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JM302 MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY (EOC 2 ALUMINIUM )

LECTURER: PN. KHAIRUL FAIZAH BT. SHAHRUDIN (JKM)


No. 1 2 3 4 5 Name of Group AZLAN HADI BIN HAMIZI IKHWAN SHAQIMAN BIN ZAIMAL ABDIN YIP KHAI LEONG MOHD HAMIZUDIN BIN MOHD YUSOF AHMAD SALIHIN BIN AHMAD ZAMBRI Registration Number 15DEM12F1005 15DEM12F1007 15DEM12F1014 15DEM12F1019 15DEM12F1020

PROGRAMME: Diploma In Mechatronics Engineering (JKM) Class: DEM 3A SESSION: JUNE 2012

Aluminium

Aluminium (or aluminum) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery white, soft, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth's solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates. Despite its prevalence in the environment, aluminium salts are not known to be used by any form of life. In keeping with its pervasiveness, aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Owing to their prevalence, potential beneficial (or otherwise) biological roles of aluminium compounds are of continuing interest.

Physical
Pure aluminium is a silvery-white metal with many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic (as the metal), nonmagnetic and no sparking. It is somewhat decorative. It is easily formed, machined, and cast. Pure aluminium is soft and lacks strength, but alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties. Aluminium is an abundant element in the earth's crust, but it is not found free in nature. The Bayer process is used to refine aluminium from bauxite, an aluminium ore. Aluminium is a relatively soft, durable, lightweight, ductile and malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. It is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite. A fresh film of aluminium serves as a good reflector (approximately 92%) of visible light and an excellent reflector (as much as 98%) of medium and far infrared radiation. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 711 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel. It is easily machined, cast, drawn and extruded. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Aluminium has a stacking-fault energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is a good thermal and electrical conductor, having 59% the conductivity of copper, both thermal and electrical, while having only 30% of copper's density. Aluminium is capable of being a superconductor, with a superconducting critical temperature of 1.2 Kelvin and a critical magnetic field of about 100 gauss (10 millitesla).

Specification
Name: Aluminium Symbol: Al Atomic number: 13 Atomic mass: 26.981539 0.0000008 u Standard state: solid at 298 K Group in periodic table: 13 Period in periodic table: 3 Block in periodic table: p-block Color: silvery Classification: Metallic

Aluminium in periodic table

The atomic structure of aluminium

Aluminium chemical property


Strength Ductility Formability Aluminum is light; its density is only one-third that of steel. Aluminum is resistant to weather, common atmospheric gases, and a wide range of liquids. Aluminum can be used in contact with a wide range of foodstuffs. Aluminum has a high reflectivity and, as a result, is employed in a number of decorative applications. Aluminum alloys can equal or even exceed the strength of normal construction steel. Aluminum has high elasticity, which is an advantage in structures under shock loads. Aluminum keeps its toughness down to very low temperatures, without becoming brittle like carbon steels. Aluminum is easily worked and formed; it can be rolled to very thin gauges. Aluminum conducts electricity and heat nearly as well as copper.

Application of aluminium
Aluminium gas turbine

The gas turbine is made of light aluminum alloy, the gas turbine are designed for optimal gas compression and structural integrity with the least amount of weight. Defect prevention not detection is the focus during the manufacturing process.

Engine piston

Aluminum pistons can be found in most of the engines on our roads today. Designers use aluminum pistons because theyre light, they manage the heat of combustion well, and they can be easily mass produced. The production method of choice for pistons in our diesel trucks has traditionally been to use cast-aluminum. Cast- aluminum pistons can also be found in most of the gasoline engines on the road today, although highpowered gasoline engines are often fitted with forged-aluminum pistons.

Aluminium frame bicycle

Having come a long way from the oversized tubes of old, aluminum is now less expensive and very widely used on today's bikes. It's light, strong and stiff. With proper design it can give a solid ride for climbing, or lively handling in tight situations.

Reference
http://www.hitachi-automotive.us/html/products/Others/AAP/index.html https://www.google.com/search?q=aluminium+gas+turbine&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=nB5YUo D5OIuWrAel24GADg&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=600&dpr=1#q=products+of+aluminium&tb m=isch http://www.indiamart.com/rjmetalindustries/non-ferrous-metal-castings.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium#Physical