or even from 0 to radians) then the mean value of current taken by the load can be varied as can the rms current to be derived.

8.3

SEMI-CONTROLLED RECTIFIER

For control of electric power or semi control power conditioning, the conversion of electric power from one form to another is necessary and the switching characteristic of the power device permit these conversions. The static power converter may be considered as a switching matrix. The power electronics semicontrol rectifier circuits can classified into two types: i. Diode rectifiers ii. AC - DC converters (controlled rectifiers) 8.4 HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION

The result of half-wave rectification is illustrated in Fig 8.4 (a), and the circuit which performs the rectification is drawn in Fig 8.4 (b). The ground symbol in 8.4 (c) is the reference point for voltages referred to in the discussion which follows.

8.5

FULL-WAVE RECTIFICATION

Full wave rectification can be provided with two diodes and a center-tapped transformer as shown in Fig. 8.5 (a) , or it can be accomplished with four diodes and a nontapped transformer (see Fig. 8.5 (b) ). Figure 8.5.1(a) shows the direction and path of current flow for the cycle when the polarity of the transformer is as marked. Notice that only D1 is conducting and that only the top half of the transformer is providing power. This is because D2 is reverse-biased.

During the second cycle (see 8.5.1 (b) ), the polarities of the transformer windings are reversed. Therefore, D1 is now reverse-biased and D2 allows the current to flow in the indicated direction and path. Notice that current through R1 is in the same direction for each cycle.

Figure 8.5(b) shows a full-wave, bridge rectifier circuit. Notice that this circuit provides twice as much dc voltage as does the previous full-wave circuit when both circuits use the same transformer. The bridge rectifier circuit does not use the center tap of the transformer and it requires four diodes.

During cycle, two of the diodes in Fig. 8.5(c ) conduct and allow the full secondary voltage to force current through load resistor R1. the remaining two diodes are reverse-biased and thus prevent the diode bridge from short-circuiting the transformer secondary.

8.6

INTRODUCTION OF CHOPPER.

A dc chopper is the equipment that can be used as a dc transformer to step up or step down a fixed dc voltage. The chopper can also be used for switching- mode voltage regulators and for transferring energy between two dc resources. However, harmonics are generated at the input and load side of the chopper, and these harmonics can be reduced by input and output filters. 8.7 PRINCIPLE OF CHOPPER.

A chopper can operate on either fixed frequency chopper or variable frequency. A variable-frequency chopper generates harmonics of variable frequencies and a filter design. A fixed frequency chopper is normally used. A chopper circuit uses a fast turn off as a switch and requires commutation circuitry to turn it off. The circuits are the outcome of meeting certain criteria: (1) reduction of minimum ontime limit, (2) high frequency of operation, and (3) reliable operation. 8.8 TYPE AND BASIC OPERATION OF CHOPPER FUNCTION CIRCUIT The development of alternative switching (e.g., power transistors, GTO s), the applications for type and circuit of choppers are limited to high power levels and especially, to traction motor control. Some of chopper type and circuit used by traction equipment manufactures are discussed in this section. 8.8.1 IMPLUSE-COMMUTATED CHOPPERS

The impulse-commutated chopper is a very common circuit with two thyristors as shown in figure 8.8(a) and is also known as a classical chopper. At the beginning of operation, thyristor T2 is fired and this causes the commutation capacitor C to charge through the voltage Vc , which should be supply voltage Vs in the fist cycle. The plate Abecomes positive with respect to plate B. The circuit operation can be divided into five modes, and the equivalent circuits under steady-state conditions are shown in Fig. 8.8(b). We shall assume that the load current remains constant at a peak value Im during the commutation process. We shall also redefine the time origin, t = 0, at the beginning of each mode. Mode 1 begins with T1 is fired. The load is connected to the supply. The commutation capacitor C reverses also its charge through the resonant reversing circuit formed by T1, D1, and Lm.

8.8.2. IMPULSE-COMMUTATED THREE-THYRISTOR CHOPPERS

The problem of undercharging can be remedied by replacing diode D1 with thyristorT3, as shown in Fig. 8.8(c). In good chopper, the commutation time, tc, should ideally be independent of the load current. tc could be made less dependent on the load current by adding an antiparallel diode Df across the main thyristor as shown in Fig. 8.8(c) by dashed lines. A modified version of the circuit is shown in Fig. 8.8(d)., where the charge reversal of the capacitor is done independently of main thyristor T1 by firing T3 . There are four possible modes and their equivalent circuits are shown in Fig. 8.8(e).

8.8.2.

RESONANT PULSE CHOPPERS

A resonant pulse chopper is shown in Fig. 8.8(f). As soon as the supply is switched on, the capacitor is charged to a voltage Vc through Lm, D1, and load. The circuit operation can be divided into six modes and the equivalent circuits are shown in Fig. 8.8(g).

8.9

SKETCHING CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVE

There are no fixed rules for designing or sketching of copper circuit and the design varies with the types of circuit used. The designer has a wide range of choice and values of LmC components are influenced by the designers choice of peak resonant reversal current, and peak allowable voltage of the circuit. The voltage and current ratings LmC components and devices is left to the designer based on the considerations of price, availability, and safety margin. In general, the following steps are involved in the design: a. Identify the modes of operations for the copper circuit. b. Determine the equivalent circuits for the various modes. c. Determine the currents and voltages for modes and their waveforms. d. Evaluate the values of commutation components LmC that would satisfy the devices. A chopper with a highly inductive load is shown in Fig. 8.9(a). The load current ripple is negligible (I=0). If the average load current is Ia, the peak load current is Im=Ia+ I= Ia The input current, which is of pulsed shape as shown in Fig 8.9(b).

The wave forms for currents and voltages are shown in figure 8.9(b). In the following analysis, we shall redefine the time origin t=0 at the beginning of each mode.

Fig 8.9(c): Equivalent circuit for modes. Mode 1 begins when main thyristor T1 is fired and the supply is connected to the load. This mode is valid for t = kT. Mode 2 begins when commutation thyristor T2 is fired. The commutation capacitor reverses its charge through C, Lm, and T2.
Mode 3 begins when T2 is self-commutated and the capacitor discharges due to resonant oscillation through diode D1 and T1. Assuming that the capacitor current rises linearly from 0 to Im and the current of thyristor T1 falls from Im to 0 in time tx. Mode 4 begins when current through T1 falls to zero. The capacitor continues to discharge through the load at a rate determined by the peak load current. Mode 5 begins when the freewheeling diode Dm starts conducting and the load current decays through Dm. the energy stored in commutation inductance Lm and source inductance Ls is transferred to capacitor C.

Mode 6 begins when the overcharging is complete and diode D1 turns off. The load current continues to decay until the main thyristor is refired in the next cycle. In the stedy-state condition Vc = Vx. 8.10 DEFINITION OF MARK SPACE RATIO (TIME RATIO CONTROL)

The sequence of events within the frequency counter is controlled by the time ratio base, which must provide the timing for the following events: resetting the counter , opening the count gate, closing the count gate, and storing the counted frequency in the latch. The resetting of the counter and storing the count are not critical events as long as they occur before and after the gate period, respectively. The opening and closing of the count gate, on the other hand, determine the accuracy of the frequency counter and are very critical in its timing.

Since the accuracy of the frequency counter depends directly on the accuracy of the time ratio base signal, the time base is driven from a accurate crystal controlled (e.g; oscillator). This element of the time base is typically a temperature compensated crystal oscillator operating at several megahertz. A crystal oven could be used to supply a similar accuracy, except that the oven require the application of power to provide the correct frequency and is available for use immediately after power-on. Fig. 8.10(a) shows a simplified diagram of temperature-compensated crystal oscillator.

8.11

COMPARING STEP-UP AND STEP-DOWN CHOPPER DOWN.

A chopper can be considered as dc equivalent to an ac transformer with a continuously variable turns ratio. Like a transformer, it can be used to step-down or step-up a dc voltage source.

8.11.1 PRINCIPLE OF STEP-UP OPERATION

A chopper can be used to step-up a dc voltage and an arrangement for step-up operation is shown in Fig. 8.11(a). When switch SW is closed for time t1, the inductor current rises and energy is stored in the indicator, L. if switch is opened for time t2, the energy stored in the inductor is transferred to load through diode D1 and the inductor current falls. Assuming a continuous current flow, the waveform for the inductor current is shown in Fig. 8.11(b). For values of k tending to unity, the output voltage becomes very large and is very sensitive to changes in k, as shown in Fig. 8.11(c).

8.11.1 PRINCIPLE OF STEP-DOWN OPERATION

The principle of operation can be explained by Fig. 8.11(d). When switch SW is closed for time t1 , the output voltage Vs appears across the load. If the switch remains off for a time t2 , the voltage across the load is zero. The waveforms for the output voltage and load current are also shown in Fig. 8.11(e). The chopper switch can be implemented by using a (1) power BJT, (2) power MOSFET, (3) GTO, or (4) forced-commutated thyristor. The practical devices have a finite voltage drop ranging from 0.5 to 5 V, and for the sake of simplicity we shall neglect the voltage drops of these power semiconductor devices.

7.0 ACDC CONVERTER (RECTIFIER) AND DCDC CONVERTER (CHOPPER)


Uncontrolled rectifier circuits; half-wave and full wave. Halfcontrolled rectifier circuits. Controlled rectifier circuits; half-wave and full wave. Function of choppers; commutator principles, operation of chopper circuits, mark space ratio or time ratio control, step-up and the step-down chopper. RECTIFIER AND CHOPPER General objective : To understand the concept of a rectifier. Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: Identify the power of an uncontrolled rectifier, semi-controlled rectifier, controlled rectifier and chopper. Identify the uncontrolled rectifier and chopper circuit.

8.1

INTRODUCTION OF RECTIFIER

The process of converting alternating current (or alternating voltage) into pulsating direct current (or pulsating direct voltage) is known as rectification. Rectification is accomplished with the help of diodes. Circuits which provide rectification are called rectifier circuits. Rectifier circuits can provide either halfwave rectification or full-wave rectification. 8.2 PRINCIPLE OF RECTIFIER Assume a half-wave rectifier output is to be used to supply current to a load. The output of the rectifier gives the expected half-cycle of sinusoidal output once every cycle except that conduction of the rectifier diode is not allowed to begin at the start of the cycle but after an angular measure of radians has occurred. The resulting current waveform is shown in Fig. 8.2(a).

If the angle can be varied form 0 to /2 radiants (or even from 0 to radians) then the mean value of current taken by the load can be varied as can the rms current to be derived.

8.3

SEMI-CONTROLLED RECTIFIER

For control of electric power or semi control power conditioning, the conversion of electric power from one form to another is necessary and the switching characteristic of the power device permit these conversions. The static power converter may be considered as a switching matrix. The power electronics semicontrol rectifier circuits can classified into two types: i. Diode rectifiers ii. AC - DC converters (controlled rectifiers) 8.4 HALF-WAVE RECTIFICATION

The result of half-wave rectification is illustrated in Fig 8.4 (a), and the circuit which performs the rectification is drawn in Fig 8.4 (b). The ground symbol in 8.4 (c) is the reference point for voltages referred to in the discussion which follows.

8.5

FULL-WAVE RECTIFICATION

Full wave rectification can be provided with two diodes and a center-tapped transformer as shown in Fig. 8.5 (a) , or it can be accomplished with four diodes and a nontapped transformer (see Fig. 8.5 (b) ). Figure 8.5.1(a) shows the direction and path of current flow for the cycle when the polarity of the transformer is as marked. Notice that only D1 is conducting and that only the top half of the transformer is providing power. This is because D2 is reverse-biased.

During the second cycle (see 8.5.1 (b) ), the polarities of the transformer windings are reversed. Therefore, D1 is now reverse-biased and D2 allows the current to flow in the indicated direction and path. Notice that current through R1 is in the same direction for each cycle.

Figure 8.5(b) shows a full-wave, bridge rectifier circuit. Notice that this circuit provides twice as much dc voltage as does the previous full-wave circuit when both circuits use the same transformer. The bridge rectifier circuit does not use the center tap of the transformer and it requires four diodes.

During cycle, two of the diodes in Fig. 8.5(c ) conduct and allow the full secondary voltage to force current through load resistor R1. the remaining two diodes are reverse-biased and thus prevent the diode bridge from short-circuiting the transformer secondary.

8.6

INTRODUCTION OF CHOPPER.

A dc chopper is the equipment that can be used as a dc transformer to step up or step down a fixed dc voltage. The chopper can also be used for switching- mode voltage regulators and for transferring energy between two dc resources. However, harmonics are generated at the input and load side of the chopper, and these harmonics can be reduced by input and output filters. 8.7 PRINCIPLE OF CHOPPER.

A chopper can operate on either fixed frequency chopper or variable frequency. A variable-frequency chopper generates harmonics of variable frequencies and a filter design. A fixed frequency chopper is normally used. A chopper circuit uses a fast turn off as a switch and requires commutation circuitry to turn it off. The circuits are the outcome of meeting certain criteria: (1) reduction of minimum ontime limit, (2) high frequency of operation, and (3) reliable operation. 8.8 TYPE AND BASIC OPERATION OF CHOPPER FUNCTION CIRCUIT The development of alternative switching (e.g., power transistors, GTO s), the applications for type and circuit of choppers are limited to high power levels and especially, to traction motor control. Some of chopper type and circuit used by traction equipment manufactures are discussed in this section.

8.8.1

IMPLUSE-COMMUTATED CHOPPERS

The impulse-commutated chopper is a very common circuit with two thyristors as shown in figure 8.8(a) and is also known as a classical chopper. At the beginning of operation, thyristor T2 is fired and this causes the commutation capacitor C to charge through the voltage Vc , which should be supply voltage Vs in the fist cycle. The plate Abecomes positive with respect to plate B. The circuit operation can be divided into five modes, and the equivalent circuits under steady-state conditions are shown in Fig. 8.8(b). We shall assume that the load current remains constant at a peak value Im during the commutation process. We shall also redefine the time origin, t = 0, at the beginning of each mode. Mode 1 begins with T1 is fired. The load is connected to the supply. The commutation capacitor C reverses also its charge through the resonant reversing circuit formed by T1, D1, and Lm.

8.8.2. IMPULSE-COMMUTATED THREE-THYRISTOR CHOPPERS

The problem of undercharging can be remedied by replacing diode D1 with thyristorT3, as shown in Fig. 8.8(c). In good chopper, the commutation time, tc, should ideally be independent of the load current. tc could be made less dependent on the load current by adding an antiparallel diode Df across the main thyristor as shown in Fig. 8.8(c) by dashed lines. A modified version of the circuit is shown in Fig. 8.8(d)., where the charge reversal of the capacitor is done independently of main thyristor T1 by

firing T3 . There are four possible modes and their equivalent circuits are shown in Fig. 8.8(e).

8.8.2.

RESONANT PULSE CHOPPERS

A resonant pulse chopper is shown in Fig. 8.8(f). As soon as the supply is switched on, the capacitor is charged to a voltage Vc through Lm, D1, and load. The circuit operation can be divided into six modes and the equivalent circuits are shown in Fig. 8.8(g).

8.9

SKETCHING CURRENT AND VOLTAGE WAVE

There are no fixed rules for designing or sketching of copper circuit and the design varies with the types of circuit used. The designer has a wide range of choice and values of LmC components are influenced by the designers choice of peak resonant reversal current, and peak allowable voltage of the circuit. The voltage and current ratings LmC components and devices is left to the designer based on the considerations of price, availability, and safety margin. In general, the following steps are involved in the design: a. Identify the modes of operations for the copper circuit. b. Determine the equivalent circuits for the various modes. c. Determine the currents and voltages for modes and their waveforms. d. Evaluate the values of commutation components LmC that would satisfy the devices. A chopper with a highly inductive load is shown in Fig. 8.9(a). The load current ripple is negligible (I=0). If the average load current is Ia, the peak load current is Im=Ia+ I= Ia The input current, which is of pulsed shape as shown in Fig 8.9(b).

The wave forms for currents and voltages are shown in figure 8.9(b). In the following analysis, we shall redefine the time origin t=0 at the beginning of each mode.

Fig 8.9(c): Equivalent circuit for modes. Mode 1 begins when main thyristor T1 is fired and the supply is connected to the load. This mode is valid for t = kT. Mode 2 begins when commutation thyristor T2 is fired. The commutation capacitor reverses its charge through C, Lm, and T2.
Mode 3 begins when T2 is self-commutated and the capacitor discharges due to resonant oscillation through diode D1 and T1. Assuming that the capacitor current rises linearly from 0 to Im and the current of thyristor T1 falls from Im to 0 in time tx. Mode 4 begins when current through T1 falls to zero. The capacitor continues to discharge through the load at a rate determined by the peak load current. Mode 5 begins when the freewheeling diode Dm starts conducting and the load current decays through Dm. the energy stored in commutation inductance Lm and source inductance Ls is transferred to capacitor C.

Mode 6 begins when the overcharging is complete and diode D1 turns off. The load current continues to decay until the main thyristor is refired in the next cycle. In the stedy-state condition Vc = Vx. 8.10 DEFINITION OF MARK SPACE RATIO (TIME RATIO CONTROL)

The sequence of events within the frequency counter is controlled by the time ratio base, which must provide the timing for the following events: resetting the counter , opening the count gate, closing the count gate, and storing the counted frequency in the latch. The resetting of the counter and storing the count are not critical events as long as they occur before and after the gate period, respectively. The opening and closing of the count gate, on the other hand, determine the accuracy of the frequency counter and are very critical in its timing.

Since the accuracy of the frequency counter depends directly on the accuracy of the time ratio base signal, the time base is driven from a accurate crystal controlled (e.g; oscillator). This element of the time base is typically a temperature compensated crystal oscillator operating at several megahertz. A crystal oven could be used to supply a similar accuracy, except that the oven require the application of power to provide the correct frequency and is available for use immediately after power-on. Fig. 8.10(a) shows a simplified diagram of temperature-compensated crystal oscillator.

8.11

COMPARING STEP-UP AND STEP-DOWN CHOPPER DOWN.

A chopper can be considered as dc equivalent to an ac transformer with a continuously variable turns ratio. Like a transformer, it can be used to step-down or step-up a dc voltage source.

8.11.1 PRINCIPLE OF STEP-UP OPERATION

A chopper can be used to step-up a dc voltage and an arrangement for step-up operation is shown in Fig. 8.11(a). When switch SW is closed for time t1, the inductor current rises and energy is stored in the indicator, L. if switch is opened for time t2, the energy stored in the inductor is transferred to load through diode D1 and the inductor current falls. Assuming a continuous current flow, the waveform for the inductor current is shown in Fig. 8.11(b). For values of k tending to unity, the output voltage becomes very large and is very sensitive to changes in k, as shown in Fig. 8.11(c).

8.11.1 PRINCIPLE OF STEP-DOWN OPERATION

The principle of operation can be explained by Fig. 8.11(d). When switch SW is closed for time t1 , the output voltage Vs appears across the load. If the switch remains off for a time t2 , the voltage across the load is zero. The waveforms for the output voltage and load current are also shown in Fig. 8.11(e). The chopper switch can be implemented by using a (1) power BJT, (2) power MOSFET, (3) GTO, or (4) forced-commutated thyristor. The practical devices have a finite voltage drop ranging from 0.5 to 5 V, and for the sake of simplicity we shall neglect the voltage drops of these power semiconductor devices.

8.0 SENSOR
Sensors; position and shift, Velocity and acceleration, pressure and level, temperature, visual sensor (CCD, CID), contact sensor (limit switch), non-contact sensor (proximity sensor), photoelectric sensor, microwave sensor and laser sensor. SENSOR / TRANDUCER General objective : To understand the function of transducer and sensor . Specific objectives : At the end of the unit you should be able to: List the advantages and disadvantages of transducer and sensor. Describe the application of transducer and sensor. Identify the types of transducer and sensor. Describe the specification of sensor and transducer. 9.1 INTRODUCTION OF TRANSDUCER.

Transducer is a device that changes a quantity to another quantity. It has a few elements which are able to change a signal quantity to another signal quantity, for example it changes the pressure to the displacement, the displacement to the electrical movement force and others. In other words, transducer is a device that relates the electrical to the non-electrical. Translates physical parameters to electrical signals acceptable by the acquisition system. Some typical parameters include temperature, pressure, acceleration, weight displacement and velocity. Electrical quantities, such as voltage, resistance or frequency also may be measured directly. Sensor is a part of transducer. 9.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSDUCER.

An electronic instrumentation system consists of a number of components which together are used to perform a measurement and record the result. An instrumentation system generally consists of three major elements, an input device, a signal-conditioning or processing devices, and an output device. The input device receives the quantity under measurement and delivers a proportional electrical signal to the signal-conditioning device. Here the signal is amplified, filtered or otherwise modified to a format acceptable to the output device. The output device may be simple indicating meter, an oscilloscope, or a chart recorder for visual display. It may be a magnetic tape recorder for temporary or permanent storage of the input data or it may be a digital computer for data manipulation or process control. The kind of system depends on what is to be measured and how the measurement result is to be presented.

The input quantity for most instrumentation systems is non-electrical. In order to use electrical methods and techniques for measurement, manipulation or control, the nonelectrical quantity is converted into an electrical signal by a device called

a transducer. One definition states a transducer is a device which, when actuated in one transmission system, supplies energy in the same form or in another form to a second transmission system. This energy transmission may be electrical, mechanical, chemical, optical or thermal..
This broad definition of transducer includes, for example, devices that convert mechanical force or displacement into an electrical signal. These devices form a very large and important group of transducers commonly found in the industrial instrumentation area, and the instrumentation engineer is primarily concerned with this type of energy conversion. Many other physical parameters (such as heat, light intensity, humidity) may also be converted into electrical energy by means of transducers. These transducers provide an output signal when stimulated by a nonmechanical input, a thermistor reacts to temperature variations, a photocell to changes in light intensity, an electron beam to magnetic effects, and so on. In all cases, however, the electrical output is measured by standard methods, yielding the magnitude of the input quantity in terms of an analog electrical measure.

Transducers may be classified according to their application, method of energy conversion, nature of the output signal and so on. All these classifications usually result in overlapping areas. A sharp distinction between and classification of types of transducers is difficult.
9.3 SPECIFICATION OF TRANSDUCER.

In a measurement system the transducer is the input element with the critical function of transforming some physical quantity to a proportional electrical signal. Selection of the appropriate transducer is therefore the first and perhaps most important step in obtaining accurate results. A number of elementary questions should be asked before a transducer can be selected, for example: what is the physical quantity to be measured?, which transducer principle can best be used to measure this quantity?, and what accuracy is required for this measurement? The first question can be answered by determining the type and range of the measurand. An appropriate answer to the second question requires that the input and output characteristic of the transducer be compatible with the recording or measurement system. In most cases, these two questions can be answered readily, implying that proper transducer is selected simply by the addition of an accuracy tolerance. In practice, this is rarely possible due to the complexity of the various transducer parameters that affect the accuracy. The accuracy requirements of the total system determine the degree to which individual factors contributing to accuracy must be considered. Some of these factors are, a. Fundamental transducer parameters type and range of measurand, sensitivity, excitation. b. Physical conditions mechanical and electrical connection, mounting provisions, corrosion resistance c. Ambient conditions nonlinearity effects, hysteresis effects, frequency response, resolution.

d. Environment conditions temperature effects, acceleration, shock and vibration. e. Compatibility of the associated equipment zero balance provisions, sensitivity tolerance, impedance matching, insulating resistance. Categories (a) and (b) are basic electrical and mechanical characteristics of the transducer. Transducer accuracy, as an independent component, is contained in categories (c) and (d). Category (e) considers the transducers compatibility with its associated system equipment. The total measurement error in a transducer-activated system may be reduced to fall within the required accuracy range by the following techniques, a. b. c. Using in-place system calibration with corrections performed in the data reduction. Simultaneously monitoring the environment and correction the data accordingly. Artificially controlling the environment to minimize possible errors. Some individual errors are predictable and can be calibrated out of the system. When the entire system is calibrated, these calibration data may then be used to correct the recorded data. Environmental errors can be corrected by data reduction if the environmental effects are recorded simultaneously with the actual data. Then the data are corrected by using the known environmental characteristics of the transducers. These two techniques can provide a significant increase in system accuracy.

Another method to improve overall system accuracy is to control artificially the environment of the transducer. If the environment of the transducer can be kept unchanged, these errors are reduced to zero. This type of control may require either physically moving the transducer to a more favorable position or providing the required isolation from the environment by a heater enclosure, vibration isolation or similar means.
9.4 9.4.1 PRINCIPLES OF SENSOR/TRANSDUCERS OPERATION. DISPLACEMENT SENSOR.

The concept of converting an applied force into a displacement is basic to many types of transducers. The mechanical elements that are used to convert the applied force into a displacement are called force-summing devices. The forcesumming members generally used are the following; a. b. c. d. e. f. Diaphragm, Bellows Bourdon tube, circular or twisted. Straight tube Mass cantilever, single or double suspension. Pivot torque.

Example of these force-summing devices as shown in figure 9.4.1(a).

The displacement created by the action of the force-summing device is converted into a change of some electrical parameter. The electrical principles most commonly used in the measurement of displacement are,
a. b. c. d. e. Capacitive. Inductive Differential transformer Ionization Oscillation. 9.4.1.1 CAPACITIVE SENSOR.

Since the capacitance is inversely proportional to the spacing of the parallel plates, any variation causes a corresponding variation in capacitance. This principle is applied in the capacitive transducer of figure 9.4.1.1. A force applied to a diaphragm that functions

as one plate of a simple capacitor, changes the distance between the diaphragm and static plate. The resulting change in capacitance could be measured with an ac bridge, but it is usually measured with an oscillator circuit. The transducer, as part of the oscillatory circuit, causes a change in the frequency of the oscillator. This change in frequency is a measure of the magnitude of the applied force.

The capacitive transducer has excellent frequency response and can measure both static and dynamic phenomena. Its disadvantages are sensitivity to temperature variations and possibility of erratic or distorted signals due to long lead length. Also, the receiving instrumentation may be large and complex and it often includes a second fixed-frequency oscillator for heterodyning purposes. The difference frequency, thus produced can be read by an appropriate output device such as an electronic counter. 9.4.1.1 INDUCTIVE SENSOR.

In the inductive transducer the measurement of force is accomplished by the change in the inductance ratio of a pair of coils or by the change of inductance in a single coil. In each case, the ferromagnetic armature is displaced by the force being measured, varying the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. Figure 9.4.1.2 shows how the air gap is varied by a change in position of the armature. The resulting change in inductance is a measure of the magnitude of the applied force.

The coil can be used as a component of an LC oscillator whose frequency then varies with applied force. This type of transducer is used extensively in telemetry system, with a single coil that modulates the frequency of a local oscillator. Hysteresis errors of the transducer are almost entirely limited to the mechanical components. When a diaphragm is used as the force-summing member, as shown figure 9.4.1.2(a), it may form part of the magnetic circuit. In this arrangement the overall performance of the transducer is somewhat degraded because the desired mechanical characteristics of the diaphragm must be compromised to improve the magnetic performance.

The inductive transducer responds to static and dynamic measurements, and it has continuous resolution and a fairly high output. Its disadvantages are that the frequency response (variation of the applied force) is limited by the construction of the force-summing member.
9.4.1 VELOCITY SENSOR. The velocity transducer essentially consists of a moving coil suspended in the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, as shown in figure 9.4.2. A voltage is generated by the motion of the coil in the field. The output is proportional to the velocity of the coil, and this type of pickup is therefore generally used for the measurement of velocities developed in a linear, sinusoidal, or random manner. Damping is obtained electrically, thus assuring high stability under varying temperature condition.

9.4.1

PRESSURE AND LEVEL SENSOR.

9.4.3.1 BOURDON-TUBE PRESSURE GAUGE. A Bourdon tube is long thin-walled cylinder of non-circular cross section sealed at one end, made from materials such as phosphor bronze, steel and beryllium-copper. A pressure applied to the inside of the tube causes a deflection of the free end, proportional to the applied pressure. The most common shape employed is the C-type, as shows in figure 9.4.3.1. Increased sensitivity can be achieved by using spiral and helical-shaped tubes. The displacement is converted into a pointer rotation over a scale by means of a gear-and-lever system. Remote indication of pressure can easily be achieved by using any of the displacement transducers.

Static and low-frequency pressure up to 500MN/m2. The frequency range is limited by the inertia of the Bourdon tube if electrical displacement transducers are used. 9.4.3.1 DIAPRAGHM PRESSURE TRANSDUCER.

Flat diaphragms are very widely employed as primary sensing elements in pressure transducers using either the center deflection of the diaphragm or the strain induced in the diaphragm. They can be conveniently fabricated as flushmounted sensing elements providing a clean smooth face, ideal for use in dirty environments and for surface pressure sensing. For high-pressure transducers, very stiff diaphragm must be used to limit the center deflection to less than one third of the diaphragm thickness, otherwise non-linear result. For lower pressure ranges, up to a few bars, beryllium-copper corrugated diaphragm and bellow are also used to give the higher sensitivity required.

9.4.3.1

PIEZO-ELECTRIC PRESSURE TRANSDUCER.

Pressure transducers using the piezo-electric effect use a similar design to the quartz load cells. The quartz discs being compressed by a diaphragm which is in direct contact with the pressure being measured. The high sensitivity of the quartzcrystal modules permits the transducers to be manufactured in extremely small size. One standing feature of quartz transducer is their high sensitivity. Piezo-electric pressure transducers can be operated at temperatures up to 240OC, although care must be taken to compensate for zero-drift with temperature. Special water-cooled transducers are available as shown in figure 9.4.3.3. and these particularly useful for high-temperature application.

9.4.1

TEMPERATURE SENSOR. RESISTANCE THERMOMETERS.

9.4.1.1

Resistance-temperature detectors or resistance thermocouple employ a sensitive element of extremely pure platinum, copper or nickel wire that provides definite resistance value at each temperature within its range. The relationship between temperature and resistance of conductors in the temperature range near 0O C can be calculated from the equation, Rf = Rref (1+ t) Where , Rf = resistance of the conductor at temperature t (oC) Rref = resistance at the reference temperature, usually 0 oC. = temperature coefficient of resistance. t = difference between operating and reference temperature.

Almost all metallic conductors have a positive temperature coefficient of resistance so that their resistance increases with an increase in temperature. Some materials, such as carbon and germanium, have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance that signifies that the resistance decrease with an increase in temperature. A high value of is desirable in a temperature-sensing element so that a substantial change in resistance occurs for a relatively small change in temperature. This change in resistance (R) can be measured with a Wheatstone bridge, which may be calibrated to indicate the temperature that caused the resistance change rather than the resistance change itself.

The sensing element of a resistance thermometer is selected according to the intended application. Platinum wire is used for most laboratory work and for industrial measurements of high accuracy. Nickel wire and copper wire are less expensive and easier to manufacture than platinum wire elements, and they are often used in low-range industrial applications. Resistance thermometers are generally of the probe type for immersion in the medium whose temperature is to be measured or controlled. A typical sensing element for a probe-type thermometer is constructed by coating a small platinum or silver tube with ceramic material, winding the resistance wire over the coated tube, and coating the finished winding again with ceramic. This small assembly is then fired at high temperature to assure annealing of the winding and then it is placed at the tip of the probe. The probe is protected by a sheath to produce the complete sensing element. The Wheatstone bridge has certain disadvantages when it is used to measure the resistance variations of the resistance thermometer. These are the effect of contact resistances of connections to the bridge terminals, heating of the elements by the unbalance current, and heating of the wires connecting the thermometer to the bridge. Slight modifications of the Wheatstone bridge, such as the double slide-wire bridge, eliminate most of these problems. Despite these measurement difficulties, the resistance thermometer method is so accurate that it is one of the standard method of temperature measurement within the range of -183oC to 630oC. Table 9.4.4.1 summarizes the characteristics of the three most commonly used resistance materials.

9.4.1.1

THERMOCOUPLES.

A thermocouple consists of pair of dissimilar metal wires joined together at one end ( sensing, or hot, junction) and terminated at the other end (reference, or cold, junction) which is maintained at a known constant temperature (reference temperature). When a temperature difference exists between the sensing junction and the reference junction, an emf is produced that causes a current in the circuit. When the reference junction is terminated by a meter or recording instrument, as in figure 9.4.4.2 (a), the meter indication will be proportional to the temperature difference between the hot junction and the reference junction. This thermoelectric effect, caused by contact potentials at the junctions, is known as the Seeback Effect.

To ensure long life in its operating environment, a thermocouple is protected in an open or closed end metal protecting tube or well. To prevent contamination of couple when precious metals are used (platinum and its alloys), the protecting tube is both chemically inert and vacuum tight. Since the thermocouple is usually in a location remote from the measuring instrument, connections are made by means of special extension wires called compensation wires. Maximum accuracy of measurement is assured when the compensating wires are of the same material as the thermocouple wires. The simplest temperature measurement using a thermocouple is by connecting a sensitive millivoltmeter directly across the cold junction. The deflection of the meter is then almost directly proportional to the difference in temperature between the hot junction and the reference junction. The simple instrument has several serious limitations, mainly because the thermocouple can only supply very limited power to drive the meter movement.

The most common method in thermocouple temperature measurements involves using a potentiometer.
9.4.1.1 THERMISTOR.

Thermistors or thermal resistors are semiconductor devices that behave as resistors with a high , usually negative, temperature coefficient of resistance. In some cases, the resistance of a thermistor at room temperature may decrease as much as 6 per cent for 1OC rise in temperature. This high sensitivity to temperature change makes the thermistor extremely well suited to precision temperature measurement, control and compensation. Thermistors are therefore widely used in such applications, especially in the lower temperature range of -100OC to 300 OC.

Thermistor are composed of a sintered mixture of metallic oxides, such as manganese, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron and uranium. Smallest in size are the beads with a diameter of 0.15mm to 1.25mm. Beads may be sealed in the tips of solid glass rods to

form probes that are somewhat easier to mount than beads. Disks and washers are made by pressing thermistor material under high pressure into flat cylindrical shapes with diameter from 2.5 mm to 25mm.Washer can be stacked and placed in series or in parallel for increased power dissipation. Three important characteristic of thermistors make them extremely useful in measurement and control applications, the resistance-temperature characteristic, the voltage-current characteristic and the current-time characteristic.
9.4.1 PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR.

The photoelectric transducer makes use of the properties of a photoemissive cell or phototube. The phototube is a radiant energy device that controls its electron emission when exposed to incident light. The construction of a phototube is shown in figure 9.4.5 (a), its symbol is given in the schematic diagram of figure 9.4.5(b).

The large semicircular element is the photosensitive cathode and the thin wire down the center of the tube is the anode. Both elements are placed in a high-vacuum glass envelope. When a constant voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode, the current in the circuit is directly proportional to the amount of light, or light intensity, falling on the cathode. The curves of 9.4.5 (c) show the anode characteristics of a typical high-vacuum phototube. Notice that the voltage above approximately 20V the output current is nearly independent of applied anode voltage but depends entirely on the amount of incident light. The current through the tube is extremely small, usually in the range of a few microamperes. In most cases therefore, the phototube is connected to an amplifier to provide a useful output. The photoelectric transducer of figure 9.4.5(d), uses a phototube and a light source separately by a small window whose aperture is controlled by the force-summing member of the pressure transducer. The displacement of the force-summing member modulates the quantity of incident light on the photosensitive element. According to the curve of figure 9.4.5 (c ), a change in light intensity varies the photoemissive properties at a rate approximately linear with displacement. This transducer can use either a stable source of light or an ac modulated light.

The advantages of this type of transducer are its high efficiency and its adaptability to measuring both static and dynamic conditions. The devices may have poor long-term stability, does not respond to high frequency light variations, and requires a large displacement of the force-summing member.
9.4.1 LASER VELOCIMETERS.

One of the application of laser sources is for measuring velocity with great accuracy and large dynamic range. The technique has been improved and is now commercially available. The laser beam is split (see figure 9.4.6), to provide two coherent sources that interfere optically at the point where velocity is to be measured. It is necessary to make an optical comparison since interference is not possible electronically and we do not as yet have detectors for such high frequencies.

A sensor viewing this point sees a small circular fringe pattern that varies in amplitude as scattering changes. If the medium is moving across the field of view, the sensor detects passing fringes and produces short bursts of signal. The period of the cycles in a burst is a measure of the velocity. Extensive electronic processing is needed to produce accurate flow measurements on such vague signals. The main advantages of laser flow meters is that the velocity of a volume of fluid only 10-3 mm3 is viewed. The method is most useful in turbulence and profile studies. It is essential that some, but not many scattering particles exist to provide a signal for the detector. Often air bubbles or a colloidal solid are injected to enhance the signal strength.